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Дидактический материал на тему "Рекомендации по написанию письменной части экзамена - эссе"

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Рекомендации по написанию сочинения с элементами рассуждения

Формат и правила написания сочинения “expressing opinion”


Сочинение “expressing opinion” пишется в формальном (деловом) стиле.

В данном типе сочинения требуется выразить свою точку зрения на заданную тему, а так же привести противоположные вашей точки зрения других людей и объяснить, почему вы с ними не согласны. Ваше мнение должно быть четко сформулировано и подкреплено примерами или доказательствами.

Объем сочинения 200-250 слов (минимум 180 слов, максимум 275)

В сочинении должны активно использоваться конструкции типа «In my opinion», «I think», «I believe»

Необходимо использование вводных слов и конструкций типа “On the one hand, on the other hand”…, слов - связок (Nevertheless, Moreover, Despite…)

Запрещается использование сокращения, типа “I’m”, “they’re” “don’t”, “can’t” (иначе будет снижен балл за организацию сочинения)

Сочинение“expressing opinion” имеет строгую структуру, изменение которой при написании сочинения приведет к снижению балла. Сочинение “expressing opinion” состоит из 4-х абзацев:


1) Introduction (вступление)

Во вступлении необходимо четко сформулировать тему-проблему, указав, что существуют две противоположные точки зрения на проблему (Some people claim that mobile phones are very useful devices while others argue that life could be less stressful without them.) и высказать свое мнение, не используя слишком много личных конструкций

Однако первое предложение не должно слово в слово повторять заданную тему сочинения. Рекомендуемое окончание первого абзаца: Now I would like to express my point of view on the problem of …


2) Основная часть

1 абзац. Привести 2-3 аргумента, подтверждающих вашу точку зрения, подкрепляя их примерами или доказательствами.

Во втором абзаце вы должны придерживаться только ОДНОЙ точки зрения, например: Mobile phones in my opinion are very useful devices. ИЛИ I consider the mobile phone to be a harmful and useless invention.

Необходимо привести 2-3 аргумента с доказательствами в поддержку собственного мнения


2 абзац. Привести противоположные точки зрения (1-2), и объяснить, почему вы с ними НЕ согласны. Пример: However, some people think that mobile phones not only keep you in touch with your relatives and friends but also provide you with a great number of facilities. I can’t agree with this statement because…

Ваши контраргументы мнению других людей не должны повторять 2ой абзац.


3) Conclusion (заключение)


Необходимо сделать вывод, обратившись к заданной в 1-м параграфе теме, что существуют 2 точки зрения на проблему, а также подтвердить собственную точку зрения.

Например: «There are different points of view on this problem. I think that…» или «Taking everything into consideration, there are two different points of view on this problem. I believe that…

Useful vocabulary for composition"expressing opinion"


1 абзац Вводные фразы

It is popularly believed that….

People often claim that... Some people argue that…

A lot of people think that…

It is often suggested /believed that…

Many people are in favour of idea that... Many people are convinced that...

Some people are against…


2 абзац. Фразы, выражающие свою точку зрения:

I would like to explain my point of view on this situation.

I would like to express my opinion on this problem.


Фразы, характеризующие преимущества обсуждаемой проблемы:

As already stated I’m in favor of… for a number of reasons…

There are many things to be said in favour of…

The best/ thing about……. is…


Фразы, перечисляющие точки зрения:

Firstly, /First of all….

In the first place

To start with, / To begin with,

Secondly, Thirdly, Finally,

Last but not least,


Фразы, добавляющие новые аргументы:

Furthermore, /Moreover, /What is more,

As well as…. /In addition to this/that…

Besides, /…….also….

Not only…., but…… as well.

Apart from this/that….

not to mention the fact that


3 абзац.

Some people believe that… however they fail to understand that…

they fail to consider that… they forget that…

Some people argue that …. I can not agree with it as …

I disagree with this point of view (statement, opinion) because …

It has become fashionable for some people to argue that…

Contrary to what most people believe, I think that…

As opposed to the above ideas…I believe that…


4 абзац. Заключительные фразы:

In conclusion,

On the whole,

To conclude,

To sum up,

All in all,

All things considered

Finally,

Lastly,

Taking everything into account,

Taking everything into consideration


Выражение личного мнения:

In my opinion this subject is very controversial

In my view…

To my mind…

To my way of thinking…

Personally I believe that…

I feel strongly that…

It seems to me that…

As far as I am concerned…


Образец сочинения


Many cities in Europe do everything to promote bicycles as an ecologically clean type of transportation; however the governor of St. Petersburg signed a decree according to which bicycles will not be allowed in the city centre.


Do you agree that bicycles should be banned in the centre of St. Petersburg?


Write 200-250 words


Use the following plan:


1. Introduction. (State the problem)


2. Express your opinion and give reasons for it.


3. Give other people's arguments and explain why they are wrong.


4. Make a conclusion


In European cities people ride bicycles a lot because they are aware that bikes help to save fuel and reduce pollution in cities. However, the governor of Saint-Petersburg decided to ban bicycles in the city centre and I fully agree with it. I would like to explain my point of view on it.


In my opinion, the governor is absolutely right. In the first place, our roads are not adapted for biking as in Europe; they are too narrow and there are no separate lanes for bicycles. Moreover, bikes do not help the traffic situation but even sometimes make it worse as bicyclists often break traffic rules and cause accidents. In addition, the weather in St. Petersburg is not good for bicycle commuting. In winter roads are covered with ice, in autumn and in spring rains are frequent and roads are wet, so it is very difficult for cyclists to move.


On the other hand, some say that bikes are undoubtedly useful for our health, I can not agree with it completely as there are a lot of road accidents where cyclists are injured. Some people may argue that bikes are ecologically clean, but you can also put special purifying facilities on cars which are faster and more comfortable as transport.


To sum up, there are different points of view on this problem. I believe that bicycles should be banned in the city centre where streets are not specially created for them. As I see it, a bike is a kind of transport for short trips in the countryside.


(259 слов)































Useful vocabulary for composition"expressing opinion"


1 абзац Вводные фразы

It is popularly believed that….

People often claim that... Some people argue that…

A lot of people think that…

It is often suggested /believed that…

Many people are in favour of idea that... Many people are convinced that...

Some people are against…


2 абзац. Фразы, выражающие свою точку зрения:

I would like to explain my point of view on this situation.

I would like to express my opinion on this problem.


Фразы, характеризующие преимущества обсуждаемой проблемы:

As already stated I’m in favor of… for a number of reasons…

There are many things to be said in favour of…

The best/ thing about……. is…


Фразы, перечисляющие точки зрения:

Firstly, /First of all….

In the first place

To start with, / To begin with,

Secondly, Thirdly, Finally,

Last but not least,


Фразы, добавляющие новые аргументы:

Furthermore, /Moreover, /What is more,

As well as…. /In addition to this/that…

Besides, /…….also….

Not only…., but…… as well.

Apart from this/that….

not to mention the fact that




Useful vocabulary for composition"expressing opinion"


1 абзац Вводные фразы

It is popularly believed that….

People often claim that... Some people argue that…

A lot of people think that…

It is often suggested /believed that…

Many people are in favour of idea that... Many people are convinced that...

Some people are against…


2 абзац. Фразы, выражающие свою точку зрения:

I would like to explain my point of view on this situation.

I would like to express my opinion on this problem.


Фразы, характеризующие преимущества обсуждаемой проблемы:

As already stated I’m in favor of… for a number of reasons…

There are many things to be said in favour of…

The best/ thing about……. is…


Фразы, перечисляющие точки зрения:

Firstly, /First of all….

In the first place

To start with, / To begin with,

Secondly, Thirdly, Finally,

Last but not least,


Фразы, добавляющие новые аргументы:

Furthermore, /Moreover, /What is more,

As well as…. /In addition to this/that…

Besides, /…….also….

Not only…., but…… as well.

Apart from this/that….

not to mention the fact that





3 абзац.

Some people believe that… however they fail to understand that…

they fail to consider that… they forget that…

Some people argue that …. I can not agree with it as …

I disagree with this point of view (statement, opinion) because …

It has become fashionable for some people to argue that…

Contrary to what most people believe, I think that…

As opposed to the above ideas…I believe that…


4 абзац. Заключительные фразы:

In conclusion,

On the whole,

To conclude,

To sum up,

All in all,

All things considered

Finally,

Lastly,

Taking everything into account,

Taking everything into consideration


Выражение личного мнения:

In my opinion this subject is very controversial

In my view…

To my mind…

To my way of thinking…

Personally I believe that…

I feel strongly that…

It seems to me that…

As far as I am concerned…










3 абзац.

Some people believe that… however they fail to understand that…

they fail to consider that… they forget that…

Some people argue that …. I can not agree with it as …

I disagree with this point of view (statement, opinion) because …

It has become fashionable for some people to argue that…

Contrary to what most people believe, I think that…

As opposed to the above ideas…I believe that…


4 абзац. Заключительные фразы:

In conclusion,

On the whole,

To conclude,

To sum up,

All in all,

All things considered

Finally,

Lastly,

Taking everything into account,

Taking everything into consideration


Выражение личного мнения:

In my opinion this subject is very controversial

In my view…

To my mind…

To my way of thinking…

Personally I believe that…

I feel strongly that…

It seems to me that…

As far as I am concerned…




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