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The passive (1): am/is/are + past participle Bananas are grown in tropical areas. am/is/are + -ing + past participle The café is being redecorated. has/have + been + past participle Have the carrots been peeled? was/were + past participle The meal was served in an elegant dining room. was/were + -ing + past participle We asked for coffee while the bill was being prepared. had + been + past participle All the food had been eaten by the time I got there. Present Simple They grow bananas in tropical areas. Present Continuous They are redecorating the café. Present Perfect Simple Has anyone peeled the carrots? Past Simple They served the meal in an elegant dining room. Past Continuous We asked for coffee while they were preparing the bill. Past Perfect Simple Someone had eaten all the food by the time I got there. Form: noun +bein the correct form + pastparticiple (+ by/with + noun) Active Passive
The impersonal passive: He is thought to be a great chef. It is thought that he is a great chef. He is believed to have been a great chef. He is believed that he was a great chef. He is claimed to have had an influence on many other chefs. It is claimed that he has had an influence on many other chefs. He is said to have been making the best cheese in the area for over thirty years. It is said that he has been making the best cheese in the area for over thirty years. His restaurant was estimated to be/to have been worth over $10 million. It was estimated that his restaurant was worth over $10 million. It has been suggested that he is a great chef. People think he is a great chef. People believe he was a great chef. People claim he has had an influence on many other chefs. People say he has been making the best cheese in the area for over thirty years. People estimated that his restaurant was worth over $10 million. People have suggested that he is a great chef. To express other people’s opinions in a formal style, we can use two special forms of the passive. They can be used with a number of verbs, including: say, believe, think, claim, estimate, etc. Some other verbs(argue, suggest, calculate,etc) are usually used with only the secondstucture. Form:noun +is/are said to+ bare infinitive/perfect infinitive It is said that+ clause Active Passive
The causative: WATCH OUT! Using the verb ‘get’ is usually more informal than using ‘have’. Can you go and get this recipe photocopied for me? We can also use ‘get somebody to do’ and ‘have somebody do’ when we want to refer to the person we arrange to do something for us. Why don’t you get the chef to prepare you a vegetable meal? Why don’t you have the chef prepare you a vegetable meal? To show that someone arranges for someone else to do something for them I have my groceries delivered by the supermarket once a week. We are having a new cooker put in tomorrow. We had a large wedding cake made. Have you had your kitchen decorated? We are going to have the food for the party made by a certain company. To refer to an unpleasant situation which hasn’t been arranged We had our herb garden vandalised while we were away. The Smiths have had their new microwave stolen. Form: noun +have/getin the correct form + noun + past participle (+ by/with + noun) Use Example
The passive (2): will + be + past participle You pizza will be delered in forty minutes. is/are going to + be + past participle Burgerland is going to be sued by overweight customers. will + have + been + past participle All the grapes will have been harvested by the end of September . should + be+ past participle The chicken breast should be brushed with oil and then it should be fried. should+have+been+past participle The groceries should have been delivered by now. had + been + past participle All the food had been eaten by the time I got there. will Future We will deliver you pizza in forty minutes. to be going to Future Overweight customers are going to sue Burgerland. Future Perfect Simple They will have harvested all the grapes by the end of September. Modal You should brush the chicken breast with oil and then fry it. Modal + perfect infinitive They should have delivered the groceries by now. -ing (Gerund) I don’t like people telling me what to do in the kitchen. Form: noun +bein the correct form + pastparticiple (+ by/with + noun) Active Passive
The passive (3): WATCH OUT! We don’t normally use verbs in the passive in the present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, future continuous or future perfect continuous tenses. Instead we use a different phrase. The restaurant has been under construction for four years. The restaurant has been being built for four years. Dan has been in training as a chef for three years. Dan has been being trained as a chef for three years. We only normally use ‘by’ to say who did something when it is important information. Margarine was invented by a French chef. The best pizzas are made by the Italians. Waiter! This steak has been overcooked by someone. We usually use ‘with’ when we talk about the thing used to do something. The soup should then be stirred with a spoon. The soup should then be stirred by a spoon. Some verbs are not normally used in the passive. They include instructive verbs (without objects.), such as appear and die, and some common transitive verbs, such as have, let, lack, etc. When we don’t know who does/did something My groceries have been stolen! When it’s obvious who does/did something A boy was arrested in town yesterday for stealing an apple! When it’s not important who does/did something The French bistro is being knocked down. When we want to emphasise new information or use a formal style The potato was brought to Europe by Sir Walter Raleigh. Use Example
Direct and indirect objects: We can put the indirect object either immediately after the verb, or at the end of the sentence with a preposition (for/to etc). A friend gave my sister a cookery book. A friend gave this cookery book to my sister. The subject of the sentence can be either the indirect object or the direct object of the active sentence. My sister was given this cookery book by a friend. This cookery book was given to my sister by a friend. Someverbs can be followed by both a direct and indirect object (usually a person). These verbs include: bring, buy, get, give, lend, make, offer, owe, pass, promise, send, show, take, teach, tell, write,etc. Active Passive
Contents: Questions Question tags Indirect questions
Questions: With who, whose, whom, what, which, where, when, why and how Who is taking the rubbish out? Whose book is this? To whom did you speak? What is the weather like? Which do you want? Where did you go on holiday? When is Terry starting work? Why did they leave? How do you spell ‘environment’? Form:
Questions: WATCH OUT! With the question words ‘who’ and ‘what’ whether we use ‘do’ or not depends on whether the question word refers to the subject or object of the verb Subject: Who saw you? (= Someone saw you. Who?) Object: Who did you see? (= You saw someone. Who?) Remember that after ‘do’ or ‘does’, we use the bare infinitive. Did you go to the talk on the environment? Did you went to the talk on the environment? Does Tom want a glass of orange juice? Does Tom wants a glass of orange juice? Remember that the verb ‘mean’ form questions just like other main verbs. What does ‘environmental’ mean? What means ‘environmental’?
Question tags: WATCH OUT! In sentences with ‘I am’, we use ‘aren’t I?’ as the question tag. In sentences with ‘I am not’ we use ‘am I?’ I’m the best student in the class, aren’t I? I’m not very tall, am I? With everyone, no one and someone, we use question tags with a plural verb and they. Everyone’s going to be there, aren’t they? No one wants to come, do they? Someone’s been here, haven’t they? Usually, when we have a positive verb in a sentence, we use a negative question tag. When we have a negative verb in a sentence, we use a positive question tag. In sentences with a negative word like no, little, never, nobody, no one, hardly, etc we use a positive question tag. You have got no manners, have you? We never enjoy our holiday, do we? In sentences where the subject is ‘there’, we repeat ‘there’ in the question tag. There’s no point calling Tim now, is there? US vs UK GRAMMAR In American English, a question tag with ‘do’ can be used after a sentence with ‘have got’. This is not usually done in British English. US: They’ve got a lot of money, don’t they? UK: They’ve got a lot of money, haven’t they? Use Example To ask someoneto agree with us (falling intonation) It’s really hot, isn’t it? To check whether something is true (rising intonation) You’re Spanish, aren’t you?
Contents: RS: tense and modal changes RS: pronoun and determiner changes RS: time and place changes Reported questions Reporting verbs
Reported speech: tense and modal changes: WATCH OUT! We do not need to make any changes to the verb tense or modal when we are reporting a scientific fact or when something is still true. “Most banks change interest,” said Tim. → Tim said most banks change interest. am/is/are going to was/were going to “I’m going to go shopping,” said Tim. → Tim said he was going to go shopping. will would “I’ll need a credit card,” said Tom. → Tom said he would need a credit card. can could “I can take Lizzie shopping,” said Tim. → Tim said he could take Lizzie shopping. must/have to had to “I must go to the supermarket,” said Tim. → Tim said he had to go to the supermarket may might “I may go shopping later,” said Tim. → Tim said he might go shopping later. Weuse reported speech when we want to say what someone else said. eg:Jason said he was going to buy a new pair of trainers. If the reporting verb is in the past (eg:said), we usually have to change the tense of what the person actually said. Directspeech Reported speech Example
Reported speech: time and place changes WATCH OUT! We do not need to make any changes to time words/phrases when the information is still true at the moment of speaking/writing. “I’m going sopping tomorrow,” said Tim to Ben. → Ben immediately called Lizzie and said, “Tim said he’s going shopping tomorrow.”
Contents: Relative clauses Non-defining relative clauses Defining relative clauses Participles
Relative clauses: WATCH OUT! When the relative pronoun (who, which, etc) is the subject of the relative clause, you do not need another subject. I admire Jade Law, who always work hard in his films. I admire Jade Law, who he always work hard in his films. Whom is quite formal. It is natural in informal English to use who instead of whom, even when it is the object of the relative clause. After a preposition, however, we always use whom. Informally, we usually put the preposition at the end of the clause and use who. Is that the man who we saw at the cinema yesterday? Charlie Chaplin was a comic genius to whom all comedians owe a great deal. Charlie Chaplin was a comic genius who all comedians owe a great deal to. Where can be replaced by a preposition+which. Less formally, we can put the preposition at the end of the clause. The theatre where /in which I first acted is somewhere around here. The theatre which I first acted in is somewhere around here. We can do the same thing with when. Do you know the year when/in which the first western was made? Do you know the year which the first western was made in?
Participles: WATCH OUT! You have to be careful that the participle and the rest of the sentence both refer to the same subject. Watching TV, I saw a news report about Hollywood. Watching TV, a news report came on about Hollywood.
Contents: Inversions with negative adverbial words and phrases Other inversions Possessives ‘s and s’ Possessives determiners and pronouns
Inversions with negative adverbial words and phrases (2): WATCH OUT! Under no circumstances Under no circumstances the employees allowed to leave the building without permission. At no time/point At no time/point was I told what the job involved. Little Little did I realise that I would become managing director just two years later. Not until Not until the next day did I hear that I got the job. Only Only at the end of the interview did I think I had a chance of getting the job. Weput some negative adverbial words and phrases at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis, the subject and the verb ‘invert’. This means we use the question form of the verb, even though the sentence is not a question. Inversions are quite formal and are not usually used in conversation. Form: negative adverbial word/phrase + question form No sooner had I acceptedthe job than they told me I had to work weekends. Negativeadverbial Example
Inversions with negative adverbial words and phrases (3): WATCH OUT! Little is used with verbs of thought (realise, know, suspect, etc) and means “I did not realise/etc at all…” Little did I know how things were going to turn out. (=I did not know how things were going to turn out.) With not until and only, you have to be careful about which verb to invert. Not until I had finished my homework was I allowed to go out. Not until had I finished my homework I was allowed to go out. Only when I had finished my homework was I allowed to go out. Only when had I finished my homework I was allowed to go out.
Possessive ’s and s’: WATCH OUT! With singular names ending in –s, some people use ‘s and some people just add an apostrophe. They are both correct, although using ‘s is more common. The report is on Charles’s computer in the office. The report is on Charles’ computer in the office. With plural names ending in –s, we just add an apostrophe, as with other plurals. The Smiths’ business eventually closed down. With phrases, the possessive ‘s and s’ must go at the end of the whole phrase. Tom, Dick and Harry’s office is around here somewhere. Tom’s, Dick’s and Harry’s office is around here somewhere. The President of France’s visit to England will be good for business. The President’s of France visit to England will be good for business.
Possessive determiners and pronouns: WATCH OUT! A common mistake to be avoided is using a possessive pronoun instead of a possessive determiner or using a determiner instead of a pronoun. I really get on very well with my boss. I really get on very well with mine boss. I know your job is dangerous, but did Frank and Jenny tell you about theirs? I know your job is dangerous, but did Frank and Jenny tell you about their? Remember that there are no apostrophes in possessive pronouns.. I know your job is dangerous, but did Frank and Jenny tell you about their’s? Don’t get confused between its (possessive determiner, without an apostrophe) and it’s (contraction for it is or it has, with an apostrophe). Our company is hoping to increase its share of the market. Our company is hoping to increase it’s share of the market.
Contents: Unreal past Wishes Although/though/even though In spite of/despite However/nevertheless While/whereas
Wishes: WATCH OUT! We do not usually say If only/I wish I would… If only/I wish I had enough money to buy these shoes. If only/I wish I could afford these jeans. If only/I wish I would have enough money to buy these shoes. To express desires about the future, we often use hope. I hope I will have enough money to buy these shoes next week. I hope to have have enough money to buy these shoes next week. I wish I will have enough money to buy these shoes next week.
Bibliography . Malcolm Mann, Steve Taylore-Knowles. “Grammar & Vocabulary”, Destination B2, MACMILLAN, 2009 Gordon E.M., Krylova I.P. “A Grammar of Present-day English”. Practical Course. – М: КДУ, 2009 Martin Hewings “Advanced Grammar in Use” - Cambridge University Press, 2002. Richard Syde and Guy Wellman “Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency” – Longman, 2006. Ron Cowan “The Teacher’s Grammar of English”, a course book and reference guide. – Cambridge University Press, 2008. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка. – М.: Изд-во «ЮНВЕС», 2008.
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Destination B2: Grammar and Vocabulary has been designed for students preparing to take any examination at B2 (Vantage) level on the Council of Europe's Common European Framework scale. The book provides presentation and practice of all the key grammar, vocabulary and lexico-grammatical areas required for all main B2 level exams, eg Cambridge FCE. There are 28 units in the book, with alternating grammar and vocabulary units.
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