School 72, Perm
«I release the bird…»
(methods of drama pedagogy at computer science lessons in the 10th grade)
The article is intended to fill the gap by describing one of several author's developments of the lesson in the 10th grade. Below one of the ways to use the technique of DP "dramatization" in the computer science lesson on "Data encryption" and "Presentation of information, languages, coding" is described.
The troupe of students plays a sketch in the classroom space according to the script given in the text of the article. Dramatization is achieved by a time limit and a plot, which includes the possible death of the prisoner, who must be released and thus saved from death. For data encryption, one of the Polybius cipher modifications (prison alphabet) is used. During this little quest, participants need to practice the thought of reducing the lengths of the codes transmitted exclusively through one channel with low bandwidth.
A sketch repeatedly was performed by teenage, and adult audiences at regional and city conferences, teachers’ regional meta-subject olympiad, systematically practiced in the laboratory in the course of computer science and ICT basic level for the 10th grade. The participants managed to save the prisoner in about half of the cases, which served as the actual material for further conscious understanding of the difficulties of encryption and transmission of information in the communication channel.
The use of techniques from the DP-arsenal allows to include the locomotor intelligence of «weak» students and apply it to the reliable development of the latest high-abstract categories of computer science’ conceptual apparatus, to align the understanding of complex material by «weak» students against the background of «strong». The сognition of the world with the whole body in the process of joint solution of the educational problem by the group inevitably resurrects the earliest of specifically human ways of information transfer - gestures, facial expressions, posture, pantomime - and organically introduces them into the fabric of the modern computer science’ lesson, contributing to the formation of abstract and correct thinking. Participation in the group dramatized statement of the problem solution of an educational task leaves an indelible mark in memory of pupils, realizing thereby one of possible innovations of school education.
Why DP? B. Porshnev in the monograph "On the beginning of human history" suggested that to create tools it was enough for young paleoanthropic people to imitate the movements of the older ones in the production of tools, thereby bringing together primitive labor activity with instinctive (imitative reflex and proximity of the imitating individual to the imitated). B. Yakushin in the monograph "Hypotheses about the origin of language" believes that the use of "tools, the ability to fine coordination of movements created conditions for the most natural way of information transmission – gesture, facial expressions, posture, in short – pantomime" . And further: "However, in the beginning there was not a word, but a deed, but not a real action, but its effective image – pantomime – as the first truly human means of information transmission" . There are well-known testimonies of the great desire of students to play in school theatres: in "The conduit and Shvambraniya" by Leo Kassil, in "Pedagogical poem" by A. Makarenko, "the Republic of SHKID" by Grigory Belykh and Lyonjka Panteleev (A. I. Eremeev), etc. Since the 90-ies of the XX century there has been a revival of interest into DP in motherland school education.
The scale of the phenomenon can be estimated in the first approximation, dividing the number of schools and institutions of additional education, applying in the educational process methods, forms or techniques from the arsenal of theater pedagogy, by the number of secondary schools in Russia as of the 2000s . Take the maximum: 13 institutions of 41900 state and municipal Russian schools (data for 2015) will be 0.3‰. Even if it turns out that there are way more schools that apply DP in the educational process, yet 3‰ is also extremely unobtrusive value. Why is the highly specialized branch of pedagogy, designed to prepare actors of theater and cinema, still relevant and becoming before our eyes more interesting to teachers and students outside the theater universities and schools?
It is likely that the DP methods and forms are useful to apply fully or partially in those subjects of the school program that are closer in spirit to the theater, cinema, acting. In the school course of computer science it is possible to use some techniques of DP in the themes of «Graphic artist (application)», «Algorithmics», «Logic in the computer», «Positional notation» in the form of solutions to a number of educational developmental problems. Children of the age of the 7th grade, trying on the roles of actors (anthropomorphic or not very anthropomorphic characters of the task), act in an anthropophilic environment, in the entourage, described with the condition and taken on faith without evidence. So the educational axiomatic object (task condition), without causing resistance, freely becomes the object of comprehension of the acquired life experience. The experience of the plot of the educational task in the mise of the study or scene includes and develops all ways of knowing the world with the help of your own body, soul and spirit.
The experience of application of DP methods in the computer science lesson in the 10th grade is described below. The etude was played at the section «Modeling» by older members of the 1st regional meta-subject olympiad among teachers in the fall of 2016. For this reason, in the text below there are criteria of assessment. Named as «Master class "I release the bird…"», the action was demonstrated to teachers of computer science and mathematics within the regional scientific and practical conference «Personal, subject, metasubject results: technologies of formation and evaluation» (RICE PSU, Vereshchagino, Perm region, October 2017) , as well as at the meeting of the city methodical Association of teachers of computer science on 12/13/2017 in Perm city . The etude is practiced by the author at the lessons of Informatics in the 10th grade on the topic «Presentation of information, languages, coding» and in the topic «Data encryption». Practical work to the chapters, Work 1.1. Data encryption. Task 1-13   .
The script of the sketch: the action involves at least one team. If there is more than one lockable door, it makes sense to divide the participants into 2 or more teams. The team is divided into three: the prisoner; the rescuers who have to save the prisoner, remaining free from outside the dungeon; and supervisor for a team game. Each participant is given a copy of one of the variants of the Polybius cipher (see the table on the left). The prisoner is locked in a cell and given a sealed envelope with a code word. The last is to be sent out to the rescuers. Between the prisoner and rescuers the only channel of communication remains: tapping through the door. All other methods of transmitting the exemption code are eliminated. The rescuers give the deciphered word to the jury, which keeps the standard for comparison also in a sealed envelope. With the full coincidence of a code word with the reference of the jury, the prisoner is saved. In 20 minutes rescuers have to receive the code word from the prisoner. In the 21st minute, the prisoner dies and the rescue mission fails.in order
The prisoner is saved
The report contains a description of how to encode Cyrillic characters by tapping
up to 15 points
Rescuers have come up with how to convey to the prisoner the rules of the transfer of symbols of the table by tapping
up to 10 points
The prisoner has figured out how to communicate to rescuers the rules of the transfer of symbols of the table by tapping
up to 15 points
5 points for every minute saved
There is a conclusion about how to understand each other when only the cipher is known, and the rules for its use are not established
up to 10 points
Validity of the conclusion in paragraph 6
up to 10 points
Expert assessment of the quality of the task as a whole
up to 30 points
up to 140 points
+ points for saving time
The time interval of 20 minutes is set empirically in practice. In less time the task to save the prisoner often fails. Actors of the troupe, playing the etude, in practice, overcome the difficulties encountered in trying to establish a connection between the source and receiver of information; difficulties in using uneven code; reach the idea of reducing the code for reliable transmission of signals in the communication channel with low bandwidth; learn to put forward and refute hypotheses, how to decrypt the resulting chain of signals using a code table with unspecified rules of its use, learning the basics of counterintelligence. 
Якушин Б.В. Гипотезы о происхождении языка. – М., 1985. – С.113.
Там же, С. 121.
Сколько школ в России и сколько в них обучающихся [Электронный ресурс]//URL: http://www.vseznayem.ru/vse-pro-vse/1098-skolko-shkol-v-rossii
Благодарственное письмо [Электронный ресурс]//URL: http://trinity.e-stile.ru/images/2017_10_17patria.jpg
Сертификат [Электронный ресурс]//URL: http://trinity.e-stile.ru/images/2017_12_13n7388.png
Информатика. Базовый уровень : учебник для 10 класса / И. Г. Семакин, Е. К. Хеннер, Т.Ю. Шеина.— М. : БИНОМ. Лаборатория знаний, 2013. - СС. 15-21, 197-199.
Видеозапись 28.09.2018 г. этюда на уроке информатики в 10-м классе «На волю птичку выпускаю». Начало [Электронный ресурс]//URL: https://vk.com/video138945543_456239205
Видеозапись 28.09.2018 г. этюда на уроке информатики в 10-м классе «На волю птичку выпускаю». Окончание [Электронный ресурс]//URL: https://vk.com/video138945543_456239206
Метапредметное испытание «На волю птичку выпускаю...» (к теме «Представление информации, языки, кодирование», 10 класс) [Электронный ресурс]//URL: https://infourok.ru/metapredmetnoe-ispitaniya-na-volyu-ptichku-vipuskayuk-teme-predstavlenie-informacii-yaziki-kodirovanie-klass-2129561.html
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