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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Грамматический материал по теме "Gerund". Текст "Definition of Management". Лексические и грамматические упражнения.

Грамматический материал по теме "Gerund". Текст "Definition of Management". Лексические и грамматические упражнения.


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DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT


Грамматика: герундий (the Gerund)

Аудирование: текст “Harrods”

Лексика: текст “Definition of management” и упражнения

Лексико-грамматический тест.


The Gerund

Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, обладающая одновременно свойствами существительного и глагола. Герундий выражает процесс действия. Существуют простые и сложные формы герундия.


Характерным признаком герундий является наличие перед ним:

  1. Предлога;

  2. Притяжательного местоимения;

  3. Существительного в притяжательном или общем падеже.


Gerund Indefinite Active образуется путем прибавления –ing к основе глагола.

В предложении герундий может быть:

  1. Подлежащим; переводится существительным или неопределенной формой глагола:

Measuring cargo weights has no difficulties.Измерение веса груза не представляет трудностей.


  1. Частью сказуемого; переводится существительным или неопределенной формой глагола:

One of the effects of transportation is handling of cargo. – Одним из действий транспортировки является обработка груза.


  1. Дополнением; прямым или предложным; переводится существительным, неопределенной формой глагола или дополнительным придаточным предложением:

He likes reading. – Он любит читать.

Thank you for coming. – Благодарю вас за то, что вы пришли.

  1. Определением; имеются два случая употребления герундия в функции определения:

а) герундий стоит перед определяемым словом (переводится прилагательным или существительным):

a smoking roomкурительная комната (т.е. комната для курения)

a boiling point – точка кипения


б) герундий с предлогом стоит после определяемого слова (переводится существительным):

The idea of utilizing the energy of oceans and seas for man’s needs is not new. – Идея (какая?) использования энергии океанов и морей для нужд человека не нова.


  1. Обстоятельством (всегда с предлогом):


In

In designing the vessel

  1. Деепричастием настоящего времени: проектируя судно

  2. Сочетанием предлога при + существительное:

при проектировании судна

On, upon

On (upon) reaching deck

  1. Деепричастием прошедшего времени: достигнув палубы

  2. Сочетанием при (после) + существительное: при достижении палубы

Before, after

Before (after) handling cargo

  1. Сочетанием перед (после) + существительное:

Перед (после) обработки груза

  1. Придаточным обстоятельственным предложением:

До того (после того) как произойдет обработка груза

By

By creating new transport

  1. Деепричастием:

Создавая новые виды транспорта

  1. Сочетанием путем (с помощью) + существительное:

Путем создания новых видов транспорта

Without

Without preheating

  1. Сочетанием не + деепричастие:

не нагревая предварительно

  1. Сочетанием без + существительное:

Без предварительного нагрева


Герундий с относящимися к нему словами образует герундиальный оборот. Особое внимание следует уделить переводу герундиальных оборотов с предшествующим притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже. Герундиальный оборот в этом случае переводится придаточным предложением с союзами что; то, что; о том, чтобы; в том, что, причем герундий в предложении становится сказуемым этого придаточного предложения. Притяжательное местоимение (или существительное в притяжательном падеже) становится подлежащим придаточного предложения:


We all know of their designing a new type of vessel. – Мы все знаем, что они проектируют новый тип судна.

Smirnov’s taking part in the development of the new cooling system was of great help to us. – То, что Смирнов принял участие в усовершенствовании новой охладительной системы, очень помогло нам.


Indefinite Gerund Passive обычно переводится глаголом в настоящем времени:


We knew nothing about her being sent to Moscow. – Мы ничего не знали о том, что ее посылают в Москву.


Perfect Gerund Active и Perfect Gerund Passive обычно переводятся глаголом в прошедшем времени:


The engineer mentioned his having tested these cargo handling facilities with an entire satisfactory result. – Инженер упомянул о том, что он испытал эти устройства для обработки груза с вполне удовлетворительным результатом.

We knew nothing of her having been sent to Moscow. – мы ничего не знали о том, что ее послали в Москву.


Сравнение герундия и причастия.


Формы герундия совпадают с формами причастия. Герундий от причастия отличается:

  1. По функции в предложении. Герундий может быть членом предложения, причастие – только определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого.

Если предложение начинается словом с окончанием –ing, следует помнить, что оно может быть герундием в функции подлежащего (если за ним идет глагол-сказуемое) или причастием в функции обстоятельства (если за ним следует подлежащее).


Testing the motor was necessary.

Испытать мотор было необходимо.

Testing the motor, he saw …

Испытывая мотор, он увидел.


  1. По наличию перед герундием притяжательного местоимения или существительного в притяжательном или общем падеже:

We heard of his going to London. – Мы слышали, что он едет в Лондон.

We know of truck transportation being the cheapest type of transportation. – Мы знаем, что автоперевозки самый дешевый вид перевозок.


  1. По наличию предлога. Как герундий, так и причастия могут быть обстоятельством и определением. В отличие от причастия, перед герундием в этом случае, как правило, стоит предлог. Перед причастием может стоять союз when и while.


After testing the motor they put down the results.

После испытания мотора они записали результаты.

While testing the motor they put down the results.

Испытывая мотор, они записывали результаты.

в функции определения

  1. There are several ways of producing electricity.

Имеется несколько способов производства электричества.

  1. Герундий может употребляться без предлога, если стоит перед определяемым словом;

Operating principle – принцип действия

Reading hall – читальный зал

  1. The plant producing electricity is very powerful.

Эта установка, производящая электричество, очень мощная.

  1. Причастие перед определяемым словом означает, что действие выполняется самим предметом или лицом:

Operating engine – работающий двигатель

Reading man – читающий человек




Ex.1. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Gerund.

а) в функции подлежащего:

  1. Travelling abroad can be very interesting.

  2. Going into every detail is of no use.

  3. Keeping strict hours of meals must do you a lot of good.

  4. Collecting postage stamps was his hobby.

  5. Reading aloud can help you to improve pronunciation.

  6. Making a program for the computer will be the next question of the discussion.

  7. Acquiring knowledge is a long and hard process.

  8. Pulling a rubber band increases its length.

  9. Measuring the temperature was necessary for our further work.

  10. Solving difficult problems is a pleasure for a good scientist.

  11. Is it any good crying?

  12. It is no use discussing the matter again.

  13. It isn’t worth while repairing the engine.

  14. It is useless speaking to him; he would not listen to anybody.

  15. It was quite unexpected finding you there.


б) в функции части сказуемого:

  1. My greatest pleasure is reading science fiction.

  2. The main point of the discussion is applying the new methods.

  3. The purpose of the experiment was studying the new substances.

  4. Our aim was preventing troubles.

  5. Their task is collecting and processing data.

  6. She stopped answering my letters.

  7. Why do you avoid seeing me?

  8. He likes inviting friends to his house.

  9. He hates reminding people of their duties or being reminded of his.

  10. The water requires filtering.

  11. The idea is worth considering.

  12. He was busy looking through the morning mail.

  13. I cannot help accepting the obvious fact.

  14. Our research group finished recording the results of the experiment.

  15. We have just begun programming the computer.

  16. Has it stopped raining?

  17. We must go on working.

  18. Everybody enjoyed exchanging opinions.

  19. The camera wanted adjusting.

  20. You’d better give up smoking.


в) в функции дополнения:

  1. You never mentioned speaking to them on the subject.

  2. Do you mind telling him everything?

  3. I don’t remember ever seeing you.

  4. Who suggested discussing this question?

  5. I don’t mind taking part in the conference.

  6. We insist on sending him there at once.

  7. Excuse me for giving you so much trouble.

  8. He is proud of being an academician.

  9. The boy was punished for missing classes.

  10. She felt sorry for being rude to me.

  11. They accused me of deceiving them.

  12. He never thought of going abroad.

  13. You should prevent him from taking such a dangerous step.

  14. I am not used to being treated in such a way.

  15. Did you succeed in doing business?

  16. They were surprised at hearing the news.

  17. Our work resulted in studying new phenomena.

  18. Who is responsible for making the experiment?

  19. I found them engaged in assembling machine-tools.

  20. Does anyone object to launching an investigation?


г) в функции определения:

  1. He showed no sign of knowing them.

  2. He had a bad habit of joking at the wrong moment.

  3. The idea of using the new substance belongs to my scientific adviser.

  4. He displayed no interest in solving the problem.

  5. What is the most effective method of transmitting information?

  6. There is no other way of getting out of the trouble.

  7. There are various instruments for taking measurements.

  8. The process of producing metal articles is rather long.

  9. I have no invention of doing this work any longer.

  10. There is no possibility of repairing the engine.


д) в функции обстоятельства:

  1. In discussing the problem they touched upon some very interesting items.

  2. After looking through the letters and sorting those out the secretary registered them.

  3. He likes to do things without disturbing anyone.

  4. Before writing an article I studied the subject thoroughly.

  5. On coming to the office he started looking through the morning mail.

  6. You can learn English by reading English books.

  7. Numbers can be multiplied by using multiplication tables.

  8. On hearing the telephone call he rushed to the telephone.

  9. You can’t learn a foreign language without knowing your own one.

  10. Before coming to any conclusion you should thoroughly analyze all the facts.


Ex. 2. Read the sentences, state the function of the Gerund.


  1. After buying a new car we all went to the restaurant.

  2. We enjoyed drinking beer every weekend.

  3. It is no use reading in the dark.

  4. In case of finding that man, call the police.

  5. He entered the house by breaking the window.

  6. Russian masters built their houses without using nails.

  7. Before going home he washed lipstick off his jacket.

  8. Despite all the difficulties she kept on smiling.

  9. I am thinking of changing my job.

  10. Sleeping after lunch is the most pleasant thing in the world.



Ex. 3. Open the brackets using the Gerund


Model: His hair is very long, it need cutting.


  1. This shirt is quite clean; it doesn’t want (wash) yet.

  2. The grass in the garden is very dry; it wants (water) badly.

  3. The baby’s crying; I think he needs (feed).

  4. The house is old, and it badly wants (paint).

  5. The windows are very dirty; they need (clean).

  6. I know my hair wants (cut) but I never have time to go to the hairdresser’s.

  7. The famous man didn’t need (introduce) himself.

  8. Her shoes have a hole in them; they want (mend).

  9. The floor is covered with dust; it needs (sweep).

  10. You should tidy the room. – You, it needs (tidy). The flowers want (water), and the shelves want (dust).


Ex. 4. Open the brackets using the correct form of the Gerund.


  1. He remembered (cross) the road, but he didn’t remember (knock down).

  2. I am still hungry in spite of (eat) four sandwiches.

  3. He got into the house by (climb) through a window, without (see) by anyone.

  4. He woke up at 7 a.m. in spite of (work) late.

  5. He complained of (give) a very small room at the back of the hotel.

  6. The little girl isn’t afraid of dogs in spite of (bite) twice.

  7. The baby went to sleep a few minutes after (feed).

  8. The little girl never gets tired of (ask) her mother questions, but her mother often gets tired of (ask) so many questions.

  9. Mary was chosen to fill the vacancy. She was very pleased (choose).

  10. I always treat people politely and I insist on (treat) politely.

  11. The boy was very thirsty in spite of (drink) a big cup of tea.


Ex.5. Replace the italicized parts of the sentences or clauses by the Gerundial phrases.


Model: He said all this and he did not even smile.

He said all this without even smiling.


  1. We suspected that the boy was lying.

  2. Nobody could tell when they were going to return.

  3. She did not want to make an effort.

  4. It is necessary to brush the coat.

  5. It was impossible to reason with her when she felt like this.

  6. She was very clever; she could turn an old dress into a new one.

  7. He wouldn’t say whether he meant to buy the car before he took it for a trial run.

  8. Let’s go out for dinner. I don’t feel well enough to cook anything.

  9. I don’t like the idea that I should do it all.


Ex. 6. Replace the parts in italicized type by the Gerundial phrases.


  1. When she saw him she stopped reading at once and put the letter away and even did not explain anything.

  2. In this thick fog she was afraid that she might be knocked down.

  3. He preferred to keep silent for fear that he might say something inopportune.

  4. He felt much better after he had been operated on.

  5. He was not only the author of brilliant short stories, but he was also a talented playwright.

  6. While he was writing his report, he remembered that he had forgotten to mention some facts.

  7. Once he gets into his head an idea of doing something, it is impossible to talk him out of it.

  8. When the girl entered the room, she glanced a little wonderingly at the faces of the three men.

  9. The whole neighborhood was so dreary and run-down that he hated the thought that he would have to love there.

  10. You will do nothing but irritate him if you will nag him all the time.

  11. That I was on the spot was a bit of luck for him.

  12. Samuel Griffiths came back from Chicago on this particular day, after he had concluded several agreements there.


Ex.7. Complete the following by translating what is given in brackets using the Gerund.


  1. They prided themselves … (что первыми изобрели этот прибор).

  2. They accused him … (в том, что он предал своих друзей).

  3. I cant recall … (чтобы меня с ним когда-нибудь знакомили). I even don’t remember … (что видел его).

  4. He couldnt get used … (к левостороннему движению/водить машину по левой стороне).

  5. She was quite unconscious … (что пришла в неудачный момент).

  6. Excuse me … (что я вошел не постучав).

  7. Im really ashamed … (что так вел себя на вечере).

  8. She denied … (чтобы обещала заглянуть к нам).

  9. We hope he will succeed … (найти свое место в жизни).

  10. Why do you avoid … (смотреть на меня)?

  11. From the age of four, I had been used to … (делать все по-своему).

  12. I was not used to … (когда меня развлекают дамы).

  13. How proud I was of … (что изобрел это замечательное устройство).

  14. I was tired of always … (носить чужую одежду).

  15. In the morning she was ashamed of herself for … (что была так груба вчера вечером).

  16. Hes merely used to … (что за ним ухаживают).

  17. He was grateful to Finch for … (что уговорил его зайти).

  18. But they are used to … (иметь дело с настоящими бизнесменами).


Ex.8. Translate paying attention to the Complex Gerund.


  1. Due to the ice-breaker being equipped with up-to-date navigation devices, it will be able to sail in any weather.

  2. In addition to its engine being very powerful, its hull is made stronger and heavier than that of a usual ice-breaker.

  3. Because of the ship being driven by an atomic engine there are no stokers on it but push-button operators.

  4. After the construction of the atomic ice-breaker having been completed, the Russian fleet got the most powerful ice-breaker in the world.

  5. We know of the new atomic ice-breaker being able to force its way through ice of considerable thickness.

  6. Due to the ship being much more lightly loaded, its hull can be made much stronger.


Ex.9. State the function of the words with the –ing, translate them.


  1. Sailing the arctic seas is very difficult.

  2. Ice-breakers consuming more fuel than any other type of ship have to be supported by several other vessels for the purpose of supplying them with fuel.

  3. After having discovered the secret of the atom scientists began looking for the ways of applying atomic energy for industrial purposes.

  4. The atomic ice-breaker with an atomic installation, its capacity being 44, 000 h.p.

  5. The reactor of the ice-breaker will be able to operate without refueling for at least a year.

  6. Besides being used for the purpose of convoying ships the atomic ice-breaker will at the some time be an Arctic research laboratory.

  7. The ice-breaker will be capable of sailing even to the North Pole, consuming negligible quantities of nuclear fuel.

  8. Nuclear fuel will be used in the reactor after its having been compressed in the form of rods.

  9. An ordinary ice-breaker can remain at sea for less than a month, the length of time it can sail depending on the quantity of fuel consumed.

  10. Reliable means of protection having been created, people are not affected by radioactive radiation.


Ex.11. Translate using the Gerund.


  1. Мы знаем, что ледоход снабжен атомным двигателем.

  2. Он может находиться в плаванье, не пополняя запасов топлива в течение года.

  3. Он способен прокладывать путь через лед толщиной более двух метров.

  4. Благодаря тому, что атомный ледокол имеет более могучие, чем у обычного ледокола двигатели, он обладает огромной пробивной способностью.

  5. Атомный ледокол потребляет незначительное количество топлива, несмотря на то, что его двигатели очень мощны.


Ex.11. Choose the right preposition.


  1. Why do you insist … our returning back home?

  1. At b) in c) on

  1. We have some difficulty … finding the right candidate for this job.

  1. At b) in c) on

  1. My friend is really good … driving cars.

  1. At b) in c) on

  1. I am sorry … keeping you waiting.

  1. Of b) for c) to

  1. The hungry boy was accused … stealing apples.

  1. Of b) on c) with

  1. Are you keen … singing?

  1. Of b) on c) with

  1. The poor teacher is fed up … repeating the same thing over and over again.

  1. Of b) on c) with

  1. We won … finding the shortest way out.

  1. In b) to c) by

  1. There is no point … telling the truth.

  1. In b) to c)by

  1. What does your mother have …our going to the club?

  1. By b) against c) to

  1. I feel … going out. Would you like to join me?

  1. Like b) to c) for

  1. Touch your toes … bending your knees.

  1. Like b) with c) without

  1. This is a device … making coffee.

  1. To b) for c) of

  1. In spite … facing problems he kept on smiling.

  1. To b) for c) of

  1. I am sick and tired … doing this work.

  1. Of b) for c) with

  1. What would you say … making a barbecue?

  1. For b) to c) of

  1. They are not interested … investing their money into our business.

a) on b) at c) in

18. We are looking forward … hearing from you as soon as possible.

a) - b) to c) for

19. What else can you do … mending cars?

a) to b) like c) besides

20. I am thinking … finding a new job.

a) of b) on c) to


Ex. 12. Get acquainted with the unknown words.


Bargain = deal, transaction

Bread rollбулочка

Crowdтолпа


Ex. 13. Pronounce some words and geographical names.


Pounds

London

Iran


Pounds of sterling

New York

Persia

Finland

The Mediterranean Sea

Ex. 14. Say the numerals in English.


2,2 mln, 200, 2 000, 5,50 000, 3, 3000 00, 1, 100, 120, 6, 300


Ex. 15. Enumerate the months.


Ex. 16. Listen to the text “Harrods”.


HARRODS

Everybody knows Harrods, and most people agree it’s the best shop in London. Even the Queen Elisabeth II does her shopping here. It’s the largest and the most famous store in England. You can buy everything from large tropical snakes to antique pianos.

People like shopping in Harrods, and they spend a lot of money. The most money ever spent by a single customer was two million two hundred thousand pounds of sterling, and he paid in cash!

About 50 000 people go to Harrods every day, but the busiest times are Christmas and the January and July Sales. People can do the biggest bargains on the first day of the Sales. The first day is the most crowded. On that day about 300 000 people visit Harrods.

One of the most popular buys at Christmas time are Christmas puddings – Harrods sells over 120 tons of puddings.

Harrods has a great many overseas visitors and they export many of Harrods’ goods. Some of the most unusual exports are a Persian carpet to Iran, a fridge to Finland, six bread rolls to New York and a pound of sausage to a yacht in the Mediterranean Sea.


Ex. 17. Answer the questions.


  1. What is Harrods?

  2. Where is it situated?

  3. Who of the famous persons do shopping in Harrods?

  4. What can people buy in Harrods?

  5. When is Harrods the most crowded?

  6. What is the most popular bargain at Christmas time?

  7. What other unusual exports do you know from the text?

  8. Who is the owner of Harrods?

  9. What is he famous for?


Ex.18. Retell the text.


Ex. 19. Learn the words from your active vocabulary


Management

To develop

Area

To require

Ability

Skill

Skills

To employ

Owner

Sole

Proprietorship

Level

To achieve

Goal

Primary

To be concerned (with)

Employee

Assets

Recreational facilities

Lengthy obligations

To obtain

To borrow

To lend

Income

Insurance premium

Utility

External

Environment

Competitor

To survive

To accomplish

Grant

Endowment


  • Управление, руководство, менеджмент

  • Развивать(ся)

  • Область

  • Требовать

  • Способность

  • Мастерство

  • Навыки

  • Нанимать

  • Владелец

  • Единоличный

  • Собственность

  • Уровень

  • Достигать

  • (конечная) цель

  • Основной, оптимальный

  • Заниматься, (иметь дело с чем-либо)

  • Работник, служащий

  • Активы

  • Места отдыха и развлечений

  • Длительный оплачиваемый отпуск

  • Выполнять обязательства

  • Получать

  • Ссужать, давать взаймы

  • Доход

  • Страховая премия

  • Предприятие коммунального обслуживания

  • Внешний

  • (окружающая) среда

  • Конкурент

  • Выживать

  • Осуществить

  • Субсидия, безвозвратная ссуда

  • Пожертвование, благотворительный взнос


Ex. 20. Translate the words and word-combinations into Russian. Use the dictionary if necessary.


To employ managers, a number of, a variety of, management area, the only manager, the owner of a sole proprietorship, levels and areas of management, to achieve the organization’s goals, a great skill, human resources, material resources, primary goal, employee, assets, recreational facilities, lengthy paid vacation, meet obligations, money, to obtain money, income, insurance premium, salary, consumer market, to survive, competitor, to accomplish goals, to produce goods and services, grant, wholesaler, endowment, utility, utility bills, to borrow and lend money, practical results.


Ex. 21. Read and translate the international words.


Practical

Organization

Contrast

Coordinate

Result

Manager

Number

Resource

Management

Activity

Process

Goal


Ex. 22. Read the text “Definition of management” ant translate it with the help of dictionary if necessary.


DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT


  1. What is management?

Management is based on scientific theories and today we can say that it is a developing science.

But knowledge of theories and principles doesn’t provide practical results. It is necessary to know how to apply this knowledge. Practical application of knowledge in the management area requires certain abilities or skills. Here is an example:

Depending on its size, an organization may employ a number of specialized managers who are responsible for particular areas of management. A very large organization may employ many managers, each responsible for activities of one management area. In contrast, the owner of a sole proprietorship may be the only manager in the organization. He or she is responsible for all levels and areas of management.

What is important to an organization is not the number of managers it employs but the ability of these managers to achieve the organization’s goals, and this ability requires a great skill.

In other words, management is the process of coordinating the resources of an organization to achieve the primary organizational goals.

  1. Main resources

Managers are concerned with the following main resources: material resources, human resources, financial resources, informational resources, organizational goals.

Material resources are physical materials and the equipment used by an organization to make a product. For example, cars are made on assembly lines. These assembly lines and the buildings that house them are material resources.

The most important resources of any organization are its human resources – people. Some firms believe that their employees are their most important assets. To keep employees content, a variety of incentives are used, including higher-than-average pay, flexible working hours, recreational facilities, lengthy paid vacations, cafeterias offering inexpensive meals, etc.

Financial resources are the funds the organization uses to meet its obligations to various creditors. A grocery store obtains money from customers and uses a portion of that money to pay the wholesalers from which it buys food. A large bank borrows and lends money. A collage obtains money in the form of tuition, income from its endowments, and federal grants. It uses the money to pay utility bills, insurance premiums, and professors’ salaries. Each of these transactions involves financial resources.

Finally, many organizations increasingly find they cannot ignore information. External environment – including the economy, consumer markets, technology, politics, and cultural forces – are all changing so rapidly that an organization that does not adapt will probably not survive. And, to adapt to change, the organization must know what is changing. Companies are finding it increasingly important to gather information about their competitors in today’s business environment.

It is important to realize that these are only general categories of resources. Within each category are hundreds or thousands of more specific resources, from which management must choose those that can best accomplish its goals. Managers must coordinate this complex group of specific resources to produce goods and services.


Ex. 23. Say the words and word-combinations in English.


Научные теории, практические результаты, управлять деловыми фирмами, нанимать менеджеров, область (сфера) управления, владелец единоличной собственности, единственный, достигать организационные цели, большое мастерство, доход, основные цели организации, материальные ресурсы, служащий, оптовик, стимул, длительный оплачиваемый отпуск, занимать деньги, давать деньги в долг, оплачивать счета предприятий коммунального обслуживания , страховая премия, зарплата, (финансовая) операция, фонд, потребительский рынок, выживать, приспособиться к изменению, конкурент, осуществить цели, товары и услуги, активы, побудительный мотив, субсидия (безвозвратная ссуда), пожертвование (благотворительный взнос).


Ex. 24. Fill in the gaps with the word-combinations from the text (manager, borrows, scientific theories, developing science, survive, main resources, competitors, primary goals, information, lends, physical, important, incentives).


  1. Management is based on … … and today we can that it is … … .

  2. The owner of a sole proprietorship may be the only … in the organization.

  3. Management is the process of coordinating the resources of an organization to achieve the … … of the organization.

  4. Managers are concerned with four types of … … .

  5. Material resources are … resources.

  6. Human resources are perhaps the most … resources.

  7. To keep employees content, a variety of … are used.

  8. A large bank … and … money.

  9. External environment is changing so rapidly that an organization that does not adapt will probably not … .

  10. Companies are finding it increasingly important to gather … about their … .


Ex. 25. Find in the text the sentences with the gerund.


Ex. 26. Fill in the gaps with the –ing forms given below.


  1. Management is a … science.

  2. on the size of an organization a number of managers can be varied.

  3. Management is the process of … the resources of an organization to achieve the primary organizational goals.

  4. Managers are concerned with the … main resources: material resources, human resources, financial resources, informational resources, organizational goals.

  5. A variety of incentives is … so rapidly that an organization that does not adapt will probably not survive.

  6. External environment, … the economy, consumer markets, technology, politics, and cultural forces is considered to be informational resources.

______________________________________________________________

Offering, coordinating, following, including, changing, developing, working, depending.


Ex. 27. Make up the plan to the second part of the text.

Ex. 28. Match the two columns.


Material resources

Human resources

Financial resources

Informational resources

  1. External environment

  2. Physical materials and the equipment

  3. People

  4. funds


Ex. 29 Answer the questions to the text.


  1. What can you say about management in general?

  2. What does a large organization employ many managers?

  3. What is important to an organization?

  4. Does the ability to achieve organizational goals require great skills?

  5. What can you say about management as a process?

  6. What main resources are managers concerned with?

  7. What incentives are used to keep employees content? Why?

  8. How does an organization obtain financial resources? Give some examples?

  9. Is external environment including the economy, consumer markets, etc. changing rapidly?

  10. What must an organization do to survive?


Ex. 30. Speak on the following:


  1. General definition of management.

  2. Material and human resources.

  3. Financial and informational resources.


Ex. 31. Read the interview with ken Manners, the expert on leadership and management styles.


Can leadership be taught? Or are the only real leaders born leaders?

Ken Manners:

Traditionally, the model for leadership in business has been the army. Managers and army officers give orders and their subordinates (the people working below them) carry them out. Managers, like army officers, may be sent on leadership courses to develop their leadership skills, their ability to lead. But they still need a basic flair or talent for leadership.

Interviewer:

What makes a great leader?

Ken Manners:

The greatest leaders have charisma, an attractive quality that makes other people admire them and want to follow them. A leader may be described as a visionary, someone with the power to see clearly how things are going to be in the future. People often say leaders have drive, dynamism and energy.

Interviewer:

How have management styles changed in the last few years?

Ken Manners:

Before, leaders were distant and remote, not easy to get to know or communicate with. Today, managers are more open and approachable: you can talk to them easily. There is more management by consensus, where decisions are not imposed from above in a top-down approach, but arrived at by asking employees to contribute in a process of consultation.

Interviewer:

Do you think this trend will continue?

Ken Manners:

Yes. There are more women managers now, who are often more able to build consensus than traditional military-style authoritarian male managers.

Interviewer:

What, exactly, is empowerment?

Ken Manners:

Encouraging, employees to use their own initiative, to take decisions on their own without asking managers first, is empowerment. Decision-making becomes more decentralized and less bureaucratic, less dependent on managers and systems. This is often necessary where the number of management levels is reduced. To empower employees, managers need the ability to delegate, to give other people responsibility for work rather than doing it all themselves. Of course, with empowerment and delegation, the problem is keeping control of your operations: a key issue of modern management.


Ex.32. Write down the italicized words from the ex. 31, translate them and learn.


Ex. 33. Match the sentences beginning (1-7) with the correct endings (a-g).


  1. We are looking for a new CEO, someone with strong leadership …

  2. Richard has real managerial flair …

  3. In the police, leaders are held responsible …

  4. The study concludes that a charismatic visionary leader is absolutely not required for a visionary company…

  5. She is an extraordinary leader …

  6. Thatcher had drive, energy and vision, …

  7. He was a born leader. When everyone else was discussing …


  1. but many thought it was the wrong vision.

  2. and, in fact, can be bad for a company’s long-term prospects.

  3. and has won the respect of colleagues and employees.

  4. for the actions of their subordinates.

  5. skills and experience with financial institutions.

  6. what to do, he knew exactly what to do.

  7. who will bring dynamism and energy to the job.



Ex. 34. Group 3-4 students and discuss the following:


  1. What are the characteristics of a true leader?

  2. Do you think you have the qualities of a good manager/leader?

  3. Would you be authoritarian or approachable?


Ex. 35. Read the title of the article “The orange black box”. Find some strange facts about the black box.


Ex. 36. Now read the article.


The orange black box

The mysterious machine that records crashes.


There’s a story that is retold whenever a plane crash hits the headlines; if only the aircraft were made of the same material as the black box, then everybody would survive.

The legendary invincibility of the famous box is familiar to most of us. Yet for such a well-known object, it’s remarkably mysterious. How many of us know that the “black” box is in fact painted fluorescent orange?

It was originally called a black box in the days when anything to do with electronics was new and strange”, explains Pete Cook, from a flight recorder manufacturer. They’re painted orange nowadays to make them more easily visible in the event of a crash.”

There are two kinds of black box; the flight data recorder (FDR) and the cockpit voice recorder (CVR). Both are normally stored at the rear of an aircraft, where the fuselage meets the upper tail fin – the part of planes that has the best survival record. The same principle applies to human passengers – you’re safer at the back.

Despite their reputation, neither box is in fact indestructible. However, they can withstand a temperature of 1,100 °C for 30 minutes and 250 °C for 10 hours. They must also be able to survive an impact force of 3, 500 g – that’s 3,500 times the force of gravity.

To take this kind of strain, flight recorders are encased in two thicknesses of titanium. Memory chips hold the flight data.

While FDRs make an electronic record of the plane’s mechanical performance, CVRs record the communication between the crew. “After a crash in water, they send out sonar “pig” so that they can be found,” says Cook. “But they are still only recovered in 80 per cent of accidents”.


Ex. 37. Answer the questions to the article.


  1. Why is the box called the black box?

  2. What is the origin of its name?

  3. Where are the black boxes stored?

  4. Why?

  5. Is it impossible to destroy them?

  6. How are they made?

  7. Why are they happy people?

  8. Are they always found after a crash?


Ex.38. Choose the correct variant.


  1. plants and animals deep in the ocean, science may find a cure for some of the most serious human diseases.

  1. On studying b) by studying c) having studied

  1. He is looking forward … to the country.

  1. To going b) for going c) to having gone

  1. William the Conqueror is famous for … England.

  1. Having been conquered b) conquering c) having conquered

  1. William II, 7th Duke of Normandy founded his dynasty … Harold II to become William I of England.

  1. For killing b) in killing c) by killing

  1. Did he deserve …?

  1. Praising b) having been praised c) being praised

  1. I remember … your letter.

  1. Having posted b) posted c) posting

  1. The inspector suspected him … the cop.

  1. Of having killed b) for killing c) in being killed

  1. His career crashed when he … letting a girl die in a car crash.

  1. Should be accused of b) was accused of c) is accused of


Ex. 40. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the words from the Unit.


  1. Менеджмент основан на научных теориях.

  2. Менеджмент – это процесс координации ресурсов организации для достижения организационных целей.

  3. Менеджеры занимаются четырьмя видами ресурсов: материальными, финансовыми, людскими и информационными.

  4. Наиболее важными ресурсами любой организации являются ее людские ресурсы.

  5. Для удовлетворения служащих используется ряд стимулов.

  6. Материальные ресурсы – это материалы, из которых изготовлена продукция, а так же оборудование, используемое для ее производства.

  7. Финансовые ресурсы – это фонды, которые использует организация для выполнения своих обязательств перед различными кредиторами.

  8. Внешнее окружение, включая экономику, потребительские рынки, технологию, политику и культурные факторы, изменяется очень быстро.

  9. Организация, которая не приспосабливается к внешнему окружению, может не выжить.

  10. Компании считают все более важным собирать информацию о своих конкурентах.





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