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Административная контрольная работа для студентов среднего звена (ПГС)

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�������� ���������� ����������������� ���������� ���������������� ������������ ������� �����������: �� ��������� �� �������� �________ �� �____� ______2014�. ����������: ����������� ��������� �� ������ ������ __________�.�. ��������� ���������������� ����������� ������ ����.03. ����������� ���� ������������� 08.02.01 �������������� � ����������� ������ � ���������� ������ ���-4 ������������� �.�. ���������� ������� � 1 ������� ���������: ���������� ������ ������� �� 2 ������, �� �� ���������� ����� 60 �����. ����� 1 ������� � ��� ������������ � ������� . ����� 2 ������� �� ������� � ������. Modern Building Materials: Classification Materials are solid substances of which manufactured products are made. A variety of materials are used in different products. Basic types of materials range from wood, which has been used for thousands of years, to composite materials, which are still under development Materials belong to two groups: (1) natural materials and (2) extracted materials. Natural materials, which include stone, wood, and wool, are used much as they occur in nature. Extracted materials, such as plastics, alloys (metal mixtures), and ceramics, are created through the processing of various natural substances. Natural materials generally are used as they are found, except for being cleaned, cut, or processed in a simple way that does not use much energy. Natural materials include stone and biological materials. Certain types of rock are extremely strong and hard, and are therefore used as building stone. There are two types of building stone�crushed stone and dimension stone. Biological materials are substances that develop as part of a plant or animal. Common plant materials include wood and various fibers such as cotton. Animal materials include leather and fibers such as wool. Wood is a valuable biological material because of its strength, toughness, and low density. These properties make wood an excellent material for thousands of products, including houses, sailboats, furniture, baseball bats, and railroad ties. Extracted materials are created through processes that expend a great deal of energy or alter the microstructure of the substances used to make the materials. Extracted materials include ceramics, metals and their alloys, plastics, rubber, composite materials, and semiconductors. Ceramics include such everyday materials as brick, cement, glass, and porcelain. These materials are made from mineral compounds called silicates, including clay, feldspar, silica, and talc. People have used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver for thousands of years to make various practical and decorative objects. Today, metals are important in all aspects of construction and manufacturing. Plastics are synthetic materials made up primarily of long chains of molecules called polymers. There are two basic types of plastics: (1) thermosetting plastics (usual called thermosets) and (2) thermoplastics. Rubber is made up of elastomers, polymers that stretch easily to several times their length and then return to their original shape. Engineers may artificially combine various materials to create a new composite material. Many composite materials contain a large amount of one substance to which fibers, flakes, or layers of another substance are added. Semiconductors are materials that conduct electricity better than insulators, but not as well as conductors, at room temperature. Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents. 1. extracted materials a. ��������� ������� ���������� 2. to range from b. �������� � ������� ����� 3. mineral compounds c. ��������� ��������� 4. to contain a large amount d. ������� ������ 5. solid substances e. ����������� ��������� 6. natural materials f. ��������� � �������� 7. to return to the original shape g. ������� �������� 8. dimension stone h. ����������� ��������� Ex.2. Complete the sentences. 1. Basic types of materials range from wood to �. 2. Natural materials, which include stone, wood, and wool, are used much as they� 3. Certain types of rock are extremely strong and hard, and are therefore used as �. Ex.3. Insert the right words: (develop, cement, electricity, thermoplastics, are used, processes, various natural substances) 1. A variety of materials � in different products. 2. Extracted materials, such as plastics, alloys and ceramics, are created through the processing of�. 3. Biological materials are substances that � as part of a plant or animal. 4. Extracted materials are created through � that expend a great deal of energy or alter the microstructure of the substances used to make the materials. Ex.4. Answer the questions on the text. 1. What are materials? 2. What groups do materials belong to? 3. How are natural materials generally used? 4. Do natural materials include alloys and plastics? Ex5. Decide which statements are true and which ones are false. 1. Composite materials have been used for thousands of years. 2. Extracted materials are used much as they occur in nature. 3. Stone belongs to natural materials which are widely used in the construction industry. ������� � 2 ������� ���������: ���������� ������ ������� �� 2 ������, �� �� ���������� ����� 60 �����. ����� 1 ������� � ��� ������������ � ������� . ����� 2 ������� �� ������� � ������. Modern Building Materials: Classification Materials are solid substances of which manufactured products are made. A variety of materials are used in different products. Basic types of materials range from wood, which has been used for thousands of years, to composite materials, which are still under development Materials belong to two groups: (1) natural materials and (2) extracted materials. Natural materials, which include stone, wood, and wool, are used much as they occur in nature. Extracted materials, such as plastics, alloys (metal mixtures), and ceramics, are created through the processing of various natural substances. Natural materials generally are used as they are found, except for being cleaned, cut, or processed in a simple way that does not use much energy. Natural materials include stone and biological materials. Certain types of rock are extremely strong and hard, and are therefore used as building stone. There are two types of building stone�crushed stone and dimension stone. Biological materials are substances that develop as part of a plant or animal. Common plant materials include wood and various fibers such as cotton. Animal materials include leather and fibers such as wool. Wood is a valuable biological material because of its strength, toughness, and low density. These properties make wood an excellent material for thousands of products, including houses, sailboats, furniture, baseball bats, and railroad ties. Extracted materials are created through processes that expend a great deal of energy or alter the microstructure of the substances used to make the materials. Extracted materials include ceramics, metals and their alloys, plastics, rubber, composite materials, and semiconductors. Ceramics include such everyday materials as brick, cement, glass, and porcelain. These materials are made from mineral compounds called silicates, including clay, feldspar, silica, and talc. People have used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver for thousands of years to make various practical and decorative objects. Today, metals are important in all aspects of construction and manufacturing. Plastics are synthetic materials made up primarily of long chains of molecules called polymers. There are two basic types of plastics: (1) thermosetting plastics (usual called thermosets) and (2) thermoplastics. Rubber is made up of elastomers, polymers that stretch easily to several times their length and then return to their original shape. Engineers may artificially combine various materials to create a new composite material. Many composite materials contain a large amount of one substance to which fibers, flakes, or layers of another substance are added. Semiconductors are materials that conduct electricity better than insulators, but not as well as conductors, at room temperature. Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents 1. extracted materials a. ��������� ������� ���������� 2. to range from b. �������� � ������� ����� 3. mineral compounds c. ��������� ��������� 4. to contain a large amount d. ������� ������ 5. solid substances e. ����������� ��������� 6. natural materials f. ��������� � �������� 7. to return to the original shape g. ������� �������� 8. dimension stone h. ����������� ��������� Ex.2. Complete the sentences. 1. These properties make wood an excellent material for thousands of �. 2. Today, metals are important in all aspects of � 3. People have used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver for thousands of years to make Ex.3. Insert the right words: (develop, cement, electricity, thermoplastics, are used, processes, various natural substances) 1. Extracted materials are created through � that expend a great deal of energy or alter the microstructure of the substances used to make the materials. 2. Ceramics include such everyday materials as brick, �, glass, and porcelain. 3. There are two basic types of plastics: (1) thermosetting plastics and (2) � 4. Semiconductors are materials that conduct � better than insulators, but not as well as conductors, at room temperature. Ex.4. Answer the questions on the text. 1. Do natural materials include alloys and plastics? 2. Extracted materials are created through processes that expend a great deal of energy or alter the microstructure of the substances used to make the materials, aren`t they? 3. How long have people used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver? 4. What materials conduct electricity better than insulators? Ex5. Decide which statements are true and which ones are false. 1. Brick, cement, glass, and porcelain are natural materials which are made from mineral compounds 2. People have used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver for thousands of years to make various practical and decorative objects. 3. Insulators are materials that conduct electricity better than semiconductors, but not as well as conductors, at room temperature ������� � 4 ������� ���������: ���������� ������ ������� �� 2 ������, �� �� ���������� ����� 60 �����. ����� 1 ������� � ��� ������������ � ������� . ����� 2 ������� �� ������� � ������. Properties of Materials Manufacturers determine which material to use for a given product by evaluating properties (qualities) of materials. Some properties can be linked with a material's macrostructure (structure visible to the unaided eye). Other properties are explained by a material's microstructure (structure that can be seen only through a microscope). The properties of materials are determined by their internal structure--that is, the way in which the fundamental parts of the materials are put together. At the most basic level, properties of materials are determined by chemical bonds, forces that attract atoms to one another and hold them together. Materials scientists study how the structure of materials relates to their properties. A large part of their work involves experimentation. Scientists group the properties of materials according to various functions that must be performed by objects made of the materials. Most properties of materials fall into six groups: (1) mechanical, (2) chemical, (3) electrical, (4) magnetic, (5) thermal, (6) optical. Mechanical properties are critical in a wide variety of structures and objects�from bridges, houses, and space vehicles to chairs and even food trays. Some of; the most important mechanical properties are (1) stiffness, (2) yield stress, (3) toughness, (4) strength, (5) creep and (6) fatigue resistance. Stiffness measures how much a material bends when first subjected to a mechanical force. Yield stress measures how much force per unit area must be exerted on a material for that material to ��rmanently deform (change its shape). Toughness measures a material's resistance to cracking. The tougher a material, the greater the stress necessary to break that material near a crack. Strength measures the greatest force a material can withstand without breaking. A material's strength depends on many factors, including its toughness and its shape. Creep is a measure of a material's resistance to gradual deformation under a constant force. Fatigue resistance measures the resistance of a material to repeated applications and withdrawals of force. Chemical properties include catalytic properties and resistance to corrosion. Electrical properties are important in products designed either to conduct (carry) or block the flow of electric current. Dielectric strength describes a material's response to an electric field. Magnetic properties indicate a material's response to a magnetic field�the region around a magnet or a conductor where the force of magnetism can be felt. Thermal properties reflect a material's response to heat. Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts heat. Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents. 1.Manufacturers a) ��������� 2.material's microstructure b) ������������� ��������� 3.chemical bonds c) ���������� ���� 4.various functions d) ������������� 5.yield stress e) ���������������� 6.toughness f) ��������� ������� 7.fatigue resistance. g).�������������� ��������� 8.thermal conductivity h) ������ ��������� Ex.2. Answer the questions on the text. 1. What are the properties of materials linked with? 2 .What do materials scientists study? 3. How many groups of properties do the materials scientists distinguish and what are they? 4. Does creep belong to mechanical properties of materials? Ex.3. Complete the sentences. 1. Stiffness measures how much a material bends when first subjected to a mechanical.... 2. Chemical properties include catalytic properties and... 3. Thermal properties reflect a material's response..... Ex.4. Insert the right words: (material , basic, be exerted, mechanical, conductivity, strength, field, reflect) 1. Manufacturers determine which �.. to use for a given product by evaluating properties (qualities) of materials. 2. At the most �.. level, properties of materials are determined by chemical bonds, forces that attract atoms to one another and hold them together. 3. Yield stress measures how much force per unit area must �....on a material for that material to ��rmanently deform 4. �. properties are critical in a wide variety of structures and objects�from bridges, houses, and space vehicles to chairs and even food trays. Ex5. Decide which statements are true and which ones are false. 1. Other properties are explained by a material's macrostructure 2.Toughness measures a material's resistance to cracking. 3.Strength measures the smallest force a material can withstand without breaking ������� � 3 ������� ���������: ���������� ������ ������� �� 2 ������, �� �� ���������� ����� 60 �����. ����� 1 ������� � ��� ������������ � ������� . ����� 2 ������� �� ������� � ������. Properties of Materials Manufacturers determine which material to use for a given product by evaluating properties (qualities) of materials. Some properties can be linked with a material's macrostructure (structure visible to the unaided eye). Other properties are explained by a material's microstructure (structure that can be seen only through a microscope). The properties of materials are determined by their internal structure--that is, the way in which the fundamental parts of the materials are put together. At the most basic level, properties of materials are determined by chemical bonds, forces that attract atoms to one another and hold them together. Materials scientists study how the structure of materials relates to their properties. A large part of their work involves experimentation. Scientists group the properties of materials according to various functions that must be performed by objects made of the materials. Most properties of materials fall into six groups: (1) mechanical, (2) chemical, (3) electrical, (4) magnetic, (5) thermal, (6) optical. Mechanical properties are critical in a wide variety of structures and objects�from bridges, houses, and space vehicles to chairs and even food trays. Some of; the most important mechanical properties are (1) stiffness, (2) yield stress, (3) toughness, (4) strength, (5) creep and (6) fatigue resistance. Stiffness measures how much a material bends when first subjected to a mechanical force. Yield stress measures how much force per unit area must be exerted on a material for that material to ��rmanently deform (change its shape). Toughness measures a material's resistance to cracking. The tougher a material, the greater the stress necessary to break that material near a crack. Strength measures the greatest force a material can withstand without breaking. A material's strength depends on many factors, including its toughness and its shape. Creep is a measure of a material's resistance to gradual deformation under a constant force. Fatigue resistance measures the resistance of a material to repeated applications and withdrawals of force. Chemical properties include catalytic properties and resistance to corrosion. Electrical properties are important in products designed either to conduct (carry) or block the flow of electric current. Dielectric strength describes a material's response to an electric field. Magnetic properties indicate a material's response to a magnetic field�the region around a magnet or a conductor where the force of magnetism can be felt. Thermal properties reflect a material's response to heat. Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts heat. Ex. 1. Match English and Russian equivalents. 1.Manufacturers a) ��������� 2.material's microstructure b) ������������� ��������� 3.chemical bonds c) ���������� ���� 4.various functions d) ������������� 5.yield stress e) ���������������� 6.toughness f) ��������� ������� 7.fatigue resistance. g).�������������� ��������� 8.thermal conductivity h) ������ ��������� Ex.2. Answer the questions on the text. 1. Does creep belong to mechanical properties of materials? 2. Could you define major mechanical properties of materials? 3. What do chemical and electrical properties of materials include? 4. Why is it important to study magnetic and thermal properties of materials? Ex.3. Complete the sentences. 1. Some properties can be linked with a material's � 2. Scientists group the properties of materials according to various functions that must be performed by objects made of... 3. A material's strength depends on many factors, including its toughness and.... Ex.4. Insert the right words: (material , basic, be exerted, mechanical, conductivity, strength, field, reflect) 1. Thermal �.. is a measure of how well a material conducts heat. 2. A material's �...depends on many factors, including its toughness and its shape. 3. Dielectric strength describes a material's response to an electric �.. 4. Thermal properties �...... a material's response to heat. Ex5. Decide which statements are true and which ones are false. 1.Dielectric strength describes a material's function to an electric field 2.The tougher a material, the greater the stress necessary to break that material near a crack. 3.A small part of their work involves experimentation.

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АДМИНИСТРАТИВНАЯ КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА 

ОГСЭ.03. «Английский язык»

Специальность 

08.02.01 «Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений»

 

Группа ПГС-4

 

Преподаватель Р.А. Аразханова

 

Вариант № 1

 

ЗАДАНИЕ

Инструкция: контрольная работа состоит из 2 частей, на ее выполнение дается 60 минут.

Часть 1 включает в себя ознакомление с текстом .

Часть 2 состоит из заданий к тексту

 

Modern Building Materials: Classification

 

Materials are solid substances of which manufactured products are made. A variety of materials are 

used in different products. Basic types of materials range from wood, which has been used for thousands of years, to composite materials, which are still under development

Materials belong to two groups: (1) natural materials and (2) extracted materials. Natural materials, which include stone, wood, and wool, are used much as they occur in nature. Extracted materials, such as plastics,  alloys (metal mixtures), and  ceramics, are created through the processing of various natural substances. 

Natural materials generally are used as they are found, except for being cleaned, cut, or processed in a simple way that does not use much energy. Natural materials include stone and biological materials.

Certain types of rock are extremely strong and hard, and are therefore used as building stone. There are two types of building stone—crushed stone and dimension stone.

Biological materials are substances that develop as part of a plant or animal

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Дата добавления 20.01.2015
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