Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Научные работы / Доклад на тему "Идиомы о частях речи в английском и русском языке"

Доклад на тему "Идиомы о частях речи в английском и русском языке"

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Good morning teachers and pupils. My name is. I am a pupil of the grade Kirovsky secondary school. Let me represent you my work. Every language has idioms. Idiomatic expressions are a vital component of the language. All over the world free using idioms in speech is a difficult problem for people, learning English language as a foreign one. Idioms often cause serious difficulties even with people, who know English very well.

So, in my work I’ll try to get you to be interested in the beautiful world of idioms I’ve realized the necessity of knowing idioms and using them in our daily speech before starting my work. I learned the first idioms in our reader book of the 7-th form. I got interested and began to look for idioms in textbooks and dictionaries. You can’t imagine how surprised I was when I found out that some idioms had the same meaning in English and Russian. So I started comparing and found out similarities and coincidence in the meaning of idioms relating to the parts of the body most of all. That’s why I’ve chosen this theme and I think that it’s actual because idioms of this category are wide-spread and are not connected with national or historical features of the nations.

Analyzing the idioms I’ll draw some conclusions.

Aims:

  • To compare idioms in English and Russian

  • To find out similarities and coincidence in idioms relating to the parts of the body in these languages

Tasks:

  • to demonstrate a variety of idioms

  • to help other students to use idioms

Methods:


  • analysis

  • comparison

  • illustrative method

An idiom is a phrase or expression that has a meaning different from what the words suggest in their usual meaning.

We can divide all idioms into different parts. They’re everywhere around us. They can relate to music, books, school and different part of the body and so on.

Relationship Music School Beauty Books Parts of the body Time Idioms Home Love Crime and punishment

Colors Weather Food Animal kingdom Abilities

Exploring idioms in English and Russian languages we have drawn some conclusions:
1. the word
heart is connected with a soul, feelings, kindness, love in both languages. But the word spirit «душа» is mostly in Russian and “heart” in English. It may be connected with the mentality of the Russians and “Russian spirit”. For example: One's heart isn't in it - Душа не лежит. To pull at someone's heart - strings - Брать кого-либо за душу. In one's heart of hearts - Во глубине души.

2. “Hand” have the same meaning in both languages: «industry, ability, skill», as hands are connected with physical work. For example: A safe pair of hands - Умелые руки. A dab hand - Золотые руки, мастер.

3. Idioms with the word “neck” (шея) are connected with the execution process, so it means «to risk». For example, to risk one's neck; to stick one's neck out. But in Russian it is connected with the word head «голова» («рисковать головой»; «дать голову на отсечение»).

3. “Eyes” (глаза) get its meaning from its main function “to see, watch, observe”. For example: A quick eye – to be observant. To keep an eye on –to watch; To have an eye for smth. But there are also idioms without coincidence: За глаза - Behind one's back (за спиной). Как бельмо на глазу - A thorn in someone's side (как колючка в боку).

4. “Back” (спина) is connected with the hard work: “to break one's back”-without possibility to watch what is happening backwards. Behind one's back, to bee at the back of smth.

5. Ears (уши) have the main function – to hear. Hence its main meaning is: Be all ears – to listen to attentively. Keep one's ear to the ground – to be attentive (it is connected with the custom of the Indians) but in Russian «держать ухо востро». The expression “wet behind the ears” means «immature», as newly born animal has the last place, where it is wet, behind ears - When it comes to girls Peter is still wet behind the ears. - Что касается девушек, у Питера нос не дорос.

6. Tongue (язык). For example: To give a tongue – to say, to speak. He has a ready tongue - Он за словом в карман не полезет. There is also the negative meaning connected with excessive talkativeness, insincerity, flattery, sarcasm: His tongue is too long for his teeth - У него слишком длинный язык; To oil one's tongue – to flatter; A sharp tongue - oстрый язык.

As you see, most English and Russian idioms relating to the parts of the body coincide in meaning and figurativeness as this area is in general use and is not connected with national and historical features of the nations. While translation you need equivalents or variants in both languages. The main meaning is formed from essential function or role of the organ.

In this table I’ve written idioms relating to the parts of the body which coincide completely or partially. I’ve separated each category of idioms by the part of the body and the function they make.

While our experiment we have made such conclusions:

  1. Idiom is a stable expression; the meaning of a whole unit does not emerge from the meaning of words it consists of.

  2. In spite of difference in the culture and mentality of Russian and English countries we have found the meaningful similarity of idioms.

  3. Most English and Russian idioms relating to the parts of the body coincide in meaning and figurativeness as this area is in general use and is not connected with national and historical features of the nations. While translation you need equivalents or variants in both languages.

  4. The main meaning is formed from essential function or role of the organ.

You have just read my work. I hope you are interested in it. To my mind, it’s very enjoyable to discover new things about the language. It’s the way to improve your own language and knowledge. As for me I learnt a lot of idioms both in English and Russian languages. I think my work will be a great help for other students.



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