(см. Приложение 1 Appendix 1 Washington D.C)
 Kaufman K.I.“Happy English. ru “ 9th form: Учебник для 9 класса общеобраз. учрежд.- Обнинск: Титул, 2008 – С.272.
 Шереметьева А.В. “English – Speaking Countries”, Саратов, издательство «Лицей», 2008 – С.208.
Washington D.C., is the capital of the United States of America. It lies on the Potamic river. It is located in the District of Columbia ( that is what D.C. stands for). The District of Columbia itself is between two states – Maryland and Virginia.
The District of Columbia is not connected to any American state, because it is an independent territory where the national capital is. This territory got its name after the discoverer of America, Christopher Columbus.
The capital was named after the first U.S. President, George Washington.
In the early days the government offices of the USA were located in different cities. They needed a place where the government could work.
This place was chosen by George Washington to be the capital. He did not want states to argue, so District of Columbia is not a part of any state.
The planning and building of a new capital began when Washington was the president. But he did not live in there because it was not finished at that time. He retired in 1797 after 2 terms of service, but only after his death in 1799, the nation’s capital was named in his honour.
The Capitol is the place where the American Congress sits. It is the symbol of American power. In 1791 the corner – stone of the Capitol was laid by George Washington. The Capitol was built almost in the center of the city on the Capitol Hill. A bronze Statue of Freedom is on the top of the Capitol’s dome.
Washington is often called “the heart of America” . The government of the States works and the President lives here.
In 1800 government offices were moved to this city. Since that time it has been the federal capital.
Washington is not an industrial city. They say it does not produce anything except for scrap paper.
The population of Washington is not big. And the city itself is smaller in size than many other big American cities, such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles and Detroit.
The buildings in Washington are not high. It is so because of a special law, which forbids to build houses taller than the Capitol. So, Washington is the city with no sky – scrapers.
The Capitol is very beautiful. This building is made of marble and stone. It has 540 rooms. There are the Hall of Representatives and the Senate Chamber where the U.S. congress meets.
The famous Library of Congress, which is one of the two biggest libraries in the world, is situated not far from the Capitol. It contains about five million books.
The White House is the official Presidential residence. It has the most well – known address in the USA – 1600, Pennsylvania Avenue. It is a two – storeyed white building, which consists of 132 rooms. The White House was built in 1799. All the presidents of the USA lived in it except for George Washington ( because when he was the president, the White House had not been built yet).
The first president who lived in it was John Adams in 1800.
In 1814 during the war with England the building of the White House suffered a lot, it was burnt down and its view was spoilt. So, after the war the building was whitewashed. Since that time the White House has always been painted in white colour.
One of the most impressive sights in Washington is the famous Washington Monument. It looks like a huge pencil and it is called “The Pencil:. This monument was constructed in 1888. It commemorates the first President of the USA. The Monument is one of the world’s highest construction’s made of stone and it is the highest in the USA. Its height is 555 feet. The inside of it is hollow.
There is an elevator in the Washington Monument which can bring visitors to the top of it in 70 seconds. Here, on the very top, they can enjoy the magnificent view of the city.
There are also such famous memorials in Washington as the Jefferson Memorial and the Lincoln Memorial.
The Jefferson Memorial was built in memory of Thomas Jefferson. Who was the third president of the USA. He was the author who wrote the Declaration of Independence. There are many cherry trees planted around the Jefferson Memorial.
The Lincoln Memorial was built in memory of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the USA. He wrote the Emancipation Proclamation. This document gave freedom to the slaves in America.
When Lincoln was the president there were only 36 states united together. So, now the Lincoln Memorial has 36 columns which symbolize those states. There is a big statue of Abraham Lincoln inside the Memorial.
The National Mall is a national park in the centre of Washington. It is between the Lincoln Memorial and the Capitol.
The Pentagon ( the headquarters of the United States Department of Defence) was built during World WAR II It is situated in Arlington, Virginia.. The building was called so, because it has five corners. Now the name “Pentagon” is used to refer to the Department of Defence rather than the building itself
The Arlington National cemetery is a well – known place. President Kennedy was buried there. American soldiers who died in World War I and II were buried on this cemetery too.
On the territory of the Mall there are some buildings of the Smithsonian Institution.
The Smithsonian Institution is the world’s largest museum complex and research organization which consists of 19 museums and eight research centers, buildings of the Smithsonian Institution and a zoo. Most of them are located in Washington D.C., though some of them are in New York City, Virginia, Panama and some other places.
People start their visit from the Smithsonian Information Centre which is mostly known as the Castle. It is the oldest building on the Mall, but still it is a high – tech centre which gives information about all the museums.
This complex was called Smithsonian in the memory of the Englishman James Smithson who was the founder of it.
The National Air and Space Achievements Museum (NASA Museum) is the most popular of the Smithsonian museums. It has the largest collection of aircraft and spacecraft in the world.
The National Gallery of Art is an art museum located also on the National Mall. It was established in 1937. It displays sculptures, paintings, decorative art and porcelains by great masters from the 14th to the 19 th century.
Washington is divided into four areas: North – West (NW), North - East (NE). South – West (SW) and South – East ( SE)
The streets in the city were planned in such a way that they radiate from the building of the capitol like spikes from the centre of a wheel. Streets with numbers run to the North and to the South (1st Street, 2nd Street etc.), streets with letters run to the East and to the west (A Street, B Street etc.)
A typical address for Washington, D.C., is 4th Street NW or L – street NW.
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