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ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

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ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

It is an amazing fact that the USA and Britain have produced the most of Nobel Science Prize laureates - about 80 each.

These countries pay very much attention to education. In 1998 there were computers in every primary school classroom in Britain and a bit later in the USA. The countries house very large and world important libraries. The Library of Congress (the USA) is one of the greatest collections of books, microfilms and electronically stored information. I think here lies the reason why so many important discoveries and inventions have been made by English-speaking people.

One of the most spoken-of things is the hole in the ozone layer. It was discovered in 1985 by the British Antarctic Survey. Britain and the USA have wide programs of studying and using space. British and American scientists have been discovering laws of physics and chemistry for a long time. John Bardeen, an American physicist, discovered the transistor effects and created a semi-conductor transistor (1948). He is also one of the father of super conductivity theory. He is the only scientist in the world who got two Nobel prizes.

In 1833 Charles Babbage was the first person to conceive of the machine that could be programmed to calculate which later became a computer. Norbert Wiener formulated the main axioms of cybernetics. The World Wide Web was invented by British physicist Tim Berners-Lee. re. I think everyone knows Bill Gates, who is the organiser and the head of the Microsoft company, which now keeps the leading positions in development computer software.

The most important biologist was probably Charles Darvin, an English scientist, who formulated the postulates of origin of the species. Alexamder Wiener discovered the so-called rhesus-factor (1940) and Sir Alexander Fleming in 1945 won a Nobel Prize for the discovery of penicillin. The first heart transplant was carried out by a South African surgeon Christian Barnard in the USA in 1967. The first combined transplant of heart, lung and liver was performed in Great Britain. British scientists have lately won the Nobel prize for discovering the reason of gastritis which is a bacterium and also for finding a medicine against it. More than a half of world's mostly used medicines are produced in the USA and Britain. Another famous Nobel Prize winners are Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins (1962) who discovered the structure of DNA and James Black (1988) who was awarded for his work in the field of physiology and medicine. John MacLeod, an English physiologist, discovered insulin, studying the mechanism of diabetes.

As for engineering, Britain and the USA have a long tradition of achievement in this field. In the 19th century these countries led the way in construction of bridges, railways and steamships. The American inventor George Westinghouse patented the pneumatic brake for trains and introduced trains with this brake in Europe, Russia and the USA. Britain was the first to build underground (known also as the Tube - in London) and an ocean-crossing steamship. The Titanic, the largest and the most luxurious world's steamship was also built in Britain. John Logie Baird demonstrated the first television system in London. Alexander Ball, an American scientist, invented the telephone and made the first industrial variant of it.

The American geologist Bucher worked out the pulsation theory which suggests pulsation of the Earth


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It is an amazing fact that the USA and Britain have produced the most of Nobel Science Prize laureates - about 80 each.

These countries pay very much attention to education. In 1998 there were computers in every primary school classroom in Britain and a bit later in the USA. The countries house very large and world important libraries.  The Library of Congress (the USA) is one of the greatest collections of books, microfilms and electronically stored information. I think here lies the reason why so many important discoveries and inventions have been made by English-speaking people.

   One of the most spoken-of things is the hole in the ozone layer. It was discovered in 1985 by the British Antarctic Survey. Britain and the USA have wide programs of studying and using space.     British and American scientists have been discovering laws of physics and chemistry for a long time. John Bardeen, an American physicist, discovered the transistor effects and created a semi-conductor transistor (1948). He is also one of the father of super conductivity theory. He is the only scientist in the world who got two Nobel prizes.

    In 1833 Charles Babbage was the first person to conceive of the machine that could be programmed to calculate which later became a computer. Norbert Wiener formulated the main axioms of cybernetics. The World Wide Web was invented by British physicist Tim Berners-Lee. re. I think everyone knows  Bill Gates, who is the organiser and the head of the Microsoft company, which now keeps the leading positions in development computer software...

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Дата добавления 11.05.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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Номер материала 521503
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