Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / ЕГЭ по АЯ "Говорение"
Обращаем Ваше внимание: Министерство образования и науки рекомендует в 2017/2018 учебном году включать в программы воспитания и социализации образовательные события, приуроченные к году экологии (2017 год объявлен годом экологии и особо охраняемых природных территорий в Российской Федерации).

Учителям 1-11 классов и воспитателям дошкольных ОУ вместе с ребятами рекомендуем принять участие в международном конкурсе «Законы экологии», приуроченном к году экологии. Участники конкурса проверят свои знания правил поведения на природе, узнают интересные факты о животных и растениях, занесённых в Красную книгу России. Все ученики будут награждены красочными наградными материалами, а учителя получат бесплатные свидетельства о подготовке участников и призёров международного конкурса.

ПРИЁМ ЗАЯВОК ТОЛЬКО ДО 21 ОКТЯБРЯ!

Конкурс "Законы экологии"

ЕГЭ по АЯ "Говорение"

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Тольяттинская Академия Управления















Практическое пособие по подготовке к письменной и устной части ЕГЭ по английскому языку




Учитель английского языка

Дроздева О.Н.













Тольятти, 2015



Введение.

В 2015 году в ЕГЭ по английскому языку была введена устная часть экзамена, состоящая из нескольких заданий (чтение текста, составление вопросов, описание картинки по плану, сравнение двух картинок по плану) и сохранена письменная часть (письмо личного характера и сочинение – рассуждение с выражением своего мнения). Этот факт ставит перед учителем цель - достижение положительной динамики формирования коммуникативной компетенции у обучающихся и успешная сдача устной и письменной части ЕГЭ по АЯ.

Для достижения поставленной цели хорошо подходит системно-деятельностный подход в обучении английскому языку. Системно-деятельностный подход – это основа Федеральных государственных образовательных стандартов второго поколения.

В целом, системно-деятельностный подход в обучении означает, что в процессе обучения ставится и решается основная задача образования — создание условий развития гармоничной, нравственно совершенной, социально активной, профессионально компетентной и саморазвивающейся личности через активизацию внутренних резервов.  Основные характеристики системно – деятельностного подхода:

  • Процесс обучения есть всегда обучение деятельности.

  • Процесс обучения – всегда творческий.

  • Обучение деятельности на первом этапе предполагает совместную учебно-познавательную деятельность группы учащихся под руководством учителя.

При этом подходе учитываются возрастные, индивидуальные, личностные особенности. Прослеживается деятельностный характер заданий на основе игрового, имитационного и свободного общения. Создается ситуация успеха, и самовыражение личности становится важнее демонстрации языковых знаний, участники общения чувствуют себя в безопасности от критики, преследования за ошибки.

Если говорить о педагогических  технологиях, с помощью которых  можно реализовать новые требования, то к ним относятся:

  • технология проблемного обучения,

  • технология проектного обучения, 

  • информационные и коммуникационные технологии.

В данном пособии учтены все эти моменты и разработаны упражнения, основными задачами которых, являются:

  • Подготовка к письменной и устной части экзамена;

  • Снятие языкового барьера;

  • Повышение мотивации к изучению английского языка.














LETTER


1. Study the plan of writing a letter and learn it by heart:


  1. Адрес

  2. Дата

  3. Обращение: Dear Sally, Dear Aunt Jane, Dear Mr Brown, (запятая!!!)

  4. благодарим адресата за письмо: Thanks for…, Many thanks for…, How nice of you to …., I was very glad to get your letter…..

- извиняется, что не писал раньше: I must apologise for not writing…. I really should have written sooner….

  1. Основная часть письма. В ней должны быть раскрыты все аспекты, указанные в задании.

  2. В конце письма упоминаем о дальнейших контактах: Ill write again soon. Looking forward to seeing you. Hope to hear from you soon.

  3. Завершающая фраза от наименее формального к более формальному варианту (Запятая!!!):

  • Love,

  • Best wishes, All the best,

  • Yours,

  1. Подпись (без фамилии): Sally, David.

1





2




3




4




5.1 Main part

5.2 Questions








6




7




8






Your letter should have 90-154 words!

8, Frunze Street

Togliatti

Russia


16/05/2008

Dear Bill,


I was very happy to get your letter. Sorry, I have not written for so long because I have been busy at school studying for my exams. How are you keeping?


In your letter you speak about issues which are interesting for all teenagers. I think a lot about my future career. Furthermore, my parents help me to choose my future profession. So I have already decided on my career. I want to become a teacher of foreign languages, too. I do like to work with children. They make me feel happy.


I know that you are fond of travelling. Where are you planning to go next? Are you planning to go with your parents or friends? Where will you live there?


Sorry, I have to go. I am looking forward to your answer. Keep in touch.


Best wishes,

Anna



2. Put the parts of the letter in the correct order:



  1. Best wishes,

Olga

Togliatti

Russia

10.05.15


  1. Moving to your trip to Chester Zoo I have some questions. How much did you spend overall? Was it an interesting trip? Finally, do you recommend me to visit it or no?


  1. In your letter you ask about animals in danger. As for me, it’s definitely a serious problem nowadays which needs to be solved as soon as possible. For solving this problem we can try either donate money in special founds which protect animals or write a letter to our government and ask them to make fines for hunting endangered species extremely expensive. There are a lot of hunters in Russia looking forward to killing bears or some rare birds to get meat or a skin for selling.



  1. I was very happy to receive a letter from you. Sorry, I haven’t written for so long because I have been busy at school studying for my exams. How are you doing?


  1. Looking forward to your answer. Keep in touch.



  1. Dear Sue,

3. Fill in the gaps. Sometimes you need more than one word:


Togliatti

1)……


23.04.2015


Dear Tom,


I was very happy to 2)……. ……… from you. Sorry I haven’t 3)…….. for so long because I have been busy at school studying for my exams. How are you doing?


4) ……………………………… school uniform. I think that wearing a uniform is very convenient for each person. You shouldn’t choose what to wear every day. Moreover, it shows that you are the part of some society. So, I believe that having a uniform in school is reasonable and important.


You mention that in summer your sister is getting married. 5)………………………..? Where do you plan to celebrate it? How many people are invited?


6)……………………………………….. .


7)…………,

Ann




4. Correct the mistakes. There are seven of them.


Russia

Togliatti



Dear Jane


I was very happy to receive a letter from you. Sorry, I haven’t written for so long time because I have been busy at school studying for my exams. How are you doing?


In your letter you speak about keeping fit. To my mind, everything what I can do and what I want to do is running. As for my friends, they prefer going to the gym. And my town has enough special centers to do sports such as tennis courts and swimming pools, stadiums and gyms. According to my experience, I can say that the most popular way to keep fit for young people is going to the gym.


By the way, I remember about your birthday. Where do you want to celebrate? Are you going to invite your new boyfriend? Can I help you with preparations?


Alex.




5. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend George who writes

... At school we are doing projects on famous scientists from differ­ent countries. Could you tell me about any famous Russian scientist? What is he or she famous for? How long has he/she been in science?

As for our Christmas party at my school, it was great...

Write a letter to Angela.

In your letter

tell her about the scientist you admire most of all

ask 3 questions about her Christmas party

Write 100—140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing.


































OPINION ESSAY

1. Look through the parenthetic words and phrases:

Вводные слова согласия, добавления, сходства

as a matter of fact

собственно говоря

furthermore

более того

in like manner

Подобным образом

additionally

в дополнение к этому

in addition

к тому же

together with

наравне с

first, second, third

во-первых, во-вторых, в-третьих

moreover

более того

comparatively

сравнительно

as well as

а также

of course

конечно же







Вводные слова противопоставления, ограничения, противоречия

although this may be true

хотя это может быть правдой

 (and) yet

и все-таки

in contrast

в отличие от этого

while

Пока

of course …, but

разумеется, но

besides

кроме того

on the other hand

с другой стороны

in reality

на самом деле

on the contrary

напротив

even though

даже если

at the same time

в то же время

although

Хотя

in spite of

несмотря на

instead

Зато

even so / though

даже так/хотя

whereas

в то время, как

however

однако

despite

несмотря на





nevertheless

тем не менее

otherwise

Иначе





Вводные слова примеров, поддержки, акцентирования

in other words

другими словами

for this reason

по этой причине

in fact

к тому же

truly

на самом деле

in general

как правило

indeed

более того

in particular

в частности

certainly

вне всякого сомнения

in detail

подробным образом

surely

Ведь

for example

например

especially

а именно

for instance

к примеру

specifically

а именно

Вводные слова эффекта, следствия, результата

as a result

как результат

for

Поскольку

under those circumstances

учитывая обстоятельства

thus

таким образом

in that case

в этом случае

consequently

Поэтому

for this reason

по этой причине

therefore

по этой причине

2. Put the words in the correct column: furthermore, consequently, in particular, on the contrary, therefore, in other words, in addition, moreover, in general, as a result, on the other hand, besides, additionally, thus, as a matter of fact.

Вводные слова согласия, добавления, сходства


Вводные слова противопоставления, ограничения, противоречия

Вводные слова примеров, поддержки, акцентирования

Вводные слова эффекта, следствия, результата






























3. Find all the linking words and constructions:

The real evils, indeed, of Emma's situation were the power of having rather too much her own way, and a disposition to think a little too well of herself; these were the disadvantages which threatened alloy to her many enjoyments. The danger, however, was at present so unperceived, that they did not by any means rank as misfortunes with her. (Jane Austen “Emma”)


Mrs. McGillicuddy panted along the platform in the wake of the porter carrying her suitcase. Mrs. McGillicuddy was short and stout, the porter was tall and free-striding. In addition, Mrs. McGillicuddy was burdened with a large quantity of parcels; the result of a day's Christmas shopping. The race was, therefore, an uneven one, and the porter turned the corner at the end of the platform whilst Mrs. McGillicuddy was still coming up the straight. (Agatha Christie “From ; line-height: 150%">

Anyway, he wrote this play called The Christmas Angel, because he didn’t want to keep on performing that old Charles Dickens classic A Christmas Carol. In his mind Scrooge was a heathen, who came to his redemption only because he saw ghosts, not angels—and who was to say whether they’d been sent by God, anyway? (N.Sparks “A walk to remember”)

4. Study the plan of writing an opinion essay and learn it by heart:


OPINION («Я»)

Introduction (постановка проблемы, вопроса)

Express YOUR opinion (I think/ I believe…) – 2-3 reasons

Give other people’s opinion (Some people think/ Other people believe…) –

1-2 reasons

WHY you don’t agree with them (however, I do not agree with them because…)

Conclusion (+ state your own opinion)

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  • Rhello_html_15bc42cb.gifemember: NO contractions: Don’t do not

  • Your essay should have 180-275 words.


5. You have some topics. Make up 2-3 reasons for this opinion and write them down.

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6. Put the parts of the essay in the correct order:

  1. In my opinion, it does not matter if a person wears not fashionable clothes. If he still manages to look outstanding then it is not about fashion for sure. It’s more important how this person socializes with you and somebody else and how he behaves himself. For instance, you can see a huge amount of beautiful girls in streets every summer but who knows who of them is kind or who is envious?


  1. I do not agree with others because the main thing in any person is his soul and everything what is inside, under the clothes.

  2. Other people think that following fashion is what makes you an example for somebody else and everybody around will pay attention only to the guy with fashionable jeans, jacket or a beautiful cap.


  1. There are a lot of debates nowadays related to clothes you wear. Some people claim that apart from looking cool you should be in the modern outfit as well while others say that following fashion will lead only to lack of money. Let us discuss this problem.


  1. To sum up, it does not matter if clothes are fashionable or not. It is up to personality and his behavior. However, both standpoints can exist.


7. Disagree with these statements and make up 1-2 reasons against each of them.

  1. Fast food is convenient nowadays.

  2. It’s better to travel abroad.

  3. Teenagers should work while studying.

  4. It’s better to be an only child.

  5. Money is blessing.

  6. We can’t live without the Internet.

  7. A person can have only one best friend.

  8. Living in cities is much better than living in the countryside.

  9. Extreme kinds of sports are dangerous.

  10. We should refuse from using cars to reduce pollution.


8. Write an essay following all the rules:

  1. Children should start living independently as soon as they finish school.

  2. People shouldn’t live together if they are not married.






















Speaking

Task 1.



 Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, and then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.

№1.

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle regarding the security of its content. It started almost entirely open—anyone could create articles, and any Wikipedia article could be edited by any reader, even those who did not have a Wikipedia account. Modifications to all articles would be published immediately. As a result, any article could contain inaccuracies such as errors, ideological biases, and nonsensical or irrelevant text.

Over time, the English Wikipedia and some other Wikipedias gradually restricted modifications. For example, in the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article. On the English Wikipedia and some others, some particularly sensitive and vandalism-prone pages are now "protected" to some degree.

№2.

Lizards typically have feet and external ears, while snakes lack both of these characteristics. However, because they are defined negatively as excluding snakes, lizards have no unique distinguishing characteristic as a group.Lizards and snakes share a movable  bone. Many lizards can detach their tails to escape from predators, an act called autotomy. The lizard will partially regenerate its tail over a period of weeks. A 2014 research identified 326 genes involving the regeneration of lizard tails. Vision, including color vision, is particularly well developed in most lizards, and most communicate with body language or bright colors on their bodies, as well as with pheromones. Numerous species of lizard are kept as pets, including bearded dragons, iguanas, anoles, and geckos (such as the popular leopard gecko). Lizards that bite humans are very rare. Most lizards eat fruit, or vegetables. 

№3.

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between 250 and 450 centimetres (98 and 177 in). There are two types of rainforest: tropical rainforest and temperate rainforest. The monsoon trough, alternatively known as the intertropical zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth's tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests are characterized by a warm and wet climate. The forest floor, the bottom-most layer, receives only 2% of the sunlight. Only plants adapted to low light can grow in this region. Away from riverbanks, swamps and clearings, where dense undergrowth is found, the forest floor is relatively clear of vegetation because of the low sunlight penetration. It also contains decaying plant and animal matter, which disappears quickly, because the warm, humid conditions promote rapid decay. Many forms of fungi growing here help decay the animal and plant waste.

№4.

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of "berries"from the Coffea plant. Coffee plants are cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India and Africa. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded arabica, and the less sophisticated but stronger and more hardy robusta. The latter is has a more bitter taste. Once ripe, coffee beans are picked, processed, and dried. Green (unroasted) coffee beans are one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Once traded, the beans are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before being ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee is slightly acidic and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content. Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world. It can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. The effect of coffee on human health has been a subject of many studies; however, results have varied in terms of coffee's relative benefit. The majority of recent research suggests that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults.

№5.

Bubble gum is a type of chewing gum, designed to be inflated out of the mouth as a bubble.  In 1928, Walter E. Diemer, an accountant for the Fleer Chewing Gum Company in Philadelphia, was experimenting with new gum recipes. One recipe was found to be less sticky than regular chewing gum, and stretched more easily. This gum became highly successful and was eventually named by the president of Fleer as Dubble Bubble because of its stretchy texture. The original bubble gum was pink in color because that was the only dye Diemer had on hand at the time and it was his favorite color. In modern chewing gum, if natural rubber such as chicle is used, it must pass several purity and cleanliness tests. However, most modern types of chewing gum use synthetic gum based materials. These materials allow for longer-lasting flavor, a better texture. Chewing gum was widely popular from the mid 20th century until a peak in 2009, after which sales began to decline. During the period between 2009 and 2013 sales of chewing gum fell 11 percent. Reasons for chewing gum's decline in popularity included alternative products for breath freshening, the perception of gum as a "messy" product, and less successful marketing efforts by chewing gum companies.

Task 2.

1.



You have 5 minutes to write down 10 questions. Prepare questions for:

  1. the President of our country

  2. the principal of your school

  3. your parents

  4. your future employer

  5. your classmate

All the questions should be direct. When you finish, interview your classmate using these questions



2.



VIP” interview. One student is in the centre – he is a “VIP” person. All the rest students ask him questions; he in his turn also asks them a question. So, each person will ask one question, while the person in the centre will ask 10-15 depending on the number of students in the group. All the questions should be direct.



3.



Work in groups. There should be 3-4 students in one group. Each team has the same task and has to prepare for a tender. Their aim is to win the tender. Each group has got 30 minutes to make an advertising poster and prepare their speech. Each member of the team should speak. Time limit of their speech is 5 -7 minutes. After the performance of the group, all other teams start asking the questions to find out details about the opponent’s business.

Possible topics:

  1. Open a travel agency. (Think of the name, activities and directions you provide, discounts and prices, peculiarities of your business).

  2. Open an entertaining agency for children. (Think of the name, activities you provide, discounts and prices, peculiarities of your business).

  3. Organization of the prom party (Think of the theme of the party, activities, food and drinks, price, peculiarities, place and decorations).

  4. Open a sports centre in your town. (Think of the name, activities and directions you provide, discounts and prices, peculiarities of your business).

  5. Open a private school. (Think of the name, activities and directions you provide, discounts and prices, peculiarities of your business)



4.



Study the advertisement.

You are going to study abroad for three months and want to find a necessary place you could attend. You’d like to get more information about this place. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five questions to find out the following:



Example: car parking availability

  • Is there a car parking?

  • Is a car parking available there?

  • Do you have a car parking?

№1.

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  1. Price of the phone

  2. Discounts

  3. Location of the shop

  4. If 3G function is available

  5. Color

№2.

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  1. Price of the course

  2. Discounts

  3. Location of the centre

  4. Duration of the course

  5. Certificate

№3

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  1. Price of the room

  2. Discounts

  3. Location of the hotel

  4. If laundry is available

  5. If breakfast is included

№4. hello_html_m73d42c8c.jpg

  1. If there is a personal coach

  2. price

  3. working hours

  4. if a swimming pool is available

  5. location












Task 3.



 Imagine that you are showing your photo album to your friend. Choose one photo to present to your friend. You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes. You have to talk continuously. In your talk remember to speak about:  

 

  • when you took the photo

  • what/who is in the photo

  • what is happening

  • why you took the photo 

  • why you decided to show the picture to your friend



№1.



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  1. B. C.



№2.



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  1. B. C.







№3.



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  1. B. C.

№4.

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  1. B. C.





Task 4.



Study the two photographs. In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:

 

  • give a brief description (action, location)

  • say what the pictures have in common

  • say in what way the pictures are different

  • say which kind of life you’d prefer

  • explain why

 

You will speak for not more than 2 minutes. You have to talk continuously.


№1.

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№2.


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№3.


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№4.


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№5.


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№6.


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№7.


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№8.


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Useful phrases:

  • I’ve chosen photo number…

  • The photo depicts/ shows….

  • In the foreground/ in the background we can see…

  • I’d like to compare two photos.

  • In the first/second photo you can see…

  • Both photos have a lot in common…

  • Both photos are quite similar because they both depict/show…

  • There are some differences between pictures.

  • It’s possible that…

  • There’s a chance that…

  • I believe/ reckon/ think/consider…

  • This photo is a good example of…

  • Obviously/ probably…

  • In conclusion,…

  • As for me,….

  • That’s all (what I wanted to say).


The example of task 3.


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I’ve chosen photo number 1.

The photo was taken last summer. I was on my holidays in St.Petersburg. You probably know that this beautiful city is full of amazing things to see and to do.

In this photo you can see my friends. They are really great, cheerful and bright people. I’ve known them for ages and I can always rely on them. We are often together spending time in different ways.

If to speak about this photo, you see that my friends are sitting on the bench. It’s obvious that they feel a little bit tired but excited and happy. They are looking at the map searching for a necessary place. The weather is perfect; it’s not hot but warm and sunny. So, my friends are wearing light and comfortable clothes suitable for going around the town.

I took this photo to memorize that moment. It probably was one of the most unforgettable experiences in my life. So, I wanted to have the opportunity to recall these emotions and impressions of that day at any time.

I decided to show the photo because it’s worth seeing it. Looking at it, you can see my friends whom you probably will never meet in real life. Moreover, you can admire the beauty of the city and experience my feelings.

That’s all what I wanted to say.


The example of task 4.


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I’d like to compare two photos. In the first photo you can see a man who is working in an office. He looks busy and concentrated on things he is doing. The second photo depicts children who are playing some videogames. They seem to be excited and totally focused on their game.

Both photos are quite similar because they show us people who are dealing with gadgets. There is one more common thing. People in both photos are inside of the buildings. Also I consider that these people have been doing their activity for a long time. These pictures prove the idea that people can’t live without technologies nowadays.

However, there are some differences between these photos. In the first photo we can see only one man and in the second photo there are two children. I reckon the man is busy working on some project while the children are relaxing and having fun. If to speak about gadgets, they are also different. One more difference refers to the place where the people are. In spite of the fact that all of them are indoors, the man isn’t at home in comparison with the children who are obviously in somebody’s house.

As for me, I’d prefer the first type of activity. To my mind, it’s more useful and appropriate for me. Playing videogames is more suitable for little children. By the way, computers offer a bigger variety of activities that you can do: playing games, watching films, listening to music, chatting online, searching and working.

That’s all what I wanted to say.





Список источников:


  1. ru.wikipedia.org

  2. J.Austen “Emma”

  3. Christie “From ">N.Sparks “ A walk to remember”



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