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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Формирование стратегий выполнения текстовых заданий ЕГЭ по чтению

Формирование стратегий выполнения текстовых заданий ЕГЭ по чтению


  • Иностранные языки

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Формирование стратегий выполнения текстовых заданий

в формате ЕГЭ по английскому языку

(на примере раздела «Чтение»)



Выполнил:

Кузьмин Сергей Александрович,

учитель английского языка,

МБОУ «Елизаветинская СОШ» Адамовского района



















2015



Содержание


Пояснительная записка……………………………………………........... 3


Комплекс упражнений на развитие умений и навыков чтения............... 6

Приложение 1. Ключи к заданиям……………………………………….. 36

Приложение 2. Бланк ответов № 1……………………………………….. 37

Список используемых источников………………………………………. 38
























ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

ЕГЭ является итоговой формой контроля иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции. Структура и содержание ЕГЭ тесно связано с целями обучения иностранным языкам в школе.

Единый государственный экзамен представляет собой экзамен с использованием заданий стандартизированной формы – контрольных измерительных материалов, выполнение которых позволяет установить уровень освоения участниками ЕГЭ федерального государственного стандарта среднего (полного) общего образования.

Назначение единого государственного экзамена по иностранным языкам – оценить общеобразовательную подготовку по иностранному языку выпускников XI классов общеобразовательных учреждений с целью их государственной (итоговой) аттестации и конкурсного отбора в учреждения среднего и высшего профессионального образования. Экзаменационная работа содержит письменную и устную части. Письменная часть в свою очередь включает четыре раздела: «Аудирование», «Чтение», «Грамматика и лексика» и «Письмо» [3]. Для дифференциации экзаменуемых по уровням владения иностранным языком в пределах, сформулированных в Федеральном компоненте государственного стандарта среднего (полного) общего образования по иностранным языкам, во все разделы включаются наряду с заданиями базового уровня задания более высоких уровней сложности. В работу по иностранным языкам включены 38 заданий с кратким ответом и 6 заданий открытого типа с развернутым ответом.

Данная работа посвящена формированию стратегий выполнения тестовых заданий в формате ЕГЭ на примере раздела «Чтение», а именно – заданий 10-18. Рекомендуемое время на выполнение данного раздела — 30 минут. Учащиеся могут набрать максимально 20 баллов за верное выполнение всех заданий раздела, что составляет 25% от максимального количества баллов за выполнение все работы.

Данный раздел экзамена состоит из трех заданий. Каждое задание проверяет тот или иной вид чтения: понимание основного содержания текста, понимание структурно-смысловых связей текста, полное и точное понимание информации в тексте.

Задание 10 Базового уровня (7 баллов) с кратким ответом (задание на соответствие). Это задание на контроль умений просмотрового чтения, направленного на понимание основного содержания прочитанного.

Задание 11 Повышенного уровня (6 баллов) с кратким ответом (задание на соответствие). Это задание на контроль понимания структурно-смысловых связей текста.

Задания 12-18 Высокого уровня (7 баллов) с выбором ответа из четырех предложенных (задание на множественный выбор). Это задание на контроль изучающего чтения, направленного на детальное понимание прочитанного.

Желательно заранее ознакомиться с форматом данной части экзамена и установками, предлагаемыми к каждому заданию. Установки к заданиям, как правило, формулируются одинаково во всех вариантах ЕГЭ, что позволяет экономить время на экзамене.

Основная цель данной работы — предоставить учащимся и учителям необходимый материал для отработки стратегий выполнения трех типов заданий раздела «Чтение», представленных в ЕГЭ.

С этой целью в работе дается полная информация о структуре раздела ЕГЭ «Чтение», о цели каждого задания в данном разделе, а главное — советов по их оптимальному выполнению. Эти советы можно рассматривать как алгоритм, который поможет избежать потери времени на экзамене, повысить осознанность действий и концентрацию внимания на ключевых моментах каждого задания.

Для того чтобы данные советы стали реальным «руководством к действию», желательно выполнять каждое задание с опорой на пошаговые рекомендации предложенного алгоритма: вспоминать, что нужно сделать до начала непосредственной работы с данным заданием, как эффективно выполнить его и как самостоятельно проверить правильность записи.

Тематика и речевое наполнение тестовых заданий соответствует государственному образовательному стандарту и кодификатору ЕГЭ и охватывает следующие тематические разделы [7]: Человек и его окружение. Взаимоотношения в семье и с друзьями. Переписка. Внешность и черты характера. Досуг и увлечения. Путешествия. Покупки. Школьное образование. Изучаемые предметы, отношение к ним. Каникулы. Досуг молодежи: посещение кружков, спортивных секций, клубов по интересам. Возможности продолжения образования в высшей школе. Проблемы выбора будущей сферы трудовой и профессиональной деятельности, профессии. Планы на ближайшее будущее. Языки международного общения и их роль в выборе профессии в современном мире. Родная страна и страны изучаемого языка: их географическое положение, климат, столицы и их достопримечательности. Национальные праздники, традиции и обычаи. Выдающиеся люди и их вклад в науку и мировую культуру. Городская и сельская среда проживания. Средства массовой информации и современные информационные ресурсы.

В заданиях по чтению используются публицистические, художественные, научно-популярные и прагматические тексты.

Распределение текстов определенной жанрово-стилистической принадлежности по заданиям разного уровня сложности следующее: базовый уровень - краткие тексты информационного и научно-популярного характера; повышенный уровень - публицистические (например, рецензия) и научно-популярные тексты; высокий уровень - художественный или публицистический (например, эссе) текст.

Тексты, используемые для заданий всех разделов, отвечают следующим требованиям:

  • выбранный отрывок должен характеризоваться законченностью, внешней связностью и внутренней осмысленностью;

  • содержание должно учитывать возрастные особенности выпускника, не должно выходить за рамки коммуникативного, читательского и жизненного опыта экзаменуемого;

  • текст должен соответствовать жанру, указанному в описании задания;

  • содержание не должно дискриминировать экзаменуемых по религиозному, национальному и другим признакам;

  • текст не должен быть перегружен информативными элементами: терминами, именами собственными, цифровыми данными;

  • языковая сложность текста должна соответствовать заявленному уровню сложности задания (базовый, повышенный, высокий).

Материалы работы можно использовать на занятиях под руководством учителя или в ходе самостоятельной подготовки к экзамену.

Предложенные задания позволяют проверить и оценить уровень готовности к выполнению заданий ЕГЭ в разделе «Чтение», определить сильные и слабые стороны своей подготовки, восполнить имеющиеся пробелы.












Комплекс упражнений на развитие умений и навыков чтения разного вида

ПЕРВОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ (10) Понимание основного содержания текста

В данном задании надо установить соответствие между заголовком, (темой или кратким утверждением) и небольшим текстом. В задании предлагаются семь коротких текстов, отмеченных цифрами А-В, и восемь заголовков (тем или кратких утверждений), отмеченных буквами 1-8. Один заголовок (тема или краткое утверждение) — лишнее. За каждое правильно установленное соответствие дается 1 балл. За все задание можно получить максимально 7 баллов.

ЦЕЛЬ ЗАДАНИЯ: проверить умение

  • понимать основное содержание или основную идею высказывания;

  • отделять главное от второстепенного;

  • игнорировать избыточную информацию;

  • игнорировать незнакомые слова, не мешающие пониманию основной идеи или основного содержания высказывания.

СОВЕТЫ ПО ЭФФЕКТИВНОМУ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЯ

До чтения текстов

  • Заранее ознакомиться с форматом задания и с требованиями по заполнению бланков для данного задания.

  • Прочитать заголовки (темы или краткие утверждения) и попытаться определить: - что их объединяет (тема, проблема, ситуация, ключевое слово и т.д.);

- чем они отличаются друг от друга (проблемой, отношением к проблеме и т.д.).

  • В процессе изучения заголовков (тем, кратких утверждений) подчеркивать в них ключевые слова, делать другие пометки, помогающие понять их смысл и отличия.

  • Глядя на заголовки, попытаться предвосхитить основное содержание текста, подходящего к каждому из них по смыслу, а также те слова, которые необходимы для раскрытия данной темы/ проблемы/ ситуации.

Во время первого прочтения

  • Последовательно просматривать каждый из предложенных текстов, игнорируя незнакомые слова и выражения, не углубляясь в детальное понимание его содержания. После беглого просмотра каждого текста подобрать к нему один или несколько возможных заголовков, предложенных в задании.

  • По мере прочтения каждого текста отмечать все возможные варианты ответа, указывая нужные буквы рядом с текстом или нужные цифры рядом с буквами.

  • Делать нужные исправления по ходу чтения, т.к. после ознакомления с другими текстами некоторые варианты предыдущих ответов будут определяться точнее, в том числе и отпадать методом исключения.

  • При возникших затруднениях с определением соответствия текста заголовку (теме, краткому утверждению), прочитать текст и попытаться сформулировать его основную идею самостоятельно, затем выбрать наиболее близкую по содержанию из оставшихся вариантов ответа и отметить ее.

Во время второго прочтения

  • Обратить особое внимание на тексты, где изначально были выбраны несколько возможных соответствий.

  • Обосновать самому себе выбор того или иного соответствия с опорой на текст.

  • Проверить правильность других выбранных соответствий.

После прочтения

  • Записать окончательный вариант ответа в таблицу после задания.

  • Определить лишний заголовок (тему, краткое утверждение).

  • Еще раз проверить точность записи всех ответов.

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 1

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами А-G.Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

  1. Thoughtless behavior

  2. Benefits of private business

  3. Too complicated to use

  4. Bad for business

  5. Science brings hope

  6. A Road incident

  7. More parking places

  8. Personal choice

A. City centre parking is expensive and many important roads are now closed to private transport. This would be fine — if public transport was cheap and convenient, but it is neither. The result is that people are avoiding the city centre so restaurants, cinemas and shops are closing.

B. The motorcyclist drew alongside and I heard abusive language as he banged on the car roof. I immediately locked the car doors and tried to work out was wrong. He then shouted that I had almost collided with him. Truth to tell — I didn’t see him until now. I tried to apologise but he wouldn’t listen.

C. They now have cars that run on electricity, solar power and even on vegetable oil. New petrol engines are superefficient and make less harmful emissions. More people are working from home because of advances in communication technology and computer security. At last we have some grounds for optimism.

D. As she approached the traffic lights the driver in front of her tipped out a mess of fast food boxes, polystyrene cups and chip bags. She pressed her horn angrily. “Why don’t people consider what they do”, she wondered helplessly. “Someone will have to clear this up and we all have to pay for it.”

E. Sarah has worked for herself more than 10 years now. It had been risky but now her interior decoration business is a success. She loves being her own boss. It constantly amazes her that her friends in big corporations believe they have job security. How can they think this way when these companies are constantly firing people to make bigger profits?

F. It was not easy deciding. It never is when buying a new car. Reliability and comfort are big issues as are fuel economy, maintenance and so forth. A car has to feel right as well. Price and value for money are also critical. But in the end Ralph made his decision confident that it was just the right one for him.

G. Jane studied the small print. To make a successful insurance claim for her accident she needed so much information. Several complicated forms took hours to complete. She then needed three independent quotations, a witness statement, and a police statement and after everything she still had to pay the first J500 anyway.

A

В

С

D

E

F

G








ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 2

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами А-G.Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.


  1. Just in time

  2. Just in case

  3. Eventful life

  4. A curious case

  5. Reduced Expectations

  6. Royal brother

  7. Royal ancestor

  8. Double trouble

А. I am a mother of identical, mirror-image boys — David and John. No one in the family but me can tell them apart. I am constantly amazed at how close they are. Once when they were babies David was ill, but it was John who began crying wildly. I tried to calm John first since I was sure nothing was wrong with him. But he only cried louder. I finally gave up with him and gave some medicine to David — who really was unwell. As soon as John sensed his brother felt better, he immediately settled to sleep — like turning off a switch.

B. The 12 year old was playing near the Platte River in North Bend, Nebraska. The river was high and as the boy stepped in, the current pushed his legs away. He floated off, spinning in the powerful current. At the last possible moment before the rapids, his yells were heard by his dog. It jumped in, reached the boy and towed him ashore. Another second and the boy would have been swept away to certain death.

С. Armgaard Karl Graves, referred to in press reports as ‘the Glasgow Spy’, was convicted in Scotland under the Official Secrets Act (1911) for spying on the British Navy. He spent years successfully creating an identity as an Australian doctor and in Scotland “furthered” his medical training and even conducted important clinical experiments. But he was eventually caught by a suspicious post office worker as he sent and received post under a variety of assumed names.

D. Zsa Zsa Gabor was born in Budapest on February 6th, 1917. Now in her 90s she has had a long and varied life. She was a beauty queen and singer before becoming a famous screen actress. Latterly her fame grew from her many public appearances from the 1970’s onwards. She was married 8 times but only had one child with second husband, Conrad Hilton. Her last marriage to Frederic von Anhalt gave her the honorary title Prinzessin von Anhalt.

Е. Who do you think you are” is one of my favourite TV programs. Each episode researches the family history of a celebrity, back into the mists of time. It gives them a sense, genetically speaking, of who they really are. In the UK there are good records of births, marriages and deaths going back hundreds of years. One of the best episodes was on Boris Johnson, the Mayor of London. He was thrilled when he discovered he was directly related to King George II.

F. Paris Hilton is a famous socialite, media personality, actress, model and singer. In 2007 her grandfather Barron Hilton pledged 97% of his estate to a charitable foundation founded by his father. A value of more than 2 billion US dollars was cited in press reports. Many now believe that Paris and the other grandchildren have had their potential inheritance sharply reduced. Others have commented that this news was unlikely to place severe limitations on her future life style.

G. Andy always travels well equipped for any potential possibility. He has a sewing repair kit and a small medical kit with aspirin etc. These are, I suppose, perfectly sensible. But what about a ball of string, tape measure, masking tape, Swiss army penknife, disposable cutlery, disinfectant, dry bags and an inflatable back rest? Andy says you never know what might happen and it’s always best to be prepared.

A

В

С

D

E

F

G









ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами А-G.Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.


  1. Difficult job

  2. Happy times

  3. The fastest way

  4. Now or never

  5. Mission Impossible

  6. Animal rights

  7. Hardly likely

  8. Warm welcome

А. My dog is a Border Collie called Rags. We have a big garden and Rags is taken for walks mornings and evenings. But he gets lonely during the day. This probably accounts for his mad greeting every day when we return. He woofs, wags and jumps in a blur of delight — so happy to see that we’re home!

B. Once a week we get a spelling test and we have to memorise fifty new words. I generally get 45 or more but it is too difficult to get them all. I mean this is on top of all the other homework we have to do. How on earth do they expect us to find the time?

С. It’s really hard for the nurses. They often work 12 hour shifts and in environment that could mean life or death if they make a mistake. And their pay is so low. Yet most of them just get on with it without complaining and they always seem to be cheerful, kind and interested in their patients.

D. They say that a meteorite hit the Yucatan Peninsula 65 million years ago causing mass extinctions of species. The dinosaurs were the most famous casualties. Some people say it is bound to happen again any day now and that we will be the most famous of the new casualties. Optimistically — I’m still making appointments for next week.

E. Learning English is a long, slow process. There are mountains of verb tables, forests of vocabulary and wilderness plains of multiple choice questions. The only way to get there quicker is to go and live in the UK for a couple of months. That will do the job nicely!

F. It was better in the 70s. Our lives weren’t lived attached to mobile phones. There were no speed cameras. The music was brilliant — Glam, Prog and Punk Rock. And the fashion was outrageous. We must have looked complete idiots in our platforms and feather cuts — but we thought we looked amazing. And maybe we were.

G. In Spain 11500 bulls are killed every year in official bull fights. They say it is supposed to be a real match and the matadors risk death at every encounter. This is, of course, nonsense. Really the poor old bull stands no chance of anything other than a slow and painful death. I think it should be banned.

A

В

С

D

E

F

G








ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами А-G.Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Uncle Tom’s cabin

2. Unusual Harvest

3. Hidden clues

4. Little Tornado

5. Using the imagination

6. Fresh start

7. Secret imagination

8. New enthusiasm

A. My little sister has long red hair, blue eyes and a natural ability to cause chaos wherever she goes. Last week she left the cold water tap on upstairs and caused a flood. On Tuesday she left the fridge door open and spoiled the food. Yesterday she spilt her drink on my computer and today she displayed a talent for turning the breakfast toast in to charcoal. But she is kind hearted and beautiful and I love her.

B. The Hartley family had lived in South East London for several generations. But when John was offered his dream job in Scotland they were all quite keen on the idea of living somewhere else. Scotland, especially, seemed to them in another universe compared to Lewisham and Bexley. Although they are really missing their old friends, their new neighbours have given them a really warm welcome.

С. While the adults stretched out sleepily in the sun and enjoyed the last of the picnic, the small children began a shopping game. They used two chairs and the cutlery box as a shop counter and took it turns to be the shop keeper. A blanket hung from a low tree branch represented the shop front (and needed shade). On sale were leftovers from the picnic, various garden ornaments and several pairs of shoes.

D. My father has two brothers; Billy and Tom. My favourite is Tom. He allows me to go with him into his work shed at the very bottom of the garden, behind an unusual screen of miniature birch trees. Actually you can’t see the shed from the house at all. In this special, secretive place he makes models with wood, paint and glue. He likes making trains and cars but most of all he loves building toy sailing boats.

E. Mrs. Perkin learned her children’s favourite birthday treat from her own mother who in turn learned it from hers. It involved “planting” lolly-pops, sherbet cones and other treats in the garden — as if they were small flowers and plants. Early each birthday morning the children run in to the garden with baskets to fill. The smallest ones seem to accept unquestioningly, that the “crop” is entirely natural.

F. Every day after school, Jim likes to play in the park with his friends. But if it is
cold or raining, his Mum takes him to the swimming pool. Recently Jim has enjoyed the swimming so much that if the weather forecast is bad, he sees this as good news. Apparently he is quite a talented swimmer. He learned when he was small and then somehow forgot all about it. Now I wouldn
’t be surprised if he forgets the park!

G. When we were small, my uncle and his family lived only 5 minutes walk from our house. My cousins, Billy and Tom were often in our house and we nearly always played our special game. It involved one of us hiding something and then making a list of obscure “directions” for the rest of us to “follow”. It still took enthusiasm, imagination and the talent of Sherlock Holmes to find the hidden object.

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ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 5

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами А-G.Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

  1. Naturally different

  2. Big age difference

  3. Different opinions

  4. Different ambitions

  5. Small differences

  6. No difference at all

  7. Different rules

8. Learning to be different

A. John and James are identical twins but they don’t go to the same school. Their parents felt this would help them develop individual tastes, interests and styles -but the boys at first hated the idea. Now they are really happy at their schools but occasionally they swap places just for fun! The brothers are best friends but they now agree that their parents were probably correct.

B. Anna and Beth are twin sisters but they are most unlike each other. Technically they are “non-identical” twins. Anna is blonde and Beth is a brunette. Anna is noisy, energetic and always crashing around to hip hop and rap. Beth is much quieter and likes listening to classical music and reading. Anna eats anything and Beth is a vegetarian. But they are, absolutely, the closest and best of friends.

С. The Perkins children, Sally and John, both study hard every evening after college and most weekends. Sally studies French, history and Art. She plans to go to university in Paris and wants to either work in a museum or an art sale room. John studies the Russian language, business studies and maths. He wants to study in St Petersburg and to set up his own import business. I am sure both will succeed.

D. Greg’s dad believes that there is no original, exciting new music being written and performed today. Greg strongly disagrees and can name several new bands and singers that are both completely original and really popular. But his Dad is a professional musician and was quite successful when he was young. He argues that nearly every successful song now is simply a reworked version of an older one.

E. In the UK you can legally do different things depending on your age. You can vote for a new government at 18 but at 17 you cannot drink a beer. At 16 you can marry and become a parent but you cannot drive to your wedding or make a traditional toast! Meanwhile lots of bars and clubs are open only to people above 21 which means, married, voting, car driving parents could still be too young to enter.

F. Serious stamp collectors are men and women who appreciate details. To the casual observer, the oldest postage stamps in the world — the Victorian “Penny Blacks” — all look identical. Millions were made but only a few of them are truly valuable. A serious collector knows this and the ability to find tiny variations in the paper, ink or code used helps them to find the “Penny Black’s” that are rare and valuable.

G. Dina Ruiz has Japanese and black ancestry on her father’s side of the family and English, Welsh and German on her mother’s. She was born in California and married her husband, actor Clint Eastwood, in Las Vegas. When she first met Eastwood, she was 28 and he was 63. She is most famous as a TV news “anchor” and is Chair of The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.


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ВТОРОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ (11)

Понимание структурно-смысловых связей текста

В данном задании дается текст с шестью пропусками, обозначенными буквами (A -F), и семь фрагментов предложений для заполнения пропусков, обозначенных цифрами (1-7). Один фрагмент предложения — лишний. Надо установить соответствие между частью текста и пропущенным фрагментом предложения. За каждое правильно установленное соответствие дается 1 балл. Максимально в данном задании можно получить 6 баллов.

ЦЕЛЬ ЗАДАНИЯ: проверить

  • понимание структурных связей между отдельными фрагментами предложения, в том числе и с учетом существующих грамматических и лексических норм сочетаемости, принятых в английском языке;

  • понимание смысловых связей всего текста и его отдельных фрагментов.

СОВЕТЫ ПО ЭФФЕКТИВНОМУ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЯ

Во время первого прочтения

  • Заранее ознакомиться с форматом задания и с требованиями по заполнению бланков для данного задания.

  • Бегло просмотреть весь текст (без выделенных фрагментов), попытаться определить его тему и основное содержание.

  • Прочитать выделенные фрагменты и определить структурные особенности начала фрагмента (с точки зрения использования грамматических и лексических норм сочетаемости), если таковые имеются.

Во время второго прочтения:

  • Читать текст последовательно, обращая особое внимание на последнее слово или выражение перед каждым пропуском. Если это слово или выражение требует определенного согласования или управления (использование герундия, инфинитива, предлога, союза и т.д.), надо искать соответствующее начало в выделенном фрагменте.

  • Если одна и та же грамматическая структура используется в начале нескольких выделенных фрагментов, учитывать смысловое содержание предложения с пропуском, а также предыдущих и последующих предложений.

  • По ходу чтения отмечать все возможные варианты соответствий, указывая нужные буквы рядом с цифрой пропуска или нужные цифры рядом с буквами, обозначающими выделенные фрагменты.

  • Делать нужные исправления по ходу чтения, т.к. после каждого заполненного пробела неясные варианты ответов будут определяться точнее, отпадать методом исключения.

  • Обратить особое внимание на пропуски, где изначально были выбраны несколько возможных соответствий. Обосновать для себя Выбор того или иного соответствия с учетом грамматических и лексических норм сочетаемости, принятых в английском языке и/или с опорой на содержание текста.

  • Проверить обоснованность других выбранных соответствий.

После прочтения

  • Записать окончательный вариант ответа в таблицу после задания.

  • Определить лишний фрагмент.

  • Еще раз проверить точность записи всех ответов.

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски А-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 1


Clever Dogs

What are the smartest dog breeds in the world? We all love our dogs; A_______must be the cleverest ever. But is your dog's breed known as one of the most intelligent? We've compiled a list of the top five most intelligent dogs as demonstrated by extensive testing and research. In reverse order these are Doberman, Golden Retriever, German Shepherd, Poodle and the cleverest of all is the Border Collie. If your dog isn't on this list, don't despair. Sometimes, having a dog with very В_______. For example, if a very clever dog is left at home alone all day, it can get bored and become destructive or even neurotic. On the other hand, a dog with limited intelligence can be left at home all day, С_______ minutes before you arrive home! Like many intelligent breeds, the Border Collie needs a job to do. If they don’t have a purpose in life, or some kind of job D____. Actually many of them have a common ancestor. A dog called “Old Hemp” who lived at the end of the 19th Century. He was such a hardworking and intelligent dog he was used to father a new generation of super intelligent dogs. Just to be clear - please note that Border Collies should definitely not be left at home alone all day, E _____ can become quite destructive. They need constant companionship, praise, and extensive exercise. This requires a lot from owners including a suitable lifestyle and lots of living space. So if you work and live in the city, a Border Collie F_______for you! Because of their legendary intelligence, Border Collies set the standard in competitions for such skills as agility, obedience and of course, sheepdog trials.

  1. and not even realize you’re gone until a few

  2. and most of us believe our own dog

  3. but if they are, they

  4. they will not be happy

  5. probably isn’t the dog

  6. but they are not quite

  7. high intelligence can have its drawbacks

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ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 2

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски А-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 - лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Chocolate

Chocolate is made from a number of raw and processed foods produced from the seeds of tropical cacao trees. Cacao has been cultivated in A at least 3000 years. For

most of this time it was made into a drink called, in translation - “bitter water”. This
is because
В______to be fermented to develop a palatable flavour.

After fermentation the beans are dried and roasted and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. These are then ground and liquefied into chocolate liquor. The liquor is then processed into cocoa solids or cocoa butter. Pure chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and butter in different proportions.

Much of С______ with added sugar. Milk chocolate is sweetened chocolate that additionally contains either milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate on the
D______ and is therefore not a true chocolate.

Chocolate contains theobromine and phenethylamine which have physiological effects on the body. It is similar to serotonin levels in the brain. Scientists claim E______, can lower blood pressure. Recently, dark chocolate has also been promoted for its health benefits. But pet owners should remember that the presence of theobromine makes it toxic to cats and dogs.

Chocolate is now one F______, although 16 of the top 20 chocolate consuming countries are in Europe. Also interesting is that 66% of world chocolate is consumed between meals.

  1. the chocolate consumed today is made

  2. that chocolate, eaten in moderation

  3. central and southern America for

  4. of the world’s most popular flavours

  5. other hand contains no cocoa solids

  6. cacao seeds are intensely bitter and have

  7. many countries worldwide

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ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски А-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Child Stars

Child star mania is on the rise! Popular shows like Star Search and Junior Idol are always searching for new child stars. Sometimes the parents of these youngsters are A_____ arguably pushing their offspring to and beyond their limits; hoping to make their children famous.

Fame can bring great opportunities for the youngsters. Some go on to earn В____ and fulfilled lives. The truth however is that the majority do not. Research on the lifestyle of young performers has shown that their childhoods are often dominated by immense pressure and anxiety. Hours of training and rehearsal combine disastrously С______ and a poor social life. These vulnerable young people also have to cope with criticism, rejection and intrusive treatment from show business reporters. The loss of privacy, gossip and constant scrutiny D_______of them.

Child stars often have very short careers. It can be devastating when a particularly cute child E_______ and a whole glittering career is over before they are out of their teens. It is therefore not surprising that so many young child stars end up with huge emotional problems - some derailing their lives through destructive life styles. It can be really difficult for them adjusting from being recognised and wanted by everyone to being completely forgotten and ignored.

So the question is should something be done to curb this mania for young fame? Should the TV programs be severely controlled or even banned? Whatever the answer to these questions, the problems are likely to remain. As long as F______ of ruthlessly ambitious parents — these tragedies are destined to keep on repeating.

  1. huge amounts of money and live happy

  2. grows into an average looking adult

  3. there are children with talent under the control

  4. with a lack of normal schooling

  5. with ambitious parents

  6. can be too much for some

  7. the ones with the real ambition

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ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски А-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Window Shopping

The day would be spent with my best friends Kath and Kate. We are actually three Catherines (by birth spelt with a C), A______we are all K's: Kat (that's me, Kath and Kate — the 3K Window Shopping gang!

Window shopping is simply wonderful. You can look at any outfit. You can try on В_____ not a single item on sale for which the price is a problem. You will try something on, ponder, pout, twirl, think hard, check yourself in the mirror one last time and finally reflect С________right for you! The highlight of this regular adventure however, is generally the 3K chocolate and ice cream break in the Shopping Centre’s top floor cafe.

Of course we do not believe that we are wasting anyone’s time. We do D_______as well, but a reliable equation for us is — 3Ks + shopping mall = a good time.

But E________out to be especially memorable. One of the stores had a questionnaire lottery with the first prize being a voucher worth J200. We filled in the question forms while in the caft and returned to the store by their 2.00pm deadline. Kate won the first prize but we had decided in advance that if any of us won something, we would share equally: All for one К and one for all! At this point our morning of window shopping paid off. We completed F_______ slightly less than 10 minutes: three skirts, three hats and three belts and three very OK, K’s.

  1. not like to spend our time

  2. that it’s probably not quite

  3. that particular day turned

  4. our real shopping in

  5. sometimes go shopping for real

  6. anything you want and there is

  7. but when we are together

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ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 5

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски А-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

The Hotel

Have you stayed with us before sir?” asked the receptionist. His accent sounded middle-European; Czech possibly or Polish. Actually I hadn’t stayed at this particular hotel before A______to many others from the same chain that I had stayed at. “No - first time” I replied with unnecessary brevity.

The thing is I always feel В_______ rather than treated as an individual. Every word that I was about to hear, I had heard before — delivered no doubt from the depths of a tourism and hospitality course.

Welcome to Newcastle sir. Is this your first visit to our city? Can I trouble you to complete this form? Actually the first two lines and the signature at the bottom will do.

Would you like C______ Sir? This will automatically unlock room facilities like mini-bar and telephone and any other extras you may require. Can I see your passport sir?” The questions and information D_______ responses were actually required and I handed over my passport, credit card and partly filled out form. I was tempted to write under name and address “Donald Duck, Duck Towers, Disney Street” – E_______ ever read the form again. But being a creature of habit I wrote my real name and address.

While my card was being processed I looked across the reception area through the wall height windows to the beautiful River Tyne. A wave of nostalgia came over me. It was good to be back. I found myself thinking about her again and wondering F_______ a voice broke in: “It’s a plastic key card sir. You also need it to activate the lift and when you get to your room, plug it into the switch on the left as you open the door. It will automatically supply electricity to the room. Any help with your baggage? No? Then enjoy your stay”. The accomplished young Pole smiled as he delivered the final command and duly processed, I proceeded to the card activated lift.

  1. me to take a print of your credit card

  2. points poured out smoothly, no verbal

  3. if I would even see her when

  4. although it seemed virtually identical

  5. so sure was I that nobody would

  6. me to help you with your luggage

  7. as if I am being processed like a product

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ТРЕТЬЕ ЗАДАНИЕ (12-18)

Детальное понимание прочитанного текста

В данной части раздела чтения предлагаются семь тестовых заданий, обозначенных буквой и цифрами (12-18). К каждому заданию предлагается четыре варианта ответа, обозначенных цифрами (1-4), из которых только один является правильным. Как правило - это либо начало предложения, к которому предлагается четыре возможных варианта окончания, либо вопрос, к которому дается четыре варианта ответа. Для каждого задания (12-18) надо выбрать один правильный ответ из четырех предложенных. За каждый правильно выбранный ответ дается 1 балл. За все задание можно получить максимально 7 баллов.

ЦЕЛЬ ЗАДАНИЯ: проверить полное понимание текста на уровне

  • содержания (детали, связанные: с фактической информацией, с ответами на вопросы по ключевым словам - кто, где, когда, как часто, сколько, зачем, с кем и т.д.);

  • смысла (детали, связанные с имплицитной, т.е. не явной, а косвенной информацией, основывающейся на понимании причинно-следственных связей, модальности высказываний, т.е. намерений и отношения автора или других лиц к кому-либо или чему-либо и т.д.).

СОВЕТЫ ПО ЭФФЕКТИВНОМУ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЯ

До чтения текста

  • Заранее ознакомиться с форматом задания и с требованиями по заполнению бланков ответа для данного задания.

  • Прочитать только вопросы или начала предложений без предложенных вариантов ответа, чтобы определить примерное содержание текста, а также характер запрашиваемой информации;

  • Прочитать варианты предлагаемых ответов в тех случаях, когда без них неясна суть запрашиваемой информации.

Во время первого прочтения

  • Выполнять задание последовательно. Помнить, что последовательность тестовых вопросов связана с последовательностью развития сюжета текста.

  • С каждым вопросом работать по предлагаемой схеме:

- прочитать текстовое задание целиком (начало предложения или вопрос и все варианты ответа);

- определить суть запрашиваемой информации, т.е. понять, что лежит в основе запрашиваемой информации: слово, словосочетание, предложение, абзац и или весь текст;

- найти место, где запрашиваемая информация дается в тексте;

- понять, чем предлагаемые варианты ответов отличаются друг от друга;

- отбросить очевидно неверные варианты и определить наиболее вероятный ответ;

- доказать, что остальные варианты неверны или что в тексте нет информации, предлагаемой в ответах. Для этого стоит обратить особое внимание на различия между основной идеей и второстепенной информацией в проверяемом фрагменте текста и в содержании самого вопроса, а также на различия между явно и неявно выраженной информацией.

  • Если не можете осознанно выбрать ни один из предложенных вариантов, не понимаете сути вопроса, все равно не оставляйте задание без ответа. Выбирайте ответ интуитивно.

После прочтения

  • Убедиться в правильности выбора ответа в каждом тестовом задании.

  • Зафиксировать результаты выполнения задания на черновике так, чтобы их можно было легко перенести в бланк ответа.

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 1

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.

Kimbolton School

I went to school in a large village called Kimbolton in the county of Cambridgeshire. In recent years I have been reminded of my time there by, strangely enough, the Harry Potter books by J.K. Rowling.

The first and most obvious reason is that Kimbolton is a castle school; just as Hogwarts is the castle school for Harry and his friends. Hogwarts is of course filled with ghosts, such as Sir Nicholas de Mimsy Porpington — better known as Nearly Headless Nick: But Kimbolton also has a reputation for being haunted and in fact lays claim to a very famous ghost. This is Katherine of Aragon — the first wife of Henry VIII. She was sent there in April 1534 after refusing to accept the legality of Henry’s divorce proceedings. When I arrived there as a first year in September 1971, I was told that her ghost was often seen — but only from the knees upwards. This, I was told, was because she walked on the original rather than the later modern floors. I am ashamed to confess that at times we set up “ghostly” tricks to scare our friends. These usually involved almost invisible fishing lines being used to “mysteriously” open and close cupboards or move chairs.

There are other comparisons to be made however. In Harry Potter’s Hogwarts School there are four “houses”; Gryfinndor, Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw and the dark house, Slytherin. The four houses being named after famous headmasters of Hogwarts’ past. At Kimbolton we also had four houses named for the same reason. They were called Ingram’s, Bailey’s, Dawson’s and Gibbard’s. As I recall there were no sinister connotations with any house although probably the Slytherin equivalent was Gibbard’s. At the time Gibbard’s was the house for “day boys” who lived at home and travelled to school each day. The other houses were for the “borders” that lived in the castle. The dayboys were nicknamed “day bugs” and the residents were called “border bugs”. I was a day bug.

There were common rooms and detentions which I suppose all schools still have. But few schools, like Kimbolton, have narrow, long corridors lined with portraits whose eyes seem to follow you round! Mind you — none of our paintings spoke to us as they sometimes do at Hogwarts! Kimbolton also has a fantastic staircase in the castle and huge murals by the Italian Rococo painter Pellegrini.

Apart from the castle, ghosts and houses there were other comparisons to Hogwarts. The teachers (who were called masters) also wore black gowns and addressed us only by our surnames. We pupils had to wear suits and ties to school and actually were not allowed to take our jackets off unless the day was exceptionally hot.

But there were some fairly important differences too. Firstly Kimbolton, at the time I was there, was a school only for boys. It has changed since, but then we had no Hermione Grangers to fight against evil with. We played football and cricket rather than Quidditch and took ‘O’ Levels rather than OWLS. That is “Ordinary” Level exams rather than “Ordinary Wizarding Levels”. But still, looking back on it all, I have to say that I, at least, thought the place was rather magical.

12. The first similarity between the narrator’s school and Hogwarts is that both schools are situated

1) not far from London.

2) in an unusual school building.

3) near a village.

4) far from pupils’ homes.

13. Students in Kimbolton School believed that

1) Katherine of Aragon became a ghost as Henry VIII murdered her.

2) the ghost could be scared by moving furniture with a fishing line.

3) the ghost regularly appeared in the castle at midnight.

4) the ghost could be seen partially, if at all.

14. Kimbolton School had four houses that

1) had the same names as houses at Hogwarts.

2) got their names as in Hogwarts.

3) selected students similarly to Hogwarts.

4) had different reputation as at Hogwarts.

15. The house the narrator belonged to

1) was the privileged one.

2) had an evil reputation.

3) was similar to other houses.

4) had one particular difference.

16. The narrator thinks Kimbolton was not like other schools as it had

1) common rooms.

2) a special system of punishments.

3) several houses.

4) a very special kind of decor.

17. Both teachers and students in the narrator’s school

1) had to follow a certain dress code.

2) were dressed in school uniform.

3) were addressed by their surnames.

4) could be compared to the ones in Hogwarts.

18. According to the narrator, Kimbolton was unlike Hogwarts because it

1) used to be a school for boys.

2) had recently become a school for boys.

3) had a different exam system.

4) had a different kind of magic.

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 2

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.

How It Was

Every school holiday we worked on the farms. Often it was pea picking but we also harvested runner beans, potatoes, black currents and strawberries - each in their season. Sometimes we travelled quite a distance to work. The incredible thing, looking back on it, was that our parents never seemed to worry about us. Sure enough there were occasional tales of terrible accidents or of children being attacked or kidnapped - but no one thought about such things then.

We would disappear early, on our bikes, and not return until dark. Just the thought of letting my own kids do the same today gives me kittens. But back then, that’s how it was. All the harvesting was paid for by the bag or the box. The faster you worked, the more you earned. In one 5 week season I earned about J400. That was seriously good money in the 1970s - probably the same as my Dad earned. And we knew how to spend. We were always treating ourselves to something. But usually the aim was to pay for a holiday before school started again. Of course we often had family holidays when we were younger. But we kids also took our own holidays. Usually it was camping but my focus was beach holidays. Wales was my favourite locations. Again I still can’t imagine how our parents were brave enough to let us go. I can only assume they were not worried: That and the fact that as children they had their own adventures. Both my parents were small children during the war and were evacuated from London to be safe from Hitler’s bombs. They went in the clothes they were wearing plus a small suitcase — sent to unknown (in advance) villages and to the care of strangers. My teenage beach holidays probably seemed a stroll in the park to them and they took our safety for granted.

Nowadays there seems to be a climate of fear around my generation, concerning the safety of our children. Has the world really changed so much? May be it’s just that the media makes us think more about the horrible things that do happen?

Mind you - there was one close shave when I was a kid. It was on one of our Welsh camping holidays. We would have been 15 at the time. I fell asleep on a floating lilo and got swept out to sea. I was only asleep for second and at first was not worried. I began to swim steadily pushing the lilo back to the beach - but after 10 minutes, to my horror, I was no closer to shore. In a panic I jettisoned the lilo so I could swim properly and then swam with all my strength. After another 10 minutes still I made no progress. Then completely irrationally I started worrying about sharks. I knew that there are no dangerous sharks there but just the thought paralyzed me. I told myself not to panic. The sea was really calm and I knew that the tide had to change at some point. I also knew my friends on the beach would call the coastguard. The shore seemed miles away, exhaustion was kicking in and I realized also that I was cold. Shark fins began to circle in my imagination. I was in despair. You hear about accidents and drowning at sea but never imagine that it’s going to be you.

My rescue was sharp and sudden. Hands on my wrists and ankles and I was swung into the boat. I was absolutely fine when I got back to shore. I am ashamed to say I lied about my age to prevent my parents finding out about it all.

12. The parents didn’t seem to worry about the narrator and his/her friends as

1) farm work was part of a regular school summer camp.

2) the farm was not far from where the children lived.

3) there were no obvious cases of child abuse in the region.

4) some parents worked on the same farm.

13. The expression “gives me kittens” in the second paragraph means

1) amuses me.

2) scares me.

3) fascinates me.

4) captivates me.

14. The payment for the farm work the children got depended on

1) the type of seasonal harvest.

2) the number of hours spent on the farm.

3) the speed at which they moved.

4) the amount of harvested berries or vegetables.

15. The children earned money mainly to

1) provide for their independent holidays.

2) afford tasty treats for themselves and friends.

3) help the family budget.

4) buy camping equipment.

16. The narrator thought his parents’ evacuation

1) helped them to be calm about safety issues.

2) helped them to deal with strangers.

3) was like a stroll in the park.

4) was a source of serious stress.

17. The narrator thinks his generation is probably more fearful because

1) they didn’t experience the war.

2) there are more unstable people around.

3) the media deliberately highlights awful stories.

4) their childhood was too safe and trouble free.

18. The narrator has additional problems during his accident in the sea because

1) he wasn’t a good swimmer.

2) the tide was so strong.

3) the thought of sharks terrified him.

4) there was no coast guard around.


ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 3

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.

By Process of Elimination

Thank you for agreeing to meet with me here” was all he said for the first few moments. His European accent paused between each word before disappearing into silence. As for the 11 dancers sat around the lounge, there was a clear atmosphere of resentment. Regardless of how famous this detective most undoubtedly was, they all felt this was a matter for the police But there were no police on board and the ship captain’s had requested the detective to conduct an initial investigation.

I have to tell you” he continued “that I have discovered who the murderer is and can further inform you that the murderer is sat here, amongst us, in this room”.

Again there was silence. It had always been unlikely that any of the liner’s other guests had motive or opportunity. From the start it had always been probable that one of the dancers was a murderer.

I have to admit” he continued “that this case has been more than usually hard on the little grey cells” he tapped his head as he always did when referring to his deductive powers. “Everybody in this room had a reason to kill poor Phoebe” he continued. There was no disagreement around the room. Nobody denied that they had hated Phoebe Miller. One way or another Phoebe had made life really difficult for all of them.

The detective began a long and perhaps over detailed summary of all the things he had discovered and soon everybody was quite bored. Some of them began to feel quite sleepy as he went on and on. However their attention was caught by the following words.

Ladies and gentlemen. Apart from Constance Miller, who was not on stage at the time, the rest of the dancers were performing on stage at the time of the murder. We therefore know that 10 of you are absolutely innocent. I know this because there was no trace of poison in the bottle from which the glass of wine was poured. This means that someone added the poison after the glass had been poured and that glass was poured ...during...the performance.”

He paused enjoying the dramatic effect of his words and continued “By process of elimination you might assume that I am about to accuse the sister — Constance Miller”.

I did not do it” screamed Constance instantly, “I swear I did not do it. I hated her but I am innocent”.

I do know, Constance, that you are not guilty of this crime” he continued but was drowned out by all the dancers’ exclamations of confusion and bewilderment. He held up his hand and continued slowly but forcefully “but I can assure you dear lady that the murderer is in this room and is seated directly behind you”. There was a gasp as everyone turned to stare at the middle-aged waitress sat at the back of the room next to the other staff. “Probably none of you know even her name but I have discovered this. She is not Sally Watkins as she is known to the crew of this ship — but Sally Miller — the wife of George Miller who was the uncle of Constance and Phoebe. Sally I can assure you had the opportunity to handle that glass but most of all, as I will now demonstrate to you, she had the motive: Revenge!”

12. The eleven dancers were resentful because

1) they had not been allowed to perform for three days.

2) their colleague had been murdered.

3) they would have preferred a police investigation.

4) they didn’t like the ship’s captain.

13. The famous detective was conducting the case because

1) they would soon be in Southampton.

2) four ships’ officers were available to make an arrest.

3) the ship was still at sea.

4) the captain had asked him to.

14. No one disagreed when they heard the murderer was in the room because

1) they all had been jealous of Phoebe.

2) all of them had hated Phoebe.

3) the murder must have been committed by somebody on board.

4) the case had been unusually difficult to solve.

15. Ten of the dancers were proved innocent because

1) they were performing at that time.

2) the glass of wine was poured during the performance.

3) Constance Miller was not on stage at the time.

4) there was poison in the bottle.

16. Constance screamed out her innocence because she

1) knew she was guilty.

2) could prove it.

3) believed the detective was about to accuse her.

4) hated Phoebe.

17. The detective knew Constance was not guilty because

1) he had discovered who the real murderer was.

2) of the confusion amongst the other dancers.

3) she was not on stage when the murder took place.

4) she hated Phoebe.

18. Sally Miller killed Phoebe Miller because

1) George was Phoebe’s uncle.

2) her real name was not Sally Watkins.

3) she had the opportunity.

4) she wanted revenge.

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 4

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.

Family Meal Times

The family meal time is one of the most valuable routines to establish in the life of a family. Research has proved that children who eat at least one meal a week with their families benefit greatly in terms of social skills and acceptance of shared responsibilities. They learn simply and directly through their own experience, the importance of family interaction and the value of close friendship, support and loyalty.

In theory and with practice, a shared meal can be the setting for peaceful conversation and allow each family member the opportunity to talk about his/her day, and possibly to discuss any problems or issues. Successful family meal times are primarily about talking and communication. In the modern age of 24 hour TV, computer games and computer social networking sites — the fact is that it is often easier to eat alone rather than together. Furthermore, if parents fail to establish these routines whilst their children are young it is very hard to implement them when the kids become teenagers. But it is not impossible. There are various strategies available for promoting shared family meals.

It is of first importance that every family member should be made to understand the possible benefits; namely that our lives really can be better in general if we make the effort to communicate more effectively. Next step - a weekly meal together can be set as a realistic first goal. The meal should be quite a tasty and popular one as an inducement to keep the kids away from computers and TV sets!

It is important that shared meals should not be the setting for trying to deal with family disputes. There will always be arguments from time to time — even in the happiest and closest families. But these should be kept away from the dinner table if possible. Parents are encouraged to set the tone by example. Light hearted banter, stories about the day and a joke or two can help set the tone. They can also help by being attentive listeners and appropriate responders. Successes should be marked by congratulation and bad news supported with commiseration. Quieter family members should be encouraged by asking what their opinion is on something, rather than about what they did or failed to do. It makes them feel more important and valued. Sometimes a good start can help a simple family meal go on to be a really enjoyable or even memorable experience.

The next stage in building this routine is to introduce more days. In our experience the best place to start is Sunday lunch. The second might be to establish Wednesday nights as family meal time. Of course flexibility and a bit of effort are required to set up helpful routines but the pay back can be immense for a family.

Dinnertime family routines, especially if established early on, have all kinds of other potential benefits. For example children can be encouraged to prepare one course (possibly on an agreed rota): They might even be encouraged to compete to produce maybe an exceptional soup or a truly sensational desert! This can be good fun.

Once established, family meal routines are also great for developing good table manners and “work” habits. Children can learn to set the table, help with clearing up and generally build good patterns of co-operation with their parents, friends and the people they meet with in daily life.

12. We know that children who eat with their parents benefit because

1) they have greater intelligence.

2) of the results of research.

3) they learn through experience.

4) they develop friendship and loyalty.

13. Establishing a routine family meal is

1) impossible because of computer games, TV, etc..

2) possible provided it begins when the children are young.

3) impossible as it is easier to eat alone rather than together.

4) possible with a strategic approach.

14. The most important thing in creating a new routine is to

1) achieve the first goal of one shared meal per week.

2) make sure everyone understands the benefits.

3) tempt everyone with a popular meal.

4) keep the kids away from computers and TV sets.

15. Shared family meals should

1) accept that even happy families sometimes argue.

2) involve telling lots of jokes.

3) be the setting for trying to deal with family disputes.

4) never be used to deal with family disputes.

16. Quiet family members should be encouraged by

1)asking their opinions.

2) inviting them to discuss problems.

3) asking what they have done.

4) congratulating them from time to time.

17. The next stage in building a meal sharing routine is to

1) introduce more days.

2) add Wednesday night to the schedule.

3) introduce cookery competitions.

4) be more flexible and try harder.

18. Once established, family meals also help

1) get the table cleared after a meal.

2) families to stick together.

3) develop good table manners and “work” habits.

4) to make the children more independent.


ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ № 5

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании обведите цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.

A New Train Service

The 76-mile journey between Kettering and London might take the average motorist one hour and 48 minutes if the roads were averagely busy. A fit cyclist should manage the journey in about 6 hours. On foot, jogging along at around 6mph, it might be a 13 hour journey. But in the age of superfast trains and rampant technological progress, how long do you imagine the train journey might take?

Incredibly, the answer is 18 hours! This is not a one-off commuter’s nightmare journey beset by bad weather and broken trains. This is was the advertised service for the May Bank holiday weekend: An 18 hour journey provided there was no bad weather to spoil the timing.

It is all because of engineering works being carried out from Saturday 23 May. East Midlands Trains, which operates services between Kettering and London, is advertising a “service” which will involve the passenger in an epic 18-hour odyssey, requiring them to execute seven changes and endure five bus replacement services as they are taken on a 295-mile mystery tour. Those braving the journey will travel via Derby, Blythe Bridge, Crewe, Stafford and Rugby - virtually a tour of middle England. To cap it all the committed travelers will have the «pleasure» of a six-hour wait overnight in that 8th Wonder of the World — Milton Keynes Bus Station! After this «treat» they can board the final connection, and barring delays arrive in London in time for breakfast after an 18 hour journey.

The price of this trip, considering its extraordinary duration, seems suddenly quite reasonable when calculated at an hourly rate, beginning at J40.50 or a little over J2 per hour. But given that one can fly to Australia in the same amount of time seem to give the journey a poor efficiency rating. The journey is among a number of alternatives currently being advertised on the National Rail Enquiries website and on its telephone service.

The Kettering Rail Users’ Group spokesman said: “Engineering work must be carried out but unfortunately what seems to be happening more is that train providers are more concerned to look after their own arrangements rather than those of their customers.” One rail user, Danny Coles, 34, of Kettering, said: “This is completely crazy: Would they honestly expect people to stay overnight at a bus stop?”

A spokeswoman for East Midlands Trains said that travel on this particular itinerary was not especially recommended by the company but it was an option. She stated that in reality there were a number of alternative routes for travel to London that weekend which could get you to the capital in less than three hours. She added that a new timetable offering the “full range” of options was expected to be uploaded by the end of next week.

In the most recent National Passenger Survey, East Midlands Trains scored a satisfaction rating of 81 per cent. Whilst details of how this survey was conducted are not to hand, it still seems a promising vote of confidence in the train company. Passenger groups also agreed the company was meeting its commitments to its customers by offering other travel arrangements. Mr Ashwin Kumar, Passenger Focus director, said: “Passengers understand that engineering works need to happen to ensure a reliable and safe railway.”

Probably it could only happen in Britain: The mother country of national rail travel and the supporter of “services” that no other country in the world would ever accept.

12. The average car journey from Kettering to London is

1) more than 17 hours.

2) 6 hours.

3) less than two hours.

4) between 12 and 14 hours.

13. The Bank holiday service was 18 hours

1)unless there were engineering works.

2) regardless of engineering work or weather.

3) if the weather was very bad.

4) unless a train broke down.

14. The worst thing about the 18 hour journey was

1) having to change train 7 times.

2) the detour around middle England.

3) visiting Milton Keynes.

4) spending the night in a bus station.

15. The price of the journey was quite reasonable when

1) measured as an hourly rate.

2) compared to flying to Australia.

3) efficiency was taken into account.

4) compared to other journeys.

16. According to rail users the real problem was

1) the Kettering Rail Users' Group.

2) that no one wanted to spend a night in a bus station.

3) that train providers placed their needs above travelers.

4) that engineering works are sometimes necessary.

17. The train company believed there was no real problem because

1) the new time table was not yet uploaded.

2) there were plenty of convenient alternative services.

3) they recommended the new service.

4) the price was so reasonable.

18. In the Passenger Survey, the train company

1) showed that passengers approved of engineering work.

2) proved that other travel arrangements were unnecessary.

3) scored a satisfaction rating of 81%.

4) met its commitments to customers.


По окончании выполнения заданий10 –18 не забудьте перенести свои

ответы в БЛАНК ОТВЕТОВ №1! Запишите ответ справа от номера

соответствующего задания, начиная с первой клеточки. При переносе

ответов в заданиях10 и11 цифры записываются без пробелов, запятых

и других дополнительных символов. Каждую цифру пишите в отдельной

клеточке в соответствии с приведёнными в бланке образцами.










ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1

Ключи к заданиям, представленным в работе

Первое задание (10). Понимание основного содержания текста



Тренировочное задание № 1

Тренировочное задание № 2

Тренировочное задание № 3

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Тренировочное задание № 5


4651283

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Тренировочное задание № 3

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Тренировочное задание № 5


7625 34

471253


Второе задание (11). Понимание структурно-смысловых связей текста



Третье задание (12-18). Детальное понимание прочитанного текста




12

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Тренировочное задание № 1

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Тренировочное задание № 3

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Тренировочное задание № 4

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Тренировочное задание № 5

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ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2

Образец бланка ответов № 1

(версия 2015 года)

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Список используемых источников

Нормативные и справочные источники:

  1. Бланк ответа № 1

  2. Вербицкая М.В., К.С. Махмурян, В.Н. Симкин. Методические рекомендации для учителей, подготовленные на основе анализа типичных ошибок участников ЕГЭ 2015 года по иностранным языкам. – М., 2015.

  3. Демонстрационный вариант контрольных измерительных материалов единого государственного экзамена 2016 года по АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ (письменная часть), спецификация и кодификатор

  4. Общеевропейские компетенции владения иностранным языком: Изучение, преподавание, оценка. - МГЛУ, 2003.

  5. Примерные программы по иностранным языкам // Новые государственные стандарты по иностранному языку 6-11 классы / Образование в документах и комментариях. — М.: ACT. Астрель, 2004.

  6. Программы общеобразовательных учреждений. Английский язык для 10-11 классов школ с углубленным изучением иностранных языков. — М.: Просвещение, 2010.

  7. Федеральный компонент государственных стандартов основного общего и среднего полного) общего образования, базовый и профильный уровень (Приказ Минобразования России № 1089 от 05.03.2004 г.).

Учебные пособия и материалы:

  1. ЕГЭ 2015. Английский язык. Типовые экзаменационные варианты: 10 вариантов. Под ред. Вербицкой М.В. – М.: ФИПИ, 2015.

  2. Открытый банк заданий ЕГЭ.

  3. Соловова Е.Н., John Harsons. Английский язык. ЕГЭ. Практикум. Чтение. – М.: Центр изучения английского языка Елены Солововой, 2014.

Интернет – ресурсы:

  1. http://fipi.ru/

  2. http://www.ege.edu.ru

  3. http://www.alleng.ru/english/exam.htm

  4. http://anglyaz.ru

  5. http://www.flo-joe.co.uk/fce/students/tests/tsindex.htm

  6. http://www.delightenglish.ru/EGE.htm

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Автор
Дата добавления 07.11.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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