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Детская презентация на тему "The History and Variety of Australian English", проект ученицы 10 класса Каримовой Д (районный этап научно-практической конференции для школьников, 2014 год)
Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
GYMNASIUM №125 2013-2014 SCHOOL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE №16 RESEARCH Work The History and Variety of Australian English Performed by: Karimova D.M. English teacher: Galimova A.D.
1. Introduction - Terra Australis Incognita 2. The main part: 2.1. The development of Au.E. 2.2. Characteristics of Au.E. – phonetics and vocabulary 2.3. “Cockney” – the attributies and the recent “cockney” expressions 2.4. Some differences in vocabulary between Au.E. and B.E 2.5. Australian Idioms 3. In conclusion… 4. List of the literature Contents
Last year I wrote about two variants of English. I had done the project, called “The comparison of British and American English”. Today I want to tell about another one – Australian English. In my opinion, it’s interesting to learn how the same language may be changed in different part of the world. So, the object of study is the structure of Australian English (Au.E.). I’ll try to explore the features of phonetics, grammar, vocabulary and spelling. The aim is to research the specific characteristics of Au.E., the differences and similarities between this variant and “traditional” (B.E.) one. To achieve the aim we need to solve the following tasks: to explore the development of Australian English to learn the characteristics of Australian English to compare Australian variant and British (traditional). to summarize all the aspects Introduction
“Unknown south land” – is the translation of this Latin term. The Middle age explorers were looking for the illusive continent since XVI century. They created different legends about warm place where ugly, wide and dangerous aborigines were dreaming under the noise of the ocean. The baseless theories turned out to be the real truth. And, during the British colonization in XVIII-XIX centuries, the land was renamed as “Australia”. It showed that the fifth continent was situated in southern Hemisphere. Australians themselves call their country “Oz”. So, I invite you to visit The Wizard Of Oz and chat with Great and Powerful in magical atmosphere of picturesque and colourful landscapes. Terra Australis Incognita
The development of A.E.
The full name of the country is Commonwealth of Australia and its official language is Australian English (Au.E.). The great influence on this variant of English had British and Irish immigrants. Of course, the “traditional” language wasn’t able to escape aborigines’ intervention. The new forming English adopted the names of flora and fauna (some species can exist only in Australia), geographical names from inhabitants’ vocabulary. The Australian variant of English has been accepted only in last thirty years. It was codified in dictionaries, including the dictionary of Australian English (Macquarie Dictionary), various Internet resources. Au.E is also considered like one of the most prestige variants of English. Like any other type of English it was affected by American English.
Au.E. phonetics is defined by London dialect “cockney” and Irish prisoners which were exported to Australian colonies. Long sound [a] - long [i] [ei] - [ai] – “pay” sounds like “pie” ( [pai] – [pai]) [ai] – [oi] – “cry” sounds like [croi] The rhythm of Australian speech is smoother than British, because of clear pronunciation of unstressed vowels and reducing contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables. Characteristics of Au.E. Phonetics.
Vocabulary of Au.E is a mixture of original English words and words, which were moved from various aborigines dialects (more than 440 words): billibong - watering hole coolabah - a type of tree corroboree - a ceremony nulla-nulla - a club wallaby - small kangaroo wombat - a small marsupial woomera - a weapon wurley - a simple shelter Vocabulary
Including the well-known ones – kangaroo, koala and boomerang.
In fact, the name of the capital of Australia, Canberra, is the word from the local aborigines’ language. It is translated as “a place for meeting”. The aborigines’ pictures from The National park of Cockatoo. About 30 000 years. Canberra
Many words came from bushie’s traditions (bushie is the first researches and inhabitants of the desert). We can easily find these typical only for Au.E. expressions in the national song of Australia “Waltzing Matilda”: billy – tin pot for making tea cooee - call used in the outback (the areas of Australia where few people live, especially the central deserts areas) dingo - native dog jackeroo - young station hand joey - young kangaroo jumbuck - sheep matilda - backpack never-never - the far outback squatter - rancher station - ranch swagman - bushman or tramp tucker - food
The outstanding feature of Au.E. is the lessening of a word or a combination of words in one word. It often ends on -y, -ie, or -o: aussie – Australian chewie - chewing gum chockie – chocoloate cossie - swimming costume (swimsuit) footy - football (Australian rules, of course) frenchie – condom lavvy - lavatory lippie - lipstick lollies - sweets mossie - mosquito
mushies – mushrooms oldies - one’s parents rellies - one’s relatives sammie - sandwich sickie - sick day sunnies – sunglasses g’day- Good day! abo – aborigine uni - university speedo – speedometer
Other languages also took part in Au.E. creation, because many immigrants from all other the world wanted to show themselves on the new, unknown land: sheila – a woman (adopted from Irish, as it was the most popular female name in Ireland) lasso (adopted from Spanish) lager - beer (adopted from Dutch) The attributes of “Cockney” dialect were also transformed to Au.E. It’s worth telling you about this unique language phenomenon.
“Cockney” dialect is one the most famous types of London common language. It’s also called “the rhymed slang”. It appeared in XVI century in London industry district East-End and was created by sailors and soldiers, pasted through London docks, gypsies, immigrants from Ireland and, of course, traders. There was a legend that in XIX century traders, who practiced illegal trade, used the mystery slang for conversation. “Cockney” is the name for person who was born at the range of the bells hearing of Saint-Mari-le-Bow church, which is situated in Cheaptown (the London district) “Cockney”
Using of rhymed slang. Ridiculous combinations of words are consonant with ordinary words. For example, “plates of meat” means “feet”, “loaf of bread” – “head”. Sometimes the expressions are made shorter: butchers instead of butcher’s hook (look). Take a butchers at that. Hello me old china (instead of china and plate – mate). Let’s go for a Ruby (instead of “Ruby Murray” – curry. Ruby Murray is the Irish singer). Using «ain’t» instead of «isn’t» or «am not». Sound [h] isn’t pronounced. For example, «not ’alf» instead of «not half». Sound [t] isn’t pronounced at the end of the word. For example, [ʃui] instead of [ʃaɪt]. The attributes
Becks and Posh – nosh (the David Beckham’s and his wife Victoria’s nicknames) Bristol & West – chest (the name of the former commercial bank of the United Kingdom) Trevor Sinclair – nightmare (the black English footballer) Uncle Ted – bed (the American politician Ted Kennedy) No ‘ope (no hope) – soap Noah’s ark – shark The recent “cockney” expressions
Some differences in vocabulary between B.E and Au.E. B.E. Au.E. Cinema “to go to the cinema” Pictures “togo to the pictures” Glade, glen, brook,field, wood Thesewords were excluded fromAu.E. Field andmeadow Paddock and run Herd and flock mob
Shark biscuits – a newcomer surfer Wouldn’t shout if a shark bit her – characteristic of mean person Boomerang – some thing which should be give back Like a greasespot - hot and sweaty London to a brick - absolute certainty Like a dog’s breakfast - a mess Up a gumtree - in trouble Mad as a gumtree full of galahs – insane Kangaroos loose in the top paddock - intellectually inadequate Dry as a dead dingo’s donger - very dry indeed Australian Idioms
Let’s walk along the colourful paths of miraculous Oz. The wonders Of Australia
Pink lakes Amongst the most unbelievable natural wonders of Australia are the Pink salty lakes. Their unusual and bright pink colour is because of algae. One of these lakes is located in the national park of Murray-Sunset, in Victoria state. There are also the lakes in South and West Australia.
Welcome to Wycliffe Well! Wycliffe Well is the Australian capital of U.F.O. This tiny town is visited by million of tourists, who hope to contact with out of the Earth creatures. It is considered that aliens fly in the sky almost every night.
The spiritual land of Australian inhabitants The Uluru mount was the place of aborigines’ worship due to caves and the fountain which comes from the ground. According to the local tribe’s anangu legend - it’s necessary to respect the ground as it’s the lullaby of the life and the feeder.
“Other way round” monument The inverted monument is situated in Melbourne and was built to the honor to Charles La Trobe by Charles Robb. Charles La Trobe was the first gubernator of Victoria state. He was the outstanding man and did a lot of useful things. The architect wanted people never forget about that wonderful person and his creation. He used to say: “He was a genius! Like this monument.” People still don’t know why it stands on the head…
1. The grammar of Australian variant of English is alike British one. It has the common spelling, construction and rules. 2. There are some differences in phonetics, but they aren’t so significant. 3. The most interesting part is in vocabulary. It was influenced by the native peoples, aborigines, other languages and dialects. Nowadays, it is the independent, developing dialect with its exclusive system of word building, terms and expressions. In conclusion…
Cambridge Learner’s dictionary. Cambridge University Press 2011 Ощепкова В.В. Язык и культура Великобритании, США, Канады, Австралии, Новой Зеландии. — М./СПб.: ГЛОССА/КАРО, 2004. Петриковская А.С.. Послесловие к лингвострановедческому словарю Австралия и Новая Зеландия, М., Русский язык, 1998. Бабич Г. Н. Лексикология английского языка. Екатеринбург-Москва. Уральское издательство Большая медведица. 2006 г. wikipedia.ru primavista.ru macquariedictionary.au List of the literature
“Thank you for the nice conversation!”
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