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ИнфоурокИностранные языкиПрезентацииGreat Britain of XIX century

Great Britain of XIX century

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In 1800 the Act of Union with Ireland was passed by both the Irish and Britis...
Events leading to Trafalgar Britain at War with France for many years – Frenc...
Size of the fleet: 32 British (25 ships of the line, 4 Frigates and smaller c...
Memorably, the Royal Navy.
The Stockton & Darlington Railroad was opened on 27th September, 1825.
The Metropolitan Railway opened on 10 January 1863. Within a few months of op...
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century whe...
After the passing of the Factory Act of 1833, children under nine were forbi...
During the early 19th century religious revival continued. The Church of Eng...
Girls Girls from upper class families were taught by a governess. Middle clas...

Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

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2 слайд In 1800 the Act of Union with Ireland was passed by both the Irish and Britis
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In 1800 the Act of Union with Ireland was passed by both the Irish and British parliaments despite much opposition. It was signed by George III in August 1800 to become effective on 1 January 1801.

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4 слайд Events leading to Trafalgar Britain at War with France for many years – Frenc
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Events leading to Trafalgar Britain at War with France for many years – French Led By Napoleon Bonaparte who wanted to invade His plan was to draw RN away and sweep across Channel – plan failed and Combined French/Spanish fleet holed up in Cadiz. 19 Oct 1805 Ships sailed and chased by Nelsons 27 Ships. 21 Oct 1805 – just before noon battle commenced – during battle a sniper shot Nelson - he lived until the battle was won but died shortly after. At end 18 French / Spanish ships captured/destroyed with no British ships lost and the threat of invasion was over.

5 слайд Size of the fleet: 32 British (25 ships of the line, 4 Frigates and smaller c
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Size of the fleet: 32 British (25 ships of the line, 4 Frigates and smaller craft), 23 French and 15 Spanish (33 ships of the line, 7 Frigates and smaller craft). 4,000 troops including riflemen from the Tyrol were posted in small detachments through the French and Spanish Fleets.

6 слайд Memorably, the Royal Navy.
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Memorably, the Royal Navy.

7 слайд The Stockton & Darlington Railroad was opened on 27th September, 1825.
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The Stockton & Darlington Railroad was opened on 27th September, 1825.

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9 слайд The Metropolitan Railway opened on 10 January 1863. Within a few months of op
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The Metropolitan Railway opened on 10 January 1863. Within a few months of opening it was carrying over 26,000 passengers a day.

10 слайд The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century whe
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The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom.

11 слайд After the passing of the Factory Act of 1833, children under nine were forbi
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After the passing of the Factory Act of 1833, children under nine were forbidden to work in textile factories, and working hours for older children were limited to a maximum of 48 a week for those under 13, and 69 for 'young persons' of 13 to 18 years old. This was the first instance of state intervention in the laissez-faire economy. The Factory Act of 1844 reduced the work of children under 13 to 6.5 hours a day. Women's working hours were reduced to 12 a day. All dangerous machinery had to be fenced.

12 слайд During the early 19th century religious revival continued. The Church of Eng
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During the early 19th century religious revival continued. The Church of England regained its energy and many new churches were built.

13 слайд Girls Girls from upper class families were taught by a governess. Middle clas
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Girls Girls from upper class families were taught by a governess. Middle class girls went to private schools were they were taught 'accomplishments' such as music and sewing. Boys Boys from upper class families were often sent to public schools. Middle class boys went to grammar schools.

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Краткое описание документа:

Great Britain of XIX century

Union with Ireland 1801

In 1800 the Act of Union with Ireland was passed by both the Irish and British parliaments despite much opposition. It was signed by George III in August 1800 to become effective on 1 January 1801.

Prime Minister Pitt intended to follow the Act of Union with other, more far reaching reforms, including Catholic Emancipation, but was thwarted by George III, who refused to break his Coronation Oath to uphold the Anglican Church.

The 1801 Act of Irish Union said that

* Ireland was to be joined to Great Britain into a single kingdom, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
* the Dublin parliament was abolished. Ireland was to be represented at Westminster by 100 MPs, 4 Lords Spiritual and 28 Lords Temporal (all were Anglicans).
* the Anglican Church was to be recognised as the official Church of Ireland.
* there was to be free trade between Ireland and Britain.
* Ireland was to keep a separate Exchequer and was to be responsible for two-seventeenths of the general expense of the United Kingdom.
* Ireland kept its own Courts of Justice and civil service.
* no Catholics were to be allowed to hold public office.
* there was to be no Catholic Emancipation.

The new kingdom was from then onwards unambiguously called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

In 1922, 26 of Ireland's 32 counties were given independence to form a separate Irish Free State - now the Republic of Ireland. The remaining truncated kingdom has therefore since then been known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The Battle of Trafalgar Events leading to Trafalgar Britain at War with France for many years – French Led By Napoleon Bonaparte who wanted to invade His plan was to draw RN away and sweep across Channel – plan failed and Combined French/Spanish fleet holed up in Cadiz.  19 Oct 1805 Ships sailed and chased by Nelsons 27 Ships.  21 Oct 1805 – just before noon battle commenced – during battle a sniper shot Nelson -  he lived until the battle was won but died shortly after. At end 18 French / Spanish ships captured/destroyed with no British ships lost and the threat of invasion was over. Size of the fleet: 32 British (25 ships of the line, 4 Frigates and smaller craft), 23 French and 15 Spanish (33 ships of the line, 7 Frigates and smaller craft). 4,000 troops including riflemen from the Tyrol were posted in small detachments through the French and Spanish Fleets. Royal Navy won their opponents. Stockton and Darlington Railway On his travels buying and selling wool, Edward Pease came to the conclusion that there was a great need for a railroad with waggons drawn by horses to carry coal from the collieries (карьер) of West Durham to the port of Stockton. In 1821 Pease and a group of businessmen formed the Stockton & Darlington Railway company. Over three-quarters of the original £120,000 invested came from the Darlington area. The largest investor was Joseph Gurney, the Quaker banker from Norwich, who would £14,000 worth of shares.
On 19th April 1821 an Act of Parliament was passed that authorized the company to build a horse railway that would link the collieries in West Durham, Darlington and the River Tees at Stockton.
Nicholas Wood, the manager of Killingworth Colliery, and his enginewright, George Stephenson, met Pease and suggested that he should consider building a locomotive railway. Stephenson told Pease that "a horse on an iron road would draw ten tons for one ton on a common road". Stephenson added that the Blutcher locomotive that he had built at Killingworth was "worth fifty horses".

In 1823 Edward Pease joined with Michael Longdridge, George Stephenson and his son Robert Stephenson, to form a company to make the locomotives. The Robert Stephenson & Company, at Forth Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, became the world's first locomotive builder. Stephenson recruited Timothy Hackworth, one of the engineers who had helped William Hedley to produce Puffing Billy, to work for the company. The first railway locomotive, Locomotion, was finished in September 1825. The locomotive was similar to those that Stephenson had produced at the collieries at Killingworth and Heaton. The boiler of the Locomotion had a single fire tube and two vertical cylinders let into the barrel (бочка) and the four wheels were coupled (связаны) by rods rather than a chain.
Work on the track began in 1822. Stephenson used malleable (
ковкий) iron rails carried on cast iron chairs. These rails were laid on wooden blocks for 12 miles between Stockton and Darlington. The 15 mile track from the collieries and Darlington were laid on stone blocks.The Stockton & Darlington Railroad was opened on 27th September, 1825. Large crowds saw George Stephenson at the controls of the Locomotion as it pulled 36 wagons. Twelve wagons of coal and flour, six of guests and fourteen wagons full of workmen. The initial journey of just under 9 miles took two hours. However, during the final descent into the Stockton terminus, speeds of 15 mph (24 kph) were reached. These increased speed surprised one man and he fell from one of the wagons and was badly injured.
The train also included a purpose built railway passenger coach (
в экипаже) called the Experiment. The carriage seated 18 passengers and as it had no springs it must have provided an uncomfortable ride but for the first time in history, a steam locomotive had hauled (тянуть) passengers on a public railway.
The Darlington & Stockton Railroad began running trains every day except Sundays. The company received 1d per ton of coal for every mile carried. The following year this was reduced (
снижен) to half-penny a mile. Local colliery owners reported that locomotive transport was a third cheaper than horse transport.
For the first few years, only the freight (
грузовой) wagons were pulled by locomotives. The passenger coach, Experiment, was housedrawn. It was built like an ordinary road coach except that it was double-ended so that the vehicle did not have to be turned for return journeys. The Darlington & Stockton trains were equipped (оборудованы) with dandy carts (телеги) in which the horses were placed when it was going downhill.

The driving force behind the new railway was Charles Pearson (1793–1862). For some years the building of the railway lapsed (бывший) as it proved impossible to raise the capital. When in 1858 Pearson advocated (защищать) the provision (снабжение) of “cheap railway accommodation to enable working classes to reside (пребывать) in their adjacent (соседний) country districts” the money at last became available, and work began. Between Paddington and King's Cross the form of construction was cut-and-cover; from there onwards (далее) the line was left in open cutting. Mixed-gauge (вымерять, масштаб) (both standard- and broad-gauge) track was laid. The terminal station at Farringdon was originally called Farringdon Street: the road itself was Victoria Street, renamed Farringdon Road in 1863. After many delays (задержки) caused by excavations (раскопки) falling in and by the Fleet Ditch Sewer bursting into the works at Farringdon, and by additional work required (необходима) after a Board of Trade inspection, public service began on 10 January 1863. 40,000 passengers were carried over the line that day.

The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom.

After the passing of the Factory Act of 1833, children under nine were forbidden to work in textile factories, and working hours for older children were limited to a maximum of 48 a week for those under 13, and 69 for 'young persons' of 13 to 18 years old. This was the first instance of state intervention in the laissez-faire (попустительство)  economy. The Factory Act of 1844 reduced the work of children under 13 to 6.5 hours a day. Women's working hours were reduced to 12 a day. All dangerous machinery had to be fenced.

During the early 19th century religious revival continued. The Church of England regained its energy and many new churches were built.

Education was different for boys and girls. Girls

n      Girls from upper class families were taught by a governess.

n      Middle class girls went to private schools were they were taught 'accomplishments (достижения)' such as music and sewing.

Boys

n      Boys from upper class families were often sent to public schools.

 

n      Middle class boys went to grammar schools. 

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