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Выбранный для просмотра документ British education.docx

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British education

British education helps us to develop fully the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the agers of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Post school education is organized flaxebly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vacational education and to continue studying throughout life. Administration of state schools is decentralized. The department of education and science is responsible for national education policy, but it doesn't run any schools, if doesn't employ teachers, or prescribe curricular or textbooks. All schools are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. That is religious instruction. Children receive preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant's classes in primary schools. Most pupils receive free education from public funds and the small proportions attend schools wholly independent. Most independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixing schools is growing. Education within the maintained schools system usually comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 - 7), and junior schools (ages 7 - 11). Infant schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their work with the same class teacher except for PT and music. The junior stage extended over four years. Children have set spirits of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put in the A stream, the list able in the D stream. Till recently most junior school children had to seat for the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an arithmetic paper and an intelligent test. According to the results of the exam children are sent to Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools. So called comprehensive schools began to appear after World War 2. They are much mixed schools which can provide education for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools. By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain a school for a further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually subdivided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The curricular is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3. The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general certificate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A level).Candidates set for 0 level papers at 15 - 16 years away. GCE level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of average abilities of their age.

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Detroit (1) the State of Michigan is the oldest (2) the Great Lakes cities. It was founded (3) 1701 as a French fortress and a fur-trading centre (4) the exploration of the Great Lakes area. Then it was British settlement (5) the land (6) which it stands became part (7) the United States (8) 1796. The origin (9) the city’s name French. Detroit is a port stands (10) the Detroit river, (11) Lake Huron and Erie. It is also connected (12) the city (13) Windsor in Canada (14) tunnels and a suspension bridge. Detroit is a major automobile manufacturing centre, a leading steel producer and a great grain market. Its nickname is the “Motor City” and one (15) the USA leader (16) business and commerce. The famous Ford automobile empire originated (17) here. Henry Ford, its founder was not the first one to invent the cars, but the first who produced really popular cars (18) both their size and relatively low price made them an idea model (19) a middle-class family. Ford’s ideas (20) mass production and assembly lines ware later introduced (21) all spheres (22) industrial production. Detroit is beautiful city (23) fine museums, shops, parks and an impressive waterfront which make it a great to live and to work.

Выбранный для просмотра документ ENGLAND.docx

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England is the southern and the largest component of the United Kingdom. Its poetic name is "Albion"; the Romans associated it with the term "albus" (white) and identified it with the Dover chalk cliffs. England has a total area of 50,383 square miles and is divided into 46 counties. The population of England is 46 million people. England is washed by the North Sea in the east, the Irish Sea in the west, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover in the south. England is bounded by Wales on the west and Scotland in the north. The most important rivers are the Thames (215 miles), the Mercy, the Severn (240miles), the Trent, the Avon and others. The central part of the country is lowland, and in the north of England the Pennine Mountains run from the Scottish borders. The highest point is 893 meters high.

One of the most beautiful places of England is the Lake District, situated in the north - west side of the Pennine system. Lake District has 6 large lakes. People come to the lakes for rock-climbing, swimming, yachting, water skiing. The most famous seaside resorts are Brighton, Hastings and Margate. These cities are considered to be the most magical comers of the country.

English people say, "There is no climate in England, there's only weather". They also say that they have 3 variants of weather: when it rains in the morning; when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. Sometimes it rains so heavily that they say "It's raining cats and dogs". In general the climate of the country is temperate and moist. The average temperature in winter is -5°C; in summer is +25°C. It often rains in England in all seasons.

The geology and topography of England produce contrasts in landscape. Now the country is becoming increasingly popular as a tourist area. Its cultural heritage is rich and varied with many historical buildings, cathedrals, castles.

Stonehenge, an outstanding monument is also in England. How it was built and why is not known. Perhaps it was built as some kind of religious centre, or may be the position of stones will tell us about the secret of old astronomers. Stonehenge is now visited by so many tourists that it has had to be fenced off for its own protection. The flora of England is rather poor. Heather and oak, lime, beech, fir-tree, ash, chestnut, pine, elm are most numerous in England. Now country has 10 national parks.

As for the fauna of England it is in general similar to that in Europe. There are foxes, hares, squirrels in rural areas. Otters and seals nest near the coast. England has nearly 430 kinds of birds, including many songbirds. There is one kind peculiar to England-the red grouse. River and lake fish include flat fish, salmon, trout, herring.

The capital of England London (7 mln) is situated on the river Thames. It is the chief port of the country and an important manufacturing centre, at the same time it is a great cultural centre of the country, a university city.

The main seaports of the country are London, Bristol, Dover, Liverpool and others. The most famous and oldest universities of England are in Cambridge and Oxford.

England is a highly industrialized country. It has few mineral resources of which the most important are coal and oil. The other minerals are copper, lead, zinc, iron ores. The basic industries of England are ferrous metallurgy, shipbuilding, ship-repairing, automobile and aircraft industries, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrical engineering, coal-mining, pharmaceutics. Production of textiles is spread throughout the country, the British wool textile industry has been important since old times. England is also known for hosiery and lace-making.

Though England is a highly industrialized country, agriculture plays an important role in the development of the country. England grows fruit: apples, cherries, raspberries, strawberries, black currants; grain crops: wheat, barley, oats; vegetables: potatoes, turnips, tomatoes, sugar-beet; flowers, especially tulips, and mushrooms.

The country has a long tradition of sheep production; pig breeding is carried out in the main part of England. It is the famous producer of poultry, dairy products. Fishing has always been an important industry, especially in the east.

Englishmen are naturally polite, they don't like to display their emotions in tragic, difficult situations, and they don't like any boasting. Typical English features are independence, self-confidence, self-discipline, a strong belief in private property and love for comfort. Every Englishman is a countryman at heart. The Englishmen like animals very much, especially dogs. .

They are fond of theatre. Now it is a tradition to hold in June the annual Dickens's Festival in Rochester. More than a thousand people from all the country dressed up in Victorian costumes line up for a procession through the town. In the theatre you can see the scenes from Dickens's novels.

The names of English writers such as Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Charles Dickens, William Shakespeare, Herbert George Wells and Arthur Conan Doyle are well known and loved by the readers all over the world. The national emblem of the country is the rose. The saint patron of the country is St. George and the 23-rd of April is the national English holiday. St. George's flag has a red cross with extended horizontals on a white field.

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English customs and traditions

If you want to know more about the history of life of different countries you must study their traditions. English people carefully keep up their traditions. Many of them are connected with the capital of Great Britain - London. Thus every night the traditional ceremony of the keys takes place at the famous London Tower. At 9.53 p.m. the Chief Warder, carrying the Bloody Tower, where the present guard is waiting for them "Halt! Who goes there?" - The guards ask. Keys, marches from one Tower to another, locking the gates. The escort follows him. Then they march to the Chief Warder answers: "Queen Elisabeth's keys". "Advance, Queen Elisabeth's keys. All's well. " - they are answered. At 10 sharp the Chief Warder proceeds to the Queen's house to return the keys from the Tower. It is a tradition with English people to celebrate holidays. Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Guy Fawkes Night, St. Valentines Day, etc. Christmas is more important for Englishmen than any other holiday. People travel from all parts of the country to be with their families on the 25-th of December. English people decorate Christmas trees with flashing lights, wrapping paper, glass balls, bake puddings and traditional Christmas Turkey. They decorate their houses with holly and mistletoe. Children wait for the presents from Santa Claus, a mythical man, who lives in the North pole and makes toys for children. On Christmas he visits the homes of good children and lives them presents in their socks. Children put their socks at the foot of the bed or a fireplace. Another colorful holiday is Halloween. It is celebrated for hundreds of years. On this day children dress in funny ghostly costumes and knock at the neighbor's doors. After shouting "Trick or treat" they get gifts of candy or money. But more than 2000 years ago it wasn't a merry holiday. It was the time when the Lord of Dead gathered the souls of dead and presented them to Druid Heaven on October 31. So people thought that all the evil forces appeared in the darkness on that day. To frighten them people made fires. So nowadays Englishmen take turnips, potatoes, pumpkins, cut holes in them and place candles inside. There is one more holiday, which has a great significance especially for young lovers it is the St. Valentine's Day. It is celebrated on the 14-th of February. Valentine's Day is sweethearts' day when people in love express their affections for each other. The message is - "Will you be my Valentine?" Valentines used to be for young lovers, but nowadays grandparents, cousins and friends of any age express their affection through a small gift or a card. The customs of celebrating St. Valentine's Day dates back to the festivals called Lupercalia. There were games and dancing girl who would be his sweetheart for the coming year. It was a pagan custom, but it survived when Christianity came. In the 7-th century it got the name St. Valentine's Day. St. Valentine's had had a long and romantic history. The Romans carried it to England as a pagan festival, combined with the Christian religion, it formed a good tradition. Nowadays Valentine's Day is celebrated in many countries of the world. Mostly the gifts of cards and flowers are presented on that day. These are the most exiting holidays in England, I think. As we can see they make the life of people richer and happier, make them feel proud of their country, its history and culture.

English customs and traditions

Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of people than in other countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There are a lot of customs you can enjoy. Some of them are very old games or plays. There is e.g. the Marbles Championship, where the British Champion is crowned; he wins a silver cup known among folk dancers is Morris Dancing, where people in beautiful clothes with ribbons and bells on them dance to traditional music with handkerchiefs or big sticks. Of a completely different style is the Boat Race on the river Thames, often on Eastern Sunday. A boat with a team from Oxford university and one with a team from Cambridge University hold a race. Hours before the race people arrive and sit along the river. The British think that the Grand National is the most exciting horse race in the world. It is at the Aintree Race Course, near Liverpool, every year. Sometimes it takes place on the same day as the Boat Race, sometimes a week later. Amateur riders as well as professional jockeys can take part. It is famous because the jumps are very high and the course is very long. If you don't like boat racing you won't have to stay at home on Easter Sunday. You can go Egg-rolling…: go to Avenham Park, with a hard boiled egg - it will look nicer if you have painted it. Take it to the top of the hill in Avenham Park - as you won't be alone there that day just follow the other people - and roll it down. That's it!!! If your egg doesn't break the 1st time you can do it again and… Oh, Avenham Park is near the ton of Preston, in Lancashire. May 1st isn't a public holiday in Britain, but the 1st Monday after it is. There are many May Day Celebrations, especially in the country. People erect a maypole then, a tall pole with ribbons hanging from the top. Young children dance round it, holding the ribbons. Teenage girls sometimes enter for the May Queen competition. Halloween is a day on which many children dress up in unusual costumes. The day was originally called All Halloween's Eve, because it fell on October 31, the eve of all Saint's Day. The name was later shortened to Halloween. "Remember, remember the 5th of November" are the words of an old English song. Why? Because in 1605, a man called Guy Fawkes had planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill king James 1st on that day (the king was to open Parliament then). But Guy Fawkes was caught and hanged. And still the British remember Guy Fawkes' Night or Bonfire Night. From early October you can see children with figures (called 'guys') made of sacks and straw and dressed in old clothes. The children say: "Penny for the Guy"- and with the money they collect in this way they buy fireworks. On November 5th the children put their 'Guy' on the bonfire, born it, and light their fireworks…and the British sky is full of light. At the end of the year there are the famous New Year celebrations. In London many people go to Trafalgar Square on New Year's Eve. There is singing and dancing and at 12 o'clock on December 31st - or should we say January 1st? - they all sing the famous song "Auld Lang Syne". A popular Scottish event is the Edinburg Festival for music and drama each year. And perhaps even more known is the Edinburg Military Tattoo from Edinburg Castle early September. A truly Welsh event is the Eisteddfod, a national festival of traditional poetry and music, with a competition for the best new poem in Welsh and for the best choir.

Almost every nation has a reputation of some kind. The English are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather haughty people. They are steady, easy-going and fond of sports. There are certain kinds of behavior, manners and customs which are peculiar to England. The English are naturally polite and are never tired of saying "Thank you" and "I am sorry". They are generally disciplined, you never hear loud talk in the street. They don't rush for seats in buses and trains, but they take their seats in queues at bus stops. English people do not shake hands when meeting one another, they do not show their emotions even in tragic situations. They seem to remain good-tempered and cheerful under difficulties. The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home. The Englishman says "My house is my castle" because he doesn't wish his doings to be overlooked by his neighbours. It is true that English people prefer small houses, built for one family. The fire is the focus of the English Home. Other nations go out to cafes or cocktail bars. The fireplace is the natural centre of interest in the room. They like to sit round the fire and watch the dancing flames, exchanging the day's experience. In many houses you will still see fireplaces, sometimes with columns on each side and a shelf above it on which there is often a clock or a mirror or photos. The love of gardens is deep-rooted in the British people. Most men's conversations are about gardens. It may be a discussion of the best methods of growing cucumbers, a talk about the plot which differs from all the others. The British like growing plants in a window-box outside the kitchen or in the garden near the house. They love flowers very much. Britain is a nation of animal lovers. They have about five million dogs, almost as many cats, 3 million parrots and other cage birds, aquarium fish - and 1 million exotic pets such as reptiles. In Britain they have special dog shops selling food, clothes and other things for dogs. There are dog hair-dressing saloons and dog cemetries. In Britain pets can send Christmas cards to their friends, birthday cards. Owners can buy for their pets jewelled nylon collars, lambswool coat for a dog, lace-trimmed panties, nightgowns, pyjamas, and so on. There are special animal hotels at the airports. The English people believe that they are the only nation on the earth that is really kind to its animals. How do they spend their week-ends. Those who live in cities and towns like to go out of town. They may go to stay in the country. Every Englishman is fond of the countryside in a nice thatched cottage with roses round the porch and in the garden, the fresh air and bright sun. No crowds of people, silence and leisure. Those who stay at home try to do all the jobs they, were too busy to do during the week. Some go shopping on Saturday mornings, some do the house - washing, cleaning. Some men do and watch sporting events. Saturday evening is the best time for parties, dances, going to the cinema or theatre. On Sunday after breakfast they may go to work in the garden take a dog for a walk, play a visit to a pub. Sunday is a day for inviting friends and relatives to afternoon tea. There are some traditions concerning food. English cooking is heavy, substantial and plain. The Englishman likes a good breakfast. To him a good breakfast means porridge with, fish, bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or coffee. It is the same day to day. The English like their toast cold. Tea is part of the prose of British life, as necessary as potatoes and bread. Seven cups of it wake you up in the morning, 9 cups will put you to sleep at night. The midday meal is called lunch. This meal consists on week- days of stew, fried fish, chops, liver or sausages, vegetables. Rice and macaroni are seldom served. Then does an apple tart, or hot milk pudding. Sunday dinner is a special occasion, it is a joint of beef or lamb with vegetables. Then goes a large heavy pudding with custard. From 4 to 6 there is a very light meal called 5 o'clock tea. It is a snack of thin bread and butter and cups of tea with small cakes. This became a kind ritual. At this time everything stops for tea. Dinner (usually at 6 p.m.) is much like lunch and is in many families the last meal of the day. Supper is a snack of bread and cheese and cocoa. The English have a popular speciality known as fish and chips. They are bought at special fish and chips shops. HOLIDAYS IN GREAT BRITAIN Every country and every nation has own traditions and customs. It's very important to know traditions and customs of other countries. It helps to know more about the history and line of different nations. English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up as I know all English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. It's the season of good will. It's the most beautiful time of the year - the time of love, joy and hopes. Christmas Day is a family holiday. All the people look forward to it, expecting something special. It is the time when all the family gets together round the Christmas tree decorated with toys and sweets. Little children believe that when they are asleep Santa Claus comes with a big bag of toys. They often hang up large stockings for the presents. All families have Christmas dinners. They eat traditional dishes - turkey, duck, pudding. On the New Year's Day they watch the old year out and the new year in. There are some traditions on New Year's Day. One of them is the old First Footing. The first man to come into the house is very important. The Englishmen believe that he brings luck. This man (not a woman) must be healthy, young, pretty-looking. He brings presents - bread, a piece of coal or a coin. Another best-loved holiday is St.Valentine's Day on the 14th of February - the holiday of love and affection, the day of sending and giving presents to those you love - Englishmen with these word ask to become friends or companion Valentines often are decorated with symbols of love - red hearts and roses, ribbons and laces. In England tradition of celebrating Easter is deep-rooted in the history of the nation. Easter is a church holiday. There is a popular belief that wearing 3 new things on Easter will bring good luck. Traditionally Easter parades of people in bright new spring clothes are held on this day. Another custom is decorating eggs for children. Eggs are hidden in the yards little children believe that the Easter rabbit comes and leaves eggs for them. Easter candies are maid in the form of eggs, little chickens and rabbits. Halloween is the day or evening before all Saent's Day. Children dress up in Halloween costumes and masks over their faces. They go out into the streets to beg. People give them sweets, cookies and apples. A favourite Halloween custom is to make a jack-o'-lantern (the children scrape our a pumpkin and cut the eyes, nose and mouth). They light a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends. A few words about superstitions in Britain. The people believe that if they put shoes on the table, they will have bad luck. The English won't kill a spider, especially money spiders (small red ones). This is very unlucky Some animals are also lucky (black cats brihg good luck, white horses are also lucky. The most unlucky thing is to break a mirror. This brings 7 years of bad luck. The number 13 is the most unlucky number especially Combination Friday, the 13th. According to the Act of Parliament of 1871 there are 4 bank holidays Easter Monday, whit-Monday, Des 26th - Boxing Day. Obher pablic holiday are Good Friday, May Day, Also there is a Pancake Day, April's Fool Day, Mother's Day.

If you arrive in Great Britain you'll hear the word "tradition" everywhere. Englishmen have sentimental love for things and traditions. They never throw away old things. In many houses in Great Britain they have fire-places and though their bedrooms are awfully cold, the English people do not want to have central heating because they do not want to have changes. Therefore the Yeomen-Warders are dressed in traditional medieval clothes and the traditional dress of the Horse Guards regiment has existed since the twelfth century. In the House of Lords of the British Parliament there are two rows of benches for lords and a sack of wool for the Lord Chancellor to sit on it. This is so because in the old times wool made England rich and powerful. In the House of Commons you will see two rows of benches for the two parties: the government on one side and the opposition - on the other. In front of the benches there is the strip on a carpet and when a member speaking in the House puts his foot beyond that strip, there is a shout "Order!". This dates from the time when the members had swords on them and during the discussion might want to start fighting. The word "order" reminded them that no fighting was allowed in the House. Another old custom remains from the time when there was a lot of robbers in London. In those days the shouting "Who goes home?" was often heard in the Houses of Parliament and the members went in groups along the dark narrow streets of the old city. In modem London with its well-lit streets the shouting "Who goes home?" is still heard.

English character

Foreigners have many ideas about what the English like. For example, some people say the English are always cold and reserved, this means that they don't talk much to strangers, and don't show much emotion. A reserved person never tells you anything about himself. But the people of the North and West of Britain are much less reserved than those of the South and East. Some believe the English eat porridge for breakfast and read The Times every day. Many Australians believe that the English always whine and call them "whining poms". The Welsh, Scottish and Irish also have a thing or two to say about what they think the English are like with reference to the British Empire. And, of course, the English themselves have plenty of ideas about what they are, such as being proud of having one of the oldest parliaments in the world.

English people are famous for their habit of politeness. It is considered polite to give up one's seat to a woman who is standing, to open a door for her, carry things for her, and so on. Most British people expect the person in front of them to hold the door open for them. People think you are rude, if you don't do this. Most British people queue when they are waiting for a bus or waiting to be served in a shop. But during the rush hour, when a bus or train arrives, people often push forward to make sure they get on. This is called jumping the queue. British people keep their old traditions and are very proud of them. They are famous for their sense of humor. English people show great love for animals. And, of course, English people are fond of sports. Many continentals think life is a game; the English think cricket is a game. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behavior. When they consider something unfair, they say "That isn't cricket".

The traditional love of English people for tea is well known. They like to drink tea with milk. They have their five-o'clock tea not only at home or in offices, but also in tea-rooms and tea-shops, which can be found in every town.

A nation is born from its land, its history, its art, its traditions and its institutions. These things work together to make people what they are. But above all, a nation is made up of people, and although there are things they all share, all of those people are different. We can say there is still a "British nation," and one of the most characteristic features of Englishmen is their traditions, which they respect, and which they have kept for centuries. The traditions don't only accumulate the experience and wisdom of many generations, but they bring some stability into the rapidly changing world.

The person that I admire

I think that for every person it is quiet useful to admire someone. But I do not mean when you like the way someone is dressed or looks. Actually I think that it is important to preserve one’s personality in everything. I mean that it is very good to look up to someone who possesses some positive qualities or has done something good and worthy. To my mind young people especially need such heroes. Mostly people find idols in such spheres as music and cinema. Why do we need such examples in life? Generally speaking we need such idols to achieve something this person has already achieved. The most difficult thing here is to see in your idol not only good points, but also bad ones. Well, some people deliberately search for bad sides and admire them. For example, Jim Morrison died many years ago but still remains one of the most popular rock stars in the world. It is no secret that he was a drug addict and liked alcohol. All these «hobbies» influenced his life (and death) greatly. And even now most of his fans think that drugs and alcohol help them to be closer to their "god". Maybe they just see no evil in all this.

The other problem is that very often people do not understand that celebrities have private and public lives. It is important to remember that public life for celebrities is an essential part of their profession. And lots of the things they say or do are just a part of their images. If you really want to learn something good from your idol, then you need to seek information of non-public kind in reliable sources. Maybe you will find out something good for what you can really respect this person.

To my mind it is better to admire not someone’s appearance or popularity, but someone’s professionalism. There are lots of examples when people become very good actors, musicians, sportsmen, engineers…etc., only because their idols were professionals. It is great when your admiration for someone helps find one’s way in life.

Сценарий о правилах дорожного движения

Ведущая: - Здравствуйте! Здравствуйте! Вас приветствует замечательная передача “Светофор”.


Сегодня в эфире:

- Жизнь инспекторов ГАИ;

- Совместимы ли зоопарк и дорожнотранспортные происшествия?

- Искусство и дорожная азбука.

- Итак я и мой оператор /смотрит по сторонам/ отправляемся в страну “Светофория” для съемок нашего эфира.

Голос из-за кулис: - Извините! Оператора забрали на генеральную репетицию сентябрьского месячника безопасности движения.

- Так дайте мне другого оператора.

Голос из-за кулис: Бедный, бедный пешеход, что решил нарушить ход!

- Вот так всегда как областное мероприятие, так я одна

/достает карту/.

- Ну ничего. Что там у меня первое? /смотрит в карту и под музыку уходит со сцены/

Музыка “Наша служба и опасна и трудна” /выходят 4 парня в форме ГАИ и поют песню/

Наша служба и опасна и трудна,

В городах и селах всем она нужна,

Если где-то по дороге городской

Мчится нарушитель.

Эта служба помогает нам с тобой

Днем и ночью на посту она везде

Служба смелых - ГАИ

Ведущая: - Здравствуйте! Это страна “Светофория”?

ГАИ: - Так точно! /вместе/

Ведущая: -А как вы думаете, какая машина для пешехода опаснее...

ГАИ: /поют вместе/

Машины бывают разные:

Черные, белые, красные,

Но пешеходам не хочется

На койке больничной ворочаться.

Ведущая: - Нет, нет. Я имею в виду стоящая или движущаяся?

ГАИ 1: - Конечно движущаяся!

ГАИ 2: - Стоящая опаснее!

Ведущая: - А почему?

ГАИ 2: - Опаснее тем, что за ней может быть скрыта другая машина!

Ведущая: - Большое спасибо! /смотрит в карту/ Ой, вы не подскажете как пройти в зоопарк?

/ГАИ показывают жезлами в одну сторону/

Ведущая: - Вот мы и в зоопарке. Зачем мы здесь? А это мы сейчас узнаем у зебры.

Зебра: /поет/

/мотив Земфиры “Хочешь”/

Пожалуйста, не нарушай

Больше правила движенья,

Все законы соблюдай -

Будешь жить тогда без сожаленья.

Видишь - пешеход идет,

Значит - рядом переход.

Ведущая: - Большое спасибо!


Ведущая: - Ой, ой, а это кто?

/на сцену выбегает футболист/


Футбол - хорошая игра,

На стадионе детвора.

Хоккей - игра на льду зимой,

Но не играй на мостовой.

/выходят из-за кулис инспектора ГАИ и говорят вместе/

ГАИ: -

Щади здоровье, жизнь щади,

За движением следи.

Запомнить следует друзья:

Играть на улице нельзя.

/инспектора ГАИ уходят/

Ведущая: - Вот так тебе поломанный бампер, колесо спущено. Вот те и страна Светофория! Так, что там дальше?

/на сцене появляется мальчик - художник/

Ведущая: - Говорят, что у каждого человека есть свой “звездный час”. Тот самый великолепный момент в жизни, когда судьба говорит: “Даю тебе шанс. Докажи, на что ты способен.”

/обращение к мальчику/

Мальчик: - Я люблю рисовать.

Ведущая: - Но ты не нарисовал, а написал букву Р.

Мальчик: - У нас в стране Светофории рисуют знаками.

Это знак -

Это знак -

/перечисляет знаки, ведущая его перебивает/

Ведущая: - Хватит, хватит. Мне все понятно.

Везде и всюду правила.

Их надо знать всегда

Без них не выйдут в плаванья

Из гавани суда.

Выходят в рейс по правилам

Полярник и пилот.

Свои имеют правила

Шофер и пешеход.

Песня /мотив “Пусть бегут неуклюже...”/

Пусть бегут неуклюже

Пешеходы по лужам,

А авто ждут зеленый сигнал,

Знает каждый ребенок

Красный свет светофора

Просит, чтоб ты чуток подождал.



А я шагаю на зеленый,

Всем прохожим я пример,

Зная правила движенья

На дороге нет проблем

Классный час на тему:«Что такое настоящая дружба?»

Форма проведения – деловая игра.

Цель – воспитание добрых качеств детей, умение дружить и бережно относиться друг к другу.


В результате занятия участники смогут:

- сформулировать понятие «дружба»,

- практиковать навыки взаимопомощи при решении различных проблем,

- приобретут навыки работы в сотрудничестве,

- Поймут, что для решения многих проблем необходимо обратиться за помощью к другу и уметь доверять ему.

Необходимые материалы:

- скотч и ножницы в каждую группу,

- 40 человечков, вырезанных из цветной бумаги, одинакового размера,

- цветные карандаши или фломастеры,

- белые листы бумаги А-4,

- шесть маленьких рисунков солнышка, шесть маленьких рисунков облака, шесть маленьких рисунков цветов, шесть маленьких рисунков сердец и один рисунок грозовой тучи.

Блок – схема занятия.

1. Введение в тему с использованием метода «Займи - 9 мин.


2. Объявление темы и ожидаемых результатов занятия. - 1 мин

3. Мозговой штурм «Дружба – это …» - 5 мин.

4. Игровое упражнение «Найди себе подобного». - 5 мин.

5. Интерактивное упражнение «Моделирование дружбы». - 20 мин.

6. Подведение итогов занятия. - 5 мин.

Ход занятия.

1. Введение в тему с использованием метода «Займи позицию».(9 мин).

С помощью этого метода учащиеся могут высказать свою точку зрения на обсуждаемый вопрос. Для этого в противоположных сторонах класса вывешиваются два плаката. На одном написано - «Дружба в классе не нужна», на другом - «Дружба в классе нужна». Учащимся предлагается определить свою позицию и встать около того плаката, который соответствует их точке зрения на данный вопрос.

2. Объявление темы и ожидаемых результатов занятия. (1 мин.).

3. Мозговой штурм «Дружба – это …». (5 мин).

1. Работа над понятием «дружба». «Дружба – это …». Учащимся предлагается подумать над вопросом, что значит «дружба» и зачем она нужна людям? После небольшого размышления учащиеся высказывают свои мысли, которые записываются на плакате. Учитель подводит итог и дает определение понятию «дружба».

2. Работа над понятием «зачем дружба нужна людям?».

4. Игровое упражнение. (5 мин.).

Для закрепления темы используется игровое упражнение «Найди себе подобного».

Шаг 1. Ученики встают в круг. Учитель просит их прикрыть глаза и не разговаривать друг с другом. Учитель прикалывает им на спину маленькие рисунки (солнышко, облако, цветок, сердце и один рисунок грозовой тучи).

Шаг 2. Учитель дает задание детям: Найти «себе подобного» и занять свои места за столами. Разговаривать при этом нельзя.

Шаг 3. Дети определяют, за какой стол они сядут.

Шаг 4. Учитель обращает внимание детей, что один ученик остался и обсуждает с ними вопрос: «Как чувствует себя тот, кто остался один и без друзей».



- Какие трудности вы испытывали во время выполнения упражнения?

- Смогли бы вы справиться без помощи и поддержки?

- Какой рисунок у вас на спине?

5. Моделирование дружбы в классе. (20 мин).

Участникам предлагается смоделировать дружный коллектив класса.

Ход выполнения интерактивного упражнения:

1. Каждой группе дается свое собственное задание, и работать они будут в группе различными способами.

Критерии оценки:

- участники смоделировали дружбу в классе;

- участники придерживались правила, работать дружно (за каждое нарушение вычитается 2 балла);

- коллектив дружный;

- участники использовали всех человечков.

2. Если команда работала шумно, и члены команды постоянно ругались между собой, то это повлечет за собой снятие с команды баллов.

3. Каждой группе раздаются по 10 человечков, вырезанных из цветной бумаги; ножницы; скотч.

4. По истечении времени каждая группа должна:

А) изложить логику дружбы в их коллективе;

Б) объяснить правила, по которым они работали, а так же поощрить активных и сообразительных детей.

Осмотр проектов.

Перед обсуждением участники осматривают проекты и голосуют за лучший.

Командам задаются следующие вопросы.

Понравилось ли вам работать в данной команде?

У какой команды сразу не получилось работать дружно? Почему?

Какая группа хорошо справилась с задачей? Почему?

Какая группа не справилась с заданием? Почему?

Какая группа более всех довольна своим созданным коллективом?

Можно задать и дополнительные вопросы:

В какой группе был лидер?

Результат изменится или останется прежним, если поменять лидера?

Что важнее, работать вместе и сообща, или врозь?

6. Подведение итогов занятия. (5 мин.)

Учитель вместе с детьми подводит итог классного часа:

- Что вы сегодня делали на уроке?

- Каковы результаты работы?

- Как вы чувствовали себя во время работы?

- Взаимодействие в группе помогало или мешало вам?


- Что нового о дружбе узнали в процессе работы?

- Можно ли назвать наш класс дружным?

Разработка классного часа. Практическое занятие на тему: "Учись видеть прекрасное в человеке"

(Для учащихся 13 — 14 лет) Все разработки рассчитаны на 2 — 3 классных часа.

Задачи: дать представление о многообразии форм проявления красоты в человеке, показать роль искусства в раскрытии прекрасных сторон личности, развивать эстетическое восприятие, вдумчивое и внимательное отношение к окружающим людям.


Ход подготовки:

1. Оформить выставку репродукций картин на тему: «Красота человека» («Сикстинская мадонна» Рафаэля; «Портрет старушки» Рембрандта; «Портрет академика, физиолога И. П. Павлова» М. В. Нестерова; «Горький» П. Д. Корина; «Актриса П. А. Стрепетова», «Портрет М. П. Мусоргского» И. Е. Репина; «Портрет Л. Н. Толстого» Н. Н. Ге и И. Н. Крамского; «Портрет Ф. М. Достоевского» В. Г. Перова; «Хозяин земли», «Зацвел багульник», портреты летчиков-космонавтов А. М. Шилова и др. ).

2. Подготовить выступления учащихся с рассказами о том, как писатели, художники и другие представители искусства развивали свою наблюдательность, восприятие, творческую память.

3. Написать плакаты:

«Не надо где-то за тридевять земель искать образ идеального человека, способного пробудить восхищение, изумление: уверяю вас, он есть в родном селе, на улице родного города, надо только уметь видеть идеальность в реальности».

В. А. Сухомлинский.

«Смотрите на людей с мыслью, что вам их обязательно надо написать красками... Скоро вы заметите, что люди оказываются гораздо интереснее, чем раньше, когда вы смотрели на них бегло и торопливо».

К. Г. Паустовский.

4. Предложить учащимся подготовить небольшие рассказы о встречах с интересными людьми.

План-конспект занятия:

1. Вступительное слово учителя (тезисы):

В жизни внешняя красота не всегда совпадает с прекрасными человеческими качествами. «Красота, грация, внешность, приятный голос облегчают жизненный путь, — писал известный польский педагог Януш Корчак. — Но не следует переоценивать красоту: не подкрепленная другими достоинствами, она может принести вред».

Внешне неприметный человек может восхищать нас своим мужеством, добротой, глубокой одухотворенностью, честностью, способностью к самопожертвованию ради великой идеи.

Вот человек — он искалечен,

В рубцах лицо. Но ты гляди,

И взгляд испуганно при встрече

С его лица не отводи.

Он шел к победе, задыхаясь,

Не думал о себе в пути,

Чтобы она была такая:

Взглянуть — и глаз не отвести!

Сергей Орлов

Как научиться видеть все многообразие красоты человека, как распознать лицемерие, душевную черствость, эгоизм, скрывающиеся иногда за внешней красивой оболочкой? В этом поможет нам искусство. В. Г. Белинский, подчеркивая великую силу искусства, писал: «Лицо, ничем не замечательное само по себе, получает через искусство общее значение, для всех равно интересное, , и на человека, который при жизни не обращал на себя внимание, смотрят века, по милости художника, давшего ему своей кистью новую жизнь!»

(Далее учитель предлагает учащимся выполнить ряд заданий).

Задание 1. Рассмотрите изображение статуи Давида работы Микеланджело, Венеры Милосской, скульптурный портрет египетской царицы Нефертити и портреты пожилых людей на картинах Рембрандта, П. Д. Корина, А. М. Шилова и др. В чем непохожесть портретов? На чем акцентируют внимание художники в своих произведениях? Что объединяет все портреты? В чем красота изображаемых художником лиц?

Пояснение учителя: красота статуи Давида и Венеры Милосской более доступна для восприятия. Художники обращают внимание на внешнюю, физическую красоту человека, броскую и яркую, подчеркивают силу и мужественность у юноши и женственность, грациозность, гармонию форм у женщины. Портреты пожилых людей, на первый взгляд, не вызывают восторга и восхищения у людей, не подготовленных к восприятию искусства. Однако вглядитесь в эти портреты! Морщинистые лица, старческие, сухие руки... Но лица этих людей прекрасны своей одухотворенностью, мудростью.

Задание 2. Перед вами портреты Ф. М. Достоевского работы В. Г. Перова, академика И. П. Павлова кисти М. В. Нестерова, А. М. Горького работы П. Д. Корина. (Можно использовать и другие работы художников-портретистов). Какие черты характера в портретируемых вас привлекли? Какое качество личности желает подчеркнуть художник? Чем он хочет нас заинтересовать? На что обратить внимание? Как сам художник относится к портретируемому? Какими художественными средствами он подчеркивает прекрасные стороны человека, его характерные черты?

Пояснения учителя: научиться раскрывать прекрасные черты человека, которые мы порой не замечаем, поможет нам проникновение в глубину творческого процесса художника, постижение языка изобразительного искусства.

Вспоминая о своей работе над портретом советского физиолога, академика И. П. Павлова, художник М. В. Нестеров писал: «Лицо Льва Толстого объясняют мне великолепные портреты Крамского и Ге. Знал я Д. И. Менделеева: лицо его было характерно, незабываемо — оно было благодарным материалом для художника. Из портретов Павлова я ничего такого усмотреть не мог, это меня обескураживало, и я, не считая себя опытным портретистом, не решался браться не за свое дело ...» Однако после встречи с Павловым художник был покорен навсегда «легендарным человеком». «Целый вихрь слов, жестов понесся, опережая друг друга... более яркой особы я и представить себе не мог, — писал художник. — Он был донельзя самобытен, непосредствен. Я позабыл о том, что я не портретист, во мне... проснулся художник, заглушивший все, осталась лишь неутолимая жажда написать этого дивного старика ...»

Страстная динамика, внутренний напор, ясность мысли, убежденность, творческая сосредоточенность — все эти качества великого ученого мы можем увидеть в портретируемом. Большую роль в раскрытии волевого характера И. П. Павлова играют руки. Они вытянуты вперед, сжаты в кулаки — это был характерный жест для ученого. Образ И. П. Павлова дополняется лиризмом, благодаря мягкому светлому колориту, который вызывает ощущение внутренней душевной мягкости, чистоты, доброты великого ученого.


В более скупом, сдержанном колорите написан В. Г. Перовым портрет писателя Ф. М. Достоевского. Неопределенный зеленовато-коричневый цвет костюма, темный фон, отсутствие предметов — все это необходимо было художнику для того, чтобы глубже проникнуть в сущность человека, в мир его чувств и переживаний.

В характеристике портретируемого большую роль играют как изобразительные средства (жест, поза человека, его глаза, руки, лицо, особенность одежды), так и выразительные, которые помогают передать сущность изображаемого (тональность, композиция, техника рисунка: формы, линии, их ритмичность, цветовая контрастность).

Прекрасные стихи написал поэт Н. Заболоцкий о портрете А. П. Струйской работы Ф. С. Рокотова.

Любите живопись, поэты!

Лишь ей, единственной, дано

Души изменчивой приметы

Переносить на полотно...

Ее глаза — как два тумана,

Полуулыбка, полуплач,

Ее глаза — как два обмана,

Покрытых мглою неудач...

Задание 3. Сравните портреты Л. Н. Толстого, написанные Н. Н. Ге, И. Н. Крамским, И. Е. Репиным; портреты великой русской актрисы П. А. Стрепетовой, написанные И. Е. Репиным и Н. Я. Ярошенко. В чем проявляется творческое своеобразие художников в раскрытии характера портретируемых? В чем разница художественных решений картин? Почему художник выбрал из многих возможных именно такую трактовку образа? Как вы думаете, что могло побудить художника взяться за работу над портретом? Что хотел сказать художник своим произведением?

Пояснения учителя: художник, работая над портретом, старается не только передать внешнее сходство с моделью, но и раскрыть внутреннюю жизнь человека, причем выделить в нем самое, на его взгляд, главное, существенное. Каждый художник по-своему подходит к характеристике одного и того же человека. В портретируемом талантливый художник отражает лицо современников, утверждает высокие духовные начала красоты человека и в какой-то степени высказывает свои раздумья о мире, о человеческой судьбе.

Льва Николаевича Толстого писали многие художники. И. Н. Крамской акцентирует наше внимание на мудрости, проницательности великого писателя, мыслителя, психолога, имевшего способность улавливать «таинственнейшие движения психической жизни». Талантливо передал художник особенно выразительную черту его внешности: пристальный, пронизывающий взгляд, от которого, кажется, ничто не может скрыться.

В картине, написанной в 1887 году, И. Е. Репин передает напряженную внутреннюю жизнь писателя, работу мысли, тяжелые раздумья о судьбах простых людей.

Прежде чем приступить к работе, художники долго присматриваются к человеку, беседуют с ним, стараются проникнуть в мир его чувств, мыслей, уловить самое характерное, типичное и правдивое в облике портретируемого. Скромной, сдержанной, лиричной, больше похожей на курсистку, изобразил Н. Я. Ярошенко великую трагическую актрису П. А. Стрепетову. Такой она могла быть в жизни. И. Е. Репин изобразил актрису в домашней обстановке, в простом платье, с неубранными волосами. Художнику удалось передать великое трагическое дарование актрисы, в творчестве которой впервые нашли яркое отражение образы простых русских женщин с тяжелой, бесправной судьбой.

2. Рассказы учащихся о том, как писатели, художники, скульпторы и т. д. развивают свою наблюдательность, восприятие, творческую память (приводят примеры).

К. И. Чуковский так вспоминает об И. Е. Репине: «Едешь с ним в вагоне, в трамвае и видишь: с любопытством путешественника, впервые попавшего в нашу страну, вглядывается он в каждого сидящего перед ним человека и мысленно пишет его воображаемой кистью... . В этом смотрении была для него творческая радость».

В статье «Мое творчество» А. Н. Толстой писал: «В молодости я не был наблюдательным, во всяком случае — ниже обычного. Боролся с этим недостатком, заставлял себя наблюдать всегда — самого себя, людей, природу. Затем это вошло в привычку».

3. Рассказы учащихся о встречах с интересными людьми. Можно задать ребятам вопросы: почему эти люди кажутся вам интересными? Как проявляются нравственные и эстетические качества в их внешнем облике?

Пояснения учителя: характер человека, психологическое состояние, духовная культура отражаются на внешнем облике человека. Иногда глаза, жесты, мимика, руки могут многое сказать о том, каков человек.

Таджикский поэт, Мирзо Турсун-заде считает, что главное в человеке — это его глаза:

Глаза бывают разные. Одни

Полны злодейских чар, как западни,

Другие — ясны и чисты всегда,

Светлы, как предрассветная звезда...

В стихотворениях Николая Заболоцкого «Некрасивая девочка» и, в частности, «О красоте человеческих лиц» звучит гимн душевной красоте человека (см.: Избранное. М., 1972, с. 291 — 292, 297).

Изучение творчества художников-портретистов, мастеров художественного слова позволит вам расширить представление о красоте человека, стать духовно богаче.

План дальнейшей работы:

1. Провести беседы на темы: «Искусство портрета», «Учитесь смотреть и видеть», «Тема материнства в живописи», «Воспитание культуры чувств» (см.: Культура чувств. М., 1968; Орловский Г. И. Учитесь смотреть и видеть. М., 1969; Эренгросс Б. А. Удивительная наука эстетика! М., 1977, с. 58 — 67).

2. Провести диспут на тему: «В чем красота человека?»


3. Провести практическое занятие на тему: «Эстетическая оценка человеческой красоты и любовь» (см.:

Выбранный для просмотра документ English speaking countries in questions and puzzles.docx

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English speaking countries in questions and puzzles


1. Where is the United Kingdom situated?

2. What is the area of the United Kingdom?

3. What countries does it consist of?

4. What is the highest mountain on the British Isles?

5. What is the longest river?

6. What is the highest mountain in Wales?

7. What is the northern part of Scotland called?

8. What is the population of the United Kingdom?

9. How many people live in London?

10. What industry is developed in South Wales?

11. What kind of state is the United Kingdom?

12. What houses does the British parliament consist of?

13. What are the main political parties?

14. Who chooses the Cabinet of Ministers?

15. What is the flag of the United Kingdom called?





1. Where is the USA situated?

2. What area has the USA?

3. What mountains are there in the country?

4. What is situated between the Cordilleras and the Appalachian mountains?

5. What are the main rivers?

6. What kind of climate is there in the USA?

7. What is the population of the USA?

8. How many states are there in the USA?

9. What kind of state is the USA?

10. Who is the head of the state?

11. What is the capital of the USA?

12. What are the main parties?

13. What is the financial & business centre of the country?

14. When is Thanksgiving Day celebrated?

15. When is Independence Day celebrated?






1. On the British Isles.

2. Over 244,000 square kilometres.

3. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

4. Ben Nevis.

5. The Severn.

6. Snowdon.

7. Highlands.

8. Over 57 million people.

9. More than 9 million.

10. Coal-mining.

11. Constitutional monarchy.

12. The House of Lords and the House of Commons.

13. The Conservative and Labour Parties.

14. The Prime Minister.

15. The Union Jack.


1. In the central part of the North American Continent.

2. Over nine million square kilometres.

3. The Cordillera, the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian.

4. The prairie and the Mississippi valley.

5. The Mississippi, the Colorado, the Columbia.

6. Several different climatic regions.

7. More than 236 million people.

8. Fifty states.

9. A federal republic.

10. The president.

11. Washington, D.C.

12. The Democratic and Republican Parties.

13. New York.

14. The fourth Thursday in November.

15. The fourth of July.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Geographical Position of Great Britain.docx

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Geographical Position of Great Britain

Match the following English words with their Russian equivalents.

  1. Urban низини

  2. Boundary споживчи товари

  3. Lowland озера

  4. Consumer goods високогір’я

  5. Uplands грунти

  6. Steppes сільський

  7. plains густота населення

  8. highlands гирло річки

  9. lakes кордон

  10. rural міський

  11. tributary поклади корисних копалин

  12. soils степи

  13. deposits рівнини

  14. mouth притока

  15. density височини

The United Kingdom is very small comparing with the biggest countries of the world such as Russia, China or the USA. Its total area is about 244,000 sq.kilometres. There are about 57 million people in the UK now. The population has remained relatively stable over the last decade, but has aged. Britain is a relatively densely populated country. England has the highest population density and Scotland the lowest.

Many foreigners say English and England when they mean British and Britain. This is very annoying for the 5 mill. Scotsmen, 2.8 mill. Welsh and 1.5 mill. Irishmen who are not certainly English but are all British. The country whose the official name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland and situated on the British Isles. This group of islands lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and consists of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and 550 smaller islands around them. It is separated from the continent of Europe by the English Channel, the narrowest part of which is called the Straight of Dover. In the west the UK is separated by the Irish Sea and the North Channel. The seas around Britain are often rough and difficult to navigate during storms but they are full of fish and are extremely important for trade. Britain’s main ports are London, Liverpool, Glasgow and some others.

You will not find high mountains or large plains in Britain. Everything occupies very little place. The highest mountain, Ben Nevis, is in Scotland. There are very many rivers in Great Britain but they are not very long. The longest river is the Severn in England, but the most famous is the Thames because it gave rise to the capital of the country- London.

Many people say that Great Britain looks like a large well- kept park. There are beautiful gardens, fields, meadows, lakes and wood there.

Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources though there is oil in the North Sea, coal in the Wales and in the north of England, tin and other non- ferrous metals in the south. The biggest cities of Britain are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow and some others.

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Kyiv- the capital of Ukraine

The founding of the city

Like any other ancient city Kyiv was born on the bank of a river. It happened more than 2000 years ago. The beautiful old legend about the foundation of Kyiv tells about the three brothers - Kyi, Scheck and Khoriv and their sister Lybid, who sailing down the Dnieper saw the picturesque green banks and thought that this place would be perfect for a new city. They settled there and named the place Kyiv after the eldest brother. The new city started quickly to rise on the hills among the dark forests, full of wild animals, and rich meadows which provided good pastures for the cattle. The river, Dnieper was both the friend, as it gave food and water to its people and helped in the city's trade and development, and the enemy, as it flooded the city every year ruining houses, destroying crops and taking away people's lives. Kyiv grew larger and larger; it attracted many people from other cities, towns and villages. Rich people settled on the hills where the Princes' palaces were built; while common people lived in the lower part of the city, known as Podil, which later developed into a busy trading district. In the 9th century with the establishment of Kyivan Rus, Kyiv became its capital.

Historical sights

In the 10th century Prince Volodymyr the Great expanded the city, and his son Yaroslav the Wise ordered many beautiful churches to be built, including the famous St. Sofia's Cathedral (1037), a wonderful architectural monument which miraculously survived all the invasions and fires and still charms the citizens and the guests of the city with its unique beauty. The Cathedral was erected at the exact place of the victorious battle over the Pechenegs so that other generations would remember the deeds of their forefathers. It was not only a place of worship; it was also a place of learning and preserving the wisdom of the past; because it is there that the first school and library in Kyivan Rus was founded. At the same time the first monks settled in the caves on the steep left banks of the Dnieper, giving the beginning to another place of worship and amazing architectural beauty- Kyivo-Pecherska Lavra.lt was an outstanding cultural centre of Kyivan Rus where many famous people lived and worked: the Chronicle writers Nestor, Nikon and Joan, the painters Alimpiy and Grigoriy, the doctors Agapyt and Damian. Several times the Lavra was burnt to ashes by numerous invaders but each time it was restored, and now we can admire the wonderful churches and cathedrals of this architectural gem.

Another famous place in Kyiv is the Golden Gates which were one of the entrances to the city in ancient times and were usually opened to welcome very important guests: Now it has been turned into an interesting museum where you can wander around and imagine yourself in medieval Kyiv.

Opposite St. Sofia's Cathedral there is an impressive monument to Bohdan Khmelnitsky, the 17th century outstanding Ukrainian statesman and military leader who played an important part in Ukrainian history. If you walk up Shevchenko Boulevard you will be amazed by the beauty of Volodymyr Cathedral, whose icons and frescoes were painted by the famous artists Victor Vasnetsov, Mykola Nesterov and MykhaiyloVrubel. In Andreivskiy Spusk your attention will be attracted by Rasstrelli's masterpiece – Andreyvska Church, and Mykhaylo Bulgakov's readers will find his museum just round the comer from the church.

Where to go and what to see ill Kyiv

Khreshchatyk, the beautiful many-faced, brightly-lit main street of Kyiv, hasn't always been like this. Originally it was Khreschata Dolyna covered with forests and ravines. At the beginning of the 19th century the first wooden houses were built there, later stone buildings were erected. Practically all of them were ruined during the Great Patriotic War but later were restored by the Kyivites. The street leads to Independence Square, the main square of Kyiv which now together with Khreschatyk, is the favourite place for entertainment for the citizens and guests of the city.

Museum lovers will find hundreds of beautiful exhibits in the Museum of Ukrainian Fine Arts whose 21 galleries contain valuable collections of Ukrainian icons, pictures and sculptures from the 14th to the 20th century, including some works by Taras Shevchenko. His other paintings, manuscripts and personal belongings can be found in the Taras Shevchenko State Museum in Shevchenko Boulevard and in the museum in Kanev, his burial place. Another rich collection of pictures and sculptures can be seen in the Russian Arts Museum, which is the third largest after those of Moscow and St. Petersburg. Theatre- goers will never be bored in Kyiv as there are theatres to all tastes: the Taras Shevchenko National Opera and Ballet House with wonderful singers and dancers, the Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre, the Lesya Ukrainka Russian Drama Theatre, the Tchaikovsky Conservatory, the Kyiv Philharmonic Society, the Musical Drama Theatre and many others, all with wonderful highly-professional performers.

Kyiv has always been a very important scientific, educational and cultural centre. Among the best known higher educational establishments there are Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Kyiv Polytechnic University, International Independent University «Kyiv-Mohyla Academy», Kyiv State Conservatory and many others. Kyiv is the home of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences and hundreds of research institutes. It is also a huge industrial centre but the air in the capital does not seem to be much polluted due to the nearness of the river and plenty of greenery.

Wherever you go in Kyiv, you will see either a beautiful old building or a monument, a green park or an amazingly decorated church - it is so full of places of interest that it's difficult to name even half of them. The present and the past live side by side in Kyiv, and both lovers of history and people who are interested in the contemporary life of the capital, will found something to their taste in the busy streets of Kyiv.

Answer the following questions:

  1. Have you ever been to Kyiv? If yes, when? How long did you stay there? Why did you go there? Do you have any relatives or friends living in Kyiv? What did you do there? What places of interest did you visit? Which of them impressed you most of all? Can you say that you have seen all places of interest in Kyiv? Would you like to go to Kyiv again? What would you like to see?

  2. If you haven't been to Kyiv, can you say that you would like to go there? What would you like to see?

  3. If you are a theatre-gore, which of Kyiv's theatres would you like to go to and why?

  4. Which of Kyiv’s museums do you want to visit? Why?

  5. If you go to Kyiv, will you visit Kyivo-Pecherska Lavra? Yes | No? Why?

  6. Would you be interested to go down the Dnipro by boat as far as Kanev? Why?

The political system of Ukraine

Ukraine is a sovereign state whose independence was declared on August 24, 1991. Before that it was one of the15 republics of the former Soviet Union. The country has a democratic political system which means that its executive branch is headed by the president with strong powers, and its legislative branch is represented by a national parliament.

The president who is elected to a five-year term is the commander-in-chief of the military forces an issue orders, called edicts, without the approval of the parliament. The first president of Ukraine was Kravchuk, whose programme was aimed at the construction of a new Ukraine with a strong state s genuine democracy, material well-being of the Ukrainian people and their elevated spiritual awareness.

In 1994 people elected a new president, Leonid Kuchma, and Ukraine entered a new phase of development. In 1999 he was re-elected to a new term of presidency and stated among his main concerns the rapid implementation of crucial economic reforms.

Ukraine's parliament, called Verkhovna Rada (the Supreme Council), is the nation's law-making body. It has one chamber consisting of 450 members who are elected by voters at general elections to a five-year term. Every citizen of Ukraine over 18 has the right to vote in the elections.

Judicial power in Ukraine is represented by the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.

The president is assisted by a Cabinet of Ministers whose responsibilities lie in the areas of foreign home policy, economy, science and technology, industry, law and humanitarian matters. The Cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister who is appointed by the president and approved by the majority of the Parliament.

In other words, it is possible to say that state power in Ukraine is based on the division of authority legislative, executive and judicial branches, and Ukraine can be called a country with a parliamentary-presidential form of government.

Administratively Ukraine is divided into 24 regions, called «oblasty». Crimea, which is also part of our country, has a special status of an autonomous, self-governing republic. Each region has its local government bodies which are responsible to the Cabinet of Ministers and the President.

There are a variety of political parties in Ukraine; they currently number more than 60. The most influent are the Social-Democratic Party of Ukraine (united), the Rukh, the People's Democratic Party (NDP) and the Socialist party. The President of Ukraine does not belong to any of the parties.

The main trend of foreign policy in Ukraine is to live in peace with the rest of the world community, to cooperate with other countries and participate in European and world structures through membership in the United Nations Organization and other international political, economic and cultural organizations.

Activity 1. Match the following English words with their Ukrainian equivalents.

Legislative branch, executive branch, judiciary branch, commander-in-chief, Supreme court, Supreme council, general election, guarantees, votes, lawmaking body, bills, House of Representatives.

Верховний суд, загальні вибори, гарантії, законодавча влада, законотворчий орган, головнокомандувач, палата представників, законопроект, верховна рада, виконавча влада, судова влада, виборці.

Activity 2. What is your attitude to politics? Do the following quiz to find answers to these questions?

  1. How often are the general elections held in your country?

  2. How many ex-presidents or prime ministers of your country can you name?

  3. At the moment, is your country generally considered to be experiencing an economic boom or economic recession?

  4. Would you take part in a political demonstration or protest match if you felt strongly enough about the issue? Do you believe that everyone should vote in elections, because the political party or candidate you choose can make a big difference in your life?

Activity 3. Supply the missing members of these words families.

  1. Economy- economic, economist, economically, to economize.

  2. To govern-

  3. To elect-

  4. To educate-

  5. Democrat-

  6. To contribute-

  7. Industry-

  8. Nature-

  9. To employ-

  10. Power-

  11. To solve-

  12. Law-

Activity 4. Read the text and use the words given next to each line in the appropriate form related to its root to fit the space.

Join friends of the Earth.

Our campaign to protect the __ world could not have succeeded without our ___, whose ___ have helped us win some significant victories against some of the most ___ ___ companies in the world. We have raised public awareness of ___ issues in general and recently we have ___ to make the use of ozone destroying CFCs __. Join us now and help us to find alternative ___ to world problems, and make our __ sit up and listen.

Supporters, environmental, natural, solution, industrial, politicians, powerful, contributions, illegal, campaigned.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Northern Ireland.docx

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland is the smallest component of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. It consists of 6 counties of the Ulster’s province, so the name “Ulster” is sometimes used as equivalent to Northern Ireland. The country has a total area of about 5,462 square miles. It became the part of the United Kingdom in 1921. This country occupies the north-eastern corner of Ireland. In the south and west Northern Ireland is bounded by the Irish Republic. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the4 north, t6he North Channel and the Irish Sea in the east.

The population of the country is 1.5 million people. 98 per cent of the population is the Irish. The official language of the country is English, the national one is Irish. Many Irish surnames begin with O’-O’Neil for example; O’-means the son of Neil.

The climate is mild and wet, and rains are frequent. That is why Irishmen call their country the clearest place in the world. Grass grows well in Ireland because of damp soil; it makes the island look so beautiful. Emerald Isles- is the poetic name of the country. The main rivers of the country are the Bann, the Lagan and the Shannon. They are short but deep.

The capital of the country is Belfast. It is a port of great importance and it is also a university city. Belfast is the commercial and industrial centre. Speaking about the character of the Irish people it is necessary to mention that they always at everything ridiculous and absurd, they like music and singing. The national Irish instrument is the harp. Ireland’s greatest contribution to world culture is the field of literature. Ireland has 2 literatures, one- in the native language, and another in – the English one. Among the famous Anglo-Irish writers are George Bernard Show, Oscar Wilde, James Joyce and others. The Irish people like limericks very much. A limerick is a nonsense poem of 5 lines. And limericks are considered to be the best reflection of the nation’s humour. On the coat-of-arms of Northern Ireland you can see a picture of a hand. Legend says that many hundred years ago two Viking chieftains went with their men in two big boats to Ireland. The first chieftain’s name was Heremon O’Neill, the name of the other we do not know. “The first of us to touch the Irish land will be the king of it”- they agreed. At last they were near the Irish coast. The tow boats were going fast. But the boat of O’Neill was not as fast as the boat of the other chieftain. When the boats were quit near the land, O’Neill quickly cut off his right hand and threw it over to the land. His hand touched the land and he became the king of Ireland.

St.Patrick is the saint patron of the country. St.Patrick’s flag has a red cross on a white field. The national holiday of Irish people is the 17th of March. It is a tradition to decorate themselves with a little shamrock, which has become the national emblem.

  1. Where is Ireland situated?

  2. What territory does it occupy?

  3. What language do the Irish people speak in?

  4. Why do the Irish people call their country the clearest place in the world?

  5. Is the capital of the country Belfast?

  6. What musical instrument is the most popular in the country?

  7. What is the national emblem of the country?

  8. Who was the first king of the country according to the legend?

  9. What is the limerick?

Выбранный для просмотра документ Scotland.docx

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Scotland is situated in the northern part of the island Great Britain. The ancient name of the county was “Caledonia”. Many years ago it was an independent country and in 1707 it was united with England. Scotland is washed by the North Sea in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. This country is bounded by England only. Scotland together with 186 inhabited islands has a total area of 30,414 square miles. Administratively it is divided into 33 countries. The population of Scotland is nearly 5,2 million people. The official language of the country is English; the national one is Scottish Gaelic. The inhabitants of Scotland call themselves Scots. Scottish surnames usually begin with “Mac”, “Mc”, that means “the descendant of” – Mac Donald, for example.

The Highlands occupy the northern part of the country are the Glide, the Forth, the Tay. Scotland has a lot of lovely lakes which is called “lochs” here. The beautiful lake Lomond is the largest but Loch Ness is known much better thanks to Nessy, a strange dragon like animal that, people say, lives here. The climate of the country is greatly influenced by its position, and the nearness to the seas. It often rains in the western part of the country. The Highlands are covered with snow till May.

Thanks to the beautiful nature, Scotland becomes the centre of tourism. Lovely lakes, especially Loch Ness, mysterious castles are visited by tourists from all over the world. Scotland is the land of myths and mysteries; people say that every castle has its ghost. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh; it is an old city with population of about 470 thousand people. It is the principle port of the country, at the same time it is University City, with the finest architecture in Europe. The Scots are very sociable people, they like to spend their free time together, drinking coffee and talking, singing in chorus at the national music festivals or at fairs.

Many years ago the4 territory of the country was divided by clans. Each clan has its own tartan, which both men and women wear. The Scots are great patriots of their country; they keep their old traditions and customs. Scotsmen are the only nation in Europe where men prefer to wear kilts not trousers. The most popular musical instrument in Scotland is bagpipe. The Scots have many interesting traditions. The national emblem of Scotland is the thistle. The people of this country have chosen thistle their national emblem, because it saved their land from foreign invaders many years ago. The 30-th of November is the national Scottish holiday. St.Andrew is the saint patron of Scotland. St.Andrew’s flag has a white cross on a blue field.

  1. Is Scotland the part of the United Kingdom?

  2. Where is it situated?

  3. What language does the inhabitant of Scotland speak?

  4. Is Glasgow the capital of Scotland?

  5. What lake is a monster supposed to live in?

  6. Why is the national emblem of the country such an unusual plant?

  7. Which tradition of the country can you describe? (home task).

Выбранный для просмотра документ The Dawn of history.docx

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The Dawn of history

Many hundred years ago the country we now call England was known as Britain and the people who lived there were Britons. They belonged to the Celtic race; the language they spoke was Celtic. They were primitive people in economy and culture.

Their houses were made of sticks put together like baskets and plastid over with mud, to keep out of wind and rain. The Britons used to build their houses in safe places. Several houses, with a fence round them, made a town. The Britons had their towns in the middle of the woods, where they could hardly be found out, or on the top of high hills, from which they could see everything and everybody that was coming near them. They had to build the fence near their houses to keep the bears, the wolves and the foxes, which lived in their woods, from coming in the night to steal their sheep. These fences were made of great piles of wood and trunks of trees, laid one upon another till they were as high as a wall; for at that time Britons did not know how to build walls of stones or bricks.

They had wooden stools to sit on, and wooden benches for beds, and their beds were made of skins of wild beasts, spread over dry grass and leaves. They had great wooden bowls to hold their meat, and wooden cups to drink out of. They had very few tools to make the things they wanted, and yet made them very neatly. In winter they used to wrap themselves up in skins of the beasts they could shoot with their bows and arrows. In summer they were naked, and instead of clothes they put paint upon their bodies.

Britain was so full of wood, that there were very little room for houses, and still less for corn-fields, and there were no gardens. Only a few of the richest Britons could get bread, the rest of the people ate acorns and berries. They drank milk, and knew how to make cheese; but most of them were forced to spend a good deal of time in hunting for wild animals, and often went without their dinner when their could not get near enough to a beast or bird to shoot it with their arrows.

In time the Britons in the south learned how to grow corn, to work in metal, and other useful things. They traded with the nearest part of Europe, which is now called France, but was then named Gaul.

The Britons believed that different gods lived in the thickest and darkest parts of the wood. As they saw that oaks were the largest, the oldest, and the best trees in the woods, they thought that gods must be there.

The Britons were governed by a class of priests called the Druids who had great power over them. The Druids knew how to cure sick people, by giving them different plants that grew in the woods, but they never taught the common people how to use those plants, so everybody had to go to them for help. And the people gave the Druids a part of what they had, whether it was corn or warm skin to make beds of, or paint, or copper, or silver that they found among the mountains, for curing them.

One of the things they used to cure the sick people with was a plant called mistletoe. It does not grow on the ground, but on the brunches of trees; sometimes, but rarely, on the oak. The Druids knew the time of the year when its berries were ripe, and made a great feast, and all the people came to it; and the oldest Druid, dressed in white, and with a white band round his head, used to take a golden sickle; and go up into the trees where the mistletoe grew, and cut it while the others sang songs.

In the 1st century before our era Britain was conquered by the powerful State of Rome. The Romans lived on the peninsula which is now called Italy and their language was Latin. This was a people of practical men. They were very clever at making hard roads and building bridges and many-storied houses that are admired to this day. The Romans thought a great deal of fighting and they were so strong that they usually managed to win most of the battles they fought.

The Romans had heard very much about Britain from travelers, and among other things, they were greatly interested to learn that valuable metals to be found in Britain. Finally they decided to occupy the Island. The Romans sailed across the sea in galleys and the general who commanded them was Julius Caesar.

But clever as these soldiers were, it was so easy to conquer the Britons, and the Romans had to encamp troops all over the country. It is from these camps that the English cities later arose. The Romans made the Britons build roads and bridges and a high wall in the south to keep the savages out. But the Romans and the native of Britain did not become one nation; all that the Romans wanted was to make the Britons to work for them.

Towards the end of the 4th century the invasion of all the Europe by barbaric peoples made the Romans leave Britain, because they were needed to defend their own country. The fall of the Roman Empire followed soon after.

As soon as the Britons were left to themselves they had very little peace for many years. Sea-robbers sailed from other countries and the Britons were always busy trying to defend themselves. Among these invaders were Germanic tribes called Angles, Saxons and Jutes who lived in the northern and central parts of Europe. They came in hordes from over the North Sea and the Britons could never drive them away. At last the Britons were forced to retreat to the west of Britain.

Those who ventured to stay became the slaves of the invaders and were forced to adopt many of their customs and learn to speak their languages.

Выбранный для просмотра документ The National Flag.docx

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The National Flag

The Ukrainian Constitution states that the National symbols of the country ire the National Flag, the national Emblem and the National Anthem. They were adopted by the Verkhovna Rada in 1992. The Ukrainian flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width. The top is blue and the bottom is yellow. There are the colours of the sky, the mountains, the rivers and the golden fields of our beautiful country. Blue and yellow (or gold) were symbols of Kyivan Rus long before the introduction of Christianity. These colours can be found on the ancient emblems of the cities of Mirgorod, Lubny, Pryluky and some others. In the seventeenth century the banners of the Cossacks Were blue with gold stars or with pictures of saints broidered in gold.

The National Emblem

Similar to other European nations, the National Emblems of Ukraine have changed during the millennium of Ukrainian history owing to various political, social, cultural and other factors. The temporary national coat of arms of Ukraine is a trident. The first image of a trident appeared in the ninth century A.D. when Ihor, Prince of Kyivan Rus sent ambassadors to sign a treaty with the Byzantine Emperor and they sealed the document with a trident. As the official emblem of Kyivan princes the trident stamped on the gold and silver coins and seals of Volodymir the Great (979 - 1015), the Grand Prince of Kyiv; you can also see it on frescoes and porcelain dishes of that time. The trident left to Volodymir the great by his ancestors became a hereditary preheraldic badge of all his descendants and rulers of the Kyivan Rus. Tridents continued to be used as additional dynastic badges until the l5th century, though the image of Saint Michael the Archangel was the highest national symbol in the 12th century.

The secrets of the origin and meaning of the Ukrainian trident have still not been completely solved by scholars. The archaeological finds of tridents in Ukraine go back to the first century A.D. Undoubtedly this emblem was a mark of authority and a mystic symbol of one or several of the ethnic groups which inhabited ancient Ukrainian territory and which came to compose the Ukrainian nation. It is thought that the trident represented the division of the world into three spheres: the celestial and the spiritual-as well as the union of the three natural elements: air, water and earth.

In 1918 the trident was adopted as the national symbol of independent Ukraine. The Soviet Ukraine replaced it with its own coat of arms - a crossed hammer and sickle on a red star above it and the rising sun in the base. Sovereign Ukraine adopted the trident as its emblem again in 1992.

National Anthem of Ukraine.

The Anthem of Ukraine “Shche ne vmerla Ukraina” is of quite recent origin. In 1863 the Lviv journal «Meta» published the poem of the scientist and poet Pavlo Chubynsky which was later mistakenly ascribed to Taras Shevchenko. In the same year it was set to music by the Galician composer Mykhaylo Verbytsky, first for solo and later for choral performance, As a result of its catchy melody and patriotic lyrics, the song quick1y acquired popularity. In: 1865 it was sung at the conclusion of the program at the great Shevchenko celebration in Peremyshl. In 1917 the song was officially adopted as the anthem of the Ukrainian state.

Выбранный для просмотра документ The National symbol of the USA.docx

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The National symbol of the USA

The Flag of the USA

The Flag of the USA has several popular names: the «Stars and Stripes», «Old Glory» and the «Star Spangled Banner». The latter is also the name of the National Anthem of the United States.

In the early 18th century America was a land of many flags because there were many colonies. There were, for example, the ship of New Hampshire, the tree of Massachusetts and the anchor of Rhode Island. When in 1776 the thirteen former British colonies in North America declared their independence and a new country was born, George Washington, who at that time was the Commander-in-chief, decided that the new country and its army needed a new flag. He offered a patriotic seamstress Betsy Ross to make it. The woman made a patchwork quilt and used three colours: red for courage, white for liberty and blue for justice. She sewed thirteen red and white stripes and thirteen white stars which stood for the number of states (the former colonies) in a circle on a blue square. George Washington is said to explain the colours in this way, «We take the stars and blue union from heaven, the red from our mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing we have separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to posterity representing liberty.» On June 14, 1777 the Congress of the United States confirmed this flag as the National Flag. Later when new states joined the USA more stars were added to the flag. Today the National Flag has fifty stars; the last one was added when Hawaii joined the US in 1959. .Americans enjoy their flag. They sometimes use the stars and stripes as popular designs on shirts, shoes, hats, but there are laws that prohibit using the flag in inappropriate ways. But Americans are patriotic, too. Many of them think that America is the best, the first and the greatest nation in the world, and that their flag is the flag of freedom.

The Stars and Stripes are flown on government offices and public schools; they stand by the President's desk. The flags hang in every classroom in America, and every day school children salute it before the school day begins. On the 4th of July, Independence Day, the Stars and Stripes can be seen everywhere on the streets, on the houses and in the big parades.

The national emblem of the USA The Great Seal of the United States is the official seal (special circle-shaped design) printed on important documents and used to prove that a document is from the US government. The seal has two sides. On one side there is a picture of a White-Headed Bald Eagle, the national bird of the USA that has an olive branch - a symbol of peace - in one claw and 13 arrows, according to the number of the original 13 states, in the other. Above the eagle's head there is a motto in Latin «E Plurilous Unum» which means «Many United». On the other side there is a picture of a Pyramid with an eye above. Both designs are printed on the back of a one-dollar bill.

The National Anthem of the USA

The words of the National Anthem of the USA «The Star-Spangled Banner» were taken from a poem by Francis Scott Key which was written about a battle between Britain and the USA in 1812. The Anthem is usually sung at the beginning of large public events and. especially at professional sports events such as a baseball or a football game. People are expected to stand up and put their right hand over their hearts while the song is being sung in order to show respect and support for their country.

Выбранный для просмотра документ The climate of Great Britain.docx

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The climate of Great Britain

Despite its reputation for grey skies and rain, the climate of Great Britain is generally mild, temperature and humid due to the influence of the warm Gulf Stream. Because the British Isles are surrounded by water the climate is also insular and it is much moister than on the continent of Europe. Although the weather changes frequently, the temperature seldom goes to extremes – it is rarely more than +32 degrees C or less than – 10.

Of course it rains throughout the year but the wettest months are from September to January while the dries are from March to June. There is much more rainfall in the mountainous areas of the west and north than in the central parts of Britain. The west which is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea is wetter than the coast washed by the North Sea. November, December, and January have the least sunshine – only an hour a day in northern Scotland and two hours a day on the south coast of England. This abundance of rainfall results in thick fogs which can last for days and weeks at a time during winter and autumn. But rains help grasses to grow, providing British cattle with good pastures and British countryside with its beautiful green charm.

The coldest parts of the British Isles are in Scotland and the warmest in the south-west of Ireland and England. Snow is rare there and it never lies on the ground for long. All the British ports are ice-free and the rivers do not freeze during the winter which allows successful navigation.

Despite- несмотря на

Humid- сырой, влажный

Insular- свойственный островам

Moister- влажный, дождливый

Abundance- изобилие

Pastures- пастбища

Charm - очарование

Выбранный для просмотра документ The land of Englan1.docx

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The land of England

Most of the land in England is flat. But there low hills in some parts of the country, and mountains in the West and Wales.

Many years ago there were many forests in England. There were bears and wolves in the forests. But men cut down the trees and made farms, and now there are only small forests in a few parts. Today there are no wolves and bears in England, but there are foxes in some parts of the country.

Most English farms are small. The farmers do not grow much corn; they grow it only for food for the animals on the farm, for the cows, sheep and pigs. Other farmers grow vegetables or fruit. The climate of England is very good for vegetables and for fruit-trees, because there is enough rain. English fruit is always very good.

There are many sheep on the low hills of England, and there are sheep in other parts of the country too, where the land is good for grass. The sheep live on the open air in summer and winter. There are sheep in the large parks of London too.

English farmers cannot grow enough food for the people of England. Much of the food which the English people eat comes from other countries. England buys corn from other countries. It buys meat too, and butter, eggs and sugar, and many other things.

One part of the East coast, to the north of London, is very flat, low and wet, and the farmers here grow vegetables and fruit and sell them in London.

Sometimes when there is a great storm in the North Sea, the water of the sea runs over the land. There is salt in sea-water, as you know, and this salt water is very bad for the land. Salt-water kills many fruit-trees and vegetables, and nothing grows well for three or four years.

Выбранный для просмотра документ The past simple and the past continuous tenses.docx

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The past simple and the past continuous tenses.

Ex 1.

Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.

Harriet and Liam got married last week. It was a beautiful wedding. The bridesmaid 1) ……….. (wear) pink dresses and they 2) …….. (all| carry) small bouquets of pink and white flowers. The photographer 3)……… (take) phot6ographs and the bride’s mother 4)…….. (cry) because she was so happy. The sun 5)…… (shine) and the couple 6) ……. (smile) at everyone.


Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense or the past simple tense.

It (be) a beautiful spring morning when Emma and her father (decide) to visit Seaton Castle. The sun (shine) and the birds (sing). Emma (feel) very excited. The castle (be) very old and made of stone. They (look) around but they (not see) anybody. “That’s funny”, said Emma. “I (think) I (see) someone standing over there”. After a while they (decide) to visit the cellar of the castle. Emma (examine) an old barrel when she (hear) the door of the cellar close behind them. “Dad”, she (say) , don’t close the door!” “But I (not close) it, dear,” her father said. Emma (turn) around and (see) a shadow on the wall. She (know) then that the ghost of Seaton Castle (watch) them!

Ex 3.

Correct the mistakes.

  1. Philip was washing the car while the fire started.

  2. Neil was studying when his sister was listening to music.

  3. Harriet was opening the door and walked into the house.

  4. We were having lunch at a lovely restaurant every day when we were on holiday.

  5. Ht drank tea at 5 o’clock yesterday afternoon.

  6. Dad was repairing the TV while Mum cooked dinner.

  7. I was going to the cinema last Saturday.

  8. I was buying a new dress for my party yesterday.

  9. While Jeff built the garden shed, he hurt himself.

  10. While the teacher were speaking, the students were listening to him.

Ex 4.

Choose the correct answer.

  1. The earth ….. round the sun. a) moved b) moves c) is moving

  2. Sarah ……… a new car last week. a) is buying b) buy c) bought

  3. I………when suddenly the dog began to bark. a) study b) studied c) was studying

  4. They … hard at the moment. a ) are working b) were working c ) worked

  5. I …. Home from work when it began to snow. a ) am walking b) walk c ) was walking

  6. Jane ….. the receiver and dialed the number. a ) lifts b) was lifting c) lifted

  7. Walt Disney … Mickey Mouse. a ) was creating b) creates c ) created

  8. We … for the new house at the moment. a ) are looking b) look c) looked

  9. Ted … his father in the garden at the moment. a ) was helping b ) helps c ) is helping

  10. The ferry to Calais … at 3 o’clock every day. a ) leave b ) leaves c ) was leaving

The present perfect tense


Match column A with column B.

  1. Jerry hasn’t typed a) visited Japan?

  2. She has always b) talked to them.

  3. Have you ever c) the letter yet.

  4. We’ve already d) to New York twice this year.

  5. Tim has already been c) known them?

  6. How long have you d) wanted to be a singer.


Ask and answer questions using the prompts below as in the example.

Go| England (when)

Have you ever been in England?

Yes, I have.

When did you go?

I went in 1999.

  • Go | the USA ( when)

  • Plant | a tree ( where)

  • Sing | in a choir ( when)

  • Save | your money ( why)

  • Meet | a politician ( who)

  • Travel | by boat ( when)

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the present perfect tense.

  1. Have you ever given an interview? No, I (never do) that.

  2. What time does the train leave? It (just leave).

  3. Is the new restaurant good? I (not eat) there yet.

  4. Shall I do the shopping now? No, I (already do) it.

  5. Julia, are you ready? No, I (not dry) my hair yet.

  6. Would you like to have lunch with me? No, thanks. I (already eat).

  7. Where are Tom and Lucy? They (go) to the theatre.

  8. You (ever meet) anybody famous?

  9. I (know) them for six years.

  10. He (not do) his homework yet.

Выбранный для просмотра документ The political system of Great Britain.docx

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The political system of Great Britain

National, situation, countries, position, local, human rights, educational, Ukrainian, important, recession, demonstration, point of view, growth, environmental, major, political, summit, planning, party, system, reform, big, career, key.

Complete the gaps with one of the words given in the box.

  1. The key __________ in the next election will be unemployment.

  2. The 1950s saw a period of_________ growth in the UK.

  3. The Prime Minister of the country left teaching to pursue a _________ career.

  4. The President discussed the ________ of human rights during his visit to Geneva.

  5. Many young people nowadays are not interested in__________.

  6. Even when she studied at university, Margaret Thatcher was deeply involved in local________.

How can you become the leader of the country?

One way is to be born into a __ family. If you are a prince, especially the ______ son, then one day you can become king. In some countries, eldest daughters can become queens if there are no___ in the family. Of course, today there not many royal families and those that still exist do not usually have_____ to make laws and govern the country. A more usual way to become a leader is to become a popular __ and then the leader of your political party. In most countries where the people____ their government, the voters usually____ for a person who belongs to one of the main political parties. This person is usually the ____for the local region. This candidate who receives the votes become the political ____ for that region and takes a seat in the national_______.The political party which wins the most seats then has the rights to form a______ and takes power. The head of that political party than becomes the ____ or the prime minister of the country.

Are you interested in politics? Do you think people should be politically active if they want to change their life for the better?

What do you think about the institution of monarchy? Would you like to have king or a queen or tsar in Ukraine?

If you were elected the President of Ukraine, what would you first edicts be?

Выбранный для просмотра документ Ukraine is situated in the south.docx

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Ukraine is situated in the south-eastern part of Central Europe, and it borders on other European countries: Russia, Belarus, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Moldova and Romania. The territory of our country is about 600.000 square kilometers. It is slightly larger than France, much larger than Great Britain but considerably smaller than the USA and Russia. The population of our country is about 52 million people. If we compare it with Great Britain which has 54 million people, we'll see that the density of population in Ukraine is much less. 68% of the population is urban, and 32% is rural. Not only Ukrainians live in our country. There are also Russians, Jews, Byelorussians, Moldovans, Rumanians, Greeks, Tatars, Poles, Hungarians, Armenians, Germans, Gypsies and some other ethnic minorities.

The territory of Ukraine is mostly a level treeless plain, called the steppe. Ukraine is not a mountainous country, though there are Crimean Mountains in the Crimean Peninsula and the Carpathian Mountains in the west of the country; both not very high. The Carpathians are the only mountainous natural boundary of Ukraine. Mountains cover only 5%of the whole area of Ukraine. They are covered with mixed forests of pine, fir, Beech and oak trees. There are many picturesque mountain resorts there and winter sports are very popular. The thickest forests in Ukraine can be found in Volyn; they are part of the famous Byelovezhskaya Puscha. The Crimean Mountains are an all year round tourists’ and mountain-climbers' attraction. They are close to the second natural boundary of Ukraine - the Black Sea and the Azov Sea which are famous for their holiday centers and children's summer camps.

The Ukrainian landscape can't be called monotonous; it has some diversity as its plains are broken by highlands – running in a continuous belt from northwest to southwest - as well as by lowlands. The largest highland area is the Dnieper Upland, which lies between the middle reaches of the Dnieper and Southern Buh (Yuzhny Bug), rivers in west-central Ukraine. It is broken by many rivers, valleys, ravines and gorges, some of them more than 1,000 feet deep. .

The main river in the country is the Dnieper which is the third longest in Europe. One of the oldest Ukrainian cities, its capital Kyiv is situated on both sides of this wide and powerful river. The Dnieper has many tributaries which unify central Ukraine economically, connecting the Baltic coast countries with the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The mouth of another Ukrainian river, the Danube, provides an outlet for our country’s trade to the Balkans, Austria and Germany. The Danube River connects Ukraine with 7 European countries. Other less important rivers of Ukraine are the Dniester, the Southern Bug, the Desna, the Prypyat, the Severskiy Donets and about 70 thousand small rivers.

The biggest cities of Ukraine are Kyiv, Kharkov, Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk, Zapor1zhiya, Donetsk, Odessa, Mikolaiv and some others. Main industrial enterprises are concentrated in and around them. They produce planes, turbines, different kinds of machines and equipment, and various consumer goods.


1. Ukraine is situated in the south-east of Europe.

2. It has only two natural borders.

3. Ukraine borders on 8 countries.

4. The territory of Ukraine is smaller than that of France but larger than Great Britain's.

5. Fewer people live in Ukraine than in Great Britain.

6. More people live in the country than in the city.

7. The Crimean Peninsula with its mountains is in the west of the country.

9. There are deposits of iron ore in Donetsk Basin.

10. The main rivers of Ukraine are important trade routes

Выбранный для просмотра документ Wales.docx

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Wales is lovely country with great mountains, situated to the west of England. Wales is a peninsula washed by sea from three sides: the Bristol Channel in the south, the St. George Channel in the west, the Irish Sea in the north. Wales is bounded by England only. This country is the smallest part of the United Kingdom. The Welsh called the country “Cymru”, this word means friend. The total area of the country is 8,017 thousand square miles and the population is about 3 mln people. This country is inhabited by the Welsh, whose language is considered to be one of the most difficult, because it has very long words. Officially Wales is divided into 13 counties. It has 3 regions: the Welsh Mountainous area, the Industrial South Wales and the Welsh Borderland. The main rivers of the country are the Severn, the Dee and the Taff.

Now Wales is mainly the land of tourists, nearly 2 million a year. One can hardly forget the beautiful green hills surrounding the sea or golden cliffs of the west. But you must not think that Wales is the country of rest, tourists and pleasure. The Welsh are hardworking people. It is not easy to raise sheep in rainy climate, work in the field or at the chemical plant. Wales is known as a land of music and songs. It is impossible to imagine any Welsh village without a choir. The Welsh is a nation of singers. Since the 12th century there is the annual poetic competition in the town Llangollen. This musical festival is called Eisteddfod. The national festival is held in August and the international one is in July to find the best poet, writer, musician of the country. The winner of the festival receives the crown.

For the tourists visiting Wales the most interesting souvenir is a Welsh love spoon, which is made of wood. It made by the young man as a love token for his sweethearts. If the girl keeps the present, she loves the man. If she sends it back she does not want this man. The climate of the country is rainy; it reflects the mountainous nature of the country. They have all sorts of weather, sometimes it rains; sometimes it snows, especially in mountains.

The capital of the country is Cardiff. It is one of the ancient cities, an important port and tourist centre. As for the Welsh people, they are as a rule short, strong, dark-haired, they also have the reputation of good fighters and lovers of art, that is why Wales is sometimes called “Land of Songs”. The saint patron of the country is St.David. And the 1st of March is the Welsh national holiday. The daffodil is the Welsh national emblem of the country. Wales has its own flag called the Welsh dragon.

  1. Is Wales a part of the United Kingdom?

  2. What is the population of Wales?

  3. Wales is called a “Land of Songs”, isn’t it?

  4. Why is Welsh considered to be one of the most difficult languages?

  5. What souvenir do the tourists usually bring from Wales?

  6. What city is the capital of Wales?

  7. What do you know about Welsh character?

Выбранный для просмотра документ контрольная 10 странов.docx

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What do you know about the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

  1. Where is Scotland situated?

  1. In the northern part of the island great Britain

  2. In the west part of the island great Britain

  3. In the east part of the island great Britain

  1. Wales is a peninsula washed by sea from the

  1. Two sides

  2. Three sides

  3. Four sides

  1. What is the poetic name of England?

  1. The Albion

  2. The Caledonia

  3. The Emerald Isles

  1. What is the most beautiful place in England?

  1. The Loch Ness Lake

  2. The Lake District

  3. The Lough Neagh

  1. Many Irish surnames begin with

  1. Mac, Mc

  2. O’

  3. Llan

  1. The capital of Wales is

  1. Cardiff

  2. Belfast

  3. Edinburgh

  1. What country was divided by clans?

  1. Wales

  2. Northern Ireland

  3. Scotland

  1. What competition is usually held in Wales?

  1. Sports

  2. Poetic

  3. Art

  1. Where is Stonehenge situated?

  1. Northern Ireland

  2. Scotland

  3. England

  1. What is the most interesting souvenir in Wales?

  1. The love spoon

  2. The teddy bear

  3. The toy rabbit

  1. These people are naturally polite, self-confidence and self-discipline. What are they?

  1. The Scots

  2. The English

  3. The Irish

  1. George Bernard Show and Oscar Wilde were born in

  1. Northern Ireland

  2. Scotland

  3. Wales

  1. They are short, strong and dark-haired. What are they?

  1. The Irish

  2. The English

  3. The Welsh

  1. What is the saint patron of England?

  1. St. David

  2. St. Andrew

  3. St. George

  1. The 30th of November is the national holiday in

  1. Wales

  2. Northern Ireland

  3. Scotland

  1. What is the national emblem of Northern Ireland?

  1. The rose

  2. The shamrock

  3. Thistle

  1. The national Irish instrument is

  1. The bagpipe

  2. The harp

  3. The guitar

  1. The flag of this country has a red cross on a white field. What country is it?

  1. England

  2. Wales

  3. The Northern Ireland

  1. Administratively this country is divided into 33 counties. What country is it?

  1. Wales

  2. England

  3. Scotland

  1. What language is considered to be the most difficult one?

  1. The Scottish language

  2. The Irish language

  3. The Welsh language

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The Edinburgh Festival

Recital – концерт одного артиста

Previously - предварительно

String quartet – струнный квартет

Arrangement - мероприятие

The post-war years have seen a great growth in the number of art festivals in Britain and European countries. Among them the Edinburgh International Festival is one of the best known events of its kind in the world. This is not surprising because everything in the arts, if it is first class, becomes an Edinburgh Festival attraction. During the festival there are as many as six events to choose from on the official programme: symphony concerts, ballets, plays, recitals, -all given by the finest artists of the world. The idea of the festival originated in the first post -war years. Many towns lay in ruins. The founders of the festival had a lot of difficulties to face, one of them being the fact that this was something that Scotland and its capital Edinburgh had never previously known. This festival started in 1947, it was a great success and has been held annually ever since. The festival is quite international in its character giving as a rule a varied representation of artistic production from a number of countries. In recent years, about 90 thousand people visited Edinburgh every year during the 3 weeks at the end of August and early September. Establishing the Scottish Festival helps to develop the Scottish National Orchestra.

A Thistle emblem

thistle - чертополох

were awakened – были разрушены

thorn – шип

invader - завоеватель

The thistle has nothing pleasant in it, especially if you carelessly touch its thorns. But it has an important meaning for the people of Scotland. It is the Scottish national emblem. Scotland, as you know, is now a part of Great Britain. Why did the Scottish people choose this plant as a national emblem of their country? The answer is interesting and it can be found in the history of Scotland. The people of that country chose the thistle as their national emblem because it saved their land from foreign invaders mane years ago. Historians say that during a night attack by the invaders the Scottish soldiers were awakened by the shout of the invaders as their bare feet touched of the thistles in the field they were crossing. This, of course, was a good reason to choose the thistle as a national emblem.

Prince of Wales

title -титул

conquest – завоевание

rebellious - мятежный

to rule - управлять

to fulfill- выполнять

to confirm – подтверждать

to obey - подчиняться

The story of the title goes back to the conquest of Wales by Edward I, who had conquered Wales by 1284. Great leaders of the nation had been killed, but the Welsh, though they had been beaten, were rebellious. The chiefs of the conquered nation came to see Edward who was staying at his Carnarvon Castle and said that they wanted to be ruled not by an English king but by a Prince of Wales, born in Wales of royal blood and not speaking English or French. They wanted a prince whose life had been good and who hadn't wronged any man. After a little thought Edward told them to ask all the chiefs and their followers to come to the castle in a week's time and he promised to give them what they had asked for a Prince of Wales who fulfilled all their conditions. The next week the square outside the castle was crowded with excited people. From the balcony of the castle Edward I addressed the crowd: "People of Wales ! You wanted a Prince of Wales. Here is your Prince - my son born in Wales a week ago. He is a native-born Prince of royal blood. He cannot speak English or French. He was wronged no man. Promise to obey him!" Since then the title "the Prince of Wales" is conferred upon the eldest son of the Royal Family of Great Britain.

Wales a land of songs

Let's speak about one of the most beautiful parts of Britain - Wales. But Wales is known not only because of its mountains, lakes, valleys and sea coast. It is also known for its industry and coal mines where many people work. If a tourist from another country wants to see Wales, the real Wales, he must go to both North and South Wales. In both parts there are many popular places where people can spend an interesting holiday. Every year thousands of people spend their holidays at the seaside in Wales or in villages far from town life. Wales is an English-speaking country but some Welsh people learn their own language before they learn English. Welsh people are very proud of their national language and culture. Wales has been called a "Land of Song". The Welsh people like to sing very much and it is difficult to find a village without a choir. During a music festival the singers often wear their colorful national dresses. These music festivals are very popular and the streets in the towns of this small country are full of foreign visitors speaking many languages.

Britain’s Royal family

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. It means that it has a monarch (a king or a queen) as its Head of the State. The monarch reins with the support of parliament. Everything in the country is done in the name of her majesty. It is her government, her Armed Forces, her law and so on. She appoints all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister. Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision-making process.

The British Royal family is the most famous in the world and a symbol of British history. The Queen Elizabeth is the Queen of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Besides, she is the Head of the Commonwealth, a group of 48 countries with a total population of900 million people. Britain's Royals are always in the focus of media and public attention. They make many visits; take part in social events and support charities. The Queen's image appears on stamps, notes and coins. The Queen is the Head of the State and has official and state duties. Every year she makes official visits abroad. In the first week of November the Queen opens the Parliament's session and makes a speech. Twice a year in January and June, she presents medals at Buckingham Palace. In 1760 King George III gave the government a part of his income and accepted the annual salary from Parliament instead. Now it is about 6 million pounds annually. Except this sum, the government pays for 75% of royal costs. The Queen herself pays for her new clothes and private home costs. She is one of the world's richest women. She never gives interviews. The Queen likes to spend time with her grandchildren, watch horse-racing and watch TV especially comedy programmes and wildlife films.

Prince Philip is not a monarch. He is married to monarch. His parents were Prince and Princess Andrew of Greece. Sometimes he gives interviews. The Prince is qualified pilot and before married the Queen was an officer in the Royal Navy. He is interested in environment, wildlife, science, technology and sport.

Prince Charles will be Britain's next monarch. His title will be King Charles ill. He finished Gordonstoun School in Scotland (like his father) and then graduated from Cambridge University. He is interested in many things: architecture, environment, history, medicine, farming. His favourite sport is polo.

Princess Anne finished Benenden School in Kent. In 1973 she married an army officer, Captain Mark Philips, but in 1989 they separated. Princess Anne is the hardest working member of the Royal Family. She made an excellent sporting career. The Princess was European champion in horse-riding in 1971 and a member of Britain's team at the Olympic Games in 1976.

Prince Edward studied in Gordonstoun. Then during a term he was a teacher of a school in New Zealand and then he studied at Cambridge University. After that he was a soldier in the Royal Marines during a year but then he decided to work in the theatre.

The Duke of York finished Gordonstoun School where he was very good at sport. In 1980 he joined the Royal Navy and he is a “Sea King” helicopter pilot. Prince Andrew is interested in photography. His wife – The Duchess of York worked for a publishing company before she joined the Royal Family. She has a pilot license like her husband. Her favorite sport is skiing.

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