Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Элективный курс "Страноведение США"
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Автор курса: Логинова Наталья Геннадьевна, кандидат педагогических наук, учитель высшей категории. Начало обучения новой группы: 27 сентября.

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Элективный курс "Страноведение США"

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Элективный курс «Страноведение США» рассчитан на учащихся 8 классов

Цели курса:

-расширение, углубление знаний учащихся, необходимых для повышения общего уровня образованности;

-развитие интереса к предмету, познавательной активности и творческих способностей учащихся;

-знакомство с культурой американского общества

-формирование умений и навыков анализа, сравнения культур, образа жизни США и России.

Основная идея курса - знакомство с повседневной жизнью людей другой культуры и сравнение с нашей.

Учащиеся рассматривают разделы: « Образование», «Американские праздники», «Спорт», «Общественная работа в школе».

Изучая темы, учащиеся не только узнают новое, но и постоянно сравнивают с ситуацией в нашей стране, делают выводы, находят сходство и различия.

Результатом изучения курса является проведение игры на лучшее знание американской культуры.

Примерный тематический план

тема



количество часов

1

Образование в Америке



3

2

Американские праздники



3

3

Спорт



2

4

Общественная работа в школе



2

5

итоговое занятие-игра



1


всего



11



Программа

1. Образование в Америке.

Знакомство с системой образования: начальное образование, среднее образование, предметы, изучаемые в американских школах.

2. Американские праздники.

День Благодарения, Хэллоуин, Рождество.

3. Спорт.

Спорт в школе. Американские виды спорта.

4. Общественная работа в школе.

Типичный день в американской школе.

5. Итоговое занятие-игра.

Требования к знаниям, умений и навыкам учащихся.

На уровне знакомства у учащихся формируются образы при непосредственном восприятии материала. Учащиеся узнают много нового о традициях и реалиях сегодняшнего дня Америки.

На уровне понимания учащиеся проникают в суть изученного материала и сравнивают с аналогичным явлением в России: сравнивают систему образования, празднование праздников, занятия американских школьников.

Ресурсный материал к занятиям

Elementary school: Grades 1-6

American children go to elementary school when they are six years old and they stay there for six years. The school years are called “grades”. The first year is the “first grade”, and the last year is the “sixth grade». In most parts of the country elementary schools also have kindergartens for five-year-olds.

Pre-schools are for children younger than five. In pre-schools and kindergarten, children prepare to go to school. They play with other children and learn to listen to the teacher. These are important processes for young children.

American children do not have to go to school until the age of six, so not all children attend pre-school or kindergarten.

Public elementary schools usually have about 500 students. Boys and girls attend classes together and there are between 15 and 30 children in a class. Some learn fast. Others need extra help. Teachers may put pupils in small groups where they can learn at different speeds.

Sarah spends most of her time in the classroom with her teacher, Mrs. Heller. Mrs. Heller teaches English, Math and Science. There are the most important subjects. Sarah has to study Music, Art, French and Health too. But it’s not all hard work at school. Sarah has time to go out for lunch, and to play. But Mrs. Heller gives her homework every night.

Mrs. Heller is a good teacher. Her classroom is a friendly place. Her lessons are interesting. She teachers in an easy way, without too many rules. Her students often raise their hands to ask questions and give answers. Good teachers like their students to learn actively and to think for themselves. They should be able to understand ideas, not just repeat what is written in a book.

Exercises:

I. How much did you understand?

1. Are these statements true or false?

a. The school years are called “grades”.

b. In most parts of the country elementary schools also have kindergartens for five-year-olds.

c. Mrs. Heller is a good teacher.

d. Mrs. Heller doesn’t give Sarah homework every night.

2. Can you answer these questions?

a. How old are American children when they go to elementary school?

b. How long do American children stay at elementary school?

c. What do children do in a pre-school and kindergarten?

d. Are boys and girls together in public elementary school?

II. Speak on…

-American public elementary school;

- Pre-school and kindergarten;

- Mrs. Heller;

- The ways American good teachers like their students to learn.

III. Remember your years in elementary school and compare Russian and American elementary schools according to the plan:

a. age of pupils;

b. subjects they learn;

c. the way Russian and American teachers like their students to learn.

High School: Grades 7-12

Why must children go to school? That’s an easy question. They must learn to read and write and do Math. Yes, but they must learn other important lessons, too. They must learn to make friends with boys and girls in their class. They must learn to choose, to use free time well and to study alone. In junior high school (grades seven and eight) and in high school (grades nine through twelve) these are important lessons.

Robert is in eleventh grade. The first teacher he sees in the morning is his homeroom teacher. The homeroom teacher gives him information for the day. Then Robert goes to his first class. The teachers stay in their classrooms, while Robert and his friends go from class to class.

Robert must take the important subjects, but he may choose other subjects as well. Robert is good at History and French, so he has chosen those subjects. A special teacher called a guidance counselor helps him to choose and gives him help with other problems, too. Every high school student has a guidance counselor.

It’s nice to be in high school because you have more free time.

The students use that free time in many different ways. Robert is in on the high school basketball team, which plays after school. He has joined some clubs too. He is a member of the computer club and the French club. Some of his friends with the same interests meet together after school. Two or three teachers and some of the parents help with the clubs.

Robert’s friend Greg is a member of the drums in the school band. When Robert and Greg are not busy with the clubs, they go to the school library or to quiet study rooms. Learning to use free time well is an important part of high school life.

Exercises:

I. How much did you understand?

1. Are these statements true or false?

a. High school is grades seven through twelve.

b. Junior high school is grades seven and eight.

c. Robert is in twelfth grade.

d. The first teacher he sees in the morning is his homeroom teacher.

e. the homeroom teacher gives students information for the week.

2. Can you answer these questions?

a. Why must children go to school?

b. What are the important lessons in high school?

c. Do the students or the teachers go from class to class?

d. What subjects must Robert take? May he choose other subjects?

e. What is a guidance counselor?

f. Why is it nice to be in high school?

II. Speak on…

-American high school;

-the ways American high school students use their free time.

The subjects high school students learn

Ninth grader.

Core courses: English, algebra, social studies, biology, foreign languages.

Electives: music, art, technical education, home economics, computer science, drama.

Tenth grader.

Core courses: English, geometry, social studies, chemistry, foreign language.

Electives: music, art, economics, technical education, home economics, computer science, drama.

Eleventh grader.

Core courses: English, trigonometry, social studies, physics, foreign language.

Electives: music, art, economics, technical education, home economics, computer science, drama.

Twelfth grader.

Core courses: English, calculus, social studies, foreign language.

Electives: music, art, economics, technical education, computer science, drama.



Read the Drama program of Brookline High School and say what you think of it, whether you would like to have such subject in your school and why.

Drama

The drama program has two levels of courses from initial improvisation techniques to extended dramatic explorations. Three additional courses provide different perspectives of the dramatic process, including the opportunity to work with adults in the creation of social drama.

The courses are designed to give students the opportunity to study through a practical approach, the uses of drama in its many forms; to develop and foster understanding of the individual’s capacity for communication and expression, and to encourage a greater understanding of the nature and function of theatre.

Drama I (Elective 9-12)

Drama I is a more an introduction to the nature and use of dramatic activity, and includes both theatre and literature, “the play” and life situations acted out mainly through improvisation. The course includes the development of the use of the body and speech, particularly in group work related to a thematic approach.

Drama II (Elective 10 -12)

Drama II is a more advanced investigation of improvisation and uses in Workshop and Experimental theatre. The course includes an emphasis on group work for the development of ideas and study of behavior and its relationship to the theatre in particular.

American Holidays

Thanksgiving Day

There is one day a year when all Americans stay at home with their families and eat a big dinner. This is Thanksgiving Day. The pilgrims celebrated the first Thanksgiving Day in the fall of 1621.The pilgrims sailed to America from Plymouth, England, in September, 1620. They came to America for religious freedom. They were among the first European settlers in America. The name of their ship was the “Mayflower”. They landed at Plymouth Rock, in what is now the state of Massachusetts in December, 1620.

There were people living in America before the pilgrims arrived. These people were the Native American Indians. The Indians began settling in America about 25.000 years ago. They hunted, fished, and farmed to survive. There were many groups, or tribes, and each had its own customs and beliefs.

The pilgrims’ first winter in the New World was difficult. They had arrived too late to grow many crops. Without fresh food, half of the pilgrim died. The following spring the Indians taught the pilgrims to hunt, fish, plant, and survive in America. The crops did well, and in the fall of 1621 the pilgrims had a great harvest. They were thankful and decided to celebrate with a Thanksgiving feast. They prepared a dinner of turkey, corn, beans, and pumpkins. They invited their Indian friends to share this feast. The Indians brought food to the feast, too. Americans still celebrate Thanksgiving Day in the fall. It is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. Turkey is still the main dish and pumpkin pie is the most popular dessert.

New Words:

Fall – осень belief- вера

Among- среди crops- урожай

To land- высаживаться fresh- свежий

To hunt – охотиться following- следующий

To fish- ловить рыбу harvest- урожай

To farm- обрабатывать землю feast- пир, праздник

Tribe- племя pumpkin- тыква

Custom- обычай dessert- десерт

Exercises:

Circle the right answer in every sentence:

1. The pilgrims landed in (New York, Georgia, Massachusetts) in 1620.

2. The pilgrims celebrated the first (Christmas, Thanksgiving Day, Valentine’s Day) in the fall of 1621.

3. The name of their ship was (the “Mayflower, the Plymouth, the Harvest).

4. The pilgrims taught the pilgrims how to (cook, survive and celebrate).

5. In the fall of 1621, the pilgrims had a good (harvest, ship, survival).

6. Today (popcorn, crops, and turkey) is still the main dish served on Thanksgiving Day.

Questions:

1. When do Americans celebrate Thanksgiving Day?

2. In which season did the pilgrims celebrate the first Thanksgiving Day?

3. What did they eat?

4. Who taught the pilgrims how to survive in America?

5. Why did the pilgrims come to America?

6. Why do you think the pilgrims called America “The New World”?

7. Why did the pilgrims invite the Indians to their feast?

Halloween

Halloween is the day or evening before All Saints’ Day. Many Halloween stories and games are hundreds of years old. Then people believed in devils, witches and ghosts. Now most people do not believe in devils. American children celebrate Beggar’s Night as Irish children did in the 17th century. They dress up in Halloween costumes and go out into the streets to beg. They often wear masks over their faces. They carry baskets and bags. They go from house to house and knock on the door. They ring the bell. When people come to the door, the children shoutTrick or treat! Trick or treat!” meaning “Give us a treat or we’ll play trick on you”. People give the children sweets, cookies and apples.

A favorite Halloween custom is to make a jack-o-lantern. The children scrape out a pumpkin and cut the eyes, nose and mouth. Everyone tries to look scary on Halloween.

They light a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends. They set jack-o-lanterns in the windows. They also decorate their houses in the traditional Halloween colors: orange and black. Popular decorations are witches, ghosts, skeletons, black cats

There are different superstitions in America. Some people in America are certain that if they put new shoes on the table, they will have bad luck.

The Americans won’t kill a spider, especially the small red spiders called money spiders, as this is a very unlucky.

Other animals are symbols of luck. In England black cats bring good luck, but in other countries they bring bad luck.

White horses are also lucky, but in some places you must cross your fingers until you see a dog or you will have bad luck.

The most unlucky thing you can do is to break a mirror. This brings seven years of bad luck.

If you see a pin and pick it up, all the day you’ll have good luck. See a pin and let it lie, you’ll have bad luck.

The number 13 is the most unlucky number, and a combination of Friday with the number 13 is a day of disaster for superstitious people.

It is unlucky to walk under the ladder.

New words:

Ghost- призрак to scrape- вырезать

Witch- ведьма to look scary- выглядеть устрашающе

To beg- просить милостыню jack-o- lantern- фонарь из тыквы

To shout- кричать skeleton- скелет

Trick or treat- либо угощайте, либо мы будем подшучивать над вами

Questions:

1. When do American children celebrate Halloween?

2. What do children wear?

3. What are the most popular costumes?

4. What do the words “Treat or trick” mean?

5. What are jack- o lanterns?

6. What are traditional Halloween colors and popular decorations?

7. What American superstitions do you know? Are you superstitious?

Christmas

Americans celebrate Christmas on December 25. Christmas is a religious holiday and one of the happiest holidays of the year, because it is the day that Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ. They prepare for Christmas weeks before. They buy gifts for their families and friends and decorate a tree with ornaments and lights. Americans prepare special foods and cookies. Christmas is also the day that Santa Claus visits American families and brings presents in bright paper and ribbons. He delivers them on Christmas Eve, the night before Christmas, when they are sleeping. How does he get into the house? He climbs down the chimney and leaves the presents under the Christmas tree. In the morning, they open their presents together and then they go to the church. People wish each other “Marry Christmas!”

Sports at school

Americans learn sport as a part of their education. They learn two or more ball games, such as football and basketball. At high school they choose groups of girls or boys to make teams. They choose those who are the best at that sport. These teams compete against teams from other schools. In many schools students learn wrestling, running, tennis, golf and swimming. They have teams for some of these sports, too.

The games between schools are often very exciting. Other students, the ones not on the team, love to watch them. They like it if their team beats the other team. They let everyone know this by shouting and cheering when their team is playing well.

There is a special club of girls and boys (mostly girls) who jump up and down and shout for their football team. They call themselves cheerleaders, because they lead everyone in shouts and cheers. They wear clothes of a special color- the color of their school’s team. The football players wear that color, too. Each school has a team color and a tram name. Cheerleaders call out the team name in their cheers. They practice many hours to learn the special jumping and cheering. Cheerleading is almost a sport itself.

Exercises:

I. How much do you understand?

1. Are these statements true or false?

a) Americans learn sports as a part of their education?

b) At high schools they choose groups of girls and boys to make teams.

2. Can you answer these questions?

a) How many ball games do Americans learn to play?

b) Whom do American schools teams compete against?

c) What other kinds of sports do students learn at many schools?

d) Who call themselves cheerleaders? What do they do?

II. Do you know that…

  • Basketball started in the USE in the late 19th century? People wanted to play sports in winter, but it was too cold outside. Basketball was a game they could play inside;

  • Basketball is played in winter and spring?

III. Speak on…

  • Americans as great lovers of sport;

  • Cheerleaders.

IV. Try yourselves as journalists. Write reports to an American newspaper on sports at your school.

Popular American Sports

Baseball

Baseball is a game between two teams and is played on a field with a bat and a small white ball. Each team consists of nine players. The teams take turns playing on the field and batting the ball. A baseball game has nine “innings”. That means that every team plays in the field nine times and is “at bat” nine times. The object of the game is to score more “runs”. The team with the most runs at the end of nine innings wins.

New words:

To take turns- чередоваться

To bat- бить битой

Innings- подачи

Run- очко

Softball

Softball is very similar to baseball, but is played with a larger ball. Softball is a popular sport among American women and co-ed (combined men and women) teams.

Basketball

Basketball is played on a court with a large orange ball. There are five players on each team. Each team moves the ball across the court by bouncing it. The players can also throw, or pass, the ball to each other. Then they try to shoot the ball into the basket, or hoop, to score a point. The team with the most points wins.

Football

Football is a field game with two teams, played with an oval-shaped ball. The quarterback starts by throwing, or passing, the ball to one of the players, called a receiver. The receiver then tries to run with it toward the goal. The players on the other team try to tackle him to prevent him from reaching the goal line. The team with the most points wins.

Soccer

Soccer is a field game between two teams, played with a white round ball. The goalkeeper is the only one who can touch the ball with his or her hands. The other players are only allowed to kick the ball or bump it with their heads. The object of the game is to kick the ball past the goalkeeper into the goal. The team with the most points, or goals, wins.

New words:

Co-ed- смешанные команды

To shoot- посылать (мяч)

Hoop - обруч

To score a point- выиграть очко

Quarterback - вратарь

To kick – ударять ногой

To bump- ударять

Exercises:

In which sport…

1. Do you hit the ball with a bat? a.______ soccer

2. Do you tackle? b.______ baseball

3. Do you shoot the ball? c._______ football

4. Do you bounce the ball off your head? d._______ basketball



Questions:

1. How many players are there on a baseball team?

2. What is the object of a baseball game?

3. What does the ball used in a basketball game look like?

4. Which football player throws the ball?

5. What’s the difference between American football and soccer?

6. What is your favorite sport?

7. Do you think sport develop people only physically?

Social life

In American schools there is often as much interest in other students as there is in school subjects. You can see this when you look at a typical high- school yearbook. It is written once a year by students in the twelfth grade. In the yearbook there is a picture of each teacher and students. Other photos show teachers and students at football and basketball games, in class, at club meetings, or at school dances.

Choosing leaders is a large part of school life. The children decide which students should direct school business and sit on the Student Council. This is a group of five or six students who talk to teachers about what happens at school. About once a month some of the Student Council leaders go to a meeting of the PTSA (Parent- Teacher Student Association). There they work with parents and teachers to make their school better.

For many students in American schools the important thing is making friends, being popular, and having a good social life. One big social event that takes place in high schools is the “prom”, pr school dance. The students go to the prom in couples. The boys wear “tuxedos” (смокинг), the girls wear beautiful dresses.

During their school years students make strong friendships. They remember school friends and other students long after they finished school.

Exercises:

I. how much did you understand?

1. Are these statements true or false?

a. in American schools there is often as much interest in other students as there is in school subjects.

b. a high school yearbook is written once a year by students in the eleventh grade.

c. in the yearbook there is a picture of each teacher.

d. for many students in America high schools, the important thing is making friends, being popular and having a good social life.

II. Speak on…

  • Social life in American school.

  • Friendship in school.

A Typical Day at School in America

Each day begins at 8 a.m. students first go to the homeroom, where homeroom teacher asks, “Who’s absent?” and informs the students of any special events. At the end of homeroom period, which lasts 10 minutes, the students go to their first class.

At noon the students gather in a large cafeteria where they eat something they brought from home. Most of the students bring sandwiches and buy juice or milk. After lunch students usually have two classes. Each of the classes is 45 minutes long and the school day ends with the seventh period at 2:00 p.m. But most of the students and the teachers stay at school much longer. Many of the students come in to ask questions about their assignments, to get extra help with their lessons, or even just to “chat”.

The day is only half over for athletes who stay for practice or for drama students who rehearse for school plays and musicals. There also club activities, such as Debate Club, Math Club, and Science Club.

The students have their own government at school. It is called the Student Council. The students elect representatives to the Student Council. Each grade elects a president, vice-president, secretary, and treasure. They make suggestions about changes in school rules and organize dances and other school activities.

As you can see from this list of extracurricular activities, there are many things the students do besides attending classes in math, science, language, and history.



New words:

Assignment- задание

Extra- дополнительный

To chat- поболтать

Athlete- спортсмен

Government- правительство

Council- совет

Representative - представитель

Treasure - казначей

To make a suggestion – вносить предложения

School rules- школьные правила

Besides – кроме, в дополнение

Questions:

1. What time does the school day begin?

2. What time does a school day end?

3. What time does your school day end?

4. What do some of the students do after school?

5. What is an example of an extracurricular activity?

6. Does your school have extracurricular activities?



Литература:

1. Moss A., Williams J. Americans at School. - Longman Group UK Limited, 2001.

2. Климентьева Т.Б. книга для чтения к учебному пособию «Happy English-2” для учащихся 7-9 кл.- Обнинск: Титул, 2000.

3. Компетентностный подход в преподавании английского языка: технологии, разработки уроков/ авт.-сост. А.Г.Штарина. – Волгоград : Учитель, 2011. – 191с.



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