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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Дидактическое пособие «Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка с использованием специальной лексики»

Дидактическое пособие «Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка с использованием специальной лексики»

  • Иностранные языки

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Времена группы Indefinite (Simple).

Present Indefinite - I write. Я пишу (вообще, обычно)

Past Indefinite - I wrote. Я (на)писал (вчера)

Future Indefinite - I shall/will write. Я напишу, буду писать (завтра)

Глаголы в формах Indefinite описывают обычные, повторяющиеся действия как факт - безотносительно к их длительности или к результату действия.

Отрицательная и вопросительная формы в Indefinite образуются при помощи вспомогательных глаголов do, does, did с частицей not, краткая форма: don't, doesn't, didn't. Порядок слов прямой. Вопросительные предложения образуются, как правило, простой перестановкой подлежащего и вспомогательного глагола. Вопросительное местоимение при этом всегда стоит впереди.

He is a student.- Is he a student?

We do not write much. - Do we write much?

You have a computer. - What do you have?

She doesn't live in Moscow. - Does she live in Moscow?

He didn't like the film. - Did he like the film?

Упражнения:

1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из времен группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite).

1. Metals (to be) materials most widely used in industry because of their properties. 2. The separation between the atoms in metals (to be) small, so most metals (to be) dense. 3. That is why metals (to be) malleable and ductile. 4. Metals (to vary) greatly in their properties. 5. Lead (to be) soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat. 6. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals (to give) them a crystalline structure. 7. The properties of the metals (to depend) on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of the grains. 8. In general, a metal with small grains (to be) harder and stronger than one with coarse grains. 9. Heat treatment, such as quenching, tempering, or annealing (to control) the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. 10. All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some (to require) hot-working. 11. The ways of working a metal (to depend) on its properties.


2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в одном из времен группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite). Переведите текст на русский язык:

Quenching (to be) a heat treatment when metal at a high temperature is rapidly cooled by immersion in water or oil. Quenching (to make) steel harder and more brittle, with small grains structure. Tempering (to be) a heat treatment applied to steel and certain alloys. Hardened steel after quenching from a high temperature (to be) hard and brittle for many applications and (to be) also brittle. Tempering, that (to be) re-heating to an intermediate temperature and cooling slowly, (to reduce) this hardness and brittleness. Tempering temperatures (to depend) on the composition of the steel but (to be) frequently between 100 and 650 C. Higher temperatures usually (to give) a softer, tougher product. The color of the oxide film produced on the surface of the heated metal often (to serve) as the indicator of its temperature. Annealing (to be) a heat treatment in which a material at high temperature is cooled slowly. After cooling the metal again (to become) malleable and ductile. All these methods of steel heat treatment are used to obtain steels with certain mechanical properties for certain needs.

Словарь

Quenching-закалка

Treatment-обработка

Tempering-нормализация, отпуск после закалки

Annealing-отжиг, отпуск

То immerse-погружать

То apply-применять

Intermediate-промежуточный

Oxide film-оксидная пленка

Cracking-растрескивание

3. Переведите на английский язык

  1. Металлы - плотные материалы потому, что между атомами в металлах малое расстояние.

  2. Металлы имеют кристаллическую структуру из-за правильного расположения атомов.

  1. Чем меньше зерна, тем тверже металл.

  2. Закалка и отжиг изменяют форму и размер зерен в металлах.

  3. Легирование изменяет структуру зерен и свойства металлов.

  4. Металл деформируется и разрушается из-за усталости и ползучести.

  5. Participle I и его функции.

  6. Participle I образуется от основы инфинитива глагола при помощи окончания -ing. Оно соответствует русскому причастию действительного залога настоящего времени с суффиксами -ущ (-ющ), -ащ (-ящ): То read - читатъ- reading -читающий Participle I имеет активную и страдательную формы:

  • активная (несовершенный вид)- Asking

  • активная (совершенный вид)- Having asked

  • страдательная (несовершенный вид)- Being asked

  • страдательная (совершенный вид)- Having been asked

  1. Participle I употребляется в функции:

  2. 1) определения

  3. The man sitting at the table is our teacher.-Человек, сидящий за столом- наш учитель.

  4. 2) обстоятельства

  5. Going home I met an old friend.-Идя домой, я встретил старого друга.

  6. Упражнения

  7. 1. Образуйте Participle I от следующих глаголов:

  8. То slide, to bend, to fracture, to draw, to depend, to hammer, to corrode, to resist, to affect, to subject, to determine, to pull, to achieve, to retain, to grip, to enclose, to hit.

  9. 2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  10. 1. Efficiencies vary from 60 to 90 per cent depending on the process. 2. Coating with oxide molten-metal droplets become entrapped in the weld and make the joint brittle. 3. Electrum is a natural or artificial alloy of gold and silver containing 15-45 per cent of silver. 4. Broadly speaking, we can say that the arc column is complex, but consists of a cathode that emits electrons. 5. Next an upper die is pressed over the top, finishing the forming operation, and finally the edges are speared off to give the final dimensions. 6. Making the roof of an automobile from a flat sheet they gripped the edges and pulled the piece in tension over a lower die. 7.Steel which contains 4 per cent silicon is used for transformer cores because it has large grains acting like small magnets. 8. Irregular crystals presenting in metals are called grains. 9. Influencing the properties in metals the amount of carbon presents in steel.

  11. Словарь

  12. Efficiency-эффективность

  13. Coating-покрытие, облицовка

  14. Droplet-добавка

  15. Alloy-сплав

  16. То emit-генерировать, излучать

  17. Dimension-размер, протяженность

  18. Tension-напряжение

  19. Carbon-углерод

  20. The Present Continuous Tense.

  21. Настоящее длительное время выражает продолжающееся, незаконченное, длящееся действие, происходящее в момент речи. Оно может также обозначать действие, которое произойдет в ближайшем будущем.

  22. Утвердительная форма-1 am reading.

  23. Отрицательная форма-1 am not reading.

  24. Вопросительная форма-Am I reading?

  25. Настоящее длительное время употребляется:

  1. для обозначения действия, которое происходит в данный момент в настоящем;

  2. для обозначения не совсем обычного действия;

  3. для обозначения часто повторяющегося действия (часто с негативным оттенком);

  4. для обозначения действия, которое находится в процессе его завершения или свершения;

  5. для обозначения ближайшего будущего действия.

  1. Упражнения

  2. 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в Present Continuous .Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. As more high-strength steel comes to be used as building material, high-strength friction joint bolts (to replace) rivets for joining structural members.

  2. Seaming (to become) a practical joining method as remarkable advances are being made in the techniques.

  3. In a world running short of tin resources, Supercoat (to find) use in an ever wider range of application.

  1. Today, more chemicals (to find) their ways into clothes, more steel into dwelling, and more canned foods into more households.

  2. In Japanese firm Yawata (to manufacture) phosphate treated, sheets under the trade names of Durpaint and Durzinc-Durpaint.

  1. 2. Замените время глаголов в предложениях на Present Continuous.

  2. 1. When the required span exceeds a certain limit, the bridge must be of the suspension type. 2. To meet the challenge of larger highway bridges, Yawata now produces high-strength steel and weathering steel as bridge-building materials. 3. Yawata also designs and fabricates curved bridges as well as skewed ones. 4. Yawata meets this need by supplying various types of prefabricated bridges. 5. In addition, as the social structure becomes more modern and advanced, the labor structure too changes, giving rise to a shortage of manpower for bridge maintenance and repainting work. 6. As more high-strength steel comes to be used as building material, high-strength friction joint bolts are replacing rivets for joining structural members. 7. To meet these constructional requirements, Yawata now designs and manufactures curved and skewed bridges in varying sizes. 8. Yawata adopts a double-cold-reducing process for tinplate making. 9. Advancing civilization works a great change in our modes of living. 10. Its positive characteristics include a very low core loss, a very high permeability in the rolling direction, and excellent surface insulation.

  3. 3. Поставьте глагол в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

  4. Lit is specially notable that stainless steels fast (to replace) forging in the manufacture of tube plate for heat exchanger and head plate for pressure vessel because of their superior quality and economic advantages. 2. These developments in city and country (to cause) a sharp shortage of engineers and skilled labor, which consequently prevents many projects from being carried out as scheduled. 3. Yawata (to manufacture) phosphate treated sheets. 4. Yawata (to produce) 1.219 mm wide, 6.0 mm thick and under cut sheets and coils. 5. In order to meet increasing demands expected in the future, Yawata now (to construct) a plate mill of the most advanced design. 6. But the overseas sales of Japanese automobiles (to grow) at a steady pace. 7. Thus, the automobile industry now (to become) one of the stable export industries of Japan. 8. Furthermore, Yawata (to make) great efforts toward the manufacture of lighter and longer-lasting automobiles through the development of high strength and atmospheric corrosion resistant steels.

  5. Словарь

  6. Friction-трение Seaming-соединение швов To dwell-прерывать

  7. Skewed bridge- ассиметричный мост

  8. Maintenance-техническое обслуживание, ремонт

  9. То adopt-адaптировать, применять

  10. Permeability-проницаемость, водопроницаемость

  11. Insulation-изоляция

  12. Core-каркас

  13. Requirement-требование

  14. Friction-трение

  15. The Past Continuous Tense

  16. Прошедшее длительное время. Этим временем действие представляется как процесс, глагол в этом времени обозначает продолжающееся, незаконченное, длящееся действие в прошлом.

  17. Утвердительная форма-1 was reading at two o'clock yesterday.

  18. Отрицательная форма-1 was not reading at two o'clock yesterday.

  19. Вопросительная форма-Was I reading at two o'clock yesterday?

  20. Прошедшее длительное время употребляется:

  21. 1. для выражения действия, которое происходило а определенный
    момент в прошлом. Определенный момент может быть обозначен при
    помощи обстоятельства времени или с помощью другого прошедшего
    времени.

  22. 2. для выражения действия с ограниченным периодом в прошлом.

  23. Упражнения 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в Past Continuous •Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Two mixers (to operate) in the exhibit next year.

  2. Individual products to be highlighted (to cast) handling turntable, rotary screens, bucket elevators, hydraulic mold punch outs and programmable logic control systems.

  1. 3. Foundries throughout Europe today (to use) medium frequency coreless
    induction furnaces for duplexing more economically.

  1. The diagram (to cover) the total treatment cycle for the specific steel grade in the ladle furnace.

  2. The process and production control in steelmaking (to become) increasingly important to the steelmaker as the treatment time decreases.

  3. 2. Перепишите текст, заменяя время глаголов на Past Continuous. Переведите текст на русский язык.

  4. Metal Rolling Practice

  5. The achievements of modern computer techniques open extensive prospects in the automation of production processes. The application of computers in the control of production processes enables metallurgists to establish optimum parameters in these processes. The application of a continuous operation sequence is topical of up-to-date rolling departments. Continuous mills enabled metallurgists to automatize the production process and to perform rolling at the highest speeds. In addition to the erection of continuous rolling mills, a large number of continuous pickling, annealing, tinning, galvanizing shearing and other production lines are installed.

  6. The most important problem in this field is the economy of metal. Much can be attained by using various designs of light-weight red sections as well as by rolling products made to the minus tolerance limits and of higher accuracy.

  7. 3. Поставьте глагол в Past Continuous или в Past Simple.

  8. 1 .Extrusion (to push) the billet to flow through the orifice of a die. 2. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists (to find) new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials. 3. They (to develop) mines, torpedoes, and other explosives. 4. Tightening environmental legislation throughout industrial areas (to put) manufacturers into a dilemma. 5. Blast cleaning and abrasive techniques (to become) the standard treatment for ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 6. One-peace wheel covers (to show) little sign of wear after five years of use. 7. Cleaning systems steadily (to replace) traditional, labour-intensive cleaning methods in the automotive plants in Europe. 8. In the critical applications for which one American firm (to perform) its service, quality control of the process was absolutely essential. 9. The tonnage mills themselves (to swing) to electric furnaces and scrap.

  9. Словарь

  10. Scrap-лом, обрезь

  11. Turntable-поворотная платформа

  12. Ladle-ковш, разливать ковшом

  13. То enable-запускать, разблокировать, разрешать

  14. Galvanizing-оцинкованный

  15. Pickling-сортировка, отбор

  16. Accuracy-точность, погрешность

  17. Tolerance-допустимое отклонение

  18. Extrusion-экструзия, выдавливание

  19. Abrasive-абразив, абразивный

  20. The Future Continuous Tense.

  21. Будущее длительное время выражает продолжающееся, незаконченное, длящееся действие, которое будет происходить в определенный момент в будущем.

  22. Утвердительная форма-I will be sleeping.

  23. Отрицательная форма-I will not be sleeping.

  24. Вопросительная форма-Will I be sleeping?

  25. Будущее длительное время употребляется:

  26. Для обозначения действия, которое будет происходить в определенный момент в будущем. Этот момент может быть выражен:

  1. обстоятельством времени;

  2. другим будущим временем в Present Simple;

  3. это может быть видно из ситуации.

  1. Упражнения 1. Замените время глаголов в предложениях на Present Continuous.

  2. 1. Yawata enameling steel sheet contains minimum impurities. 2. In fact, it offers excellent adherence with the applied enamel. 3. Although plant layout varies from builder to builder, operational procedures are virtually the same; reduced-scale original drawings, electronic cameras for drawing, mathonigraphs for marking, numerically controlled automatic gas cutting equipment, and other automated devices. 4. This does not mean that they are accomplished materials. 5. In fact, several points remain to be improved, such as techniques of welding control. 6. Yawata also produces low temperature service steels for tanker construction and shapes for use as longitudinal hull beams. 7. A universal mill produces large-size channels, which are cut into the required long materials. 8. Section modulus ranges between 800 and 3.300 cm to meet specific ship hull design requirements.

  3. 2. Поставьте глагол в Future Continuous или в Future Simple.

  4. 1. The container (to open) a whole new approach to the rationalization of freight transportation. 2. And it is in marine transportation that the container (to prove) its greatest effectiveness: in the speed-up of materials- handling operations and the reduction of net delivery time. 3. More and more shipping companies at home and abroad (to request) weathering steel when they place orders for containers with container manufacturers. 4. The JNR now (to use) containers which roofs are made of weathering steel sheets. 5. What is more, seaming (to become) a practical joining method as remarkable advances are being made in its

  5. techniques. 6. In a world running of tin resources, SUPERCOAT (to find) use in an ever wider range of application not only because it offers superior corrosion resistance, superior resistance to sulphidization and superior printability and lends itself to high-temperature baking treatment but also because it is essentially cheaper than tinplate

  6. 3. Перепишите текст, заменяя время глаголов на Future Continuous. Переведите текст на русский язык.

  7. The development of rolled metal production in Russia is characterized by the extension of the type and size ranges of rolled products. Heat treatment of rolled products must be extensively applied. The introduction of heat treatment for hot rolled sheets, plates, sections and tubes of carbon and low-alloy steels will aid in increasing the strength and other desirable properties of the steel.

  8. The quality of rolled products must also be raised by supplying the steel-making plants with more homogeneous ingot metal, free of harmful impurities. Modern methods must be applied in rolling departments for surface conditioning the semi finished product and finishing the end product.

  9. Higher rolling accuracy may be achieved by improving the design of the roll stands of mills, revising the material and design of the roll bearings, by the application of multiple roll mills and by the development of automatic size control and automatic roll adjustment systems.

  10. Словарь

  11. Extension-растяжение, удлинение

  12. Heat treatment-горячая обработка

  13. To supply-снабжение, поставка

  14. Homogeneous-однородный

  15. Harmful-вредный

  16. Impurity-примесь

  17. Accuracy-точность, погрешность

  18. Mill-прокатный стан, прокатный цех

  19. Application-применение, использование

  20. Multiple-параллельное соединение

  21. Adjustment-настройка, регулирование, установка

  22. Adherence-сцепление

  23. Enamel-эмаль, глазурь

  24. Hull-корпус, каркас

  25. Longitudinal-лонжерон, продольная балка, продольный

  26. Freight-грузовые перевозки, груз

  27. Participle II и его функции.

  28. Participle II является третьей формой глагола; Participle II у правильных глаголов образуется также, как и форма прошедшего времени группы Indefinite. Participle II у неправильных глаголов образуется различными способами.

  29. То study-изучать-studied-изученный, изучаемый То send-посылать-sent-послал-sent-посланный, посылаемый Participle II на русский язык переводятся причастиями, имеющими окончания -нный, -тый, -ешийся, -мый, -щийся: То discuss-обсуждатъ

  30. Discussed-обсужденный, обсуждавшийся, обсуждаемый, обсуждающийся

  31. Participle II употребляется в функции: 1). определения

  32. The book translated from English is interesting.-Книга,

  33. переведенная с английского языка, интересная. 2). обстоятельства (причины и времени)

  34. Given the task he began to work,-Когда ему дали задание, он начал работать.

  35. Упражнения 1. Образуйте Participle I от следующих глаголов:

  36. То slide, to bend, to fracture, to draw, to depend, to hammer, to corrode, to resist, to affect, to subject, to determine, to pull, to achieve, to retain, to grip, to enclose, to hit.

  37. 2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  38. 1. The first voyage around the earth, begun at Seville by Magellan in 1510 and completed at Seville by Del Cano in 1522, established that the earth is a globe. 2. The first object observed by Galileo through the telescope was the moon. 3. The experiments made by our students and described in the journal illustrated the properties of metals. 4. Invented in France and accepted universally in science but not in engineering or commerce, the Metric System has the following fundamental units: the meter, the kilogram and the second.

  39. Словарь

  40. To complete-завершить To establish-установить Fundamental-основной

  41. The Present Perfect Tense

  42. Настоящее завершенное время. Обозначает законченное действие, которое завершилось к определенному моменту в настоящем. Утвердительная форма-1 have just opened the book. Отрицательная форма-1 have not just opened the book. Вопросительная форма-Have I just opened the book?

  43. Настоящее завершенное время употребляется:

  1. Для обозначения завершенного действия к определенному моменту в настоящем;

  2. для указания на период времени, который еще не закончился, т. е. входит в настоящий момент;

  3. для обозначения действия, начавшегося в предшествующий период, но еще не закончившегося.

  1. Упражнения 1. Замените время глаголов в предложениях на Present Perfect.

  2. 1. Advancing civilization works a great change in our modes of living. 2. Its positive characteristics include a very low core loss, a very high permeability in the rolling direction, and excellent surface insulation. 3. The magnetic properties vary at high frequencies depending upon the thickness must be selected according to the frequencies to be used. 4. The recent movement in electrical home appliances points toward higher product sophistication, higher performance and reduced production cost. 5. To meet this requirement, Yawata produces not only ordinary steel sheet and strip but also a variety of surface-treated steel sheet including enameling steel sheet.

  3. 2. Вставьте нужную форму глагола (Present Perfect или Present Indefinite). Переведите отрывок на русский язык.

  4. Sheet metal forming (штамповка листового металла) is widely used when parts of certain shape and size are needed. It (to include) forging, bending and shearing. One characteristic of sheet metal forming (to be) that the thickness of the sheet (to change) little in processing. The metal is stretched just beyond its yield point (2 to 4 percent strain) in order to retain the new shape. Bending can be done by pressing between two dies. Shearing (to be) a cutting operation similar to that used for cloth.

  5. Each of these processes may be used alone, but often all three are used on one part. For example, to make the roof of an automobile from a flat sheet, the edges are gripped and the piece pulled in tension over a lower die. Next an upper die is

  6. pressed over the top, finishing the forming operation (штамповку), and finally the edges are sheared off to give the final dimension.

  7. Словарь

  8. Yield point-точка текучести металла

  9. To retain-сохранять, удерживать

  10. To bend-гнуть

  11. Shearing-обрезка, отрезание

  12. Edge-край

  13. To grip-схватывать

  14. Lower die-нижний штамп

  15. Upper die-верхний штамп

  16. Forming operation-операция штампования

  17. Dimension-измерение, размеры

  18. The Past Perfect Tense

  19. Прошедшее завершенное время. Обозначает законченное действие, которое завершилось к определенному моменту в прошлом. Утвердительная форма-1 had done it. Отрицательная форма-1 had not done it. Вопросительная форма-Had I done it?

  20. Прошедшее завершенное время употребляется :

  21. 1. для обозначения действия, которое завершилось к определенному
    моменту в прошлом. Этот определенный момент может быть обозначен:

  22. А) предлогом by (к)

  23. Б) другим действием в прошлом

  1. для обозначения действия, которое завершилось раньше другого действия в прошлом;

  2. используется с союзами for и since;

  3. в сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточными предложениями времени;

  4. используется с составными союзами hardly when, scarcely when, no sooner than.

  1. Упражнения 1. Замените время глаголов в предложениях на Past Perfect

  2. 1. Although plant layout varies from builder to builder, operational procedures are virtually the same; reduced-scale original drawings, electronic

  3. cameras for drawing, mathonigraphs for marking, numerically controlled automatic gas cutting equipment, and other automated devices. 2. This does not mean that they are accomplished materials. 3. In fact, several points remain to be improved, such as techniques of welding control. 4. Yawata also produces low temperature service steels for tanker construction and shapes for use as longitudinal hull beams. 5. A universal mill produces large-size channels, which are cut into the required long materials. 6. Section modulus ranges between 800 and 3.300 cm to meet specific ship hull design requirements.

  4. 2. Вставьте нужную форму глагола (Past Perfect или Past Indefinite). Переведите отрывок на русский язык.

  5. Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing (to control) the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it (to change) the grain structure and properties of metals.

  6. All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some (require) hot-working. Metals (to be) subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lather, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

  7. The ways of working the metal (to depend) on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metal that (to react) with air.

  8. Словарь

  9. Quenching-закалка

  10. Tempering-отпуск после закалки, нормализация

  11. Annealing-отжиг, отпуск

  12. Rolling-прокатка

  13. То hammer-ковать

  14. Extrusion-экструзия

  15. Metal fatigue-усталость металла

  16. Сгеер-ползучесть

  17. Stress-давление, напряжение

  18. Failure-повреждение, разрушение

  19. Vessel-сосуд, котел, судно

  20. Lather-токарный станок

  21. Milling machine-фрезерный станок

  22. Shaper-строгальный станок

  23. Grinder-шлифовальный станок

  24. To melt-плавить, плавиться, расплавить То cast-отливать, отлить (металл) Mould-форма (для отливки)

  25. The Future Perfect Tense

  26. Будущее завершенное время. Обозначает действие, которое завершится к определенному моменту в будущем.

  27. Утвердительная форма-1 will have opened the door. Отрицательная форма-1 will not have opened the door. Вопросительная форма-Will I have opened the door?

  28. Будущее завершенное время употребляется:

  29. 1. для передачи действия, которое завершится к определенному моменту в
    будущем. Этот момент может быть обозначен:

  30. а) обстоятельством времени с предлогом by;

  31. б) другим будущим действием в Present Indefinite;

  32. в) может быть понятен из контекста;

  33. 2. для обозначения действия, которое начнется в будущем в определенный
    момент, будет длиться определенное время и закончится в определенный
    момент в будущем.

  34. Упражнения

  35. 1. Поставьте глагол в Future Perfect или в Future Continuous.

  36. 1 .It is specially notable that stainless steels fast (to replace) forging in the manufacture of tube plate for heat exchanger and head plate for pressure vessel because of their superior quality and economic advantages. 2. These developments in city and country (to cause) a sharp shortage of engineers and skilled labor, which consequently prevents many projects from being carried out as scheduled. 3. Yawata (to manufacture) phosphate treated sheets. 4. Yawata (to produce) 1.219 mm wide, 6.0 mm thick and under cut sheets and coils. 5. In order to meet increasing demands expected in the future, Yawata now (to construct) a plate mill of the most advanced design. 6. But the overseas sales of Japanese automobiles (to grow) at a steady pace. 7. Thus, the automobile industry now (to become) one of the stable export industries of Japan. 8. Furthermore, Yawata (to make) great efforts toward the manufacture of lighter and longer-lasting automobiles through the development of high strength and atmospheric corrosion resistant steels. 9.

  37. Japan. 8. Furthermore, Yawata (to make) great efforts toward the manufacture of lighter and longer-lasting automobiles through the development of high strength and atmospheric corrosion resistant steels.

  38. 2. Вставьте нужную форму глагола (Past Perfect или Past Indefinite). Переведите отрывок на русский язык.

  39. Metals (to be) materials most widely used in industry, because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

  40. The separation between the atoms in metals (to be) small, so most metals (to be) dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals (to be) malleable (can be deformed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals (to vary) greatly in their properties. For example, lead (to be) soft and can be band by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

  41. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals (to give) them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals (to depend) on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains (to be) harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

  42. Словарь

  43. Property-свойство

  44. Metallurgy-металлургия

  45. Separation-разделение, отстояние

  46. Dense-плотный

  47. Arrangement-расположение

  48. Regularly-регулярно, правильно

  49. To slide-скользить

  50. Malleable-ковкий, податливый, способный деформироваться

  51. То fracture-ломать

  52. Ductile-эластичный, ковкий

  53. То draw-волочить, тянуть

  54. Wire-проволока

  55. Lead-свинец

  56. Iron-железо, чугун

  57. Grain-зерно

  58. Composition-состав

  59. Coarse-грубый, крупный

  60. Сослагательное наклонение в условных предложениях

  61. Сослагательное наклонение выражает возможность, нереальность, предположительность действия.

  62. If I knew his address I would write to him. - Если бы я знал его адрес, я написал бы ему.(Глагол в придаточном предложении - в форме Past Indefinite, в главном — в форме Future in the Past).

  63. В случае, если действие, описываемое сослагательным наклонением, относится к прошедшему времени, в главном предложении используется форма будущего совершённого с точки зрения прошедшего Future Perfect in the Past, а в придаточном - прошедшее совершённое Past Perfect.

  64. If I had known his address I would have written to him.

  65. Упражнения 1.Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  66. 1. If I came later I would be late for the lesson. 2. If he had known the timetable he wouldn't have missed the train. 3. It would be better if you learned the oral topics. 4.1 wish I had known this before the examination. 5. I would have come to you if you had not lived so far away. 6. If I had seen you yesterday I would have given you my text-book. 7. If I were in your place I wouldn't buy the tickets beforehand. 8. If I had known that you needed help I would have helped you. 9. It wouldn't do you any harm if you did this exercise a second time. 10. You would never say he was gloomy if you knew him better. 11. If this book were more interesting, it would be in greater demand. 12. If my friend were in Moscow now, he could show me round the city.

  67. 2.Составьте рассказ, используя сослагательное наклонение, чтобы вы сделали:

  68. What would you do if you were:

  • a headmaster of Avia-Technical Secondary School;

  • the owner of Metallurgical factory;

  • one of the teachers in your Avia-Technical Secondary School

  • the president of Russian Federation?

  1. Словарь

  2. Timetable-расписание To miss-пропустить Oral-устный Headmaster-директор Owner-владелец

  3. Модальные глаголы. Их классификация и

  4. употребление.

  5. Модальные глаголы ("may", "must", "can", "need", "should", "would" и другие) не выражают конкретных действий или процессов, а лишь показывают отношение говорящего к действию, дают оценку действия, выражая возможность, необходимость, предположительность, долженствование, разрешение и так далее.

  6. My son is walking in the garden.-Мой сын гуляет в саду (действие).

  7. My son can walk now.-Мой сын уже умеет ходить(способность).

  8. Модальные глаголы имеют ряд формальных отличительных особенностей:

  1. модальные глаголы не имеют окончания -s в третьем лице единственного числа настоящего времени группы Indefinite;

  2. они не имеют неличных форм (инфинитива, герундия, причастия) и употребляются только в двух временных формах: в настоящем и прошедшем времени группы Indefinite;

  3. после модальных глаголов употребляются глаголы в форме инфинитива без частицы to;

  4. вопросительная и отрицательная формы модальных глаголов образуются без вспомогательного глагола to do.

  1. Упражнения 1. Прочтите отрывок текста. Выпишите предложения с модальными глаголами и переведите их на русский язык.

  2. "Mr. Wilson, I think," he said in a quiet voice. "I beg your pardon. I hardly recognize you. I see you remember me- Mr. Butler of Oaklands, Shelby County."

  3. "Ye-yes-yes, sir," said Mr. Wilson, like one speaking in a dream.

  4. "1 should like to have a few moment's conversations with you on business, in private, in my room, if you please," added the newcomer.

  5. When they entered the room upstairs, the young man locked the door, put the key into his pocket, and looked Mr. Wilson straight in the face.

  6. "George!" said Mr. Wilson.

  7. "Yes, George," said the young man. "I am fairly well disguised, it seems. I've dyed my hair black, so you see I don't answer to the advertisement at all."

  8. For a few moments Mr. Wilson could not say a word. When he began to speak at last, his voice was trembling. "Well, George, I see you are running away-leaving your lawful master, George,- I think it's my duty to tell you so. I am sorry to see you in opposition to the laws of your country."

  9. "My country!" said George with bitterness, "I have no country."

  10. "You see, George," said Mr. Wilson. "Well, I think you're running an awful risk. You should be very careful. They'll kill you if they catch you."

  11. "See here, now, Mr. Wilson," said George, coming up and sitting down in front of him: "Look at me. Don't I sit before you, just as much a man as you are? I had a father - one of your Kentucky gentlemen- who didn't think enough of me to keep me from being sold after his death with his dogs and horses. I saw my mother sold wit her seven children. You, Mr. Wilson, I admit, treated me well, you encouraged me to do well, and to learn to read and write, to make something of myself. But now what? Now comes my master and says I am only a nigger. And last of all he comes between me and my wife, and says I must give her up. And your laws give the white masters to do all this."

  12. 2.Вставьте модальные глаголы, где необходимо:

  13. 1. I ... not go to the theatre with them last night, I ... revise the grammar rules and the words for the test. 2. My friend lives a long way from his office and ... get up early. 3. All of us ... be in time for classes. 4. When my friend has his English, he ... stay at the office after work. He (not) ... stay at the office on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday and ... get home early. 5. ... you ... work hard to do well in your English? 6. "... we discuss this question now?" "No, we .... We ... do it tomorrow afternoon." 7. I'm glad you ... come. 8. ".. you ... and have dinner with us tomorrow?" "I'd love to." 9. "Please send them this article." "Oh, ... I do it now?"

  14. Словарь

  15. To beg pardon-просить прощения

  16. To recognize-узнавать

  17. In private-наедине

  18. To disguise-скрываться, маскироваться

  19. To tremble-дрожать

  20. To be in opposition-быть против

  21. To run a risk-подвергаться опасности

  22. Модальный глагол "Can" и его эквиваленты.

  23. Модальный глагол "Сап" может выражать сомнение, удивление, недоверие.

  24. She can't feel hurt. We've explained everything to her.-He может быть, чтобы она чувствовала себя обиженной. Мы ей всё объяснили (сомнение).

  25. Can it be 1гие?-Неужели это правда? (удивление)

  26. Could he be your age? You look much younger.-Неужели ему столько же лет, сколько вам? Вы выглядите гораздо моложе (недоверие).

  27. Форма "could" выражает те же значения, что и "сап", но в менее категоричной форме. В значении сомнения, недоверия, удивления глагол "can ("could") употребляется, как правило, в отрицательных и, реже, в вопросительных предложениях и соответствуют в русском языке словам «не может быть», «вряд ли », «неужели».

  28. Эквивалентом модального глагола "сап" является оборот "to be able to " - быть способным.

  29. Present Indefinite- He is able to swim across the river.

  30. Past Indefinite- He was able to swim across the river.

  31. Future Indefinite- He will be able to swim across the river.

  32. Упражнения 1. Перепишите предложения, определите в них функцию модального глагола "сап". Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  33. 1. The atoms in metal are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. 2. That is why metals can be deformed and bent without fracture. 3. Metals are ductile that is why they can be drawn into wire. 4. Lead is soft and can be bent by hand. 5. Iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat. 6. All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. 7. Metals can be worked using machine-tools, such as lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder. 8. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds. Bur special conditions are required for metals that react with air. 9. Typical deliveries could include one or more of following units: ladles; ladle cars, tiltable for deslagging or not; deslagging units; heating stations; alloy systems; automatic sampling units; cored wire feeders; injection units; vacuum stations; vacuum pumps; process control systems.

  34. 2. Переведите предложения с русского на английский язык, обращая внимание на использование модального глагола "сап".

  35. 1. Добавление хрома даёт упругость и стойкость к коррозии, и так мы можем получить нержавеющую сталь. 2. Не может быть, чтобы они уже сделали эту работу. Они приступили к ней только вчера. 3. Не может быть, что всё ещё делает эту работу. Его часть работы была очень незначительной. 4. Неужели он так равнодушен к этому изобретению? 5. Не может быть, чтобы он выбрал эту профессию против своей воли. 6. Неужели он уже овладел этим труднейшим искусством? Он, должно быть, очень терпелив.

  36. Словарь

  37. То slide-скользить

  38. То bend-гнуть

  39. Fracture-перелом, излом

  40. Wire-проволока

  41. Hammering-ковка

  42. Milling machine-фрезерный станок

  43. Shaper-строгальный станок

  44. Grinder-шлифовальный станок

  45. Mould-форма для отливки

  46. Модальный глагол "Must" и его эквиваленты.

  47. Модальный глагол "Must" выражает необходимость, моральную обязанность и соответствует в русском языке словам «должен», «нужно», «надо».

  48. You must respect your parents.- Вы должны уважать своих родителей.

  49. В настоящем, прошедшем и будущем временах эквивалентом модального глагола "Must" выступают модальные глаголы:

  50. 1) То have to, выражает вынужденную необходимость и на русский
    язык переводится «приходится», «должен».

  51. I have to go there.-Я должен туда пойти.

  52. 2) То be to, выражает необходимость по договорённости, по плану, на
    русский язык переводится «должен».

  53. I am to go there.-Я должен туда пойти.

  54. 3) Need- «нужно», «надо».

  55. We need your help.-Нам нужна ваша помощь. Needn't-отсутствие необходимости, что-либо делать You needn't do it.-Можете это и не делать.

  56. Упражнения 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, определите в них функцию модального глагола "Must" и его эквивалентов.

  57. 1. Engineers must know how materials respond to external forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bending, and shear. 2. Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy. 3. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. 4. The ladle furnace has to be designed, both electrically and mechanically, for short arcs. 5. A minimum time after last addition of 5-7 minutes for homogenization have to

  58. be included in the total cycle time. 6. In order not to superheat the ladle shell by induction heating, the area facing the stirrer must be made of nonmagnetic steel. 7. You must have plenty of free time now. 8. Can't you stop them? They must have been arguing for an hour and a half at least. 9. The announcement must have been made an hour ago. 10. The hard work must have told on her health.

  59. 2. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов.

  60. 1. Должно быть, он знает несколько иностранных языков. 2. Должно быть, он сейчас работает над этой проблемой. 3. Наверное, они сейчас наслаждаются прекрасной погодой. 4. Наверное, она пытается найти старые письма. 5. Вероятно, они сейчас любуются красотой южной природы. 6. Вероятно, он уже вернулся с юга. 7. Наверное, она потеряла мой адрес. 8. Должно быть, они уже закончили свою работу. 9. Вероятно, он всё* рассказал на суде. 10. Должно быть, она всё приготовила заранее. 11. Должно быть, он ещё здесь. 12. Должно быть, они только что пришли. 13. По-видимому, он унёс бумаги с собой. 14. Очевидно, здесь уже кто-то был. 15. Вероятно, они над ним смеются. 16. Должно быть, они тогда жили здесь. 17. Должно быть, идёт дождь. 18. Вероятно, это здесь.

  61. Словарь

  62. Yield-текучесть металла

  63. То bend-гнуть

  64. То shear-резать, обрезать

  65. Fracture-разрушение

  66. Compression-сжатие

  67. External forces-внешние силы

  68. То respond-отвечать, реагировать

  69. Модальный глагол "May" и его эквиваленты.

  70. Модальный глагол "May" ("might") имеет два значения: 1) разрешения

  71. May I smoke hеге?-Можно здесь курить?

  72. В этом значении глагол "May" соответствует русскому «можно», «разрешите» и может употребляться только с простым инфинитивом в

  73. утвердительном и вопросительном предложении. Отрицательная форма "may not", выражающая запрещение, категорический отказ, употребляется сравнительно редко. Для выражения запрещения употребляются формы "can't", "mustn't".

  74. May I open the window?-No, you mustn't.-Можно открыть окно?-Нет, нельзя.

  75. В прошедшем времени глагол "may" имеет форму "might".

  76. I was told I might place an advertisement in the newspaper.-Мне сказали, что я могу (мне разрешили) поместить объявление в газете. 2) предположения, допускаемой возможности

  77. Не may come any minute now.-Он может прийти в любую минуту.

  78. В этом значении глагол "may" соответствует в русском языке словам «может», «может быть», «возможно».

  79. Упражнения 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, определите в них функцию модального глагола "may".

  80. 1. Products may have either a simple or a complex cross section. 2. Forging, bending and shearing may be used alone, but often all three are used on one part. 3. Several dies may be used to go from the initial bar to the final shape. 4. The materials may also have permanent deformation or they may fracture. 5. The blip in the up-and-down history of investment tax credits may be in the making. 6. His suggestion may be of little value. 7. They may have taken all the necessary steps, but I'm not quite sure. 8. Look into the canteen. He may be having a snake there now. 9. It's a shame you devote so little time to the child. You might give him more attention. 10. They may have been working at this invention for some time, but I'm not at all sure.

  81. 2. Измените выделенные части предложений, используя модальные глаголы "may" и "must".

  82. 1. Why doesn't he see to it himself? I'm sure he's got plenty of time just now. 2. Is Nick still in the hall? Those pictures have, of course, attracted him though he's usually rather indifferent to painting. 3. Ann hasn't been around since lunch. Perhaps, she's gone to the park, or perhaps she's practising the piano. 4. Don't be so impatient. I'm sure, she is waiting for you somewhere here, though, perhaps she's gone away for a moment. 5. I'm sure she hasn't been working here longer than a fortnight but she's doing very well. 6. Don't accept any offer without thinking it over carefully first, even though it's possible that it '11 seem very good to you at first. 7. The film evidently seemed quite ordinary to him, because he didn't speak very highly of it. 8. Wait a minute. He'll here any moment; / think he's locking the door. 9. Hurry up, perhaps the shop is still open, and we can get what we want. 10. It's no use hurrying. It's already past eight and I'm sure the shops are shut.

  83. Словарь

  84. Simple-простой

  85. Complex-сложный

  86. Permanent-постоянный

  87. Tax-налог

  88. Suggestion-предложение, предположение

  89. Invention-изобретение

  90. То attract-привлекать

  91. Offer-предложение

  92. Evidently - очевидно

  93. Модальный глагол "Need".

  94. Модальный глагол "need"-«надо», «нужно» выражает необходимость в совершении какого-либо действия, необходимость какого-либо предмета.

  95. We need your heIp.-Нам нужна ваша помощь.

  96. Отрицательная форма "needn't "выражает отсутствие необходимости что-либо делать. You needn't do it-Можете это и не делать.

  97. Упражнения 1. В следующих предложениях часть текста написана по-русски. Напишите предложения полностью по-английски, употребляя модальные глаголы need или to have to.

  98. 1. а) Можно было не покупать сахар, and I didn't go to the shop.

  99. b) Why did you go to the shop? Можно было и не покупать сахар: we have enough of it.

  100. 2. а) Мы могли не тревожиться за неё, as we knew that she was taken very
    good care of.

  101. b) He надо было тревожиться за нас: you see that everything is O.K.

  102. 3. а) Можно было и не ходить туда,you have wasted your time. They have
    phoned us and give us all the instructions.

  103. b) Можно было не ходить туда, and we remained at home.

  104. 4. а) Мне не надо было идти в библиотеку, as I had all the books I needed,
    b)
    Незачем было ходить в библиотеку: You have only wasted you time.

  105. Don't you know that I shall give you all the necessary books?

  106. 5. а) Вы могли инее ездить в центр: you could have bought everything you
    needed I the local shops.

  107. b) Я мог не ездить в центр, as a very good department store had recently opened in our part, so I bought there I bought everything I needed.

  108. 6. а) Вы могли и не проверять правописание: the computer can do all the
    correcting.

  109. b) Я мог не проверять правописание: the computer did all the correcting? so it did not take me long to complete my work.

  110. 7. а) Я мог не звонить ему, so I went to bed at Once.

  111. b) It turned out that я мог и не звонить ему, as he knew everything from his sister.

  112. 2. Вставьте модальные глаголы should, need или to have to. Раскройте скобки употребляя требующуюся форму инфинитива.

  113. 1. You ... not (to go) out in this train; as it is you have a cold in your head. 2. It was Sunday, and we not... (to go) to school. 3. Everything is all right. You see that you ... not (to worry). 4. You are out of breath. You ... not (to run): you know how bad it is for you. 5. You ... not (to tell) her about it. Now she is sure not to sleep the whole night worrying. 6. You ... not (to go) with her: she knows the way perfectly well. 7. You ... not (to put) so much pepper in the meat. 8. You ... not (to give) them any lunch. They can get coffee and sandwiches on the train.

  114. Словарь

  115. To worry-переживать, беспокоится

  116. Care-забота, присмотр

  117. To remain-оставаться, остаться

  118. To waste time-тратить время

  119. Necessary-необходимый

  120. Recently-недавно

  121. Correcting-исправления

  122. Модальные глаголы "Should", "Would".

  123. Заменителями модального глагола "Must" Являются модальные глаголы "Should", "Would" в значении совета, рекомендации упрёка.

  124. You should enter the institute.-Вам следует поступить в институт (рекомендация, совет).

  125. В сочетании с перфектным инфинитивом глагол "Should" выражает сожаление о невыполненном действии и переводится «следовало бы».

  126. You should have helped them.-Вам следовало бы помочь им (но вы этого не сделали).

  127. Модальный глагол "Would" может иметь следующие значения:

  128. 1) Вежливая просьба

  129. Would you help me?-He поможете ли вы мне?

  130. 2) Повторяемость действия в прошлом

  131. Не would often help me.-Он, бывало, часто помогал мне.

  132. 3) Стойкое нежелание совершать какие-либо действия
    Не wouldn't listen to me.-Он никак не хотел слушать меня.

  133. Упражнения 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, определите в них функцию модальных глаголов "Should", "Would".

  1. The slag cover should be as thin as possible. 2. The operator has always the possibility to intervene, should it be necessary. 3. "You shouldn't stare at people like that. It's impolite," said the mother. 4. "I think you should wear this dress for the occasion. You look very nice in it." 5. You shouldn't't have given in. You were right. 6. Your friend should have reserved a table in advance. 7. Why should you be responsible for something that happen in another department?

  2. Измените, следующие предложения таким образом, чтобы в них использовался модальный глагол "Should".

  1. Model: I don't advise you to make marks on the book. You shouldn't make marks on the book.

  2. 1 J don't advise you to insist on his doing the work. He's not skilled enough. 2. It's a pity you didn't apologize to him. He felt terribly hurt, I'm sure. 3. / don't think it was right of him to complain. He was wrong himself. 4. / don't advise you to get discouraged so easily, it would be better to follow the path you've chosen in spite of all difficulties. 5. I'm sorry I didn't encourage my son to practice the piano every day. 6. You'd better put up with these small discomforts. 7. I've advised her to speak to him frankly. It will improve things. 8. / don't advise them to make a decision in a hurry. It would be better if they considered the matter carefully.

  3. 2. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский, используя модальный глагол "Should".

  4. 1. Вам следует ещё раз обдумать это предложение, прежде чем отвергать его. 2. Он должен был бы отказаться от предложения, если он был так занят. 3. Этот вопрос уже давно следовало бы решить. 4. Вам следовало бы уделять больше времени этой работе. Она очень важна. 5. Почта закрыта сейчас, ему следовало бы зайти за посылкой после работы. 6. Тебе нужно взять плащ. Прогноз погоды обещает кратковременные дожди. 7.Этот диван нужно убрать отсюда. Он слишком велик для такой комнаты. 8. Ему не следовало

  5. бы заставлять нас ждать так долго. 9. Почему я должен принять его предложение? Я не согласен с ним. 10. Почему он должен хвалить вашу работу? Она неудовлетворительна.

  6. Словарь

  7. То reserve-заказывать, заказать

  8. In advance-заранее

  9. То be responsible-быть ответственным

  10. То consider-считать, обдумывать

  11. То insist-настаивать

  12. Frankly-честно, откровенно

  13. То refuse-отказываться, отказаться

  14. Придаточные предложения условия и времени, действие которых отнесено к будущему.

  15. В придаточных предложениях условия и времени с союзами //(если), when (когда), after (после), before (перед, до), as soon as (как только), unless (если не), until (до тех пор пока), будущее время заменяется формой настоящего времени, но на русский язык переводится будущим, например:

  16. If you help me, I shall do this wогк.-Если ты поможешь мне, я сделаю эту работу.

  17. As soon as I get free, I'll come to you.-Как только я освобожусь. Я приду к тебе.

  18. We shall not begin until you come.-Мы не начнём, пока ты не придёшь.

  19. Упражнения 1. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужную форму.

  20. 1. Не (go) out when the weather (get) warmer. 2. I (wait) for you until you (come) back from school. 3. I'm afraid the train (start) before we (come) to the station. 4. We (go) to the country tomorrow if the weather (to be) fine. 5. We (not pass) the examination next year if we not (work) harder. 6. If you (not drive) more carefully you (have) an accident. 7. You (be) late if you (not take) a taxi. 8.I (finish) reading this book before I (go) to bed. 9. You must (send) us a telegram as soon as you (arrive). 10. We (have) a picnic tomorrow if it (be) a fine day. 11. We (go) out when it (stop) raining. 12. We (not to have) dinner until you (come). 13. I'm sure they (write) to us when they (know) our new address.

  21. 2. Составьте из двух предложений одно по образцу.

  22. Model: You are going to leave soon. You must visit the museum before that. You must visit the museum before you leave.

  1. I'll find somewhere to live. Then I'll give you my address.

  2. It's going to start raining. Let's go out before that.

  3. I'm going to do the shaping. Then I'll come straight back home.

  4. You'll be in London next month. You must come and see me then.

  5. I'm going to finish reading this book. Then I'll get the dinner ready.

  6. We'll make our decision. Then we'll let you know.

  1. 3. Вставьте //или when.

  2. 1. I'm going to Paris next week I'm there, I hope to visit a friend of

  3. mine. 2. Tom might phone this evening. ... he does, can you take a message. 3. I think he'll get the job. I'll be very surprised ... he doesn't get it. 4. I hope to be there by 10.30. But ... I'm not there, don't wait for me. 5. I'm going shopping. ...you want anything, I can get it for you. 6.I think I'll go home now. I'm feeling very tired. I think I'll go straight to bed ... I get home. 7. I'm going away for a few days. I'll hope to see you ... I get back. 8.I want you to come to the party but... you don't want to come, you needn't.

  4. Словарь

  5. Warmer-теплее

  6. Until-до тех пор, пока

  7. То start-начинать, отправляться

  8. Harder-сильнее, упорнее

  9. Carefully-осторожно, аккуратно

  10. Accident-несчастный случай, происшествие

  11. Придаточные предложения цели с союзом "so that".

  12. В придаточном предложении цели с союзом "so that" могут употребляться модальные глаголы "can"("could"), "will" ("would"), a также "may" ("might") и "shall" ("should").

  13. Если сказуемое главного предложения стоит в одном из настоящих времён или в повелительном наклонении, то в придаточном предложении употребляются "can", "will"; если сказуемое главного предложения стоит в одном из прошедших времён, то в придаточном предложении употребляется "could", "would". Употребление "shall" ("should") в таких

  14. предложениях является устаревшим, употребление "may" ("might") характерно для книжной речи.

  15. Упражнения 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкции с союзом "so that".

  1. Good forging makes the flow lines in the finished part oriented so that they lie in the direction of maximum stress when the part is placed in service. 2. I'll do the packing now, so that I'll have time for a snack before the journey. 3. The teacher told the boy to watch the machine at work so that he could learn to handle it quicker. 4. I advise him to carry on with his lessons so that he will keep up his English. 5. We must leave home two hours before the plane takes off so that we can get there without hurrying. 6. Ken had to save part of the money he earned so that his brother could complete his experiments.

  2. Из двух предложений составьте одно, используя союз "so that" и делая необходимые изменения.

  1. 1. The boy fetched a stronger bulb. He wanted his friend to examine the collection. 2. The doctor insists on your staying in bed. He wants you to get over your illness quickly. 3. All the boxes must be marked properly. The nurse must find the medicine quickly. 4. They gave him an exact description of the place. They wanted him to find the house without asking anybody to show him the way. 5. The sales-woman showed me a variety of dresses. She wanted to help me to pick out a dress for the happy occasion.

  2. Словарь

  3. To have a snack-перекусить

  4. To handle-управлять, управляться

  5. Hurrying-спешка

  6. To earn-заработать, зарабатывать

  7. To complete-завершить, закончить

  8. Bulb-лупа

  9. Exact-точный

  10. Occasion-случай

  11. Придаточные предложения сравнения с союзами "as if

  12. и "as though".

  13. В придаточном предложении сравнения с союзами "as if и "as

  14. though" обычно употребляется сослагательное наклонение II.

  15. Если сказуемое придаточного предложения выражает действие, одновременное с действием главного предложения, в придаточном предложении употребляется форма, совпадающая с Past Indefinite (от глагола to be форма were).

  16. Если сказуемое придаточного предложения выражает действие, предшествующее действию главного предложения, употребляется форма, совпадающая с Past Perfect.

  17. She talks to me as if I were a child.-Она говорит со мной так, как будто я ребёнок.

  18. She talked as though she were in a hurry.-Она говорила так, как будто торопилась.

  19. She speaks English as if she had been brought up in England.-Она говорит по-английски, как будто воспитывалась в Англии.

  20. Упражнения 1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на конструкции с союзами "as if и "as though".

  21. 1. Why do you speak as though you were trying to prove something to me? The case is quite clear. 2. It's no use inviting him to the concert, he'll refuse to join us, I'm sure. It looks as if he didn't care for this kind of music. 3. The woman only shook her head silently as though she were afraid to show her real feelings. 4. Mr. Wilson stared at the newcomer as though he were surprised to see him at the hotel. 5. When Jim and Ted met after the conference, they shook hands in a most friendly manner, as if they had always got on well together.

  22. 2. Замените выделенные слова, используя союзы "as if и "as though".

  23. 1. Uncle Seneca looked at Frank closely as if seeing him for the first time, 2, Mr. Wilson walked up to George's room as if in a dream. 3. Mr. Porcharlester complained that Mrs. Linda Green always revived him very coldly, so that you might think they had never met before. 4. Miss Bradley stood at the platform, looking so helpless that you might think she had never found herself in a situation like that before. 5. The young engineer looked at the machine in a way that gave you the impression he didn 't know how to handle it. 6. "Hurry up, boys," the man cried out, "you are moving about so slowly that one might think you hadn 't had anything to eat for a week."

  24. 3. Дополните следующие предложения, используя необходимое время.

  25. 1. The young man spoke in a loud voice, as if (as though) he ... (to speak to a big audience, to want to prove something, to be proud to declare his views). 2. The girl shivered, as if (as though) she ... (to get wet through, not to feel well, to be unable to stand the sight). 3. He looks as if (as though) he ... (still to be unable to get over the news, to do something wrong, to be disappointed in something). 4. She speaks of the event as if (as though) she ... (to see it herself, to be quite different to it, to find it very boring). 5. She looked pale, as if (as though) she ... (to be ill for a long time, to be going to faint, to practice too much indoors, not to recover completely). 6. She shook her head slowly, as if (as though)... (to hesitate whether to accept the offer, to make up one's mind to deny everything, still not to be obvious).

  26. Словарь

  27. To prove-доказывать

  28. To refuse-отказываться

  29. To stare-уставиться

  30. To shiver-вздрагивать, вздрогнуть

  31. To be unable-быть неспособным

  32. Boring -скучный

  33. Страдательный залог.

  34. Пассивный или страдательный залог используется для выражения действий, совершаемых над объектами, а не действий, совершаемых субъектами.

  35. Если неизвестен тот, кто совершает действие, используется: to be +III форма глагола.

  36. Present Indefinite-The flower is broken. Past Indefinite-The flower was broken. Future Indefinite-The flower will be broken.

  37. Если субъект воздействия известен, используется предлог "by": The flower is broken by him.

  38. Образование пассивного залога возможно не всеми глаголами, а лишь с объектами, отвечающими на вопрос: что делает?; кем читается?; за кем пришли?; кого учат? и др.

  39. При переводе пассивного залога только из контекста становится ясно, о чём идёт речь: о процессе или о результате воздействия.

  40. Если важно подчеркнуть факт действия, используется Present Indefinite: The flowers are usually broken by people.

  41. Если важно подчеркнуть результат действия, используется Present Perfect: The flower has been broken by me.

  42. Упражнения 1. Прочтите предложения. Перепишите, подчеркнув конструкцию пассивного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  43. 1. Metals are materials most widely used in industry. 2. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy. 3. Irregular crystals in metal are called grains. 4. Both effects (deformation and failure) are taken into account by engineers. 5. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds. Bur special conditions are required for metals that react with air. 6. Steels of low carbon content are quite ductile and are used in the manufacture of sheet iron, wire, and pipes. 7. Medium-carbon steels are tougher and stronger and are used as structural steels. 8. High-carbon steels are hard and brittle and are used in cutting tools, surgical instruments, razor blades and springs.

  44. 2. Переведите предложения с русского на английский язык, обращая внимание на конструкции пассивного залога.

  45. 1, Сталь, содержащая 4 процента кремния, используется как электромагнит, так как её большие зёрна действуют как маленькие магниты. 2. Нагревание материалов, содержащих углерод или азот, используется для получения упругой поверхности стали. 3. Закалка-это горячая обработка, при которой металл высокой температуры быстро охлаждается, путём погружения его в воду или масло. 4. Отпуск-это горячая обработка, при которой материал высокой температуры медленно охлаждается. 5. Все эти методы горячей обработки стали используются для получения стали с определёнными механическими свойствами для определённых нужд.

  46. Словарь

  47. Property-свойство Metallurgy-металлургия Grain-зерно

  48. Failure-повреждение, разрушение То melt-плавить, плавиться

  49. Согласование времён.

  50. Согласование времён необходимо в сложноподчинённых предложениях между главным и придаточным предложением.

  51. Если главное предложение находится в настоящем или будущем времени, то придаточное дополнительное ставится в то время, которое требуется по смыслу.

  52. Если действие обоих сказуемых совершается одновременно, то в придаточном предложении сказуемое употребляется в Past Indefinite или Past Continuous, которые переводятся на русский язык глаголами в настоящем времени: Не said that he was busy.

  53. Если действие, выраженное сказуемым придаточного предложения, предшествовало действию, выраженному сказуемым главного предложения, то в придаточном предложении сказуемое употребляется в Past Perfect и на русский язык переводится в прошедшем времени: Не said that he had been busy yesterday.

  54. Если в придаточном предложении действие произойдёт в будущем, то вместо вспомогательных глаголов "shall", "will" употребляются вспомогательные глаголы "should", "would". На русский язык глагол сказуемое придаточного предложения переводится будущим временем Не said that he would be busy tomorrow.

  55. Упражнения 1. Перепишите предложения, вставляя глагол в придаточном предложении в нужную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  56. 1. Both effects (deformation and failure) are taken into account by engineers when they (to design) airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. 2. This table displays that elements' properties are changed periodically when they (to arrange) according to atomic weight. 3. Mendeleyev wrote two-volume "Principles of Chemistry" which (to become) a classic textbook in chemistry. 4. In 1871 he published an improved version of the periodic table, in which he (to leave) gars for elements that (not to be) known at that time. 5. His table and theories were proved later when three predicted elements: gallium, germanium, and scandium (to discover). 6. He found that the best proportion of alcohol and water in vodka (to be) 40%.

  57. 2. Переделайте следующие предложения из прямой речи в косвенную, соблюдая правила согласования времён.

  1. Не said: "I like my dog Jock."

  2. Mary said: "I'm going to the party with my brother."

  3. They said: "We have plenty of time to do our work."

  1. Fred said: "George has written me a long letter.'

  2. The boys said: "We are very tired."

  3. The teacher said: "You sing very nicely, Margaret."

  4. The teacher said: "I am giving a prize for the best homework."

  5. The boy said: "I am French but I have learned English at school."

  6. The girl said to the dog: "I will take you to my house."

  1. Mary said: "You can come with us if you like."

  2. Fred said: "If it rains I shall get wet."

  3. The teacher said: "I'm going to give you an exercise on Indirect Speech. It will not be easy, but if you are thoughtful you can do it, as I have given you all the information you need. You can look in your book if you wish, but I don't want you to ask anyone to help you."

  1. Словарь

  2. To take into account-принимать во внимание To display-демонстрировать, показывать Periodically-периодично Volume-том, значение

  3. Сложное дополнение.

  4. Сложное дополнение - это сочетание существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже с инфинитивом или причастием I.

  5. 1.С инфинитивом без частицы to или с причастием I после глаголов

  6. восприятия.

  7. See / saw him drive the car. I saw them working in the lab.

  8. Watch We watched the plane land. We watched the children playing in

  9. the yard.

  10. Notice Nobody noticed him go out. He didn 't notice that happen

  11. Feel She felt somebody touch her hand. They didn't feel the train

  12. start.

  13. Hear / didn't hear you come into the room. I heard her playing piano.

  14. В первом случае подчёркивается факт действия, во втором процесс -действия.

  15. I saw him enter the house.-Я видел, как он вошёл в дом.

  16. I saw him entering the house.-Я видел, как он входил в дом.

  17. 2.С инфинитивом без частицы to после глаголов:

  18. То let Don't let them play in the street.

  19. To make Don't let me laugh.

  20. З. С инфинитивом с частицы to после глаголов:

  21. То want / want you to find me a place in the first row.

  22. To expect / expect you to come in time.

  23. To believe / believe her to be a very good teacher.

  24. To know / know him to be a good student.

  25. To advise / advise you to enter the institute.

  26. To consider The climate in England is considered to be mild.

  27. To order He is ordered not to be late.

  28. To allow They allow to use dictionaries at the exam.

  29. To like / would like you to finish your work.

  30. To find I find your story to be very interesting.

  31. Упражнения 1. поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму.

  32. 1. Не made me (do) it all over again. 2. Her father made her (learn) the lessons. 3. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start at once). 4. Would you like me (read) now? 5. They won't let us (leave) the classroom till our control work has been checked. 6. He wouldn't let the children (play) in his study. 7. Please let me (know) the results of our exam as soon as possible. 8. He made us (wait) for two hours. 9.1 let him (go) early as he has done his task. 10. I'd like him (enter) the institute but I can't make him (do) it. 11. I want her (learn) English. 12. I herd the door (open) and saw my friend (come) into the room. 13. I heard her (play) the piano. 14. I saw him (go out) of the house. 15. The teacher advised us (use) dictionaries. 16. Her father doesn't allow her (go) to the cinema alone. 17. We expect our basketball team (win) next game. 18. We don't want you (tell) anything. 19. I saw them (open) the window. 20. That is too difficult for you to do, let me (help) you.

  33. 2. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский.

  34. 1. Вы хотите, чтобы дети играли здесь? 2. Вы хотите, чтобы мы встретились сегодня? 3. Вы ожидаете, что работа будет сделана скоро? 4. Мы ожидаем, что они хорошо проведут у нас время. 5. Я хочу, чтобы он закончил эту рабoту. 6. Мы слышали, что она знает, когда мы сдаём экзамены. 7. Вы хотите, чтобы мы обсудили этот вопрос сегодня? 8. Мы ожидаем, что на этом месте будет построен новый дом. 9. Вы хотели бы, чтобы работа была сделана сегодня?

  35. Словарь

  36. То make somebody do something-заставить кого-то делать что-то

  37. Quickly-быстро

  38. То check-проверять, проверить

  39. Study-кабинет

  40. To enter-поступать, входить

  41. To advise-советовать

  42. To allow-позволять, позволить

  43. To expect-ожидать

  44. To spend time-проводить время

  45. To discuss-обсуждать

  46. Самостоятельная работа

  47. «Времена английского глагола»

  48. Вариант 1 I, Вставьте нужную форму глагола. Переведите отрывок на русский

  49. язык.

  50. Metals (to be) important in industry because they can be easily deformed into useful shapes. A lot of metalworking processes have been developed for certain applications. They can be divided into five broad groups:

  1. rolling,

  2. extrusion,

  3. drawing,

  4. forging,

  5. sheet-metal forming.

  1. During the first four processes metal is subjected to large amounts of strain (deformation). But if deformation (to go) at a high temperature» the metal (to recrystailize)~that is, new strain-free grains (to grow) instead of deformation grains. This is called hot-working. Under these conditions there (to be) no limit to the compressive plastic strain to which the metal can be subjected.

  2. Other processes are performed below the recrystallization temperature. These are called cold working. Cold working (to harden) metal and (to make) the part stronger. However, there (to be) a limit to the strain before a cold part (to crack).

  3. 2. Переведите на английский язык.

  1. Способность металла перекристаллизовываться при высокой температуре используется при горячей обработке.

  2. Перекристаллизация - это рост новых, свободных от деформации зерен.

  3. Во время горячей обработки металл может подвергаться очень большой пластической деформации сжатия.

  4. Самостоятельная работа «Времена английского глагола»

  5. Вариант 2

  6. 1. Вставьте нужную форму глагола. Переведшие отрывок на русский

  7. язык.

  8. Extrusion (to push) the billet to flow through the orifice of a die. Products may have either a simple or a complex cross section. Aluminum window frames (to be) the examples of complex extrusions.

  9. Tubes or other hollow parts can also be extruded. The initial piece (to be) a thick-walled tube, and the extruded part is shaped between a die on the outside of the tube and a mandrel held on the inside.

  10. In impact extrusion (also called back-extrusion) (штамповка выдавливанием), the workpiece is placed in the bottom of a hole and a loosely fitting ram is pushed against it. The ram (to force) the metal to flow back around it, with the gap between the ram and the die determining the wall thickness. The example of this process (to be) the manufacturing of aluminum beer cans.

  11. 2. Переведите на английский язык,

  1. Поперечное сечение фильеры для экструзии может быть простым или сложным.

  2. Алюминиевые и медные сплавы являются наилучшими для экструзии из-за их пластичности при деформации.

  3. Алюминиевые банки, тюбики для зубной пасты являются примерами использования штамповки выдавливанием.

  4. Самостоятельная работа «Времена английского глагола»

  5. Вариант 3

  6. 1. Вставьте нужную форму глагола. Переведите отрывок на русский
    язык,

  7. Metals (to be) materials most widely used in industry, because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

  8. The separation between the atoms in metals (to be) small, so most metals (to be) dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals (to be) malleable (can be deformed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals (to vary) greatly in their properties. For example, lead (to be) soft and can be band by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

  9. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals (to give) them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals (to depend) on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains (to be) harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

  10. 2. Переведите на английский язык,

  1. Металлы - плотные материалы потому, что между атомами в металлах малое расстояние.

  2. Металлы имеют кристаллическую структуру из-за правильного расположения атомов.

  3. Чем меньше зерна, тем тверже металл.

  4. Самостоятельная работа

  5. «Времена английского глагола»

  6. Вариант 4 1. Вставьте нужную форму глагола. Переведите отрывок на русский

  7. Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing (to control) the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it (to change) the grain structure and properties of metals.

  8. All metals can he formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some (require) hot-working. Metals (to be) subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lamer, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

  9. The ways of working the metal (to depend) on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metal that (to react) with air.

  10. 2. Переведите на английский язык.

  1. Закалка и отжиг изменяют форму и размер зерен в металлах.

  2. Легирование изменяет структуру зерен и свойства металлов.

  3. Металл деформируется и разрушается из-за усталости и ползучести.

  4. Самостоятельная работа

  5. «Времена английского глагола»

  6. Вариант 5

  7. 1. Вставьте нужную форму глагола. Переведите отрывок на русский
    язык.

  8. Sheet metal forming (штамповка листового металла) is widely used when parts of certain shape and size are needed. It (to include) forging, bending and shearing. One characteristic of sheet metal forming (to be) that the thickness of the sheet (to change) little in processing. The metal is stretched just beyond its yield point (2 to 4 percent strain) in order to retain the new shape. Bending can be done by pressing between two dies. Shearing (to be) a cutting operation similar to that used for cloth.

  9. Each of these processes may be used alone, but often all three are used on one part. For example, to make the roof of an automobile from a flat sheet, the edges are gripped and the piece pulled in tension over a lower die. Next an upper die is pressed over the top, finishing the forming operation (штамповку), and finally the edges are sheared off to give the final dimension.

  10. 2. Переведите на английский язык.

  1. Штамповка листового металла включает в себя ковку, изгиб и обрезку.

  2. Небольшая деформация листа при растяжении помогает сохранить новую форму детали.

  3. Изменение формы при штамповке производится путем сжатия между двумя штампами.

  4. Test "Model Verbs".

  5. Вариант 1 1. Вставьте пропущенные модальные глаголы. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  6. 1. The blip in the up-and-down history of investment tax credits ... be in the
    making.

  7. A. should B. may C. need

  8. 2. You .. .not have given in. You were right.

  9. A. must B. should C. may

  10. 3. A minimum time after last addition of 5-7 minutes for homogenization ...
    included in the total cycle time.

  11. A. must B. need С can

  12. 4. Iron ... only be worked by hammering at red heat.

  13. A. need B. may C. can

  14. 5. Products ... have either a simple or a complex cross section.

  15. A. may B. should С must

  16. 6. If you want to improve your English, you ... work very hard.

  17. A. must B. can С Need

  18. 7. ... I take this book? - Certainly, but you ... not give it to anybody.

  19. A. can B. need С must

  20. 8. Mother, ... I go to the country tomorrow? - No, you ... not. The doctor says
    you ... stay at home for a day or two.

  21. A. need B. can C. must

  22. 9. There is something wrong with your television-set. You ... call a repair-man.
    Oh, we ... not do it! My brother ... fix it himself.

  23. A. must B. need С Can

  24. 10. ... we bring these text-books every day? - No, you ... not: you ... take them
    from the library.

    1. A. must B. can

    1. C. need

    1. 11.

    1. I ... get up early on Monday.

    1. A. should B. must

    1. C. need

    1. 12.

    1. I.. not to get up early on Sunday.

    1. A. need B. may

    1. С must

    1. 13.

    1. You ... speak English, ... you?

    1. A. can B. may

    1. C. need

    1. 14.

    1. He ... come to see her.

    1. A. may B. must

    1. C. should

    1. 15.

    1. She ... not go there now.

    1. A. may B. need

    1. С must

  25. Test "Model Verbs".

  26. Вариант 2 1. Вставьте пропущенные модальные глаголы. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  27. 1. For a metal the yield strength ... be less than the fracture strength, which is the
    stress at which it breaks.

  28. A. must B. can C. may

  29. 2. Engineers ... know how materials respond to external forces, such as tension,
    compression, torsion, bending, and shear.

  30. A. must B. need С should

  31. 3. Metals are ductile that is why they ... be drawn into wire.

  32. A. can B. may С must

  33. 4. "You ... not stare at people like that. It's impolite," said the mother.

  34. A. need B. can С should

  35. 5. In order not to superheat the ladle shell by induction heating, the area facing the
    stirrer ... be made of nomagnetic steel.

  36. A. must B. need C. can

  37. 6. ...you go to the country with us? - No, I am afraid I ... not: I ... go to the
    library.

  38. A. must B. can С need

  39. 7. You ... not come to help them tomorrow: the work is done.

  40. A. may B. need С must

  41. 8. You ... not to change the whole text as the beginning is all right. You ... only
    rewrite the second part of it.

  42. A. should B. need С must

  43. 9. ... you help me now? - I am afraid not: I am in a great hurry. I shall be free in
    the evening. Come to my place at about eight, I ... help you.

  44. A. can B. will be able С may

  45. 10. John ... not tell us the rules of the game: we know them.

  46. A. may B. need С should

  47. 11. You ... to be more careful.

  48. A. need B. should С must

  49. 12. He ... be at school now.

  50. A. should B. must С can

  51. 13. ... you lend me your dictionary? Of course, I ... Here you are.

  52. A. can B. may С must

  53. 14. You help your sister.

  54. A. should B. need С must

  55. 15. ... I have another cup of tea?

  56. A. may B. can С should

  57. Семестровая контрольная работа №1 ,

  58. Вариант 1

  59. 1.Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в одном из времен группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite)

  1. Metals (to be) materials most widely used in industry because of their properties.

  2. The separation between the atoms in metals (to be) small, so most metals (to be) dense.

  3. That is why metals (to be) malleable and ductile.

  4. Metals (to vary) greatly in their properties.

  5. Lead (to be) soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat

  1. 2 Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Efficiencies vary from 60 to 90 per cent depending on the process.

  2. Coating with oxide molten-metal droplets become entrapped in the weld and make the joint brittle.

  3. Adding for specific properties some valuable materials react so quickly on exposure to the air that the metal deposited does not have the same composition as it had initially.

  4. The codes representing these parts would come along wires to the production computer.

  1. 5. The factory's administration would keep track of the operation getting
    information from the system by keying in instruction to their terminals.

  2. 3.Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Continuous .Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  3. 1. Extrusion (to push) the billet to flow through the orifice of a die.

  4. 2. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and
    metallurgy, scientists
    (to find) new ways of using metals, plastics and other
    materials.

  5. 3. They (to develop) mines, torpedoes, and other explosives.

  6. 4. Tightening environmental legislation throughout industrial areas (to put)
    manufacturers into a dilemma.

  7. 5. Blast cleaning and abrasive techniques (to become) the standard treatment for
    ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

  8. 4. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  9. 1. Watt was the partner of the inventor John Roebuck, who (to finance) his
    researches.

  1. Gates (to accumulate) great wealth from his holdings of Microsoft stock.

  2. These problems (to led) to the use of fluxes and inert atmosphere.

  1. Gas-shielded arc welding (to become) increasingly important because it can deposit more material at a higher efficiency.

  2. In an effort to satisfy the demands of the market, designers (to concentrate) on ways of increasing melted capacities and decreasing power unit.

  1. 5. Переведите на русский язык.

  2. Fatigue is the growth of cracks under stress. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress, such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit, failure of the material can occur even after a short time. No deformation is seen during fatigue, but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. Knowledge of tensile stress, elastic limits, and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering.

  3. Семестровая контрольная работа №1

  4. Вариант 2 1.Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в одном из времен группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite)

  1. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals (to give) them a crystalline structure.

  2. The properties of the metals (to depend) on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of the grains.

  3. In general, a metal with small grains (to be) harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

  1. 4 Heat treatment, such as quenching tempering, or annealing (to control) the nature of the grains and their size in the metal.

  2. 5. All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some (to require) hot-working.

  3. 2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Moving or turning the part between blows it is shaped.

  2. Several dies may be used to go from the initial bar to the final shape involving complex shapes and large strains.

  3. Involving small strains coining is done cold.

  4. Electrum is a natural or artificial alloy of gold and silver containing 15-45 per cent of silver.

  5. Broadly speaking, we can say that the arc column is complex, but consists of a cathode that emits electrons.

  1. 3. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Continuous .Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  2. 1. One-peace wheel covers (to show-) little sign of wear after five years of use.

  3. 2. Cleaning systems steadily (to replace) traditional, labour-intensive cleaning
    methods in the automotive plants in Europe.

  1. In the critical applications for which one American firm (to perform) its service. quality control of the process was absolutely essential.

  2. The tonnage mills themselves (to swing) to electric furnaces and scrap.

  3. Amongst industry seers there seems to be virtually no doubt that scrap supply and prices (to make) headlines.

  1. 4. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Increased furnace capacities (to mean) higher thermal loading on furnace-shell sidewalks and faster refractory erosion.

  2. Despite significant improvements in refractory materials this (to mean) frequent lining repairs, which are inevitably accompanied by furnace outages.

  1. Demang Metallgewennings (to develop) a tube-wall system, which is said to solve the problem of overly frequent lining repairs.

  2. In recent years the limited supply and high cost of natural gas (to become) readily apparent.

  3. Three companies that (to develop) extensive systems built around nitrogen-based furnace atmospheres are Air Products Inc., the Lind Division of Union Carbide Corporation.

  1. 5. Переведите на русский язык.

  2. Lathe is still the most important machine-tool. It produces parts of circular cross-section by turning the workpiece on its axis and cutting its surface with a sharp stationary tool. The tool may be moved sideways to produce a cylindrical part and moved towards the workpiece to control the depth of cut. Nowadays all lathes are power-driven by electric motors. That allows continuous rotation of the workpiece at a variety of speeds.

  3. Семестровая контрольная работа №1

  4. Вариант 3 1.Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в одном из времен группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite)

  5. l.Yawata's (a Japanese firm) steel sheet piling (to have) so ample types and shapes, that it can meet any construction or foundation work.

  1. For a long time in Japan, coal and hydraucally-generated electricity (to play) the major role in energy.

  2. According to the recent statistics, petroleum (to provide) close to 60% of the total energy consumption.

  3. And thermal power plants, (to use) heavy oil to generate more than 50% of their energy product.

  4. Japan (to have) practically no oil wells and has to depend upon foreign sources for 99% of its oil requirements.

  1. 2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Stretching the metal just beyond its yield point we retain the new shape.

  2. Pressing between two dies bending can be done.

  3. Making the roof of an automobile from a flat sheet they gripped the edges and pulled the piece in tension over a lower die.

  4. Next an upper die is pressed over the top, finishing the forming operation, and finally the edges are speared off to give the final dimensions.

  5. Making parts that are too big to be formed in a closed die the open-die forging is usually used.

  1. 3. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Continuous .Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Production now (to return) to near-record levels.

  2. It says that secondary aluminum capacity (to head) upward to keep pace with projections of consumption increases of up to 6 % per year.

  3. To remove the worn refractory lining of an electric introduction furnace has been a labor-intensive and time-consuming process in the past, because hand tools had to be used and mechanization (to lack).

  4. Equipment rebuilding capabilities will be demonstrated with a rebuilt shall core machine which (to produce) cores.

  5. Company (to produce) information about its full line of foundry materials and services including new products.

  1. 4. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  2. 1. Despite some advantages only a relatively small number of heat treaties (to switch) to nitrogen-based industrial gas atmospheres.

  1. Aetna-Standard (to design and build) over 50 seamless tube mills in the last 55 years, but it's our ability to keep improving our designs that (to make) us a leader in today's world market.

  2. The process (to gain) worldwide recognition for economy, reliability, and ease of operation.

  3. Krupp (to gain) long-standing experience in the field of steel making and plant constructions.

  4. In the U.S. Almco Industrial Finishing Systems they (to develop) an "exclusive" automatic time-cycle as an optional feature in continuous vibratory-parts finishing.

  1. 5. Переведите на русский язык.

  2. Density is the amount of mass in a unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic meter. The density of water is 1000 kg/m but most materials have a higher density and sink in water. Aluminum alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg/m are considerably less dense than steels, which have typical densities around 7S00 kg/m. density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.

  3. Семестровая контрольная работа №1

  4. Вариант 4 1.Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в одном из времен группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite)

  1. However, this dependency on foreign oil supplies (to work) as an advantage for Japanese industry, for it (to play) an instrumental part not only in putting the Japanese shipbuilding industry into world leadership but also in giving the chemical and petrochemicals industries the competitive power they (to need) to sell their processed products in the international market place.

  2. Process industries such as oil refining and petrochemicals (to need) sizable installations having miles of pipeline and piping system for processing the finished products all the way from basic raw materials.

  3. And it (to be) no exaggeration to say that steel is used in every section of such installations

  1. 2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. High-carbon steels containing from 0.4 to 1.5 per cent carbon are hard and brittle.

  2. Tool steel, also called silver steel, containing about 1 per cent carbon is strengthened and toughened by quenching and tempering.

  1. 3. Steel containing 4 per cent silicon is used for transformer cores or
    electromagnets.

  2. 4.Steel which contains 4 per cent silicon is used for transformer cores because it has large grains acting like small magnets.

  3. 5.Using all methods of steel heat treatment we obtain steels with certain mechanical properties for certain needs.

  4. 3. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Continuous .Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Two mixers (to operate) in the exhibit next year.

  2. Individual products to be highlighted (to cast) handling turntable, rotary screens, bucket elevators, hydraulic mold punch outs and programmable logic control systems.

  1. 3. Foundries throughout Europe today (to use) medium frequency coreless
    induction furnaces for duplexing more economically.

  1. The diagram (to cover) the total treatment cycle for the specific steel grade in the ladle furnace.

  2. The process and production control in steelmaking (to become) increasingly important to the steelmaker as the treatment time decreases.

  1. 4. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  2. 1. Shot blasting (to take) over heavy duty cleaning jobs in Holland.

  3. 2. Blass-cleaning (to replace) pickling in the surface treatment of hot brass
    stampings, aluminum die castings and small iron and steel castings up to 250 mm
    diameter.

  1. British Engines (to have) difficulties with effluent control of pickling solutions for copper and zinc components.

  2. Eurofinish (to develop) a tubular system of transducers for continuous in-line cleaning of wire rod and tube.

  3. Rugged and reliable it (to prove) itself over the years in systems used in daily-production.

  1. 5. Переведите на русский язык.

  2. Stiffness is a measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple stretching or compression. It is the ratio of the applied force per unit area to the fractional elastic

  3. Семестровая контрольная работа №1

  4. Вариант 5 1.Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в одном из времен группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Indefinite)

  1. In the petrochemical industry, for the purpose of cutting production costs, there (to be) an unmistakable trend toward larger scale facilities.

  2. It (to be) specially notable that stainless are fast replacing forging in the manufacture of tube plate for heat exchanger and head plate for pressure vessel because of their superior quality and economic advantages.

  3. In addition to the cell method, there (to be) several other methods of constructing quay walls and retaining walls, such as the self-supporting tie-rod system, shelf system, and the vertically driven back-up piling or obliquely driven back-up piling systems.

  1. 2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I и определите его функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  2. 1. The science studying the production and properties of metals is known as
    metallurgy.

  1. The atoms arranging regularly in metals can slide over each other.

  2. Irregular crystals presenting in metals are called grains.

  3. Influencing the properties in metals the amount of carbon presents in steel.

  4. Medium-carbon steels containing from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent carbon are tougher and stronger

  1. 3. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы

  2. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. As more high-strength steel comes to be used as building material, high-strength friction joint bolts (to replace) rivets for joining structural members.

  2. Seaming (to become) a practical joining method as remarkable advances are being made in the techniques.

  3. In a world running short of tin resources, Supercoat (to find) use in an ever wider range of application.

  4. Today, more chemicals (to find) their ways into clothes, more steel into dwelling, and more canned foods into more households.

  5. In Japanese firm Yawata (to manufacture) phosphate treated, sheets under the trade names of Durpaint and Durzinc-Durpaint.

  1. 4. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в одном из времен группы Perfect. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  2. 1. Walter Korner (to invent) an electronically controlled, pneumatic handling device.

  1. While the general process for creating Magnadize coatings applies to most magnesium alloys, the wide range of alloys (to cause) the coating to be refined and adapted to a number of variations to suit the different alloys and their applications.

  2. Penning, the cold working process to improve the strength of metal, (to be) around since the dawn of man's use of tools and weapons.

  3. Grunding (to prepare) a special software programme for the system that includes inch/metric conversion and consideration of accumulative error.

  4. The steel Company of Canada (to finalize) negotiations on a license agreement.

  1. 5. Переведите на русский язык.

  2. Strength is the force per unit area that a material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness, MN/m2. but in this case the deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which a material first deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a higher strength in compression than in tension.

  3. Семестровая контрольная работа №2

  4. Вариант 1 1. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте необходимый модальный глагол. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The atoms in metal are arranged regularly and ... slide over each other.

  2. Engineers ... know how materials respond to external forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bending, and shear.

  3. Products ... have either a simple or a complex cross section

  4. The slag cover ... be as thin as possible

  5. It was Sunday, and we not ... to go to school.

  1. 2. Перепишите сложноподчинённые предложения с придаточными условия, времени, образа действия и сравнения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму Переведите предложения на русский язык..

  1. Не (go) out when the weather (get) warmer.

  2. 2. I'll do the packing now, so that I (to have) time for a snack before the journey

  3. Why do you speak as though you (to try) to prove something to me?

  4. If I (to come) later I (to be) late for the lesson.

  5. You never (to say) he was gloomy if you (to know) him better.

  1. 3. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму в пассивном залоге. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  2. 1. Metals are materials which most widely (to use) in industry.

  3. 2. The study of the production and properties of metals (to know) as metallurgy.

  1. Irregular crystals in metal (to call) grains.

  2. Both effects ('deformation and failure) (to take) into account by engineers.

  1. 3.Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds. But * k.< - ion- iki require) for metals that react with air.

  2. 4. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную
    форму, обращая внимание на согласование времён. Переведите

    предложения на русский язык.

  3. 1. Both effects (deformation and failure) are taken into account by engineers when

  4. they (to design) airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature

  5. chemical processes.

  6. 2.1 did not know that already (to read) this book.

  7. З.Не said that the bus (to be) here soon.

  8. 4.He did it better than I (to expect).

  9. 5.1 think it all happened soon after the meeting (to end).

  10. 5. Перепишите предложения с конструкцией «сложное дополнение».
    Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму. Переведите предложения
    на русский язык.

  11. 1. Не made me (do) it all over again.

  1. Her father made her (learn) the lessons.

  2. If you want us (make) the work quickly you should let us (start at once).

  3. Would you like me (read) now?

  4. They won't let us (leave) the classroom till our control work has been checked.

  5. Переведите на русский язык.

  1. Ductility is the ability of a material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their ability to be deformed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle. Ductile materials can absorb energy by deformation but brittle materials cannot.

  2. Семестровая контрольная работа №2

  3. Вариант 2 1. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте необходимый модальный глагол. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The operator has always the possibility to intervene, ... it be necessary.

  2. Forging, bending and shearing ... be used alone.

  3. . Everything is all right. You see that you ... not worry.

  4. Density is important in any application where the material ... not be heavy.

  5. That is why metals ... be deformed and bent without fracture.

  1. 2. Перепишите сложноподчинённые предложения с придаточными условия, времени, образа действия и сравнения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму Переведите предложения на русский язык..

  1. If he (to know) the time-table he (not to miss) the train.

  2. I (wait) for you until you (come) back from school.

  3. I'm afraid the train (start) before we (come) to the station.

  4. The teacher told the boy to watch the machine at work so that he (can) learn to handle it quicker.

  5. It's no use inviting him to the concert, he'll refuse to join us, I'm sure. It looks as if he (do not care) for this kind of music.

  1. 3. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму в пассивном залоге. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Steels of low carbon content are quite ductile and (to use) in the manufacture of sheet iron, wire, and pipes.

  2. Medium-carbon steels are tougher and stronger and (to use) as structural steels.

  3. High-carbon steels are hard and brittle and (to use) in cutting tools, surgical instruments, razor blades and springs.

  4. I'm not reading these books. They (to return) to the library.

  5. The paintings (to exhibit) till the end of the month.

  1. 4. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму, обращая внимание на согласование времён. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. This table displays that elements' properties are changed periodically when they (to arrange) according to atomic weight.

  2. They decide that they (to bring) us all the necessary books.

  3. He said that he (can) not do it without my help.

  4. He asked the students whether they ever (to see) such a book.

  5. It was decided that we (to start) our work at eight o'clock.

  6. 5. Перепишите предложения с конструкцией «сложное дополнение». Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Не wouldn't let the children (play) in his study.

  2. Please let me (know) the results of our exam as soon as possible.

  3. He made us (wait) for two hours.

  4. I let him (go) early as he has done his task.

  5. I'd like him (enter) the institute but I can't make him (do) it.

  6. Переведите на русский язык.

  1. Toughness is the resistance of a material to breaking when there is a crack in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect present. Toughness is different from strength: the toughest steels, for example, are different from the ones with highest tensile strength.

  2. Семестровая контрольная работа №2

  3. Вариант 3 1. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте необходимый модальный глагол. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. For a metal the yield strength ... be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks.

  2. You ... not go with her: she knows the way perfectly well.

  3. Metals are ductile that is why they ... be drawn into wire.

  4. "You ... not stare at people like that. It's impolite," said the mother.

  5. In order not to superheat the ladle shell by induction heating, the area facing the stirrer ... be made of non magnetic steel.

  1. 2. Перепишите сложноподчинённые предложения с придаточными условия, времени, образа действия и сравнения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму Переведите предложения на русский язык..

  1. The woman only shook her head silently as though she (to be)afraid to show her real feelings.

  2. I advise him to carry on with his lessons so that he (to keep up) his English.

  3. We (go) to the country tomorrow if the weather (to be) fine.

  4. We (not pass) the examination next year if we not (work) harder.

  5. It would be better if you (to learn) the oral topics.

  1. 3. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму в пассивном залоге. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Why your home task (not to do)?

  2. She was taken to the hospital today, and (to operate) tomorrow morning.

  3. This room (to use) only on special occasions.

  4. Bicycles must not (to leave) here.

  5. This newspaper (not read). The pages (not cut).

  1. 4. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму, обращая внимание на согласование времён. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Mendeleyev wrote two-volume "Principles of Chemistry" which (to become) a classic textbook in chemistry.

  2. I told you that I (to leave) for Minsk on the following day.

  3. The boy did not know that he already (to receive) a good mark.

  4. He wanted to know what (to become) of the books.

  5. The visitors were told that the secretary ,just (to 20 out) and (to come back in half an hour.

  6. 5. Перепишите предложения с конструкцией «сложное дополнение». Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  7. 1.1 want her (learn) English.

  8. 2.1 held the door (open) and saw my friend (come) into the room.

  9. 3.1 heard her (play) the piano.

  1. I saw him (go out) of the house.

  2. The teacher advised us (use) dictionaries.

  3. Переведите на русский язык.

  1. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can be broken along a chosen line by first scratching it with a diamond. Composites can be designed to have considerably greater toughness than their constituent materials, the example of я very tough composite is fiberglass that is very flexible and strong.

  2. Семестровая контрольная работа №2

  3. Вариант 4 1. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте необходимый модальный глагол. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The ladle furnace ... be designed, both electrically and mechanically, for short arcs.

  2. Lead is soft and ... be bent by hand. 5. Iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

  3. "I think you ... wear this dress for the occasion. You look very nice in it."

  4. You ... not give them any lunch. They can get coffee and sandwiches on the train. ,

  5. The materials ... also have permanent deformation or they may fracture.

  1. 2. Перепишите сложноподчинённые предложения с придаточными
    условия, времени, образа действия и сравнения. Поставьте глаголы в
    скобках в нужную форму Переведите предложения на русский язык..

  2. 1.1 wish I (to known) this before the examination.

  3. 2.1 would have come to you if you (not to live) so far away.

  1. If you (not drive) more carefully you (have) an accident.

  2. You (be) late if you (not take) a taxi.

  1. 5.1 advise him to carry on with his lessons so that he (to keep up) his English.

  2. 3. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму в пассивном залоге. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination.

  2. Usually this street (to sweep) every day, but it (not to sweep) yesterday.

  3. This book (to leave) in the classroom yesterday; it (to find) by the teacher.

  4. Thousands of new houses (to build) every year.

  5. This room (to use) for a long time.

  1. 4. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму, обращая внимание на согласование времён. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Mendeleyev wrote two-volume "Principles of Chemistry" which (to become) a classic textbook in chemistry.

  2. He said we (may) keep the books as long as we (to like).

  3. We thought that he not (to be able) to make his work in time and therefore (to offer) to help her.

  4. When I came they (to tell) me that he (to leave) half an hour before.

  1. 5. It was soon clear to the teacher that the control work (to be) a difficult one.

  2. 5. Перепишите предложения с конструкцией «сложное дополнение».
    Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму. Переведите предложения
    на русский язык.

  1. Her rather doesn't allow her (go) to the cinema alone.

  2. We expect our basketball team (win) next game.

  3. We don't want you (tell) anything. 4.I saw them (open) the window,

  1. 5. That is too difficult for you to do, let me (help) you.

  2. Семестровая контрольная работа №2

  3. Вариант 5 1. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте необходимый модальный глагол. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The blip in the up-and-down history of investment tax credits ... be in the making.

  2. You ... not have given in. You were right.

  3. A minimum time after last addition of 5-7 minutes for homogenization ... included in the total cycle time.

  4. Iron ... only be worked by hammering at red heat.

  5. You ... not tell her about it. Now she is sure not to sleep the whole night worrying.

  1. 2. Перепишите сложноподчинённые предложения с придаточными условия, времени, образа действия и сравнения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму Переведите предложения на русский язык..

  1. We must leave home two hours before the plane takes off so that we (can) get there without hurrying

  2. Ken had to save part of the money he earned so that his brother (can) complete his experiments.

  1. 3.I (finish) reading this book before I (go) to bed.

  1. You must (send) us a telegram as soon as you (arrive).

  2. If my friend (to be) in Moscow now, he (can) show me round the city.

  1. 3. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму в пассивном залоге. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The children are very excited this morning. They (to take) to the circus this afternoon.

  2. They can (to see) in our library every day.

  3. The delegation (to head) by the Prime Minister.

  4. The child (to leave) at home along yesterday.

  5. These houses (to build) last year.

  1. ч

  2. 4. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму, обращая внимание на согласование времён. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  3. 1. His table and theories were proved later when three predicted elements: gallium,

  4. germanium, and scandium (to discover).

  5. 2.I decided that next year I (to go) to see my old friend.

  6. 3.I not (to see) him since he (to go) to Moscow.

  1. He said that the bus (to be) here soon.

  2. The boy did not know that he already (to receive) a good mark.

  3. 5. Перепишите предложения с конструкцией «сложное дополнение». Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. We didn't expect him (to put off) the discussion.

  2. He wanted the arrangement (to complete) early in the month.

  3. He told me (to shut) the window.

  4. We can't allow the work (to examine) carelessly.

  5. The mother wanted me (to give up) my hobby.

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Автор
Дата добавления 18.09.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
Просмотров129
Номер материала ДБ-199468
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