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Research work English language in the modern world. Выполнил: Телеш Никита 9 Б класс Научный руководитель: Иванова Алла Владимировна
The actuality of the problem. The world wide process of globalisation influence the process of changing and interaction of the languages. It is defined by different factors. The English language is considered to be an international language, it is the standard for diplomacy. Its popularity is not argued. Nowadays the English language is the most widely spoken language in the world. It is learned as a second language all around the world and used as an official language of the European Union and many Commonwealth countries, as well as in many world organisations. We can not say, that this question wasn't described, learned or discussed in the works of different scientists and investigators. Among them are David Crystal, Thomas Pyles, David Graddol and John Algeo.
The aim and the tasks of our investigation The aim of our investigation is to study the English language as a component uniting countries, organisations, societies throughout the world in a whole linguistic unity and its role in the process of globalisation and interaction with help of such methods as syntheses, analyses and deduction. The tasks of our work are the following: to analyse the geographical spread of the English language to define formal and legitimic sides of the spread of the English language within the certain state to find out the historical background of the spread of the English language throughout the world to show up the definition of the globality of the language to forecast the future of the English language in the brinks of the investigation
The subject and the object The subject of our investigation is the English language as one of the methods of the impact of the globalisation on the people. The object is existing and potential relations of the English language in the world linguistic unity. The originality of the investigation is defined by the particular features of the approach to the investigation and its methods. The methodology of the investigation includes such scientific methods as analyses and deduction.
The structure of the work is the following: 1)The English language in the modern world. 2) Variants of the modern English language: a) British b) American 3) The Nature of the lexical peculiarities of American English. The sources of the origin of the new vocabulary: a) Borrowing from other languages. b) a Different kind of innovation. 4) Categories: a comparison of American and British variants of languages: (a) General words. b) the General concept of different words. c) Words without analogues. 5) The Main differences between American and British variants: a) Spelling b) Phonetics c) Grammar 6) Conclusion.
English language in the modern world. None of the languages ever invented by man, and did not become the universal world language. The United Nations is based on the actual distribution of languages in the world community, chose their official or working languages the following six languages: English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic and Chinese. A special place among them belongs at present to the English language.
In the modern world, the English language plays an extremely important role in such spheres as science, technology, Economics, trade, diplomacy, and tourism. This language is the international language of aviation and shipping. 80% of all information contained in the computers of the world, presented in English. It acts as a working language of the absolute majority of the international scientific, technical, political, and professional international congresses, conferences, symposia and seminars. English in our time performs the same role in Europe in the middle ages played Latin.
People are interested in foreign languages now. They understand that it can help them in their career. French and German are popular; by the way French was very popular with Russian nobility. Some of them spoke French better than French people did. Pushkin wrote some poems in French. People translated and still translate different books from foreign languages into Russian for other people to read. Thanks to translators we know much about cultures, science, way of life, be it Great Britain or China. Different cultures influence each other and enrich each other, I think. This would be impossible if we didn't know each other's languages.
I study English. That's why I want to tell you about it. English is a world language. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce and business. It is the universal language of international aviation, shipping and sports. It is also the major language of diplomacy. Hundreds and hundreds of books, magazines and newspapers are printed in English and read all over the world. 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. Half of the world's scientific literature is written in English.
English is spoken by more than 350 million people. Geographically, it is the most widespread language on earth, second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, of the United States of America, of Australia and New Zealand. English is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the Republic of South Africa and the Irish Republic. It is also spoken as a second language in many parts of India and Africa. The number of second-language speakers may soon exceed the number of native speakers.
Besides, millions of people study and use English as a foreign language. In our country English is very popular: it is studied at schools (sometimes even at nursery schools), colleges and universities. There are different ways of mastering foreign languages. It is useful to read books in the original, listen to their songs or watch their films. But now there are foreign teachers in Russia (I mean native speakers) more over, it is possible even to go abroad and study there. Some people do.
Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist. Knowledge of foreign languages helps to promote cultural, educational and technical cooperation among nations. That’s why one of the characteristic features of life in our country today is a great interest in the study of foreign languages — chiefly English.
At present English is the most important of the world’s languages. In number of speakers it ranks second. The use of English in diplomacy, commerce and science is evidence of its importance. That’s why many millions of people learn it as a second language. The growth in political, scientific, economic; cultural and educational contacts with different countries has set the scene for a renewed interest in foreign languages studies. In our country English is taught in pedagogical institutes and universities.
Why is knowledge of foreign languages very important today? Knowledge of foreign languages is very important today because it helps to promote cultural, scientific, technical cooperation among nations. Where is English taught in our country? In our country English is taught at schools, institutes and universities. We live in the modern world and you can’t imagine an educated person who doesn’t know any foreign language. It is especially important nowadays. Some people learn languages because they need them in their work, others travel abroad.
English is a widely spoken language all over the world. You can hear it everywhere: in a street, in shops and restaurants, in offices. You don’t need to know Japanese when you go to Japan, or French when you visit Paris. English will help you to understand each other. A modern engineer or even a worker deals with instruments and machines from other countries and must be able to read the instructions, which are usually written in English. Computer programs and games, most of Internet pages are also written in English. Science magazines are mostly published in English and scientific and business conferences are held in English as well. Diplomats and militaries use English to solve their problems.
Besides, the knowledge of English helps to know more about the countries, to read many books in the original and to make new friends. That’s why all pupils should master their English to become good specialists in any branch.
The influence of the British variant due to the fact that it is traditionally used as a subject of study in the education system of most countries of the world. The role of American options is explained by the role that the United States of America in the modern economic, scientific and cultural life and, above all, the activities of mass media (cinema, television, video, print).
American and British variants are not different languages, and it's true: Americans, Canadians, British, Australians and new Zealanders can easily communicate with each other. However, assuming that the total data in variants of the English language is much more than different, we should not forget that this assessment is qualitative in nature. Of course, the specific differences are many, but they are particularly noticeable in the vocabulary.
The nature of the lexical peculiarities of American English.
The sources of the origin of the new vocabulary: Borrowing from other languages Various innovations
Sources of new words were numerous Indian languages: Igloo иглу (ледяная хижина эскимосов) Skunk скунс (животное) Totem тотем Wigwam вигвам
B Another cultural contact, influencing the formation of the lexicon of the American version, was of French settlers from France: rave храбрый Bureau бюро Depot депо, склад Prairie прерия Pumpkin тыква Rapids речной порог
Many words were taken from the Spanish language: Corral загон для скота Lasso лассо Mustang мустанг Sombrero сомбреро
The Dutch colony of new Amsterdam on the place of modern new York city, too, has left its linguistic trace: Boss босс, хозяин Bush куст Sleigh сани Waffle вафля
Borrowing from African languages were very minor. For example: Okra окра (растение) Voodoo колдун
The largest influx of new words is observed in the 19-20 centuries, when in the US profit millions of immigrants from many countries.
The Italians brought, in particular, its national kitchen and related words: Pizza пицца Spaghetti спагетти
There is in American English and various words of German origin: Hamburger гамбургер Liverwurst ливерная колбаса Semester семестр Seminar семинар
Another source of new words have become American political institutions, traditions, way of life, scientific discoveries and inventions Assembly ассамблея Congress конгресс President президент Senator сенатор Telegram телеграмма Telephone телефон
Finally the words associated with the development of culture: cinema, theater, music, television. Many of them quickly became the British version and even other languages: Jazz джаз Pop music по популярная музыка Rock group рок-группа TV serial ТВ сериал
Thus, the vocabulary of the American version is very diverse and its specific features are determined, on the one hand, borrowing from other languages, and with another, different kind of innovation, creation of new words and in General the dynamic development of American society.
Comparing the vocabulary of American and British variants, we can distinguish 3 main categories: 1.Common words; 2.General concepts-different words; 3. Words without analogues.
COMMON WORDS Man мужчина Sky небо Tree дерево Day день Head голова Black чёрный Cold холодный Biology биология This is one reason why the Americans and the British can easily understand each other. It is important to understand that with all its vocabulary differences in British and American English is based on a powerful Foundation.
GENERAL CONCEPTS-DIFFERENT WORDS the Second group includes a large number of examples to refer to concepts or realities in British and American cultures, different words are used. Pants (амер.) брюки Trousers (брит.) Coat (амер.) пальто Overcoat (брит.) Subway (амер.) метро Underground (брит.) Gas (амер.) бензин Petrol (брит.) Student (амер.) учащийся Pupil (брит.) Soccer (амер.) футбол Football (брит.)
WORDS WITHOUT ANALOGUES of the third group includes words denoting concepts or objects that have no analogues in another country. For example, geographic terms, names of plants and animals, national sports and their terminology. Canyon (амер.) каньон Caribou (амер.) карибу (канадский олень) Cricket (брит.) крикет (спорт) Baseball (амер.) бейсбол
SPELLING Greatest impact on American Spelling had Webster, who once proposed a series of reforms that simplified the writing of an entire category of English words. The most characteristic differences are as follows: Aluminium алюминий Aluminum Catalogue каталог Catalog Honour честь Honor Programme программа Program Speciality специальность Specialty
As for phonetics and grammar, differences in these areas are low. The difference in the pronunciation of individual sounds and words, intonation, stress and rhythm, the use of separate grammatical structures is not an obstacle when dealing educated people.
So what version of the English language should be studied to a foreigner? The conclusion is simple: it is necessary to study not British or American version and the ENGLISH LANGUAGE, correcting certain elements of the content depending on the learning objectives.
Marchenko So, Pursuant A. C. “the Peculiarities of translation of synonyms based on their belonging to the American or British version of the English language”. Sokolova L. “learn English language: American English”. Schweitzer, A. D. “a Systematic summary of the main features of American options in the field of phonetics, spelling, vocabulary”. “Be a Leader”- a textbook of English for business. Ivanov S. C. (level - intermediate) - manual of the American variant of the English language for adults. Drozdov Century A. “About the same difference in morphology of American and British variants of English”. Drozdov Century A. “Comparative study of vocabulary, phonetics, grammar American and British variants of English”. Bibliography.
Peshekhonov E. C. “On some peculiarities of British and American variants of the English language”. Peshekhonov E. C. “Foreign languages and intercultural communication”. Translation Bureau “Dictionaries of regional differences in the variants of the English language”. Carasova J. I., “Some General features of Australian English“”. “English-Russian dictionary müller C. K. “Russian-English, English-Russian dictionary” publisher “Collins” “Russian-English, English-Russian dictionary Romanov A. S.
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