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Ғылыми жоба:"Differences between American and British English" (8 сынып)

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Әлібек Бүркітбаев атындағы №12орта мектеп













Бағыты: гуманитарлық бөлім

Секциясы: ағылшын тілі

Тақырыбы: Американдық және британдық ағылшын тілінің ұқсастығы









Орындаған: Ә.Бүркітбаев атындағы

12 орта мектебінің

8-сынып оқушысы Боқан Гүлден

Жетекшісі: ағылшын тілі пәнінің мұғалімі Игликова А.Б.









Ақжол - 2013 ж



Аңдатпа

Бұл ғылыми жұмыста американдық ағылшын және британдық ағылшын тілінің грамматикалық және фонетикалық айырмашылықтарының тілдік қолданыстары туралы айтылған.

Аннотация

В этой проектной работе говорится о грамматических и фонетических различиях употребления в языке американского английского и британского английского языка.

Annotation

This project work is about grammatical and phonetic differences using in the language of American English and British English.





















The English Language was first introduced to the Americans by British colonization, beginning in the early 17th century. Similarly, the language spread to numerous other parts of the world as a result of British trade and colonization elsewhere and the spread of the former British Empire, which, by 1921, held sway over a population of about 470–570 million people: approximately a quarter of the world's population at that time.

Оver the past 400 years, the form of the language used in the Americas—especially in the United States—and that used in the United Kingdom and the British Islands have diverged in many ways, leading to the dialects now commonly referred to as American English and British English. Differences between the two include pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary (lexis), spelling, punctuation, idioms, formatting of dates and numbers, and so on, although the differences in written and most spoken grammar structure tend to be much more minor than those of other aspects of the language in terms of mutual intelligibility. A small number of words have completely different meanings between the two dialects or are even unknown or not used in one of the dialects. One particular contribution towards formalizing these differences came from Noah Webster, who wrote the first American dictionary (published 1828) with the intention of showing that people in the United States spoke a different dialect from Britain.

- British English (BrE) is the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom.

- American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. It includes all English dialects used within the United States of America.



American English

In the early part of the seventeenth century English settlers began to bring their language to America, and another series of changes began to take place. The settlers borrowed words from Indian languages for such strange trees as the hickory and persimmon, such unfamiliar animals as raccoons and woodchucks. Later they borrowed other words from settlers, from other countries – for instance, chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch. They made new combinations of English words, such as backwoods and bullfrog, or gave old English words entirely new meanings, such as lumber (which in British English means approximately junk) and corn (which in British means any grain, especially wheat). Some of the new terms were needed, because there were new and un-English things to talk about. Others can be explained only on the general theory that languages are always changing, and American English is no exception.

Aside from the new vocabulary, differences in pronunciation, in grammatical construction, and especially in intonation developed. If the colonization had taken place a few centuries earlier, American might have become as different from English as French is from Italian. But the settlement occurred after the invention of printing, and continued through a period when the idea of educating everybody was making rapid progress. For a long time most of the books read in American came from England, and a surprising number of Americans read those books, in or out of school. Moreover, most of the colonists seem to have felt strong ties with England. In this they were unlike their Anglo-Saxon ancestors, who apparently made a clean break with their continental homes.

A good many Englishmen and some Americans used to condemn every difference that did develop, and as recently as a generation ago it was not unusual to hear all “Americanisms” condemned, even in America. It is now generally recognized in this country that we are not bound to the Queen’s English, but have a full right to work out our own habits. Even a good many of the English now concede this, though some of them object strongly to the fact that Americanisms are now having an influence on British usage.

There are thousands of differences in detail between British and American English, and occasionally they crowd together enough to make some difficulty. If you read that a man, having trouble with his lorry, got out his spanner and lifted the bonnet to see what was the matter, you might not realize that the driver of the truck had taken out his wrench and lifted the hood. It is amusing to play with such differences, but the theory that the American language is now essentially different from English does not hold up. It is often very difficult to decide whether a book was written by an American or an English man. Even in speech it would be hard to prove that national differences are greater than some local differences in either country. On the whole, it now seems probable that the language habits of the two countries will grow more, rather than less, alike, although some differences will undoubtedly remain and others may develop.

It also seems probable that there will be narrow-minded and snobbish people in both countries for some time to come. But generally speaking, anybody who learns to speak and write the standard English of his own country, and to regard that of the other country as a legitimate variety with certain interesting differences, will have little trouble wherever he goes.


Lexical differences

Lexical difference of American variant highly extensive on the strength of multiple borrowing from Spanish and Indian languages, what was not in British English.

American variant

British variant

Translation

Subway

Underground

Метро

the movies

The cinema

Кинотеатр

Shop

Store

Магазин

Sidewalk

Pavement

Тротуар

Line

Queue

Очередь

Soccer

Football

Футбол

Mailman

Postman

Почтальон

Vacation

Holiday

каникулы

Corn

Maize

Кукуруза

fall

autumn

Осень


Also claim attention differences in writing some words in American and british variants of language.

For instance, following:


American variant

British variant

Honor

Honour

Traveler

Traveller

Plow

Plough

Defense

Defence

Jail

Gaol

Center

Centre

apologize

apologise



Grammatical difference

Grammatical differences of American variant consists in following:

  1. In that events, when Britainians use Present Perfect, in Staffs can be used and Present Perfect, and Past Simple.

  2. Take a shower / a bath instead of have a shower / a bath.

  3. Shall is not used. In all persons is used by will.

  4. Needn’t (do) usually is not used. Accustomed form don’t need to (do).

  5. After demand, insist, require etc should usually is NOT used. I demanded that he apologize (instead of I demanded that he should apologize in British variant).

  6. to/in THE hospital instead of to/in hospital in British English.

  7. on the weekend / on weekend instead of at the weekend / at weekend.

  8. on a street instead of in a street.

  9. Different from or than instead of different to/from.

  10. Write is used with to or without the pretext.

  11. Past participle of “got” is “gotten”.

  12. To burn, to spoil and other verbs, which can be regular or irregular in the british variant, in the American variant ALWAYS regular.

  13. Past Perfect, as a rule, is not used completely.

Most of the differences in lexis or vocabulary between British and American English are in connection with concepts originating from the 19th century to the mid 20th century, when new words were coined independently. Almost the entire vocabularies of the car/automobile and railway/railroad industries (see Rail terminology) are different between the UK and US, for example. Other sources of difference are slang or vulgar terms, where frequent new coinage occurs, and idiomatic phrases, including phrasal verbs. The differences most likely to create confusion are those where the same word or phrase is used for two different concepts. Regional variations, even within the US or the UK, can create the same problems.

It is not a straightforward matter to classify differences of vocabulary. David Crystal identifies some of the problems of classification on the facing page to his list of American English/British English lexical variation, and states "this should be enough to suggest caution when working through an apparently simple list of equivalents".

Equivalent Idioms

A number of English idioms that have essentially the same meaning show lexical differences between the British and the American version; for instance:

British English

American English

not touch something with a bargepole

not touch something with a ten-foot pole

sweep under the carpet

sweep under the rug

touch wood

knock on wood

see the wood for the trees

see the forest for the trees

throw a spanner (in the works)

throw a (monkey) wrench (in the works)

tuppence worth
also two pennies' worth, two pence worth, two pennyworth,
two penny'th, or (using a different coin) ha'penny'th)

two cents' worth

skeleton in the cupboard

skeleton in the closet

a home from home

a home away from home

blow one's trumpet

blow (or toot) one's horn

a drop in the ocean

a drop in the bucket

storm in a teacup

tempest in a teapot

flogging a dead horse

beating a dead horse

haven't (got) a clue

don't have a clue or have no clue

a new lease of life

a new lease on life

if the cap fits (wear it)

if the shoe fits (wear it)

lie of the land

lay of the land

In British English, words that end in -l preceded by a vowel usually double the -l when a suffix is added, while in American English the letter is not doubled.  The letter will double in the stress is on the second syllable.


Base Word

American

British

counsel

counseling

counselling

equal

equaling

equalling

model

modeling

modelling

quarrel

quarreling

quarrelling

signal

signaling

signalling

travel

traveling

travelling

excel

excelling

excelling

propel

propelling

propelling




































Bibliography

1.Murphy Raymond. English Grammar in Use.
2.Орлов Г.А. Современный английский язык в Австралии.
3.Швейцер А.Д. Американский вариант литературного английского языка: пути формирования и современный статус

4.Ильиш Б.А. Современный английский язык: Теорет. курс. : Учеб. пособие для вузов. -2-е изд., испр. и доп.
5.Ильиш Б.А. Строй современного английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студ.пед.ин-тов.-2-е изд.

6.Ильиш Б.А. Структура сложноподчиненного предложения в современном английском языке // Ученые записки Ленингр. гос. пед. ин-та. Вопросы английской филологии.
















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