ХАРЬКОВСКОГО РАЙОННОГО СОВЕТА
Л. В. ЛУПИКА
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ – МЕТОДИЧКА
“ THE INFINITIVE ”
ХАРЬКОВСКАЯ РАЙОННАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АДМИНИСТРАЦИЯ ОТДЕЛ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ПЕСОЧИНСКИЙ КОЛЛЕГИУМ ХАРЬКОВСКОГО РАЙОННОГО СОВЕТА ХАРЬКОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
Утверждено методическим советом информационно – методического центра отдела образования Харьковской районной государственной Администрацией
Протокол № 3 от 13.12.2010
Данное грамматическое пособие – методичка посвящено одному из разделов грамматики ( The Infinitive ). Оно включает в сябя: теоретический раздел, в котором даётся объяснение данного раздела грамматики; практический раздел, в котором представлены различные упражнения и тесты для закрепления умений и навыков практического владения этими знаниями. Может быть использовано для проведения грамматического практикума, а также для более детального изучения грамматической темы или в качестве пособия для педагогов.
Грамматическое пособие – методичка “ The Infinitive ”: Грамматическое пособие. - 2010. - 53 с.
Грамматическая методичка и грамматическая разработка
Для проведения грамматического практикума, предлагаем ученикам поработать с грамматическими пособиями-методичками. Каждая серия грамматической методички посвящена одному разделу грамматики и состоит из 10 копий для ученика и 1 методички для учителя. Структура всех методичек одинаковая, они включают :
Теоретический раздел, в котором даётся объяснение данного раздела грамматики;
Практический раздел, в котором представлены различные упражнения и тесты для закрепления умений и навыков практического владения этими знаниями.
В качестве образца представляю пособие-методичку The Infinitive
The Infinitive (Инфинитив) to + V1
Инфинитив - неличная форма глагола, обладающая признаками глагола и существительного. Признаком инфинитива является частица «to» . Инфинитив соответствует в русском языке неопределенной форме глагола, которая отвечает на вопрос «что делать? что сделать?»
Forms (формы инфинитива):
to be doing
to have done
to have been doing
to be done
to have been done
Инфинитив употребляется без частицы «to» после:
модальных и вспомогательных глаголов- can /could, may /might, must, , shall / should, will /would, do / did, need, dare, had better, would rather
глаголов- let, make, help
глаголов, выражающих восприятие посредством органов чувств- to see, to watch, to feel, to notice, to observe, to hear
What do you mean by coming so late?
He must be at the entrance at 5 minutes to seven.
Let me see!
I noticed him pass a note to his neighbour.
She helped him do it.
«Would you like to go out this evening?» - «I’d rather stay at home».
«I think it’s going to rain. You’d better take an umbrella with you when you go out».
Инфинитив может служить в предложении
подлежащим: * To travel by sea is a pleasant thing. * It’s time to go home.
именной частью составного сказуемого:* Your task is to put up the tent.
дополнением: * I want to show you the house where I was born. * Tell me how to do it.
определением: * He brought me a book to read. *I’ve no idea how to get there.
обстоятельством: * He was too old to travel any more. *I have come here to talk to you.
THE INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
The Objective with the Infinitive Construction = Complex Object (Объектный падеж с инфинитивом = сложное дополнение)
I don’t want anyone to know about this.
I can’t allow the children to do that.
I believe him to be new to this kind of work.
I saw the car turn round the corner.
What made you laugh?
In these sentences the object is expressed by a noun or a pronoun and an infinitive (with or without «to»)
to wish to want
to desire to mean
to intend to like
to dislike to love
to hate to think
to know to consider
to suppose to believe
to expect to find
to trust to report
(in the Common Case)
(в общем падеже)
(in the Objective Case)
( в объектном падеже)
would rather- предпочел бы
had better- следовало бы,
не помешало бы
The Objective with the Infinitive is used
After verbs denoting wish and intention: to wish, to want, to desire, to mean, to intend
We want the students to make good progress.
Did he mean us to know?
After verbs denoting feeling and emotion: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear
Mother likes her daughter to dress well.
She can’t bear you to be unhappy.
I hate you to speak in this way.
After verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to know, to consider, to suppose, to believe, to expect, to find, to trust
We suppose him to be in Moscow.
They consider him to be very clever.
I expect him to know it.
Note! With the verbs to think, to consider, to find the same idea can be expressed without an infinitive.
Do you think him a good worker?
I have always found John friendly.
We consider this of little importance.
After verbs of declaring : to report, to declare, to pronounce
Everyone reported him to be the best man for the job.
He declared himself to be a member of this drama society.
After verbs denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice. Note! After these verbs the infinitive is used without «to».
Did you see him go out?
Watch that boy jump!
We felt the house shake.
Note! When such verbs as to see, to hear, .....etc. are not verbs of sense perception, a clause is used after them. Compare:
I saw him hit the dog. ( sense perception)
I saw that he disliked the dog. (= I understood that he disliked the dog)
I hear somebody call me. ( sense perception)
I hear that you have been ill. ( = I am told that you have been ill)
After verbs denoting order and permission : to order, to allow, to let, to suffer, to have.
Note! After the verbs to let, to have the infinitive is used without «to».
The officer ordered his men to advance.
He ordered the picture to be removed.
We can’t allow them to do that.
We can’t have them waste their time in this way. ( here the verb to have denotes permission. It is used only in negative sentences. To suffer in this sense is also often negative.)
After verbs denoting causation : to make, to cause, to get, to have.
Note! After the verbs to make , to have the infinitive is used without «to»
What makes you think so?
The noise caused him to awake.
I shall have him bring the box here.
They got him to come.
Nominative with the Infinitive = Complex Subject ( Сложное подлежащее)
Noun ( существительное в общем падеже)
Pronoun (местоимение в именительном падеже)
To be + adjective
to be pleasant
to be likely-вероятно
to be sure- наверняка
to be unlikely маловероятно
to be certain- обязательно
to be easy
Note! Инфинитив в составе сложного подлежащего имеет частицу «to».
The girl was seen to dance.
He was made to agree.
He was heard to quote W. Shakespeare.
How to translate these constructions?
.....was said - говорили что...........
.....was seen- видели что.......
......was heard - слышали что.....
......was supposed- предполагали что...........
.......was believed- полагали что......
.......was expected- ожидали что............
.......was reported- сообщали что...........
......was considered- считали что.......
......was thought - думали что.........
......was found- обнаружили что.............
......was announced - объявили что........
.......was known- было известно что..........
Personal / Impersonal Constructions:
active: They expect her to win first prize.
passive: It is expected (that) she win first prize. / She is expected to win first prize.
active: People believe that he lied in court.
passive: It is believed (that) he lied in court (impersonal)
He is believed to have lied in court. ( personal)
3. For + Noun / Pronoun + Infinitive Construction
Оборот for + существительное / местоимение + инфинитив употребляется в качестве сложного подлежащего ( с вводным it), именной части сказуемого, сложного дополнения, определения, обстоятельства.
It’s necessary for me to know her new address. ( сложное подлежащее)
This is for you to decide. ( именная часть сказуемого)
The children waited for the performance to begin. (дополнение)
The father bought two books for his son to read. ( определение)
The text is easy enough for you to understand. ( обстоятельство)
Exercise 1. Insert «to» before the infinitive where required.
We should allow him.....come next week.
Most people supposed him......be a liar.
I saw my friend.....get off a bus.
He ordered the car......come at 5 o’clock.
I hate you...... speak in this way.
We supposed him.....be in Moscow.
They consider him.....be very clever.
I expect him.....know it.
Did you see him......go out?
I hear somebody......call me.
Exercise 2. Insert «to» before the infinitive where required.
I saw him......hit the dog.
They made him.....write a letter.
I like to hear her....sing.
I suppose him.....be about forty.
Did you notice anyone......come in?
They made him.....bring the box back.
I don’t want anyone......know about this.
I saw the car ......turn round the corner.
I believe him.....be new in this kind of work.
I noticed him.....leave the room.
Exercise 3. Insert «to» before the infinitive where required.
I think you ought .......apologize.
Make him ...... speak louder.
Help me......carry this bag.
My son asked me.....let him.....go to the theatre.
I must ......go to the country.
It cannot......be done today.
She asked me......read the letter carefully.
The man told me not.....walk on the grass.
Let me......help you with your work.
She ought..... take care of her health.
Exercise 4. Insert «to» before the infinitive where required.
We had better.....stop to rest a little.
I don’t know what......do.
He was seen .......leave the house.
We saw the ship......sail off.
I cannot go there, I must......work.
I felt somebody......touch my hand.
We made him....practise an hour a day.
He is not sure that it can......be done.
I could not......find my book yesterday.
Would you rather .......learn German than French?
Exercise 5. Insert «to» before the infinitive where required.
I expect him .......know it.
He declared himself.....be a member of this drama society.
We watched the boy......jump.
What makes you......think so?
Did you notice anyone......come in?
They made me ......believe that there was no danger.
I don’t want any of you.....misunderstand me.
I heard her......cry in the next room.
Let them......follow your reading.
I hate animals.......be beaten.
Exercise 6. Read and translate these sentences.
Nick preferred to do anything but work.
Mrs Waller went to see who it was.
I hope to rent a room here.
He could always help us find something we’ve lost.
He is happy to have been invited there.
All textbooks may be borrowed from the library.
You must do it at once.
He pretended not to be listening.
They are said to know French very well.
He is said to live in Kiev.
The delegation is reported to have left Moscow.
He was expected to arrive in the evening.
Nina seems to know English well.
I happened to be there at that time.
He is likely to know her address.
They are very likely to come soon.
I find him to be a very clever person.
We didn’t expect their team to win the game.
He wants me to come on Sunday.
I wanted him to be invited here.
She is said to be a very talented ballet-dancer.
They were asked to come earlier.
She seems to know more than she has said.
It’s necessary for me to know her new address.
The text is easy enough for you to understand.
I noticed him pass a note to his neighbour.
I’m sorry not to have met you at the station.
He may have lost your address and cannot write you a letter.
I’m glad to have taken your advice.
I am pleased to have met him yesterday.
She was absent yesterday, she may have been ill.
It is pleased to be swimming in the warm water of the lake.
I’m sorry to have interrupted you.
I’m happy to have been sent to London.
The letters may have been sent yesterday.
Exercise 7. Use the infinitive in the required form.
Here are some books for you......... ( to read/ to be read)
She is certain ........( to late/ to be late) for the train.
The librarian wants the book......( to have brought/ to be brought) back in four days.
The poet is said.........(to be finished/ to have finished) a new poem.
We were waiting for the rain........(to stop / to be stopped)
I want you.......( to come/ to be coming) earlier.
It is difficult for me.........(to do/ to be done) this.
Speak louder if you want........( to hear / to be heard)
Don’t talk too much if you want people.........( to listen / to be listened) to you.
Ask yourself always: how can this........(do / be done) better?
I’m glad......... ( to take/ to have taken ) your advice .
The doctor prescribed medicine.......( to take / to be taken) every three hours.
I expect the telegram......... ( to bring / to be brought) in two hours.
He is said........ ( to write / to be writing) a new play every year.
I’m lucky ...........( to buy/ to have bought) this book.
Take your umbrella. It seems .........( to rain / to be raining)
The boy was sorry........( to forget/ to have forgotten) to feed his rabbits.
She was sorry ..........( to miss / to have missed) the train.
The weather seems ........( to be changing / to change)
He is said .........( to leave/ to have left) school.
Exercise 8 . Make up sentences using the complex object.
Example: He entered the room. I saw it. - I saw him enter the room.
He is the brightest student. I know it.
Nick called me. I heard it.
She quietly left the room. I noticed it.
She is a nice girl. I know it.
Our class is friendly. I think so.
He spoke French. I heard it.
He answered the door-bell. I heard it.
He took the medicine. The doctor made him.
The boy cried. The nurse watched the boy.
Nick made this hole. We saw it.
Exercise 9. Use Complex Object.
He entered the room. I saw it.
He is the brightest student. I know it.
Nick called me. I heard it.
She quietly left the room. I noticed it.
Our class is friendly. I think so.
Alice is a nice girl. I know it.
He spoke French. I heard it.
He answered the door-bell. I heard it.
He took the medicine. The doctor made him.
The boy cried. The nurse watched the boy.
Exercise 10. Use Complex Object.
The boy pushed this girl. Everybody noticed it.
Did the hedgehog eat a mushroom? I watched....
Look! Bill is swimming in the swimming pool. We saw......
Did you hear that he is calling you?
Did the squirrel hide her nuts? Yes, I saw.....
Look! Dave is talking to Charles. We saw......
Pete spoilt this toy. I saw it.
In autumn we see how the farmers gather ripe fruit.
Can Jane speak French? Yes, I heard......
Somebody opened the window. I felt it.
Exercise 11. Use Complex Object.
He can speak German. I heard it.
He will help me. I expect it.
The children are playing in the yard. I saw them.
Tom came late yesterday. I noticed it.
She entered the room. I saw it.
Sam can sing well. I heard it.
Ulaf will come on Sunday. I want it.
He was running along the road. I saw it.
A strange man was standing at the door. I noticed it.
He was coming up the stairs slowly. I heard it.
Exercise 12. Use Complex Object.
John is a very good son. I know it.
She makes good progress. We want it.
He is getting off a bus. I saw it.
Somebody called my name. I heard it.
She is painting the fence. I saw it.
The boy put away the book. Everybody noticed it.
I saw that the children were playing in the yard.
The car stopped at the door. I saw it.
Somebody touched my hand. I felt it.
Did you notice that the boy came home late?
Exercise 13. Paraphrase the following so as to use a complex subject.
Example: The doctor didn’t allow us to visit the patient. (say)- We were said not to visit the patient.
The boy is a liar. (to know)
He is a good singer. ( to say)
The plane reached the Crimea on time. (to report)
The actor is very talented. (to believe)
Nick will go to Paris next month. ( to announce)
Exercise 14. Join each pair of simple sentences into a complex one as shown in the pattern.
Example: He told the story many times. I heard it.- I heard him tell the story many times.
The man carried the suitcase into the house. We saw it.
She sings Russian songs. Everybody likes it.
He was a good pupil. I thought so.
You’ll join our tour. We expect it.
He is a captain of a big ship. We know it.
He is honest. I believe it.
She swam across the river. They watched it.
Nelly is new to this kind of work. I believe it.
The car turned round the corner. I saw it.
Somebody called me. I heard it.
В качестве грамматических разработок предлагаю раздаточный материал для учащихся, который очень редко встречается в грамматических пособиях. Многие учителя испытывают трудность в поиске ответа на тот или иной грамматический вопрос . Я тоже испытывала трудность, когда нужно было объяснить ученикам что-то.
Этот материал составлялся автором «по крупицам» из разных справочников, а также на базе собственного практического опыта.
Verb / expression
present / future
90% certainty (expectation)
I should study tonight.
She should do well on the test. (future only, not present)
I should have studied last night, but I didn’t.
She should have done well on the test.
should + have +past participle
is often used to criticise smb’s behaviour
I ought to study tonight.
She ought to do well on the test. (future only, not present)
I ought to have studied last night, but I didn’t.
She ought to have done well on the test.
had better + bare infinitive
advisability with threat of bad result (it is stronger than should /ought to )
to say what the best thing to do in a particular situation is.
You had better be on time, or we’ll leave without you.
You’d better see a lawyer.
had better + not + bare
You’d better not be late.
He’d better stop taking those pills.
past form uncommon
would rather =
would sooner preference
do (bare infinitive)
would rather not do
you/ N/he... +V2
+ bare infinitive + than +
When the subject of
WOULD RATHER is different from the subject of the following verb,
I would rather go to the park than stay home.
would rather + not
-How much do you weigh?
-I’d rather not tell you.
would rather + be + Ving
I’d rather be lying on a beach in India than (be) sitting in class right now.
He would rather play tennis than (play) golf .
would rather + past tense
I’d rather Kate stayed with us tonight.
would rather + have + past participle
I would rather have gone to the park.
I’d rather not have gone to the dinner party last night.
would rather + past perfect
I’d rather Sam hadn’t taken his father’s car yesterday.
prefer + Ving +to+Ving (general preference)
prefer + full infinitive +rather than + bare infinitive (general preference)
prefer +noun + to +noun (general preference)
would prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive
( specific preference)
I prefer playing tennis to playing squash.
I prefer to eat fish rather than (eat) meat.
He prefers basketball to football.
I’d prefer to walk home rather than take the bus.
I’d prefer to have juice rather than (have) Coke.
after the verbs:
advise ask should do smth
demand insist should not do (BE)
recommend that she/he do smth /not do(AE)
require request you/we
after the adjectives:
advisable should do smth
desirable should not do (BE)
It is /was doubtful that you
necessary do smth
recommended not do (AE)
I suggested that she should see a doctor. / ... that she see a doctor.
I recommended that she not go to the concert.
I insisted that he pay me the money.
The teacher insists that we should be on time.
It is necessary that they should be told the truth.
It’s essential that you be here on time.
It’s essential that you are here on time.
I demanded that he apologise.
I demanded that he apologised.
What do you suggest I do?
What do you suggest we should do?
Jane suggested that I (should) buy a car. = Jane suggested that I bought a car.
It is ridiculous that we should be (= that we are) short of water in a country where it is always raining.
It’s high time
for us to do
you/ we/ they... +V2
It’s time for me to have a holiday. = It’s time I had a holiday.
It’s high time they were here. Their plane landed hours ago.
It’s about time you started doing some work on your project.
It’s time the children were in bed. It’s long after their bedtime.
as if / as though + he/she... + V2
He speaks as if he were an expert in this field.
Mary talks as if /as though she knew everything.
He had never been abroad, but he spoke about New York as if/ as though he had been there many times.
We’d better to cut down on our expenses.
We’d better cut down on our expenses.
You’d not better talk to him about it.
You’d better not talk to him about it.
We would better leave now.
We had better leave now.
I’d rather Greg goes to medical school.
I’d rather Greg went to medical school.
I’d rather prefer just to lie on the beach.
I’d rather just lie on the beach. =I’d prefer just to lie on the beach.
it’s high time
It’s high time you redecorate your flat.
It’s high time you redecorated your flat.
DO / MAKE / HAVE / GET
= to accomplish a thing, engage in an activity
= to carry out a specific action
work / housework / homework / a job
the washing / cooking / shopping / ironing
the dishes / windows / floors
a test / exam / exercise / course
translation ( also make)
a subject at school ( English) / training / sum / crossword / a lesson / sports
a dinner party
something well / badly
(smb.) good / harm / evil
somebody a favour / the honour
one’s hair =to arrange; one’s teeth= to clean
business (with smb. )
repairs / damage (to)
an operation / a service
an experiment / research
a report / a question
one’s best / worst
one’s duty / right /wrong
something for a living / someone a discount
* 95% of housework is done by women.
*His mother still does all his washing
*Let me help you do the dishes.
*He’s doing an art course at Wrexham College.
*Which subjects are you doing at college?- I’m
doing history and economics.
* She did well in the exams.
*The fresh air will do you good.
*Will you do me a favour? Will you do us the
honour of coming to dinner?
*Don’t forget to do your teeth before you go to
*It’s a pleasure to do business with you.
* The storm did a lot of damage to the crops.
*We did our best to help him.
* You did right to refuse any money for your
*What did your Dad do for a living? He was a
*I’ll do my best, but don’t expect me to do a
* You should ask them to do you a discount.
=to construct, create, manufacture, prepare
= you make something which was not there before
an appointment / date / arrangements
an agreement / an offer
a decision / a discovery
an effort / an attempt
a report (on, to) / a request
attacks (on) / peace / war (on)
a mess / a noise / a fuss (about) / sound
faces (at) / a fool (of)
an excuse (for) / an apology
a fortune / jokes
a (phone) call
the beds / a cake / coffee / tea
a fire / an injury
a change / a choice/ a difference (to)
a complaint/ confession
conversation / criticism
a demand / enquiries / statement/ suggestion
an impression / fun of smb./smth. / a joke
a success (of) / use (of) / progress
a mistake / error
laws / rules / progress
a start / a stop
money / a profit / economies
a living by doing smth / from smth.
preparations / an experiment
report / request
trouble (for) / a search (for)
the best (of) = to try to get a good result despite of bad situation
the most (of)= to use a good situation to get the best possible result
a loss / problems / trouble
friends (with) / enemies
a journey / a trip / a movement/ way (for)
work (for others)
a note of something / marks on the wall
one’s way back / home
*I’ve made an appointment for you with the
doctor for tomorrow meeting.
*She made an offer of £10 for it.
*We made an important discovery.
*Helen made no attempt to stop him.
* Make love, not war.
*The children are making a lot of noise.
* I wish you wouldn’t make faces (grimaces)
when you’re offered the same food twice.
* She made an excuse and left.
* Excuse me. I just want to make a (phone) call.
*Remember to make your bed before you leave
*That will make a change. It makes a change to
see him smiling.
*The minister will make a statement on that issue
* How old am I? Make a guess?
*I made very little progress at the start of the
*I think you’ve made a mistake here.
*Parliament makes laws.
*You can make a lot of money doing this job.
*He makes a living by repairing cars. Can you
make a living from painting?
* It’s time we made a start.
* We made a couple of stops on our way here.
* It rained all day, but we made the best of it.
* I went back to make sure that I really had locked
*It’s a beautiful day today. Let’s make the most of
* It was the first journey he’d made all on his
*Mary made a note of the car’s number and
informed the police.
* The minister made a speech about social
* Some people seem to be born to make trouble/
problems. He’s always making trouble.
* Our firm made a big loss last year.
* The car belongs to my father, but I make use of it occasionally (= I use it)
* I expect the children make a lot of work for you. (=give you extra tasks)
an appointment / an argument / a date / a meeting
a cold / flu / a headache / a pain / a temperature
a conversation / discussion / a lesson / a talk / chat
a dream / a thirst (for)
a break / a good time
a bath / a shower / a shave / a shampoo / a wash
a sunbathe / a swim
breakfast / dinner / a drink / meal
a sleep / a nap / a nightmare
an effect on / a shock / influence on
an experience / an operation
fun / a holiday / a party / the next dance
a guess / an idea
an interview / a talk / chat
a picnic / a rest / a ride /
a problem / a quarrel / a row / trouble / difficulty in
a game / a good laugh
a good flight / journey / trip / holiday
nerves / a nervous breakdown
* We’re having a big argument / discussion about
the date of the next election.
* I had an awful headache last night.
* She’s probably upstairs having a bath.
* We usually have breakfast in the kitchen.
* I’ll collapse if I don’t have a drink soon.
* He has no experience of running a large
* You can’t stop people from having fun.
* If it’s sunny we could have a picnic.
* This hay fever is having a serious effect on my
* John and his wife are always having fights.
* How old am I? Have a guess!
* Teachers have a lot of influence on young
* We had a nice chat /talk.
* We all had a good laugh at the school dinner.
* Kay’s having driving lessons.
* Have a look at this.
* You have excellent taste.
* Kim was overworked and had a nervous
breakdown. (нервное расстройство)
* I have awful nerves before exams.
* Why does the world have so many wars?
* I think I’ll have a walk.
angry / alarmed / annoyed
better / worse
cold / a headache / ill
bored (with) / excited / exhausted / tired
confused / embarrassed / worried
dark / delayed
difficult / dirty / hard
divorced / engaged (to) / married
down (from/ on) / up
dressed / washed
drowned / wet
fat / mad / old / tall / heavy / thin / weak
lighter / poorer / rich / stronger
information / a mark
into / involved in
on (my) nerves / a shock
* We got alarmed when we found the door wide
open. Don’t get angry every time someone
asks you a question.
* The road gets worse a bit further on.
* I quickly get bored with TV quiz shows.
* I had to give up maths because it got difficult
(for me) / I found it difficult
* I got dirty mending that puncture.
* The cement has got hard.
* The children have climbed to the top of the tree
and can’t get down!
* The cat has somehow got up on the roof.
* I must get up and get dressed. Get dressed! ( not
* I got very wet walking home without an
* We got exhausted walking round the museum.
* Don’t eat so many biscuits. You’ll get fat.
* I got full (up) eating all those crisps.
* The lawn has got / gone/ turned so green with all
* Your case will get very heavy if you put so
much into it.
* These shoes have got very tight.
* During the power-cut we got stuck in the lift for
over an hour.
* I used to get up early when I worked as a baker,
but I don’t have to get up early in my present job.
3. Determiners and Quantifiers
Quantifiers are determiners which describe the quantity of something.
Determiners come before nouns.
We do not usually use two determiners together.
Singular countable nouns must always have an article or a determiner.
1. All (the) / All of (все, весь, вся ) (the) Whole ( весь, вся)
We use all when we talk about three or more people or things.
It has a positive meaning and is followed by a plural noun or by the + noun.
We use all ( весь, вся, всё) with uncountable nouns.
All can also stand alone , when it means ‘the only thing’.
We use all of ( not all) before pronouns.
All + day/ morning/ week /year/ = the whole + day/ morning/ week/ year
All about; All of us = we all; all of you= you all; all of them = they all;
All three of us (мы все трое)
All four of them (они все четверо)
All (that) / Everything (that) – всё, что
* all (of) the problems ( + plural countable noun)
* all (of) the trouble (+ uncountable noun)
All the actors were brilliant.
All the students in the class passed the exam.
All the people were tired.= Everybody was tired. (not: All were tired)
All the books have been sold out.
All plants require water. He told us all about his trip.
He spends all his free time in the library.
I’ve got all the information I want.
We’ve finished all the coffee.
Jim was there all (of) the time.
All I want is some peace and quiet.
There was a terrible storm but all of us managed to get back safely
All of them are well-qualified.
They all work here.= All of them work here.
That’s all I want.
He’s been making phone calls all morning / the whole morning.
We use whole with singular countable nouns.
We don’t use whole with uncountable nouns.
We use a/ the / this / my… + whole + noun
A whole plate – all the food; the whole sweater –all the wool; a whole concert- all the music; the whole orchestra- all the musicians
Before ‘place names’, we most often use the whole of. (the whole of Europe)
He was hungry, so he ate the whole pie. (He was hungry, so he ate all the pie).
I didn’t see the whole film. I missed the first part.
I spent my whole salary on clothes last month.
She spent all the money you gave her. ( not :….the whole money)
We’ve finished all the coffee. (not: …the whole coffee)
2. Another (другой, ещё один ) other (другой) the Other Others ( другие)
Another = additional, an extra one.
Another + singular countable noun.
We use another + few / two, three……with a plural noun.
Another = different, besides this
One way or another =так или иначе
We need another chair.
Would you like another cup of tea?
These apples are delicious. Can I have another (one)?
We are going to stay for another few days / another four days.
The job will take another ten days. (= …ten more days)
I don’t like this tie. Can you show me another one?
other = different, besides this
We talk about people or things in addition to the ones already known ( other + plural noun)
Others means ‘other people’; the others means ‘those not mentioned already’
When other is used with a noun, it has no plural form.
Each other = друг друга
Every other = каждый второй
Every other day = через день
The other day = на днях, недавно
One after the other = один за другим
Have you got any other blouses in black?
You’ve already met Peter but I have two other brothers.
Where are the other files? ( not…others files)
Some people like watching horror films but others hate them.
Two climbers went to the top and the others waited in the tent.
We don’t visit each other very often.
We go to the supermarket every other Friday.
Jack called me the other day.
3. Any / Any of (какое-то количество, сколько-нибудь, любой)
Some / Some of ( несколько, некоторое количество)
Several / Several of (несколько, некоторое количество)
We use any mostly in interrogative sentences.
We use not any in negative sentences.
We use any with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns.
We use any in conditional sentences ( after “if”)
We use any in affirmative sentences (в значении любой)
We use any of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
Hardly any; at all; never any; seldom any; rarely any; refuse any; without any.
* any document ( + singular countable noun)
* any (of the) documents (+ plural countable noun)
* any (of the) information (+ uncountable noun)
I’m not sure if she has any brothers.
There isn’t any water in this bottle.
There aren’t any chairs.
I don’t have any money. Do you have any money on you?
Please phone me if you have any problems.
Buy some pears if you see any.
If you find any mistakes, please tell me.
We can go to any restaurant you like.
There’s hardly any ink. We got there without any difficulty. She never has any fun. I refuse to give him any help. I haven’t any idea at all.
Any fool knows the answer to a question like that. (= it doesn’t matter who)
We use some mostly in affirmative sentences.
We use some with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns.
We use some in questions (when we expect the answer ‘Yes’, when we make an offer or request)
We use some of (not some) before pronouns.
We use some of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
* some (of the) jewels ( + plural countable noun)
* some (of the) jewellery (+ uncountable noun)
I need some advice
There is some cheese in the fridge.
Could you give me some bread?
Would you like some orange juice?
It will be some time before the bridge is finished.
He asked me some questions.
There are some people waiting outside.
Some of them are cold.
We use several with plural nouns.
We use several of (not several) before pronouns.
We use several of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
Several of us = некоторые из нас
Several hundred / thousand
Several buildings were damaged by the explosion.
Milk will keep for several days in a fridge.
Several of us think it’s a bad idea.
Several of us saw it.
City officials have lost several hundred thousand dollars in bad investments.
Some Any No
Not any / no
Someone / Somebody
Anyone / Anybody
No one / not anyone
Nobody / not anybody
Nothing / not anything
Nowhere / not anywhere
4. Both (оба, обе) Boath ... and (как... так и… / и…и ) Both of (любой из…)
We use both when we are talking about two things or people.
Both has a positive meaning and is followed by a plural verb.
Two subjects connected by both.....and take a plural verb. Both + noun + and + noun.
We use both of (not both) before pronouns: we both = both of us
Do not use both /both...and... in negative sentences. Use neither / neither...nor...
( Они оба не пришли на собрание- Neither of them came to the meeting)
Both these books are mine. Both restaurants are very good.
I spoke to both girls. Both men work at the bank.
They are both excited.
I don’t know which book to buy. Why don’t you buy both of them?
Both my mother and my sister are here.
Both Peter and Mary were there.
Both of these restaurants are very good.
We both know it. = Both of us know it.
You must both go there.= Both of you must go there.
5. Every ( каждый, всякий) Each / Each of (каждый, каждый из…)
We use every when we talk about three or more people or things.
We use every/ everyone/ everybody/ everything with singular countable nouns.
Every one can be followed by of. ( every one of the pages)
We use every when we are thinking of people or things together, in a group to mean ‘all’, ‘everybody / everything’.
We use every to show how often something happens ( every day, every week, every three days…)
We use every (not each) with: almost, nearly, practically and without exception.
Every student has to fill in a questionnaire.
Every seat in the theatre was taken. Everybody looks tired today. Everything he said was true.
Every part of my body hurt after the fall.
I enjoyed every minute of the film (=I enjoyed the whole film).
Every employee is entitled to twenty days off. (= all employees)
Richard visits his mother every week.
I’ve seen all of Mel Gibson’s films and I liked every one of them.
Every one of the students passed the exam.
There is a train every twenty minutes. I have to attend a meeting every two months.
She has invited every person she knows, without exception.
We use each when we talk about two people or things.
We use each with singular countable nouns, but each of with a plural noun/pronoun and a singular verb.
Each (one) can be followed by of.
We use each when we are thinking of people or things separately, one at a time.
* each applicant
* each of the applicants
Jane had a blister on each foot.
He was holding an ice cream in each hand.
Each child was given a present.
She was wearing a fine gold chain on each ankle.
Each of the children was given a present.
It was the twins’ birthday yesterday. I gave a present to each (one) of them.
Each employee in turn will tell the manager when he wishes to take his holiday.
It is used after somebody, anybody, nothing, everywhere, etc. and who, what, why, when, where and how. It is followed by a singular verb.
Anything (else) and nothing (else) can be used with but.
The possessive of else is else’s.
Or else means ‘otherwise’ , ‘if not’
Elsewhere is formal and means ‘somewhere else’.
Can I get you anything else?
Where else have you been?
I haven’t got anything (else) to offer but my advice.
I have taken somebody else’s book by mistake.
Hurry up or else we’ll miss our flight.
If you are not satisfied with the service in this restaurant, you can go elsewhere.
7. Either (и тот и другой); Either of (тот или другой, один из двух, любой из двух);
Either…or (или... или…); Neither (также не, ни тот ни другой) Neither of (ни один из…)
We use either when we talk about two things or people.
We follow either with a singular countable noun.
Either …or + singular noun +singular verb.
Either… or + plural noun + plural verb
We use either of (not either) before pronouns + plural countable noun. It can be followed by either a singular or plural verb.
We can use not… either (of) instead of neither (of).
Either can also be used at the end of a negative sentence.
I lived in New York and Chicago but I don’t like either city much.
We could meet on Saturday or Sunday. Either day is fine with me.
Either Mum or Dad is going to pick me up.
“Do you want the big bag or the small one?” – Either of them would do.
Can either of your parents speak French?
Either of these two dresses suits / suit you. ( but: Either dress suits you).
I saw two plays, but I didn’t like either of them.
My sister can’t drive, and I can’t either.
We use neither when we talk about two things or people. It has a negative meaning.
Neither takes a positive verb.
We follow neither with a singular noun.
Nether...nor + singular noun+ singular verb
Nether...nor + plural noun + plural verb
We use neither of (not neither) before pronouns + a plural countable noun . It can be followed by either a singular or plural verb.
Neither restaurant is expensive.
We accepted neither offer.
Neither John nor Bill is going to the beach today
Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach today
Neither of these roads goes to the station.
Neither of the restaurants we went to was (were-Am.E.) expensive.
Neither of the films has/ have won a award.
Neither of them is/ are working at the moment. (but: Neither dress is long enough)
8. A lot of Lots of Much Many (много)
We use a lot of / lots of with plural countable and uncountable nouns.
We use a lot of / lots of in affirmative sentences.
Of is omitted when a lot / lots are not followed by a noun.
* a lot of (the) ideas * a lot of (the) time
There were a lot of/lots of people at the party.
There is a lot of /lots of yoghurt in the fridge.
Have you got many books? Yes, I’ve got a lot.
We use many with plural countable nouns.
We use many in interrogative and negative sentences.
How many + countable noun number
Too many is used with plural countable nouns. It has a negative meaning and shows that there is more of something than is wanted or needed.
We use many of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
Many people find this kind of movie unpleasant.
Many of our staff are part time.
Have you got many CDs? I haven’t got many CDs.
How many stamps do you need? Six.
You eat too many sweets. Your teeth will rot.
We use much with uncountable nouns.
We use much in interrogative and negative sentences.
How much + uncountable noun amount
Too much is used with uncountable nouns. It has a negative meaning.
We use much of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
Is there much sugar in the cupboard?
There isn’t much sugar in this cake.
How much money have you got? Not much.
There isn’t much time- pack the bag quickly.
I’ve got too much work to do. I can’t go out.
9. A few (немного) Few (мало) - с исчисляемыми существительными
A little (немного) Little (мало) - с неисчисляемыми существительными
We use (a) few with plural countable nouns.
A few means not many, but enough.
Few means hardly any, almost none and can be used with very for emphasis.
We use (a) few of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
* (a) few (of the) sweets
There are a few hotels in this town.
Yes, we have a few jobs available in our company.
There are (very) few cupboards in the kitchen.
I’ve read a few of her books.
We use (a) little with uncountable nouns.
A little means not much , but enough.
Little means hardly any, almost none and can be used with very for emphasis.
We use (a) little of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
* (a) little (of the) water
There is a little petrol in the tank.
I told him a little bit about it.
There’s (very) little coffee left. We need to buy some more.
The city is regaining a little of its former glory.
10. Most / Most of (большинство) More (больше)
We use most with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns to talk about nearly all of a number of people or things, or nearly all of a quantity of something.
We use most of (not most) before pronouns.
We use most of when a noun follows , preceded by this, that, these, those, a, the or possessives.
most of the holiday
most (of the) apples
most (of the) fruit
The method was suitable for most purposes.
Most good drivers stop at zebra crossings.
Most milk is still delivered to people’s houses.
He ignored most advice, and did what he thought best.
Most of them offer a wide range of courses.
Most universities offer a wide range of courses.
Most of the people there were strangers. Most people like parties.
We use more with uncountable nouns and plural nouns to refer to a quantity of something or number of people or things that is greater than another quantity or number.
We use more of (not more) before pronouns.
His visit might do more harm than good.
He does more hours than I do.
She makes more phone calls than anyone else.
She likes more of them than I do.
We need more of these books.
11. No (нет) None of (ни один из…, никто из…)
We can use no instead of ‘not any’ or ‘not a’.
At the beginning of a sentence, no is almost always used.
We use a positive verb.
We use no before singular and plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
There are no buses after midnight.= There aren’t any buses after midnight.
No cigarette is completely harmless. ( not: Not any cigarette….)
No tourists ever come to our village.
There is no lock on the door.
I’ve got no coins.
I’ve got no money.
None of refers to more than two people or things and has a negative meaning.
It is used with nouns or object pronouns and is followed by either a singular or plural verb.
We may use none without a noun.
Before my, the, us, them we use none of.
None of my friends has/ have travelled abroad.
None of my friends phone / phones me anymore.
None of us wanted to go to bed.
I’ve seen none of them. =I’ve seen no one / nobody.
Are there any letters for me today?- No, none.
How many books did you buy? – None.
We use some general determiners with:
Singular countable nouns
A / an; another; any; each; either; every; neither; no; whole
Every child likes playing. Any big tin container will do. He opened another shop last month.
Plural countable nouns
All; any; both; enough; few; fewer; a lot of / lots of; many; more; most; no; other; several; some
Some visitors to the new gallery are enthusiastic but many have expressed their disappointed.
There were few doctors available. He spoke many different languages. Several projects had to be postponed.
All; any; enough; less; little; a lot of / lots of; more; most; much; no; some
Some of the information is considered top secret. All children like playing. There was little applause. We need more information. He didn’t speak much English.
They can never be used with uncountable nouns:
A; an; another; both; each; either; every; few; many; neither; several; whole
4. Inversion. ( Инверсия )
Инверсия-это такой порядок слов в английском предложении, когда подлежащее стоит после сказуемого или между его частями. Инверсия употребляется для большей выразительности речи. Если подлежащее выражено существительным, то инверсия имеет место. Если подлежащее выражено местоимением, то имеет место эмфаза. Эмфаза- это такой порядок слов, когда второстепенные члены предложения стоят в начале предложения, что придает ему большую эмоциональность.
The order of words in English is, as a rule, fixed: the subject / the predicate / objects / adverbial modifiers.
The order of words in which the subject is placed after the predicate is called inverted order, or inversion.
Inversion occurs in the following cases:
In questions which are not put to the subject -в любом вопросе кроме вопроса к подлежащему.
Where can I find a more interesting book? Are they still at home?
BUT: Who can answer my question? What animal have been found there?
In exclamatory sentences expressing wish in which the verb is in the Subjunctive Mood - в восклицательных предложениях, которые начинаются «Да здравствует........», «Пусть..........», «Будь..........»
Long live the heroism of Russian people! Да здравствует героизм русских людей!
Мау you be happy! Будьте счастливы!
Мay this day be very joyful! Пусть этот день будет очень веселым!
When the sentence is introduced by there - в предложениях с конструкцией there is..../ there are......
There have been many events this year . В этом году произошло много событий.
There are many roller-coasters in this amusement park. В этом парке много американских горок.
In the following constructions So can I, So do I......... - в кратких ответах, переводимых на русский язык ......и я (он, она, мы...) тоже.
You can do it and so can I. I must leave now. So must I. She is sleeping. So is he.
I have never liked detective stories. Neither have I.
We have never been there. Neither have they.
In the reported speech ( в словах автора после прямой речи)
«It’s absurd», said Ann. «I haven’t seen him there», repeated the boy.
«This is what I want», said my friend.
When the adverbial modifier of place or time opens the sentence - если предложение начинается с обстоятельства места или времени, а подлежащее определено придаточным предложением.
In the middle of the room stood the furniture, bought not long ago in France. Посреди комнаты стояла мебель, купленная на днях во Франции.
At the beginning of June returned John Gordon Wilsey, one of the most famous, loved hated and discussed politicians. В начале июня вернулся Джон Гордон Уилси - один из самых известных, любимых, ненавистных и обсуждаемых политиков.
Adverbial modifiers expressed by such words as so, thus, then, here, now, there open the sentence - в предложениях, начинающихся со слов : so, thus, then, here, now, there.
Thus ended this war. Так закончилась эта война. Here comes Fredy!
So ended the terrible seige of the castle. Thus began their friendship.
BUT: Thus it ended. Так она закончилась. There she goes. ( The subject is expressed by a pronoun)
An adverbial modifier with a negative meaning opens the sentence: never, in vain, little.
- в предложениях, начинающихся с отрицательных обстоятельств: never, in vain, little.)
In vain did he try to persuade her! Тщетно пытался он убедить ее.
Little does he knew about his mother! Мало же он знал о своей матери!
Never have I been so happy as now. Little did he think about it then.
When structures : no sooner.... than ( как только...... так сразу), hardly / scarcely......when
( едва......как), only .... (только.., только после этого, в начале..., на мгновение),
not only......but ( не только.... но и ......), ....nor...... (не...., и не....) open the sentence.
No sooner had he entered the room than everybody stopped talking. Как только он вошел в комнату, все замолчали.
Scarcely had we begun to discuss this matter when she stood up and left the room. Едва мы начали обсуждать этот вопрос, как она встала и вышла из комнаты.
Only after her death did he realise how he loved her. Только после ее смерти он понял как он любил ее.
Not only was he aware of it, but he approved of it. Он не только знал об этом, но и оправдывал это.
He could not dance. Nor did he try to learn. Он не умел танцевать и учиться он не пытался.
Adverbial modifiers of manner expressed by adverbs open the sentence - предложение начинается с обстоятельства образа действия: (сказуемое - подлежащее- сказуемое )
Calmly and silently did they listen to him. Спокойно и молчаливо они слушали его.
Loudly and cheerfully did the children greet him.
So followed by an adverbial modifier opens the sentence - предложение начинается с so...that... - сказуемое - подлежащее- сказуемое
So often did he speak about it, that he bored everybody. Он так часто говорил об этом, что нагонял на всех скуку.
So perfectly did he do his work that it won a prize.
In vivid speech when the sentence begins with an adverb of direction : in, out, away, down ( if the subject is expressed by a noun). Предложение начинается с наречия направления: in, out, away, down , если подлежащее выражено существительным - сказуемое - подлежащее.
Up went the balloon. Вверх взлетел шарик. Out came the car. Off went the gun.
BUT: Up it went. Вверх он взлетел.
When an object or an adverbial modifier expressed by a word group with not a ..., many a..... opens the sentence.
Not a (single) mistake did he make. Он не сделал ни одной ошибки.
Many a horrible story does he know. Много же ужасных историй он знает.
Many a sleepless night did he spend.
When a predicative (sometimes preceded by so or expressed by such ) opens the sentence (if the subject is expressed by a noun). Предложение начинается с именной части составного именного сказуемого (предикатива), если подлежащее выражено существительным - (сказуемое - подлежащее).
Such a strange man was Mr Antony that nobody liked him. Таким странным человеком был мистер Энтони, что никто его не любил.
So cold was the night that they made a fire. Such were the events of the day!
BUT: So strange he was, that nobody understood him. Он был таким странным, что никто его не понимал.
In clauses of concession where the predicative is followed by the conjunction as ( if the subject is expressed by a noun). В уступительных придаточных предложениях, начинающихся со слова хотя - (сказуемое - подлежащее)
Cold as was the water, they went swimming. Хотя вода была холодной, мы пошли купаться.
Rich as was the merchant, they did not envy him.
BUT: Hard as it was, we managed to do it. Хотя было трудно, мы смогли это сделать.
In conditional sentences in the Subjunctive Mood when if is not used, and only with the verbs : had, was, were, should, could. В условных предложениях , когда если опускается , а сказуемое выражено глаголами had, was, were, should, could.
Were it not so late, I would go for a walk. Не будь так поздно, я бы пошел гулять.
Could he have come then, he would have done it by all means. Мог бы он тогда прийти, он бы сделал это обязательно.
The structure it is / it was ... who/which/that opens the sentence. Предложение начинается словом именно....
It was there that they met. Именно там они и встретились. It was the dog’s barking which /that woke me up. What keeps me in shape is jogging.
It was me who understood everything. Именно я все понял.
Summary: There are two ways to invert the subject and the verb:
be /have/ modal / auxiliary verb + subject + main verb ( сказуемое-подлежащее-сказуемое)
It is used in the following cases:
in questions: Is Peter taking an exam today?
after the following words or expressions, when they come at the beginning of a sentence.
Seldom / Rarely- редко
Barely-с трудом, чуть не..., едва, лишь, еле-еле
In vain- напрасно, тщетно
Never before-никогда (ранее)
Not (even) once-ни разу, никогда
On no account-ни под каким видом, ни в коем случае
Only in this way-только так
Only then-только тогда/ потом
No sooner...than-как только...так сразу
Not only...but (also)-не только, но и..../ не только , но также
Not until/till-только после / к...
In no way- никоим образом, ни в коей мере, ничуть не
In/Under no circumstances- ни при каких обстоятельствах, ни в коем случае
Never (before) have I seen such a beautiful woman.
Not only did they make a donation but they (also) promised to build a shelter for the homeless.
Seldom do we go out since the baby was born. (BUT: We seldom go out since the baby was born).
Only after she started working was she able to save some money.
Only if you follow my advice will you succeed.
with so, neither, nor, as to express agreement.
I love chocolate ice cream. So do I.
I can’t stand violent films. Neither /Nor can I.
She was a talented musician, as was her sister / and so was her sister.
with should, were, had when they come at the beginning of an if-clause instead of if.
Type 1: Should he call, tell him I’m out. (= If he should call....)
Type 2: Were I you, I wouldn’t trust her. (= If I were you...)
Type 3: Had I been told, I would have offered my help. (=If I had been told...)
main verb + subject ( сказуемое-подлежащее )
It is used in the following cases:
after verbs of movement or adverbial expressions of place when they come at the beginning of a sentence.
Outside the house was a sports car.
On the sofa sat an old man.
Here comes the bride. (BUT: Here she comes)
There goes the bus.
in direct speech when the subject of the introductory verb is a noun.
« I don’t like this hotel» , said Henry
BUT: «What can I do for you?» she asked
5. FUNCTIONS OF MODAL VERBS
Terry is twenty years old. He can drive a car.(present)
When he was ten, he could /was able to ride a bicycle. (past repeated action)
Paula was able to climb to the top of the mountain. (managed to do; past single action)
9. Asking for permission
a) Can I ask you a question, please? (informal)
b) Could I ask you a question. Please? (more polite)
c) May/ Might I ask you a question, please? (formal)
Expressing lack of ability
Sue can’t dance. (present)
He couldn’t /wasn’t able to play chess when he was younger. (past repeated action)
She couldn’t/ wasn’t able to finish the book. (past single action)
10. Giving/ Refusing permission
a) You can park your car here. (informal)
b) You may park your car in this area. (formal- usually
c)You can’t /mustn’t use this phone. (informal)
d) You may not use this phone. (formal-usually written)
Expressing obligation /duty/ necessity
You must attend the meeting. (You are obliged to/ You have to/ You need to/ it is necessary)
I must attend the meeting. (I have decided)
I have to attend the meeting. ( Someone else has decided)
We ought to /should respect the elderly. (less strong than must)
Need I buy her a present? (Is it necessary?)
11. Talking about permission
a) All students can/ are allowed to use the library.
b) I could/ was allowed to go out alone when I was 18.
( general permission)
c) I was allowed to go out alone last night. (permission for one particular action)
Expressing absence of necessity
She doesn’t need to/ doesn’t have to/ needn’t do the shopping. I’ll do it later. (It isn’t necessary)
She didn’t need to/ didn’t have to do the shopping as I had already done it. (It wasn’t necessary for her to do it.)
She needn’t have done the shopping. (It wasn’t necessary for her to do the shopping, but she did).
12. Making requests
a) Can/ Will you explain this to me? (informal)
b) Could /Would you explain this to me? ( more polite)
c) Can I have some water? (informal)
d) Could/ May I have some water? (formal)
e) Might I have some water? (very formal)
You mustn’t/ can’t be late for work. (It’s forbidden/ you aren’t allowed to/ it’s against the rules/law)
13. Making offers
a) I’ll help you with your essay. (I’m willing to help you)
b) Shall/ Can/ Could I carry this bag for you? (Would you like me to/ Do you want me to do it?)
He must be at home. (positive; I’m sure he is)
He can’t be sleeping. (negative; I’m sure he isn’t.)
14. Giving advice
a) You ought to/ should study harder. (I advise you to)
b) You must study harder. (I strongly advise you to)
He ought to/should be in now. (He is probably in.)
15. Expressing criticism
a) You ought to/ should have been more careful. (It would have been better if you had been more careful)
It can get very hot in July. (it is theoretically possible)
We could/ may/ might be a little late. (it is possible)
He could/ might have been injured. (but he wasn’t)
16. Making suggestions
a) Shall we visit Grandma Why don’t we…?
this weekend? How about…?
b)We can/could go to a What about…?
concert tonight. Let’s…
c)Where shall we go? (What is your suggestion?)
6. Modals of Speculation ( Модальные глаголы для выражения предположений)
Я уверен, что...
I'm sure./ I'm certain
Must be sleeping
Must be punished
Must have lost
Must have been dreaming
Must have been brought
Is /are likely to…
* He is likely to buy a car.
(Он вероятно купит машину)
Вряд ли возможно…
I strongly doubt it
May be reading
May be asked
Might/ could like
May have written
May have been speaking
Could have been broken
* She may come soon (возможно, она скоро придёт)
(Уверенность , что не…)
Не может быть, что…
Я не верю, что…
I can't believe
I'm sure that not...
I don't believe that…
It can't be that…
Can't be working
Can't be listening
Couldn't be shown
Can't have lost
Can't have been looking for
Couldn't have been reading
* He can't forget about it. (Не может быть, что он забудет об этом)
Do you believe that…?
Is it possible that…?
Could I love…?
Could I be laughing?
Can I have believed…?
Could I have been drinking…..?
* Could he tell her? (неужели он ей расскажет?)
Speculation (Discussing a photo)
people doing…/learning/ making/ going/ reading/ working/ playing…
people living in different places
people looking happy. They seem to be talking to each other
people on holiday
people doing responsible jobs
it could be……./might be……./ can't be……/ must be…..
it might have been……
this might not help in the situation……
this could cause problems / this would be good for……
It's hard to say, but I think….. It seems to me that……. It looks like a ……
It looks as if it's ………
4. I get the impression that….. I would imagine ……. I would guess……….
7. Linking Words
Linking words show the logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence.
1. Positive Addition
and (и, а)
And is used to connect words or phrases. And may be used to connect two independent clauses.
Steve and his friends are coming to dinner.
He is waving his arms and shouting at us.
It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind.
both... and (как... так и)
(тот или другой, один из двух, любой из двух)
either (и тот и другой)
too (тоже, также- в конце предложения)
neither (ни тот ни другой)
either (тоже, также - в конце предложения)
both -не употребляется в отрицательной форме
We use both , neither, either when we are talking about two things.
Two subjects connected by both.....and take a plural verb. Both + noun + and + noun.
Do not use both /both...and... in negative sentences. Use neither / neither...nor...
Either/neither of are singular if they are not used with or or nor.
either + noun + or + plural noun + plural verb
either + noun + or + singular noun + singular verb
either + of
When we use both/ either
/neither with of you always need «the, these, those, my, our, his...».You cannot say ‘both of restaurants’; you have to say ‘both of the restaurants / both of these restaurants.
Both my mother and my sister are here.
Both restaurants are very good.
Neither restaurant is expensive.
We can go to either restaurant.
The research project will take both time and money.
Either John or his friends are going to the beach today.
Either John or Bill is going to the beach today.
Both of these restaurants are very good.
Neither of the restaurants we went to was (were-Am.E.) expensive.
Neither of them came to the meeting.
We can go to either of those restaurants.
Neither of the books is exactly what I want.
If either of you takes a vocation now , we will not be able to finish the work.
We accepted neither offer.
There were chairs on either side of the table.
too (тоже, также)
as well (так же)
as well as (так же как, не только.....но и также.......)
either (= «также» с отрицательным глаголом
Also, as well, too are used with a similar meaning.
subject + negative verb + either (instead of too / also)
As well and too come at the end of the clause when you are adding something to a list of things that you gave in the previous sentence. But also comes in the middle of a clause: before the verb , after an auxiliary, modal or to be.
Also /Too / As well are not used with two negative statements ( use either)
Bill likes golf and Tom likes golf too.
Bill would enjoy a game and Tom would too.
I haven’t seen him either.
He didn’t like the book; I didn’t either.
She doesn’t smoke. She doesn’t drink either.
Frank speaks French. He also speaks German.
I can also play the piano.
We have also decided to get a new car.
« I’m going to get bread, cheese, tea, and sugar». «Can you get some milk as well?»
She’s got a car as well as a motorbike.
anyway ( во всяком случае)
what is more ( что более)
in addition (to) ( в дополнении к, к тому же)
furthermore( кроме того, к тому же)
These expressions are used to add information to what has already been said.
Anyway / Besides are used at the beginning of a sentence when you have given one reason for doing smth and you want to add another.
Besides = in addition to
Moreover / furthermore / in addition = also. They are used at the beginning of a sentence to add a more important fact than the one that you gave in the previous sentence.
In addition to / besides are used as prepositions. They are followed by an object, not a clause.
I hate asking for a pay rise. Anyway, there’s no point.
I don’t really need a new car. Besides, I can’t afford one.
The city provides many cultural opportunities. It has an excellent art museum. Moreover / Furthermore/ In addition , it has a fine symphony orchestra.
The city provides many cultural opportunities. In addition to / Besides an excellent art museum, it has a fine symphony orchestra.
Besides doing the cooking I look after the garden.
5. Negative Addition
nor (также не)
not only...but also.... ( не только....но также и...)
neither (также не, ни тот ни другой)
Nether...nor / not only...but also... + singular noun + singular verb
Nether...nor / not only...but also... + plural noun + plural verb
Neither takes an affirmative verb.
Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach today.
Neither John nor Bill is going to the beach today.
Not only my mother but also my sister is here.
Not only my sister but also my parents are here.
while ( в то время как)
whereas (тогда как)
While and whereas are used to show clear contrast between two subjects within one sentence. They are followed by a clause.
Mary is rich, while John is poor.
Mary is rich, whereas John is poor.
Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor
John loves playing outdoors all day, while / whereas Harry likes playing computer games.
yet ( тем не менее, все же, однако)
still (тем не менее, все же)
But is used to join two words or phrases when the second one has the opposite meaning.
They show contrast (unexpected result)
It was cold, but I went swimming anyway.
It was cold , but I still went swimming .
It was cold, yet I still went swimming.
Mary is rich, but John is poor.
even though (даже хотя)
because is used to express expected results; even though is used to express unexpected results.
Although is followed by a clause and a comma. After Although we use a subject + verb.
Even though is stronger than although.
Although can’t be at the end of a sentence; though- can.
We use though to mean ‘however’ at the end of a sentence. Think of although as «before the fact» and however as «after the fact».
Even though / Although / Though it was cold, I went swimming.
Because I wasn’t tired, I didn’t go to bed.
We went out although it was raining.
Even though I wasn’t tired, I went to bed.
Although he studied very hard, he didn’t pass the exam.
He didn’t finish the job, even though he worked all night.
The room is very small. It’s quite comfortable though.
in spite of (несмотря на)
despite (несмотря на)
despite the fact that....
in spite of the fact that....
in spite of / despite + Ving
in spite of / despite + noun
in spite of / despite + pronoun
in spite of = despite
I went swimming despite / in spite of the cold weather.
I went swimming despite the fact that / in spite of the fact that the weather was cold.
Despite / In spite of her excellent qualifications , Carol didn’t get the job.
Despite / In spite of having excellent qualifications , Carol didn’t get the job.
on the other hand (с другой стороны)
Use this at the beginning of a sentence when you have just mentioned one side of an argument And you are going to mention the opposite side.
Mary is rich. John, on the other hand, is poor.
Nuclear power is relatively cheap. On the other hand, you could argue that it’s not safe.
however (однако, как бы ни)
nevertheless (тем не менее)
nonetheless ( тем не менее)
However and nevertheless link contrasting ideas in two different sentences.
It was cold. Nevertheless , I went swimming.
I like him very much. However / Nevertheless, we are very different.
12. Giving Examples
for example (например)
for instance (например)
for example = for instance
These expressions introduce particular examples to illustrate what has been said.
e.g. = for example
e.g. = exempli gratia (Latin)
eg - BrE
There are many interesting places to visit in the city. For example, the botanical garden has numerous displays of plants from all over the world.
There are many interesting places to visit in the city. The art museum, for instance, has an excellent collection of modern paintings.
such as (такой как)
like (подобно, как)
in particular(в особенности)
such as = for example
I prefer to wear casual clothes, such as jeans and a sweatshirt.
Some countries, such as Brazil and Canada, are big.
13. Cause/ Reason
as (так как)
since (поскольку, так как)
As / since = because, and they can begin a sentence; they are followed by a clause.
Since Monday is a holiday, we don’t have to go to work.
Since you are a good cook and I’m not, you should cook the dinner.
As it was a public holiday, all the shops were shut.
As they live near us, we see them quite often.
because (of) (потому что, так как, из-за)
due to (из-за, благодаря)
Because introduces an adverb clause; it is followed by a subject and verb. Because of / due to are phrasal prepositions ; they are followed by a noun object.
Because the weather was cold, we stayed home.
Because of the cold weather, we stayed home.
Due to the cold weather, we stayed home.
Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed home.
We stayed home because of / due to the cold weather.
now that ( теперь когда, поскольку)
now that = because now
Now that is used for present causes of present or future situations.
Now that the semester is over ( =because the semester is now over) , I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip.
Jack lost his job. Now that he’s unemployed, he can’t pay his bills.
for this reason (по этой причине)
as a result (of) (в результате)
as a result of smth. = because of smth
Use as a result of to say what made something happen.
Use the simple/good/obvious reason (that) to explain why something happened
Hundreds of people lost their homes as a result of the war.
Con died as the result of a heart attack.
We can’t take you all, for the simple reason that there isn’t enough room in the car.
whether or not
even if = even though
Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters; the result will be the same. Even if gives the idea that a particular condition does not matter. The result will not change.
I’m going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold. (or : whether it is cold or not)
I’ve decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold. I’m going to go swimming.
You must go tomorrow if you are ready.
You must go tomorrow even if you aren’t ready.
in case (в случае)
in case of (в случае если
in the event that
In case / in the event that express the idea that something probably won’t happen , but it might. It means «if by chance this should happen».
In case is followed by a present /past tense or should.
(do not use will after in case)
In case of... = if there is...
I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should) need to reach me.
In the event that you (should) need to reach me, I’ll be at my uncle’s house.
I always slept by the phone in case he rang during the night. = I always slept by the phone because (I knew) he might ring during the night.
We bought some food in case Tom came.
In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible. =if there is a fire.
only if (если только)
unless (если только ...не, разве только)
unless = if...not = except if
unless + affirmative verb =
if + negative
We often use unless in warnings: (We’ll be late unless we hurry.)
I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold.
Don’t tell Sue what I said unless she asks you. (= except if she asks you)
I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold.
You’ll get wet unless you take your umbrella.
Unless you start at once you’ll be late = If you don’t start at once you’ll be late.
otherwise (иначе, в противном случае)
or (else) (иначе, в противном случае, а то)
Otherwise expresses the idea «if the opposite is true, then there will be a certain result».
Or else and Otherwise have the same meaning.
I always eat breakfast. Otherwise , I get hungry during class.
You’d better hurry. Otherwise, you’ll be late.
Take your umbrella. Otherwise, you’ll get wet.
I always eat breakfast, or (else) I get hungry during class.
Take your umbrella, or (else) you’ll get wet.
provided (that) / providing (that) (при условии если)
as /so long as (если только, при условии что)
on condition (that) (при условии если)
Provided that can replace if when there is a strong idea of limitation or restriction (mainly used with permission)
Provided / Providing - only if a particular thing happens or is done.
As / so long as is used before saying the conditions that will make something else happen or be true.
You can camp here provided you leave no mess.
Provided you pay me back by Friday, I’ll lend you the money.
It’s a lot easier to get good marks on a short -answer question, providing you do it well.
My parents don’t care what job I do as long as I’m happy.
They spoke on condition that their names would not be used in the article.
as if / as though ( как будто, как если бы)
Like is followed by a noun object or a clause. As if /as though are followed by a clause. Usually the idea following as if/ as though is «untrue». In this case, verb usage is similar to that in conditional sentence.
It looks like rain.
It looks as if it is going to rain.
It looks as though it is going to rain.
It looks like it is going to rain (informal)
She talked to him as if he were a child.
He acted as though he had never met her.
in order to (чтобы, для того чтобы)
in order that( чтобы, для того чтобы)
so that (так что, для того чтобы)
in case (в случае если, а то вдруг, а то как бы не)
In order to is used to express purpose, it answers the question «Why?». It is followed by a verb.
So that also expresses purpose. It has the same meaning as in order to. So that is often used instead of in order to when the idea of ability is being expressed. Can is used in the adverb clause for a present/future meaning. So that I can buy = in order to be able to buy. Could is used after so that in past sentences.
In order that = so that
in case + present tense = because this may happen/ because this will happen
in case + past tense = because this might happen /because this would happen
He came here in order to study English.
I turned off the TV in order to enable my roommate to study in peace and quiet.
I turned off the TV so (that) my roommate could study in peace and quiet.
I’m going to cash a check so that I can buy my textbooks.
I cashed a check so that I could buy my textbooks.
I turned off the TV in order that my roommate could study in peace and quiet.
I don’t let him climb trees in case he tears his trousers.
I carry a spare wheel in case I have a puncture.
I always kept candles in the house in case there was a power cut.
23. Effect / Result
such/so... that(такой что)
such ....that = so.... that
such + adjective + noun + that
so + adjective/adverb + that
so...that is used with many, few, much, and little.
It was such nice weather that we went to the zoo.
The weather was so nice that we went to the zoo.
It was such good coffee that I had another cup.
It was such a foggy day that we couldn’t see the road.
The coffee was so hot that I can’t drink it.
I’m so hungry that I could eat a horse.
She speaks so fast that I can’t understand her.
She made so many mistakes that she failed the exam.
consequently (следовательно, поэтому)
so (поэтому, таким образом)
Therefore and consequently mean « as a result» . They connect the ideas between two sentences. They have several positions and are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
So ( meaning therefore, as a result ) connects two sentences. So has only one possible "#f8ffe5" STYLE="border: 1px solid #000000; ">
Al didn’t study. Therefore, he failed the test.
Al didn’t study. Consequently, he failed the test.
=..... He, therefore, failed the test.
=....He failed the test, therefore.
Al didn’t study, so he failed the test.
When = at that time
When I arrived, he was talking on the phone.
When was in Chicago, I visited the museums.
When I see him tomorrow, I will ask him.
while (в то время как, пока)
as ( в то время как, когда, по мере того как)
While / as = during that time
We use as when two things happen at the same time.
While I was studying, the phone rang.
While I was walking home, it began to rain.
As I was walking home, it began to rain.
George arrived as Sue left.
after (после того как)
before (прежде чем)
A present tense, not a future tense is used in time-clause.
After and before are commonly used in the following expressions:
shortly after/ before;
a short time after/ before;
a little while after / before;
not long after / before;
After she graduates, she will get a job.
After she (had) graduated, she got a job.
I will leave before he comes.
I (had) left before he came.
as soon as (как только)
once (когда-то, однажды, как только)
as soon as / once = when one event happens, another event happens soon afterward.
As soon as it stops raining, we will leave.
Once it stops raining, we will leave.
by the time ( к тому времени)
by the time = one event is completed before another event ( usually Past Perfect or Future Perfect)
By the time he arrived, we had already left.
By the time he comes, we will have already left.
since ( с тех пор как)
since = from that time to the present. Ever since adds emphasis. The Present Perfect is used in the main clause.
I haven’t seen him since he left this morning.
I’ve known her ever since I was a child.
until/till (до тех пор пока)
until / till = to that time and then no longer. Till is used more in speaking than in writing; it is generally not used in formal English.
We stayed there until we finished our work.
We stayed there till we finished our work.
As long as / so long as
( пока, до тех пор пока)
as long as / so long as =
during all that time , from beginning to end
I will never speak to him again as long as I live.
I will never speak to him again so long as I live.
whenever(когда бы ни, всякий раз когда)
every time ( каждый раз)
whenever = every time that something happens.
Whenever is used:
as a conjunction (connecting two clauses);
as an adverb
every time = whenever something happens ; when one thing happens, something else always happens.
Whenever I see her, I say hello.
Every time I see her, I say hello.
Whenever I smiled, he smiled back.
Whenever have I been cruel to you?
Whenever I hear that song , I think of you.
We can’t keep calling the doctor every time you get a headache.
My neck hurts every time I move.
the first time (в первый раз)
the last time (в последний раз)
the next time ( в следующий раз)
The first time / the last time / the next time refer to a particular occasion.
The first time I went to New York, I went to an opera.
I saw two plays the last time I went to New York.
The last time we met you promised to join me on a trip to Beijing.
The next time I go to New York, I’m going to see a ballet.
where (где, куда)
wherever ( где бы ни, куда бы ни ),
Where can be used:
as a relative adverb (introducing a relative clause);
as a conjunction (connecting two clauses)
Wherever can be used as a conjunction (connecting two clauses)
I know a place where you can hide.
I’ve hidden the money where no one will find it.
She was followed by press photographers wherever she went.
except (for) (за исключением, если бы не, если не считать)
apart from (помимо, кроме, не считая)
Except is used for introducing the only thing , person, or fact that is not included in your main sentence; it is like saying without, or minus.
Apart from is used:
except for someone or something.
in addition to someone/something
We haven’t told anyone except Leslie’s dad.
I like all musical instruments except the violin.
I don’t know much about the man, except that he’s a fool.
Everything was perfect except for the weather.
I hardly know anyone in the village apart from William and you.
Apart from the violin, he plays the piano and the flute. (=besides the violin......)
I like all musical instruments apart from the violin. (=.........except the violin)
who (кто, который)
whom (кому , кого)
whose( чей, которого)
which (который, какой, что)
that (что, который)
that are used to introduce relative clauses. They are called relative pronouns or relatives.
for people: who/that/whom/whose
She’s the woman (who/ whom /that) I saw on TV last night.
That’s the dog whose owner was arrested.
That’s the shop whose windows were smashed.
This is the house (which/that) we live in.
His wife, who is French, speaks three languages.
33. Listing points/Events
to begin with / to start with (во первых, прежде всего, начать с того что....)
first / firstly / first of all (прежде всего)
to continue (продолжая...)
then (затем, тогда)
to begin with - is used for introducing the first thing in a list of things you are going to say.
first / firstly / first of all introduce the first item in a list or sequence. The next item is normally introduced by then or secondly.
«Why were you annoyed?» - «Well, to begin with, I hadn’t even invited her».
First, open all the windows. Then turn off the gas and, if necessary , call an ambulance.
First(ly) , we need somewhere to live. Second(ly), we need to find work. And third(ly)........
in conclusion ( в заключении)
to conclude ( в заключении)
finally/ lastly(в конце концов, в конечном счете)
in summary (подводя итог, в итоге)
to sum up (подводя итог)
on the whole ( в общем, в целом)
all in all (в общем, полностью, целиком)
altogether ( в общем, вполне)
in short (кратко, вкратце)
To introduce a concluding statement, use in conclusion, by way of conclusion, or to conclude.
Finally/lastly are used at the beginning of a sentence to introduce the last point in a speech, reply, essay, etc.
In summary is used at the end of a talk or piece of writing for introducing a short statement that gives only basic information.
Sum up = to give a summary of something
On the whole is used for talking about the general situation.
All in all is used for showing that you are considering every aspect of something.
Altogether / in short are used for introducing a summary of what you have just said.
In conclusion, I’d like to say that everybody should be able to work if they want to.
To conclude, I’d like to say that everybody should read the book.
Finally, I’d like to consider the economic arguments.
Lastly, I’d like to thank you all for coming and wish you a safe journey home.
In summary, nobody knows where the disease originated.
I’ll sum up briefly and then we’ll take questions.
It was a pretty good conference on the whole.
All in all, I think it has been a very successful conference.
The weather was great and the people were friendly- altogether a perfect trip.
Inflation is down, spending is up. In short, the economy is in good shape.
Phrasal verbs are idiomatic combinations of a verb and adverb, or a verb and preposition.
Фразовые глаголы- это устойчивые сочетания глагола с наречием, глагола с предлогом и глагола с наречием и предлогом, приобретающие по сравнению с самим глаголом новые значения.
Prepositions: after, at, during, for, from, into, of, out of, to, with, without
(Adverb) Particles: ahead, aside, away, back, forward, home, out
Both prepositions and particles: about, across, along, (a)round, before, behind, by, down, in, inside, near, off, on, outside, over, past, through, under, up
Phrasal verbs with GET
meaning / use
get smth across (to)
to get over, put across, explain your idea , чётко, убедительно изложить, довести до слушателя, заставить понять
to annoy or offend smb.,обижать, досаждать кому-то
How can I get across (to you) how I feel?
It’s difficult to get our Russian jokes across to a foreign audience.
Don’t get across your teacher. She is very kind to you.
to get on; have success in your life преуспеть
You need a good education in order to get ahead.
get along (with)
to get on; ладить, быть в хороших отношениях, проживать, находить общий язык
How are you getting long?
I don’t understand why we can’t get along together.
get around /about
get around to
= get round to
to get about, travel a lot ,бывать в различных местах
finally to do smth you have planned or wanted to do for a long time, взяться, приняться за что-то
In my job I get around quite a lot.
I’ll get around to your request later.
When will you get round to painting the table?
get at smb.
to be able to reach smth.,добираться (до чего-то),
to criticize smb. all the time доставать (надоедать), пилить (ругать, критиковать)
Are you sure that the children can’t get at the medicine?
You are always getting at me.
get away with
to succeed in leaving, escape, be free to leave, удрать, ускользнуть, улизнуть, смыться , уехать в отпуск
to escape punishment, сделать что-то незаметно или безнаказанно, сходить с рук
I’d be able to get away from the office by seven.
The three men got away in a stolen car
He always gets away with being late.
get back (from)
get smth back
get back smth
get back to smb
to return to a place, вернуться
to have smth returned, получить назад
to phone someone later ,отзвонить, выйти на связь
We’ll probably get back about nine.
Did you get that money back that you lent Bessie?
I’m a bit busy at the moment - can I get back to you?
11) get by
To have enough money or food , сводить концы с концами, прожить, с трудом удаваться, справиться
To pass, to be able to move past, проходить, проскочить, проходить осмотр, сдавать (экзамен)
I get by with the little I have. She finds it hard to get by on her pension.
How did you manage to get by?
Please, let me get by.
Yesterday I took the test and hope I got by.
get smb down
get smth down
get down to smth
to make someone feel sad or unhappy, угнетать, раздражать, давить на кого-то (повергать в депрессию), утомлять, огорчать
= take down, write down smth, снять что-то, записывать
to start doing smth, приступить к чему-либо, заняться серьёзно чем-либо
All this delay and waiting is getting her down.
This miserable weather really gets me down.
May I get this book down from the shelf?
The reporters were trying to get down everything he said.
Stop talking and get down to your work.
get in / into
get into trouble
manage to enter (a place, university etc.) войти, проникнуть, попасть, поступить в учебное заведение
to start a conversation, fight etc. , включаться в какую-то деятельность, вовлекать кого-то во что-то
to do smth that makes yourself deserve punishment, попасть в затруднительное положение./ в беду
They arrived at the stadium in good time but they still couldn’t get in.
How many of your students got into university? I hope my daughter will get in this year.
He’s always getting into rows with his parents.
Staying out late will only get you into trouble with your parents.
17) get off
To leave (a bus, train, plane....), слезать, вылезать, сходить
To start a journey, трогаться в путь, отправляться в поездку
The bus driver will tell you where to get off.
Are you getting off at the next station?
We have to get off on our journey tomorrow.
We got off at 8 o’clock.
get on (with smb)
get on (with smth)
to get ahead; make progress, преуспевать, делать успехи
to take place in a vehicle, садиться в транспорт
to get along; have a friendly relationship with, ладить, иметь дружеские отношения с кем-то, уживаться с кем-то
to continue to do smth, продвигаться, делать успехи в работе, учёбе
getting older, стареть
He’s new but he’s getting on fine.
How are things getting on?
Did a lady in a green coat get on at the last stop?
How does Gina get on with her colleagues?
Get on with your work!
She’s getting on eighty, so this trip is a little difficult for her.
How are you getting on at school?
22) get out of
to move out of a building / space; to remove smth., to escape выходить, вылезать, высаживаться
manage to avoid doing a job you don’t like, отвертеться (избежать чего-то), отлынивать , увиливать
Look! John is getting out.
The door’s locked and I can’t get out!
I can’t get this nail out, it’s too tight.
Two prisoners got out (of prison) yesterday.
I’ll try and get out of my lessons tomorrow.
I tried to get out of (doing) the washing up.
22) get over smth
To get well after an illness, recover from the shock of smth, преодолевать, справляться, приходить в себя, оклематься, оправиться (после чего-то трудного и неприятного)
to cross a road / water… перебраться, переправиться, перелезть
She’s still trying to get over that cold.
We couldn’t get over the locked gate.
Have you got over your illness?
I don’t think he will ever get over the loss of his wife.
I hope you soon get over your trouble.
23) get round
To avoid smth, обойти что-либо, избежать (трудность, ограничение)
To persuade smb. to change his/ her opinion , убедить (кого-либо), уломать, уговорить
To get around, get about, go about, go round/around, put about, циркулировать, распространяться
to find time for smth. приниматься за что-то, добираться до чего-то (руки дошли до чего-то)
I can’t get round this restriction.
How could she get him round to her way of thinking?
Gossip gets round the film industry faster than in other places.
When will you get round to answering my question?
24) get together
To meet for a talk, to practise etc., собраться вместе
Let’s get together next week and discuss it.
25) get through (to smb/smth)
to succeed in reaching smb by telephone, связаться по телефону, дозвониться (по телефону)
to pass a test or exam, выдержать экзамены, испытания, справиться ( успешно закончить)
to pass through проходить, пролезать, просачиваться
to finish smth., закончить, завершить какую-то работу
I can’t get through to Moscow.
If I can get through this week, I can get through anything!
Have you got through your exams yet?
How did you manage to get through such a narrow hole?
He managed to get through that work in such a short time.
26) get to
get to smb.
To arrive at a place, добираться до какого-то места
To start doing smth., взяться, приняться за дело
To make you feel very angry or upset, доставать (действовать на нервы)
When will you get to Madrid?
What is the best way to get to the nearest bank?
We must get to work at once.
Her criticism of my clothes is getting to me.
This loud music really gets to me.
Phrasal verbs with GIVE
meaning / use
1) give away
To give smb. a present/ prize; give smth. to smb. because you don’t want it , дарить, отдавать, раздавать
To tell a secret выдавать кого-либо, что-либо; выдать какую-то информацию / чувства/ происхождение и т.п.
Is he really going to give away all his money?
Promise not to give my secrets away.
Why don’t you give away that racket since you never use it now?
Please don’t give away the ending- we’re seeing the film tomorrow.
He pretended to be English, but his faint Greek accent gave him away.
2) give back
To give smth. to smb. who had it before you, возвратить что-то
Don’t forget to give me the keys back.
Please give me back my dictionary.
3) give in (to)
To agree to smth but not because you want to, cдаться, пойти на уступки, перестать сопротивляться
They give in to the strikes demands.
You mustn’t give in to your children all the time.
4) give out
To give smth. to each of several people, раздавать
to come to an end, истощиться, иссякнуть (о терпении, запаса)
испустить, издать (о звуке)
to stop working, выйти из строя, сломаться, отказывать (о механизме)
Julia will give out the books.
His patience gave out and he slapped the child hard.
The water supply at last gave out.
Suddenly she gave out a loud scream.
The motor gave out suddenly.
5) give up
to stop doing smth. прекращать, бросать какое-либо дело, завязать (бросить привычку)
to admit that you don’t know, сдаваться, уступать, признать поражение
to stop trying to cure or find smb., поставить крест на ком-либо (не верить в выздоровление)
Did you give up smoking?
I can’t guess. I give up.
I don’t know the answer- I give up.
Johnny was given up by the doctors after the accident, but he made a remarkable recovery.
Phrasal verbs with GO
meaning / use
1) go after
to try to catch smb., преследовать кого-то
I saw the dog going after him toward the school.
2) go ahead
to move in front, go forward, идти, двигаться вперёд
to improve, advance, прогрессировать
Go straight ahead and you’ll see the railway station.
Can you go ahead with this case?
Is your translation going ahead?
3) go back
to return, возвращаться на прежнее место
I went back to the office and found my wallet.
4) go back on
to fail to fulfil ( a promise / agreement), обмануть, подвести, нарушить своё слово (обещание)
He always goes back on his promises.
You should never go back on your promise to a child.
5) go by
to pass, move past smth/ smb., проходить, проезжать мимо, заглянуть
Did any cars go by?
If he goes by, I’ll tell him everything.
6) go down
to move to a lower place, change to a lower amount, price, etc. , снижать, падать (о ценах, температуре, уровне)
to be received with approval, быть принятым, одобренным
We expect the price of oil to go down.
The sun went down behind the clouds.
Do taxes ever go down?.
How did your speech go down?
Jim went down well with Mary’s parents on his first visit.
7) go down with
to become ill with a particular disease, заболеть
People often go down with the flu this time of year.
8) go off
to burst into pieces and cause damage, взрываться, выстрелить, сработать (о будильнике, бомбе)
to become bad, портиться, протухать, скисать
to leave smth., уходить, уезжать, убегать, сбегать
Fortunately the bomb didn’t go off.
I’m afraid it’s gone off. Don’t eat it.
He always goes off without saying good-bye.
Five days a week Sally’s alarm goes off at 7 a.m.
9) go on
(= carry on ) to continue doing smth., продолжать
to happen, происходить, случаться
If you go on doing nothing, you will fail your exam.
What’s going on here?
10) go out
11) go out with
to leave a place ( with smb.), , выходить, сходить куда-нибудь развлечься
to have smb. as your girlfriend/ boyfriend, бывать в обществе кого-то, гулять с кем-то проводить время с кем-то, встречаться
I don’t think you should go out with that bad cold.
Let’s go out tonight; there’s a good film showing at the local cinema.
Are you going out with anyone at the moment?
Lisa’s mother doesn’t let her go out with Tom
12) go over
to examine smth. to see that it is good / correct, обсуждать детали, проверить, повторить
They haven’t gone over their plan yet.
Let’s go over this scene again until you’re sure you know it.
13) go through
to pass through smth., suffer, пережить, выдержать что-либо, пройти через что-либо
to repeat, practice smth., ( =run through) просматривать, повторять какой-либо материал
He wouldn’t like to go through such difficult training again.
Have your parents gone through your grade book yet?
Go through your story again from the beginning.
14) go up
to move to a higher place, increase, повышаться ( о стандартах, уровне, ценах)
to travel to a university or important place, ехать из провинции в город
(=blow up) , to be destroyed by explosion, взорваться, сгореть, пойти насмарку, свестись к нулю
Can you go up (the stairs)?
Prices have gone up again.
Apples have gone up.
We are going up to Murmansk tomorrow.
The house went up in flames.
All you did has gone up.
Phrasal verbs with LOOK
1) look after
to take care of smb., присматривать, ухаживать, заботиться
If you look after your new shoes, they will last longer.
2) look for
try to find smth. or smb., искать
Fred spent all day looking for a job.
3) look forward to
To be excited about smth that will happen, предвкушать, с нетерпением ожидать
I’m looking forward to their visit.
4) look into (smth)
try to find the truth about smth , расследовать (дело), детально изучать, разобраться
The police are looking into last night’s robbery.
5) look through
to search papers, list, etc. to try to find smth, пробежать(глазами)
to examine smth carefully, внимательно просматривать, изучать что-то
to know the truth about, not be deceived by smb.or smth. , видеть насквозь
Looking through a magazine in the doctor’s waiting room, I found a photograph.
Every time I try to fool him he looks through my tricks.
6) look up
to find information in a dictionary, on the Internet, искать какую-то информацию
( в словаре или в справочнике)
I don’t know the meaning of this word; please . look it up in your dictionary.
Phrasal verbs with TAKE
1) Take after
To look or behave like smb., пойти в кого-то внешностью или характером
He takes after his mother.
2) Take down
to write smth., записать что-то (часто под диктовку)
He read out the names and his secretary took them down.
3) Take in
To deceive smb., обмануть кого-то
To receive smb. as a guest,приютить
At first he took us in by his stories and we tried to help him, but later we learnt that his stories were all lies.
The owner took us in and gave us a bed for the night.
4) Take off
To remove clothing, снимать
To leave the ground, взлетать (о самолёте)
I took off my coat.
The plane took off at seven.
5) Take on
To give smb. a job, брать на работу
They’ve taken on several more men.
6) Take to
To form a liking for smb or smth, пристраститься , привыкнуть к чему-то,
He took to drinking ( began drinking too much)
We took to our new teacher immediately.
7) Take up
do an activity, begin a hobby, sport or kind of study, начать что-то делать, заняться чем-то
Paul has taken up swimming.
Phrasal verbs ( most often used)
1) be into smth
To enjoy doing a particular activity very much; нравиться что-то делать
I’m not really into stamp collecting.
2) be up to (smth)
To be able to do smth.; намереваться сделать что-то, затевать
It’s very quiet. I bet little Jimmy’s up to some mischief again.
3) blow out
To extinguish, задуть, погасить
The wind blew out the candle.
4) blow up
To destroy by explosion, взлететь на воздух
To be angry with smb,; вспылить, выйти из себя
They blew up the bridges so that the enemy couldn’t follow them.
He blows up every time he sees me.
5) break down
To destroy; stop working; сломаться, ухудшаться, провалиться
The plans broke down.
The police broke the door down.
6) break up
To divide into smaller pieces, to destroy; разбивать, разрушать, расходиться
They broke up but remained friends.
The ship was last seen breaking up in the storm.
7) bring up
To mention or introduce a subject; поставить, поднять, затронуть (вопрос, проблему)
To educate, raise (a child); вырастить, воспитать
At the class meeting Bob brought up the idea of picnic.
Bringing up children is both difficult and rewarding.
8) call back
To return a telephone call; перезвонить по телефону
If I get some information, I’ll call you back.
9) call by/in
To look in, drop in; забежать, заглянуть, заскочить (в гости)
Call in on your way home and tell me how the interview went.
10) call for
To visit a place; заходить за кем-то
To demand; требовать
I’m going to a pop concert with Tom. He is calling for me at 8.
How much money will your research call for?
11) call off
To cancel smth; отменить
If it rains the tennis match will have to be called off.
To visit smb. formally; навещать
He promised to call on me when he was in Oxford.
13) call smb down
To scold smb.; отчитать, пропесочить, устроить разнос (отругать)
My supervisor called me down for being late.
14) call up
To summon for military service; Призывать в армию
To telephone; Звонить по телефону
In countries where there is conscription men are called up at the age of 18.
I called Tom up and told him the news.
15) carry on
=keep on; to continue ; продолжать что-либо, не бросать (вести дело), осуществлять какую-то деятельность
Please, carry on reading.
16) carry out
to do smth planned, promised; выполнить, проводить(ся), осуществить
Every possible test was carried out to decide the nature of her illness.
They are carrying out essential repairs to the bridge.
17) catch up with
to reach the same standard or level as smb else; догонять кого-то, наверстать
To move and reach the same position as smb else; идти в ногу, не отставать
You start cycling and I’ll you catch up.
You’ll need to work harder if you want to catch up with the others.
18) check in
To go to the desk of a hotel or airport and say you have arrived;
Please check in two hours before your flight.
19) come across
To find by chance; случайно натолкнуться, встретить
To be understood; донести смысл, идею (быть понятым)
I came across several interesting facts about Mexico in that book.
Her speech was carefully prepared, but it didn’t come across very well.
20) come up with
To produce an excuse, a suggestion, the correct answer, etc.; выдвигать идею, придумать
He came up with a brilliant idea for her birthday present.
Can you come up with a more convincing example?
21) drop in
To pay a short visit; заходить, заглядывать
Could you just drop in for a moment?
22) drop off
To let a passenger leave a car, bus, etc.; Высадить (из машины)
Забросить (завести по дороге), отдать
Drop me off at the corner, and I’ll walk from there.
Would you drop this dress off at the dry cleaner’s for me?
23) fall behind
To move more slowly so that others are further ahead; to make slower progress than others; отставать, не закончить что-то вовремя
If you fall behind, you can get lost.
Your son has fallen behind with his schoolwork.
24) Fix smb./ smth. up with
To arrange a meeting; сводить кого-то с кем-то (устраивать свидание)
To repair a home and make it attractive; чинить, ремонтировать
My best friend fixed up a date for me with her brother.
They fixed up John with my cousin.
My dad fixed up the flat for us.
They are busy fixing up their house.
25) hang on
= hold on, to stay on the phone;
не вешать трубку, подождать у телефона
Hang on, I’ll see if she’s still here.
26) hang up
To end a phone call by putting down the phone; повесить трубку
If you shout, I’ll hang up.
She just hung up in the middle of the conversation.
27) Keep back
To keep secret; скрывать, утаивать
She can keep nothing back from her friends.
28) Keep off
To stay awat from; держаться в отдалении, не приближаться
Keep off the grass!
29) Keep on
= carry on; to continue doing smth.; продолжать делать что-либо
He keeps on asking silly questions.
30) Keep out
To not be active in smth; Держаться вне чего-либо, не лезть (не вмешиваться), остерегаться
Keep the dogs out!
I try to keep out of discussions about politics.
31) leave for (somewhere)
To start a journey to a place; Отправиться куда-то
The train will be leaving for Madrid in one hour.
32) let smb down
To make smb. feel disappointed because you didn’t do smth. you promised; подвести кого-то, подставить, бросить в трудную минуту
You’ve agreed to feed the cat while I’m away – don’t let me down.
Never let your friends down.
33) make up
make up (with)
To say or write smth. that is not true; сочинить что-то, придумать
To put cosmetics on your face; накладывать макияж, гримироваться
To become friendly with smb. after a quarrel; помириться с кем-то
She made up a ridiculous excuse.
Your face is made up before you go on television.
After a quarrel that lasted more than a week, we decided to make up.
I heard you made up with an old enemy of yours.
34) make out
To manage to see smth. through bad light, a telescope, etc.; разобрать с трудом (разглядеть)
Understand, see, hear clearly; разобрать (уяснить)
To claim that you are smb. that you aren’t or you can do smth. you can’t do; притворяться, делать вид
We could just make out a dark shape moving across the field.
He made out that he could swim to the island but he couldn’t.
I can’t make out the address, he has written it so badly.
Mary has always made out that her parents were rich, but it isn’t true.
35) pick up
To collect smb. and let them ride in your car or taxi; забрать (зайти, заехать за кем-то)
To meet, become friendly with smb.; подцепить (познакомиться)
To take smth. from the ground; поднять с пола, с земли
To learn smth. such as information; набраться, нахвататься (знаний, умений) , освоить, научиться чему-то (например иностранному языку)
I’ll pick you up at 7 o’clock.
That’s the girl Sam picked up at the disco.
You dropped the books so you must pick them up.
Where did you pick up your Spanish?
You can always pick up new ideas if you keep your eyes open.
36) put aside
= to save (money or time); отложить
We’ve put some money aside for a holiday.
37) put off
To delay (event), postpone; отложить, перенести
Tonight’s concert will be put off till next week, as one of the singers has hurt her throat.
38) put on
To dress in a pieces of clothing; надеть что-то (из одежды)
To pretend; притворяться, прикидываться, делать вид
to gain weight or size; набирать, прибавлять в весе
To start working; включить что-то
To perform a play, show; ставить пьесу, спектакль
Put on a clean shirt.
Mary isn’t really ill; she’s only putting on.
If I put on another inch, I shan’t be able to wear this dress.
Please put the television on.
Which play is the National Theatre putting on?
39) put up with (smb/ smth)
To accept an unpleasant person or situation; to tolerate; мириться с чем-то/ кем-то (не жалуясь); терпеть
I don’t think I can put up with this job for much longer.
My sister cannot put up with my behaviour any longer.
40) run out (of)
To have no more supplies of smth; закончиться ( о продуктах), исчерпать запасы, иссякнуть
We haven’t run out of milk again, have we? Yes, the milk’s run out.
41) set in
To begin or appear and continue; прийти, установиться
Cold weather has set in.
42) set off
To start to move; отбыть
We set off on a walk to the lake.
43) set out
To start a journey; отправляться куда-то
We must set out early tomorrow.
44) set up
To put smth in a particular position
To arrange a meeting
I’ll set up another meeting for next week.
45) settle down
To start living , to make yourself comfortable in a new home; поселиться, обосноваться, расположиться
How are you settling down in England?
46) show off
To show or describe your own abilities in order to make people admire you; Делать что-то напоказ
Stop showing off!
Joe hasn’t missed a chance to show off his muscles since that pretty girl moved in next door.
47) speak out
To say in public what you think or feel
If people spoke out, the war might end.
48) speak up
To speak more loudly
= to speak up
Speak up - we can’t hear you.
49) turn up
To appear, arrive ; объявиться, появиться, нагрянуть
To increase smth; усилить (звук, свет)
He turned up with a friend of his.
His name turns up in the newspaper now and then.
The TV was turned up loudly so that no one would hear them talking.
10.Relative Clauses (Относительные придаточные предложения)
Identifying /defining relative clauses
Non-identifying / non-defining relative clauses
They tell about people or things.(Они служат индивидуальным признаком человека или вещи)
* What’s the name of the tall man who just came in?
no comma before the defining relative clause
Не могут быть опущены без потери смысла главного предложения
* Did you see the letter which came this morning?
who –for people
which- for things
that- for both
* Did you see the letter that came this morning?
5. We can leave out who/ which/ that when they are
* He’s the man (who) we met last night.
They give us extra (more) information about people or things. ( Они дают дополнительную информацию об объекте)
* This is Ms Rogers, who’s joining the firm next week.
we always put a comma before a non-defining clause
Могут быть опущены без потери смысла главного предложения.
* Ken’s mother, who is 81, has just passed her driving test.
who- for people
which – for things
that- cannot use
* She gave me the key, which I put in my pocket.
5. We cannot leave out who/ which.
* My uncle John, who lives in Manchester, is coming to visit me next week.
11. Word Formation
To express opposite meaning:
de- defrost, decompose
dis- dishonest, dislike
in- indirect, independent
il- (before l ) illogical
im- (before m, p) immoral, impractical
ir- (before r) irresponsible
But: unreliable, unreasonable
non- non-smoke, non-stop
un- unacceptable, unemployed
= previous, former
= done wrongly or badly
= more, better
= done to a great extent
= in favour of
= under, less
= travel from one side , to another
= not enough
Nouns referring to people
Verb + er/or/ar teach-teacher; sail-sailor; beg- beggar
Noun/ verb/ adjective + ist motor-motorist; tour-tourist;
Verb + ant/ ent study-student; contest-contestant
Noun + an/ ian republic-republican; library-librarian
Verb + ee (passive meaning) train-trainee
Nouns formed from verbs
-age pack- package
-sis hypnotise -hypnosis
-tion prescribe- prescription
Nouns formed from adjectives
Adjectives formed from nouns
-ful (with) care-careful
-less (without) care-careless
Adjectives formed from verbs
Verbs formed from adjectives
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