Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Учителям 1-11 классов и воспитателям дошкольных ОУ вместе с ребятами рекомендуем принять участие в международном конкурсе «Законы экологии», приуроченном к году экологии. Участники конкурса проверят свои знания правил поведения на природе, узнают интересные факты о животных и растениях, занесённых в Красную книгу России. Все ученики будут награждены красочными наградными материалами, а учителя получат бесплатные свидетельства о подготовке участников и призёров международного конкурса.
ПРИЁМ ЗАЯВОК ТОЛЬКО ДО 21 ОКТЯБРЯ!
Конкурс "Законы экологии"
Фонетическая зарядка на уроках английского языка
Кушнаренко Дарья Ивановна
В данной работе предлагается система коррекции и улучшения фонетических навыков в период, когда уже прошло значительное количество времени после постановки произношения. Известно, что на средней и особенно старшей ступени обучения произносительные навыки учащихся ухудшаются. Многие фонетические явления уже забыты учащимися, многие кажутся им несущественными. Более важное место, на их взгляд, в средних и старших классах занимает овладение лексикой, грамматикой, умением быстро и правильно высказать свою мысль,т.е коммуникативный подход. Может быть, это и так, но учителю бывает очень обидно, когда его упорный труд по выработке у учащихся правильных фонетических и интонационных навыков на первом этапе обучения практически сходит на нет. Какое разочарование он испытывает, когда слышит беглую, грамматически правильную речь своих взрослых учеников. Ему режет слух их небрежная фонетика, когда звуки произносятся кое-как, а английской интонации нет и в помине, ее почти полностью заменила русская. Горькая мысль: «А чему же я их учила? Куда все делось?» не дает покоя, понимаешь, что надо что-то делать, но что и, главное, когда? Ведь урок и так насыщен до предела. И приходишь к выводу, что минимальную часть урочного времени (5 минут) надо отвести фонетическим упражнениям, пусть даже за счет чего-то другого. На наш взгляд, мириться с этим нельзя, развитие и поддержание на должном уровне произносительных навыков учащихся – повседневная работа учителя. Так появилась эта работа, цель которой - интенсивная фонетическая тренировка на средней и старшей ступенях обучения.
Надо приучить детей, что урок начинается с раздачи каждому листа с фонетической зарядкой. Когда это входит в привычку, сидящий перед столом учителя ребенок молча берет приготовленные листы, раздает их всем и также молча собирает их после окончания работы. Учителю удобно, что по одному и тому же листу работаем во всех классах с 5 по 11, т.е. нет никаких организационных хлопот.
Верхняя половина каждого листа предназначена для учащихся 5-6 классов, остальной материал – по выбору учителя и степени фонетической подготовленности класса. Какой звук тренировать сегодня – решать учителю, выбор произволен. Обязательно нужно напомнить учащимся правила артикуляции каждого тренируемого звука. Работаем хором, в парах и непременно индивидуально, контрольное чтение и оценка за него через 2-3 дня работы над звуком стимулирует учащихся к серьезной работе, т.к. иметь хорошую оценку хотят все.
Предложения и диалоги, расположенные в средней и нижней части каждого листа, имеют фонетическую разметку, что дает возможность работать также и над интонацией – нашим больным местом. Надо постоянно напоминать учащимся, что английские фонетисты подчеркивают тот факт, что для изучающего английский язык гораздо важнее приобрести хорошие интонационные навыки, чем правильно артикулировать звуки языка.
ПРИМЕРЫ ФОНЕТИЧЕСКИХ ЗАРЯДОК
Sandy If you, Sandy, have two candies
Andy Give your candy to Andy, Sandy.
candy If you, Andy, have two candies
have Give your candy to Sandy, Andy.
Hat Fact A black cat sat on a mat.
Sat Bad That’s the man that sat
Cat that On my black hat in the tram.
Black He’s a bad man, that’s the fact.
Lad Once there lived a lad
Sad Who was always very sad
Dad For he hadn’t any mother
Hadn’t And he hadn’t any dad.
Act. Apple. Abbey. Abstract. Absence.
Beastly appetite. Silly ass. Lively action.
The atmosphere. The adverb. The attitude.
That’s bad. 1) – It’s an absolute scandal!
And that’s that. - Absolute scandal? Are you sure?
Can you imagine that?
Fancy! Fancy that! 2) – What happened to Jack?
That’s bad grammar. - Don’t worry. He failed his exam!
That’s absolutely fantastic!
Is that the man who attacked you? 3) – Hullo, Dad!
Jack can do it that way. - Good morning, Sam!
[ е ]
[ e ] [ æ ] Happy end. Busy editor.
Egg bag Dirty entrance. The emblem.
Bed bad The energy. The envelope.
Men man Merry. Any. Many. Question.
Says sad Nelly has seven red pens,
Pen plan And Sally has ten.
Together to gather
Beg bag Pat keeps two pets:
Head had A cat and a rat.
Met mat Pat likes her pets
pet Pat And his two pets like Pat.
Better matter Better to do well than to say well.
Well said. Press bell. Get better.
Very well, then. Well, I never.
He’s telling me he isn’t ready yet.
– I can’t come before Wednesday.
- Before when?
– You met him on the tenth of September.
- You met him when?
– I shall never help him again.
- Never is a very dangerous word to say.
[ i: ]
[ i: ] [ I ]
least list One, two three,
eat it Let me see
deal Bill Who likes coffee
beach switch And who likes tea.
field built One, two, three
people simple Oh, I see.
Leave live You all like coffee
Sheep ship And I like tea.
Feel fill A sailor went to sea
Need did To see what he could see.
Easy busy But all he could see
Meeting pretty Was sea, sea, sea.
Sea captain. Knee-deep. Sea coast. 1) – It’s a fine piece of work, Jean.
Three each. No equals. Go east. - Do you really mean that?
Please. The evening. The eagles. The east. 2) - Peter’s staying with us next week.
Appeal. Indeed. Reading. Creature. - Do bring him round to see us.
Pleased to meet you. 3) - When shall we meet you?
Please, be seated. - After tea?
Extremes meet. 4) - I’m afraid he is not free this evening.
Eating between meals? - When’s he likely to be free?
Steve is eager to please the teacher.
The teacher has every reason to be displeased.
He speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.
[ I ]
[ I ]
pit big Little Bill, sit still.
hid till Will you sit still, little Bill?
Lit list Big cities are hidden in thick mist.
Tin little ‘Tick’, the clock says.
Bill sister ‘Tick, tick, tick.
Still What you have to do
Twist Do quick’.
The industry. The interview. The issue.
Infinitive. Impossibility. Initiative. Institute.
Is Mickey in?
It isn’t cricket.
It’s the limit.
It isn’t his business, is it?
It is written in simple English, isn’t it?
1) – The digging’s finished.
- Is it? All of it?
2) – Whose responsibility is it?
- Whose responsibility? Why, Bill’s.
3) – How many children has Jill?
- How many? Six, I think.
[ Λ ]
son something Every country has its customs.
must doesn’t There’s a bus coming. Hurry up!
study hungry Come to lunch, Bunny!
Shutter. Summit. Submarine.
Mummy. Sonny. Hurry. Southern.
Come. Some. None. Done. Tongue.
Wealthy uncle. Cruelly unjust.
Tough luck. Just my luck.
Come to lunch, Bunny!
Does the bus run every other Monday?
None but dullards copy one another.
Don’t touch this money till next month.
There wasn’t much sunshine in London last Monday.
– This train doesn’t run on Sundays.
- Come by bus, then.
[ a: ]
car March much
pass glass fuss He laughs best who laughs last.
garden clerk luck
father fast just The car passed the park at half past five in the afternoon.
basket rather other
carpet class bus
at last harm come
part aunt front
glass father mother
Army. Party. Drama. Hardly. Tomato. 1) – Pass me that card, Bart.
Cart – cut. Barn – bun. Harm – hum. - Which card?
New art. Heavy armchair. Enemy army. 2) – I asked Arthur yesterday.
The architect. The Arctic. The Argentine. - And what was his answer?
Start the car.
I hardly like the remark, Papa. 3) – Parker’s on the phone.
Cars can’t be parked here after dark. - Ask him about my car.
Shan’t we dance after classes?
The exam will be rather hard to pass. 4) – Shall I pass them to Martin?
I can’t stay after classes. - Pass them to me rather.
[ u ]
good Look at this good cookery-book.
put Too good to be true.
sugar It looks good.
Good. Could. Would. Should. Room. Wood.
Woman. Sugar. Pudding. Bullet.
Full. Bull. Wool. Wolves. Pullman.
Could you if you would? 1) – He injured his foot. So he couldn’t play.
Here’s your cook-book. - Why couldn’t he play?
Keep a good look-out. 2) – Mrs. Cook’s looking for you.
It wouldn’t look good, would it? - Looking for me? Mr. Cook?
Would you help the woman if you could? 3) – Could you show me how to cook that pudding?
I can’t help looking, could I? - I would if I could, but I never cooked that pudding.
Would you wait till I’ve had time to look for it?
You’d better put on your woollen pullover.
[ u: ]
new [u: ] [ u ]
shoe route foot
school suit put
music shoot should
do too to
moon How do you do?
who Soon the cool moon will shine on the gloomy pool.
Neutral. Beauty. Duty. Humour. 1) – This is Mr. Doolittle.
Too moody. New school. Too gloomy. – How do you do?
Cucumber. Kangaroo. Hooligan.
Junior. Wounded. Balloon. Include. 2) – What would you do?
- It’s up to you. You must make up your own mind.
Who’ll do the rooms?
You’re the nuisance, too. 3) – It’s absolutely true.
Rupert will do beautifully. - But who’s going to believe it?
Review the rules for the future tenses.
Do you usually have two pupils on duty? 4) – I arrived on Tuesday afternoon.
Read the newspaper review through and through. - At exactly what time in the afternoon?
We’re moving very soon, before the end of June.
5) – Which would you choose if you were me?
- The new one, of course.
[ o ]
dog I am sorry.
watch I am very sorry.
what I am sorry indeed.
what not I am very sorry indeed.
John Molly got a lot of spots on her frock.
pocket What’s wrong?
box What’s the problem?
doctor What’s going on?
New office. Funny opera. Solitary object. 1) – It’ll cost a lot of dollars.
The orator. The origin. The opposite. – Obviously.
Politics. Honour. Knowledge. Godmother. 2) – Molly’s being very obstinate.
Not for toffees! - Then you be obstinate, too.
Possibly not. 3) - What about Hob’s offer?
Upon my honour. - Was it an offer, in fact?
What a lot of nonsense!
Will you be gone long, John?
Was it not possible to stop, Tom?
This cloth wants washing.
[ o: ]
ball [ o ] [o: ]
draw cross course
small hot bought
sport shot short
daughter dog door The porter’s daughter caught a small tortoise.
porter doctor porter
of course doll tall Many words hurt more than swords.
door gone torn
floor got ought Is this ball big or small?
storm knock talk
talk doctor daughter
The order. The orchestra. The orbit.
Highly organized. New order.
Daughter. Morning. Naughty. Walking.
All the more so.
To cut a long story short.
It’s all your fault.
To talk to George is like talking to the wall.
Call me at a quarter to four.
Your daughters are all tall.
Could you show me the shortest way to the port?
I caught a cold when I walked along the shore.
1) – George was rather a bore tonight.
- Isn’t h always?
2) – We still need his support, don’t we?
- More than ever before.
3) – You haven’t brought enough of them.
- I shall be bringing some more later in the morning.
[ ou ]
radio Oh, no! Don’t go home alone.
only Nobody knows how lonely the road is.
don’t Rose won’t go home alone, I suppose.
go Soames never boasts of what he knows, and Rose never knows of what she low boasts.
suppose So the old boat floated slowly to the coast.
Boat. Soak. Toast. Roast. Host. Photo. 1) – You can phone me tomorrow.
Window. Potato. Yellow. Tomato. Cargo. - When can I phone you?
Slow answer. Go out. Blue ocean. Very old.
The opening. The only one. The overcoat. 2) – It’s going to turn cold.
I suppose so. No go. Go slow. Nobody home. - Think so?
Follow your nose. There’s no knowing.
No smoking. Don’t grow cold. I vote we go home. 3) – Shall we go boating?
Stones grow old. I hope you are both going home. - Tomorrow?
There’s no place like home.
I hope you know who wrote those poems. 4) – I stopped smoking a long time ago.
- A long time ago? How long ago?
[ oi ]
Roy many boys Tom is a little boy.
joy much noise He is a good boy but he is very noisy.
toy many voices Tom has many toys.
voice much oil
noise Noisy toys point to boys.
choice a noisy city
oil a good choice Boys’ voices are joyous.
soil a fine voice
toil a nice boy Boys will be boys.
Oil. Toil. Soil. Spoil. Point. Boil. Toilet.
Annoy. Poison. Destroy. Exploit.
The noise is annoying.
Join me in the voyage.
It’s beyond the point.
What’s the boiling point of oil?
Small boys like noise-making toys.
Roy was annoyed with the boy because he’d spoiled his toy.
1) – Is that your little boy?
- My little boy?
2) - Whatever made you join them?
- It couldn’t be avoided.
3) - There’s no point in asking Roy.
- He’s got a good voice.
4) – He refused point blank.
- How very annoying!
[ ə: ]
work word The third word is heard.
learn university Her birthday is on Thursday, the thirty-first of May.
nurse thirty-first Certainly, sir.
Earth. Early. Earnest. Dirt. Skirt. Girl. 1) – Are your girls learning German?
Very early. Thirsty earth. Vitally urgent. - Yes, very earnestly.
The earthquake. The earnings.
Emergency. Interpreter. Surface. 2) – It’s my birthday today.
Return. Excursion. Journey. Surgeon. - Very many happy returns!
I’ve overheard the word.
I’ll turn in early. 3) – Which do you prefer?
A worm will turn. - The lower birth, of course.
What a hurly-burly girl she is.
Repeat the verse word for word. 4) – Can I have a word with you?
The work will serve no purpose. - Certainly.
Earnest is determined to learn German. 5) – I’ve missed my turn.
The first and the third verses were most difficult to learn. - Serves you right.
[ ŋ ]
among interesting Spades for digging,
long good-looking Pens for writing,
song reading Ears for hearing,
wrong speaking Teeth for biting.
ring swimming Eyes for seeing,
sing singing Legs for walking,
bang teaching Tongues for tasting,
sang writing And for talking.
Strong nature. Shining needle. Fishing net. 1) – It’s quite wrong.
Leading newspaper. Charming manner. - How do you know it’s wrong?
Finger. Stronger. Anger. English. Jungle.
Nothing is wrong. 2) – What are you doing these days?
Things are mending. - Earning my living and going to evening classes.
Bring them along.
Thanks for calling.
Everything’s going wrong.
Saying and doing are two things.
Some Englishmen are murdering King’s English.
[ au ]
brown [ Λ ] [ au ] Sit down!
how Read aloud.
down shut shout Speak loudly.
now run round Sound every vowel in the word ‘towel’.
shout fuss house
about bus blouse How, how, Brown Owl,
town front count Why do you frown
pound done down Down at the mouse
found hundred scoundrel On the ground?
sound running Browning
Outbreak. Outlaw. Outline. Pound. Sound. 1) – I have to go out now.
Cowboy. Mountain. County. Boundless. - How long will you be out?
Lucky outcome. Early hours. New outlook. 2) – I gave him a pound to buy a fountain pen.
Out of bounds! - A pound won’t be enough.
Out of doubt. 3) – Some flowers for you.
I’m doubtful about the hour. - How nice! How sweet of you!
They found themselves about the town tower. 4) – I really must go now.
Out of the house to the grounds. - Well, good bye, Powel.
Mr. Brown was not allowed to go out of the house.
It took her about an hour to get to town.
[ ai ]
nice [ au ] [ ai ] I like life.
why found find Buy my nice pies.
cry how high Tigers and lions bite.
my out white Science fights lies.
buy loud light Out of sight out of mind.
pie pound plight
sign house nice
lie shout sight
mine down nine
five sound sight
time towel tight
Ice. Either. Iron. Pie. Try. Fly. Sky. 1) – Mike’ll meet us at nine.
Rocky island. Bitter irony. First try. - At what time?
The Irish. The ice cream. The eyesight. 2) - Would you like to try?
- Would I like to try?
Go to bye-bye.
Mind your eyes! 3) – Tell me the time, please.
I had a white night. - Tell you the time? Nine minutes past 9.
I find it quite right.
Stop piping the eye like the crocodile. 4) – These matches won’t strike.
The island is nine miles long and five miles wide. - Mine strike.
The climate is pretty mild in Ireland.
I should like you to write your reply on Friday.
[ θ ]
think [ s ] [ θ ] One, two three we are free.
thank you I think they both have a toothache.
everything sing thing Susan thinks that this is a bit thick.
third sink think Fred fried three fresh fish.
thirty sin thin
thin sort thought He couldn’t say ‘fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth’ quickly,
thousand tense tenth But he could say,
mouth force fourth ‘Sixty-six sheep need sixty-six shepherds’.
fifth yes death
twelfth course north is thick has thick
fifth once month is thin has thin
depth first earth
Fourth side. Twentieth sign. Twelfth song. 1) – Thank you so much.
Immense theatre. Serious thing. Beneath you. - Not at all, thank you.
Wise theory. Silent threat. Golden thought.
Those things. Worthless. Strengthen. Death mask. 2) – I’m so sorry, I threw it out.
Myths. Deaths. Lengths. Baths. Depths. - Don’t give it another thought.
Nothing like youth.
Think things over.
When three Thursdays come together.
A thousand thanks to you both.
Thomas thinks of terrible things, of nothing but death in a month.
I have a thousand and one thing to ask you.
I must speak the truth and nothing but truth.
[ ð ]
that What is this
then And what is that?
There This is a dog
They And that is a cat.
please them This one. That one. Go there.
tell them This is the thing. This is the story.
mother With love. With me. With mother. Clothes.
father They gathered all the brothers.
is this is that
it’s this it’s that
When then? This and that. A good thing, though.
Please them. Choose them. Tease them.
Write them. Meet them. Beat them. Tell them.
With salt. With sand. With snow. With love.
With me. With mother. With water.
Is this the thing? Is this the same thing?
What’s the matter? What’s the idea? What’s the trouble? What’s the difference?
And that’s that.
That’s neither here nor there. 1) – Does the noise bother you?
Then there’s another thing. - Rather.
I’ll do anything rather than that.
You never know with the weather. 2) – It all depends on the weather.
They couldn’t tell one brother from the other. - Why does it depend on the weather.
There’s no one there, neither mother nor father.
This film is no worse than the others. 3) – What shall I do with these things?
The less men think the more they talk. - Take them out and clean them.
I think this thing is theirs.
[ w ]
wife [ w ] [ v ]
what went vent Why do you cry, Willie?
when wet vet Why do you cry?
where while vile Why, Willie, why, Willie,
white wine vine Why, Willie, why?
window west vest
woman worse verse Why worry?
women very well Away with war.
quickly Walter was with us when we went away
twelve Walter always knows what’s what.
Queen. Quick. Quite. Question. Quarrel.
Safe way. Rough water. Waterproof watch.
Twice. Twelve. Twenty. Twins. Tweed. Twist.
Time works wonders. 1) – Walter is coming as well.
Whatever will we do? - Splendid! I was afraid he wouldn’t be able to.
We’ll walk whatever the weather.
We see what we wish to. 2) – No sign of William yet.
We wondered where we were. - He always keeps us waiting.
The sweater will wear well.
When will we meet? 3) – What did you think of the equipment?
It was a wonder the weather was so wet. - It was wonderful!
No sweet without sweat.
William always wears a very warm woollen vest in winter. 4) – What do you think, Walter?
Victor however, will never wear woollen underwear - Does it matter what I think?
Even in the Wild West.
[ r ]
to rent a room a teacher of English
write the grammar of English
red Come for a walk.
read the colour of this rock
rugby Dinner is ready.
ring Here is an apple for you.
restaurant There are better apples in our own garden.
very sorry She spent an hour alone in that car of yours.
very well Harry very rarely writes.
brown Don’t run across the narrow bridge.
Very sorry. Quarrel. Merry. For ever.
Fresh roses. Clean room. Wise raven. 1) – I am terribly worried about that.
Nuclear arms. Nuclear energy. Fire alarm. - Why should it worry you?
Rack your brains.
Very true. 2) – This is my new radio set.
Rather curious. - Is it really?
It’s rather strange, yet true.
The three ‘R’s are Reading, Writing and (a)rithmetic. 3) – I am most terribly sorry!
When angry count a hundred. - You have no reason to be.
There is neither rhyme nor reason in it.
When a friend asks, there is no tomorrow.
She never really looks very well.
[ t ]
[ tr ] [ tl ] [ tn ]
train little bitten a bit of at the Nelson’s
tree kettle kitten fit it at the bed
try settle beaten put it at the camp
true gentle tighten eat it at this time
street battle meet me let us at that map
country cattle can’t be
instrument title can’t think
stress stopped him
It’s better to talk too little than to talk too much.
Tell Tom to come to tea tomorrow.
Separate table. Perfect tact. Pleasant talk.
Lost chance. Private garden. Quiet gaze.
Beetle. Battle. Butler. Button. Cotton. Kitten.
Treaty. Trouble. Tram. Twins. Twist. Twice. Twain.
Good taste. Red tape. Bad temper.
Silent thanks. Elegant theatre. Pleasant thought.
Write them. Respect them. Correct them.
After dinner, if you are not too tired, you’ll tell me about it.
Tom was in time, and so was Tim.
The more I thought about it the less I liked it. 1) – What made him take it?
Cut it short. - He took it because he wanted it.
Try to put it right.
Don’t take it to heart. 2) - I may be a bit late.
I don’t like my tea too strong. - That wouldn’t matter in the least.
Put two and two together.
[ p ]
pen [ pt ] cheap book
pet stopped jump down
pit hoped drop it here The puppy pulled a piece of pretty pink paper
out of Peter’s pocket.
paper wept drop by drop
pass shipped up to now
place kept a cup of tea
plate chapter a cup of coffee
Deep pit. Cheap paper. Lamp posts. 1) – Whose pen is this?
Damp places. Ripe pears. Soup plate. - Peter’s, perhaps.
Stop buying. Shop-bell. Top- boots.
Captain. Chapter. September. 2) – Where does Paula come from?
Sheep-dog. Sharp glance. Deep gratitude. - Spain, I think.
Wild passion. Large portion. Active part.
Strange people. Skilled pilot. 3) – Who gave him the paper?
Stop them. Type them. Keep them. - Patrick did.
Present company excepted. 4) – Pass me that picture, please.
Keep up appearances. - Which picture?
Pete’s as pleased as Punch.
Peg’s as pretty as a picture. 5) – It all depends on Peter.
Don’t pass up the opportunity, Rupert. – Does it depend on him?
[ k ]
[ kt ]
cat act black dog Every country has its custom.
coat fact black cat Kate caught the kitten and kissed it.
Black cat. Weak coffee. Dark corridor.
Rock’n roll. Dark night. Black magic.
Quiet. Quite. Quality. Quantity. Quick.
Cut and come again. 1) – Can Jack and Kate come to tea?
The coast is clear. – Kate can. But Jack can’t.
Ken’s as cold as a cucumber.
Keep quite quiet. 2) – Nobody can come.
Come back and keep us company. - Kitty can.
School keeps on till six o’clock.
Come back as quick as you can. 3) – I don’t like the look of these cows.
I can’t understand what the kids are talking about. - Quiet.
I can ask your cousin to come to tea. 4) – Can you play cricket?
I think you’d better ask the cook. - Once I could.
[ h ]
he behave Savage hate Happy birthday!
harm behind effective help Hold your head high.
horse somehow cold hands Henry is as hungry as a hunter.
who a house huge head I hope I haven’t hurt him.
huge the honey superb hair Every man has his hobby-horse.
her unhappy expensive habit Happy hearts make happy homes.
high enhance How horrid of him.
How Hilda is head over heals in love with him.
Hoist Helen hated to meet him here.
1) – How many hats has she got?
- At least a dozen, I hope.
2) – Whose house is this?
- Mr. Hornsby’s, I think.
3) – What sort of holiday did you have?
- Perfectly horrid!
4) – Does he come here often?
- Hardly ever.
[ b ]
beauty table be brief Ben’s a bag of bones.
boom about a bad job Betty’s as bald as brass.
Don’t be a busy body, baby. 1) – Whose book is this?
Barbara’s as busy as a bee. - Bobby Barton’s.
Bob lives at the back of beyond. 2) – I hate cabbage.
Buy me a bike. - So does Barbara.
You’d better ask Barbara. 3) - What’s Burton’s job?
We’d better have a bite before we go. - He is in the bakery business.
- Просмотры: 162
- Просмотры: 87
- Просмотры: 149
- Просмотры: 93
- Просмотры: 91
- Просмотры: 100
- Просмотры: 116