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Эссе «Speech acts agreement-disagreement in the English and Russian languages»

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A. Z. Makhmetova

Kazakhstan, Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute

The article is devoted speech acts of agreement and disagreement in the English and Russian languages. The article discusses the importance of agreement and disagreement in the organization of verbal interaction, and also describes the classification of speech acts and their importance in the communication process.

The end of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century in linguistics marked with the dominance as a fundamental position that learning a language can be considered adequate only by the description of its operation in the process of communication. Linguistic pragmatic, has formed on the basis of the study of individual statements and correlated them with the speech acts, since 80s actively involves in the orbit of its interests dialogical works. In the dialogue statement acquire visible, concrete forms. To this circumstance pay attention N.A. Komina: “It is in dialogic speech can be observed direct link of the communicative intentions of the speaker and the result of his speech creative process” [1, p.128].

Agreement/disagreement is one of the fundamental communicative categories that play a significant role in the organization of speech interaction, in structuring of meaningful human world. In the communication process with the help of category agreement/disagreement is installing and correcting communicative pragmatic relations between people, the author's position of a speaker is transmit, his linguistic and communicative competence. Language means of agreement/disagreement have universal character, their shape and position in the speech act functionally significant.

The choice of called speech acts determined with several reasons of linguistic character.

First of all, speech acts “agreement” and “disagreement” have a high frequency of realization in speech communication, it indicates that they occupy a significant place in the speech communication, not limited by some communicative styles and other conditions: they are frequency in everyday household conversations in the family, between friends, on the street, in official setting, at work, in public transport and other aspects of human life.

Second, in spite of the fact that a significant role which they play in speech communication in all languages, speech acts of agreement/disagreement not enoughinterpreted in science, not fully cleared up communicative features, role in interpersonal communication.

Third, the theoretical study of the speech act “agreement” and “disagreement” will allow until the end to understand their role in interpersonal communication.

The scientists engaged the classification of speech acts of disagreement, don’t define its place in this classification. Therefore, in considering means of expression of speech acts of disagreement can be concluded that depending on the illocutionary purpose of a speaker, disagreement can be attributed to any of the above-listed classes.

Let us illustrate this by the following examples:

  1. representatives:

- Harry! I think that his ideas are stupid and not true to life.

- No, you are mistaken. In reality, he is a great man with clever thoughts and ideas that can change the situation in the country. A lot of people admit it except you.

2) directives:

- I hate her. She is very selfish and always betrays her friends.

- No, you shouldn’t say such words of your best friend. It is nonsense! She is always very attentive and kind. You should immediately call her and try to make peace with her.

3) commissives:

- Harry, you always tell me a lie. I can’t trust you any more.

- It is not true. I am not a liar. If you want I’ll, I’ll… prove my love towards you with the help of my actions?

4) expressives:

- Mum, Jane and I want to live separately from you.

- What? What a nonsense! I don’t know how to react to your words! You’ll do it only after my death!

5) declarations:

- You are against the peace and for war in the world!

- Who told you that? It is nonsense! If you elect me I’ll prove that it is not true.

Speech act of disagreement which is center of this research, usually considered through the category of negation: it can expressed by sentences with a formal sign of negation. But in the linguistic consciousness of native English speaker the same situation can express also sentences without formal sign of negation.

For example,

1) - I think that Jill is an up-to-date girl. That is why she has a lot of boy-friends.

- I don’t think so. Her dresses are modest and her appearance isn’t attractive.

In this example, “I don’t think so” contains formal sign of negation.

2) - Mary said that we will have exams next week.

-Rubbish! You must be joking!

- No, it is true.

This example does not include formal sign of negation.

There are a number of features of the speech act of disagreement, which will be considered in this research. Above all, the speech act of disagreement represents a complex and multiple-aspect phenomenon, which is necessary to investigate, taking into account the semantic, grammatical and pragmatic aspects.On the other hand, under study speech act of disagreement express a negative attitude to the action or utterance of a interlocutor, thus is presents informative, estimated or imperative sentence and has a certain embodiment in speech with the help of means of expression, the use of which in a given situation depends on several factors: the intentions of a speaker, the nature of the stimulus cue and the peculiarities of the speech situation. Among the speech acts of disagreement single out several types of separate acts, differ from each other by shades of meaning. Each type of speech act of disagreement has particular communicative goal.

Also should note the fact that in modern artwork and films speech act of disagreement has an important role in the creation of communicative interaction.

Speech act of disagreement is one type of speech acts of negative reactions to which some scientists also attribute the acts of prohibition and denial.

However, in this work the speech acts of prohibition and the denial is not considered and under the speech act of disagreement is understood an act that unites all kinds of negative reactions: rebuttal, objection, judgment, expression of dissatisfaction, disapproval.

Thus, the speech act of negative reaction is reactive act expressing a negative attitude of the speaker to the action or utterance of an interlocutor, representing informative, estimated or imperative sentence with different emotional shades (judgment, disapproval, and etc.) and having in speech a certain embodiment.

In a complex research of the speech act of disagreement are taken into account the following factors:

  1. communicative goal.

- I think that this Sunday will be suitable for visiting Jane and tell her everything what I think of her.

- I don’t see any sense in it. These your actions, Harry, are wrong and ungrounded. You should stay at home or phone her to make peace.

In this example, the communicative goal is to express the lack of agreement in relation to the statement of the interlocutor. At the same time the objection is an estimate of the interlocutor’s information.

  1. the concept of the speaker

- You are the best friend in the world

- No, I am not. You want me to be. And I want to be, I really do. But just wanting something doesn’t make it true.

Committing the speech act of disagreement, the speaker expresses defined point of view, while being on the opposite positions with the interlocutor on one issue.

  1. the concept of the interlocutor

- You can’t cook at all. You are a good-for-nothing person.

- That is not true. I can cook and always cook tasty things. You can’t appreciate my talent in cooking.

In this speech act of disagreement the interlocutor provokes a certain negative reaction of the speaker.

  1. event-trigger content

- Harry is a great guy. He is very sensitive and kind.

- I don’t agree with you. He is very selfish and cunning. I can’t understand why you don’t notice it.

Event-triggered basis of this speech act of disagreement includes informing the interlocutor about the negative attitude of the speaker to his action.

5) the factor of communicative past. In this research to the complex analysis subjected reactions-cues of disagreement:

a) neutral cues: I don’t agree; I am not sure; No, I don’t think; I disagree; etc.

b) informal cues: I don’t see any sense in it; Nonsense!; No way!; You must be joking!; etc.

c) the formal cues: I’m afraid I don’t share your point of view; I see things rather differently myself; etc.

6) the factor of communicative future.

- How many times have I told you not to make friends with this awful girl. She has terrible background: her father is a drunker and her mother …Oh, my God!

But Hermione only stood up and went away.

In this example, the factor of communicative future is expressed in the absence of an answer to cue of the interlocutor.

7) the language embodiment. Each subtype of speech acts of disagreement has in a speech certain embodiment.

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