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Staging of plays by William Shakespeare
While it is not known for any theater companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays . So , on the title page of the publication , " Titus Andronicus " in 1594 indicated that play was three different groups . 1592-1593 years after the plague has staged Shakespeare plays his own company in the " Theater " and " clumps " in Shoreditch north of the Thames . There was staged the first part of " Henry IV». After a quarrel with his master left the company "Theatre" and built on the south side of the Thames in Southwark , theater "Globe" , the first theater built by actors for actors. "Globus " was opened in the autumn of 1599 , and one of the first set of plays in it was " Julius Caesar ." Many of the most famous of Shakespeare's plays written after 1599 , created for the "Globe ", including " Hamlet ," " Othello " and " King Lear ."
It is believed that half of Shakespeare's plays was published one way or another during the life of the playwright . Home Publications Shakespeare heritage is considered to be a folio in 1623 ( the so-called " First Folio ") , published by Edward Blount and William Dzhaggardom composed of so-called. " Chesterovskogo collection "; Uorral printers and Max . This edition includes 36 of Shakespeare's plays - all except " Pericles " and " Two noble kinsmen ." It is this edition is the basis of all research in the field of Shakespearean .
This project was made possible through the efforts of John and Henry Condell Hemindzha , friends and colleagues of Shakespeare. Book precedes the message to readers on behalf Hemindzha and Condell and poetic dedication to Shakespeare by dramatist Ben Jonson , also contributed to the publication of the First Folio .
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In 1593 and 1594, respectively, when the theaters were closed because of plague , Shakespeare created two erotic poem , "Venus and Adonis " and " Lucrece dishonored ." These poems were dedicated Risley Henry , Earl of Southampton. In " Venus and Adonis " innocent Adonis rejects the sexual advances of Venus ; whereas " dishonored Lucretia " virtuous wife Lucrece is raped Tarquini . Influenced by Ovid's Metamorphoses , the poems appear in guilt and the terrible consequences of uncontrollable love. Both poems were popular and reprinted several times during the life of Shakespeare. The third poem , " The complaint in love ", in which she complains about the seductive trickster , was published in the first edition of the Sonnets in 1609. Currently, most scholars recognize that " the Complaint in love " was written by Shakespeare . In the poem " The Phoenix and the Dove ," published in 1601 in the collection of Robert Chester «Love's Martyr», tells about the sad death of the mythological phoenix and his lover , faithful doves . In 1599, two on behalf of Shakespeare's sonnet by Shakespeare, but without his consent in the " Passionate Pilgrim ."
Title page edition of Shakespeare's sonnets in 1609 .
Sonnet - a poem of 14 lines . In Shakespeare's sonnets, adopted the following rhyme : «abab cdcd efef gg», ie three quatrains on cross rhymes, and one couplet (type introduced poet Earl Surrey, executed under Henry VIII).
Total Shakespeare was written 154 sonnets , and most of them were established in 1592-1599 , respectively. They were first printed without the author's knowledge in 1609. Two of them were published as early as 1599 in the book " Passionate Pilgrim ." This sonnets 138 and 144.
Sonnet 126 violates the canon - it is only 12 lines and a rhyme pattern . Sometimes it is considered section between the two parts of the conditional cycle - sonnets dedicated to friendship ( 1-126 ) and addressed to the " dark lady" ( 127-154 ) .
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Style by William Shakespeare
First language of Shakespeare's plays - a language common to the plays of the period. This stylized language does not always reveal the playwright gives his characters. Poetry is often overloaded with complex metaphors and suggestions , and the language of the text is more conducive to recitation than a live game . For example, the solemn speech " Titus Andronicus ", according to some critics , often slow action ; language characters "Two Gentlemen of Verona " seems unnatural .
Soon, however , Shakespeare begins to fit the traditional style for their own purposes . Initial solilokvy of " Richard III» back to the conversation with a blemish , the traditional character of the medieval drama. At the same time , bright monologues Richard later develop into monologues later plays of Shakespeare . All the pieces mark the transition from the traditional to the new style . Throughout his career, Shakespeare further unites them, and one of the most successful examples of mixing styles can serve as "Romeo and Juliet ." By the mid- 1590s , the establishment of "Romeo and Juliet ", " Richard II» and " Midsummer Night's Dream ," Shakespeare's style becomes more natural. Metaphors and figurative expressions , more consistent with the needs of the drama.
Standard poetic form used by Shakespeare - blank verse , written iambic pentameter . Blank verse of early and late plays significantly different. Early often beautiful, but usually at the end of the string ends with a whole sentence , or a semantic part that creates monotony. Once Shakespeare mastered traditional blank verse , he began to change it, interrupting the sentence at the end of the line. Using this method gives the power and flexibility of the poetry in such plays as " Julius Caesar " and " Hamlet ."
In the following for " Hamlet " plays poetic style continued vary, particularly emotional passages in his later tragedies. Literary critic Bradley described this style as " more concentrated , rapid , varied , with fewer repetitions ." By the end of his career, Shakespeare used a variety of methods to achieve similar effects. He used methods such as anzhambeman unstructured pause and stop and various unusual design variations and sentence length . In many cases, the listener itself should think through the meaning of sentences. In the late romantic plays long and short sentences are opposed to each other, subject and object actions are reversed , the words omitted , creating a sense of spontaneity.
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Shakespeare's works have seriously affected the theater and literature of the following years. In particular, he expanded the area of work of the playwright with the characterization of the characters, plot , language, and genre. For example, to " Romeo and Juliet" romance has never been considered as a worthy topic for tragedy. Solilokvii mainly used for communication audience about the events , Shakespeare began to use them for disclosure of the nature and character of his thoughts . His work greatly influenced the subsequent poets. Romantic era poets attempted to revive Shakespearean verse drama, but did not have much success. Critic George Steiner described all English drama from Coleridge to Tennyson "weak variations on Shakespearean themes ."
Shakespeare influenced writers such as Thomas Hardy , William Faulkner , and Charles Dickens . Its influence spread to Herman Melville , his Captain Ahab in the novel "Moby Dick" - a classic tragic hero , inspired by King Lear . Scientists estimate that 20,000 pieces of music linked to Shakespeare's works . Among them, two operas by Giuseppe Verdi, "Othello" and "Falstaff" , the primary source of which lie the eponymous play . Shakespeare has also inspired many painters , including the Romantics and the Pre-Raphaelites. Swiss artist Henry Fuseli , a friend of William Blake , even translated into German play " Macbeth ." Developer of the theory of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular the image of Hamlet , in their theories of human nature .
"The plays of William Shakespeare "
Works of Shakespeare include 36 plays, published in 1623 in the First Folio , the division of which there are at comedy chronicles the tragedy is in accordance with this edition . In the First Folio are not logged two plays , two noble Kinsmen and Pericles , which are now considered part of the canon , and scholars agree that Shakespeare made a great contribution to their writing . Poems Shakespeare First Folio unreleased.
At the end of XIX century, Edward Dowden classified four of the late Shakespeare plays as romantic , and although most researchers call them tragicomedy , this option is widely used . These pieces , as well as their associated "Two noble kinsman " are marked . In 1896, Frederick Boas coined the term "problem plays " to describe them Shakespeare's plays , which are difficult to classify by genre features " All's well that ends well ", " Measure for Measure ", " Troilus and Cressida " and " Hamlet ." This term has been much discussed and was sometimes used in relation to other plays , is used in our time , even though "Hamlet" is often ranked as a tragedy.
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"The whole world theater"
Shakespeare 's plays , sonnets and poems reflected the thoughts , expectations and passion of almost every inhabitant of Albion. Pushkin was able , in spite of everything , express , almost one hundred percent, the hidden meaning of being Russian . Of course, William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837) lived at different times , but the times in this case is not an obstacle for comparison , because they are irrelevant to the Eternity .
Shakespeare's England confident step moved to capitalism. Already formed a "new nobility " and mercenary relationship began to replace all notions of honor , generosity and compassion . Life of the rural population was destroyed . Peasants deprived of land and then started elementary hang for vagrancy . In inheritance " lower classes " meant free work on capitalist production . But the most terrible was the supremacy of the spirit of selfishness and extreme individualism . Position of Catholicism undermined royal authority , and part of Protestantism was in complete dependence on the court and parliament , and partly moved to deny the foundations of every true Christianity ( Sacred Tradition , for example, was rejected in favor of an arbitrary interpretation of the Bible ) . Simple man robbed and earth, faith and protection of arbitrariness bourgeoisified elite. The men of the nobility, still adhere to the " outdated " notions of morality and were a minority among the aggressive group "businessmen" , only cover their predation sounding titles. In the 66th sonnet, William Shakespeare perfectly conveys a sense of a man surrounded on all sides by selfishness.
The heyday of theatrical art in Britain at the turn of XVI-XVII centuries, is not accidental. Theatre acted as Deputy religion. Theater began to teach people new patterns of behavior . That is why the heroes of old-fashioned feudal world of Shakespeare never advocate full-fledged native goodness. They are either ridiculous or scary. The third option is not. However , the playwright does not sympathize with new generations of statesmen and commoners . Though, probably, and I would like to present them in the best light . Does not work. Therefore, Shakespeare and gives all at the mercy of fate , as evidenced by the well-known phrases from the comedy " As You Like It " :
"The whole world - the theater .
In the men and women - are all actors .
They have their exits and their entrances ,
And not everyone plays a role . "
Meanwhile, these words are terrible. Man turns into an actor who changed his face a mask , a thousand masks. Christianity forgotten newly appeared Litsedeyami and flicker disappears invented masks the image of man . Link Shakespearean theater in antiquity period naturally follows mandatory of life itself. Here it is appropriate to recall the remarkable statement by the Russian philosopher AF Losev , "In antiquity people is genuine theater actor depicting on the scene himself and not his own life, but that hero , whose fate has ordered him to perform and with himself that has nothing to do . But it is acting completely excluded personalism religions (including Christianity - approx.
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In England (and the Western " Shakespeare " civilization in general ) were completely forgotten ideas martyr Cyprian of Carthage : " Christian , if only wish is much better spectacle - it has a real fun and quite useful - if only recognizes himself. I will not mention what still can not even contemplate : but he has before him the beauty of the world, which can be seen and surprised her. Let him look at the rise and the sun goes down , are alternately return days and nights , on the circle of the moon, and its increase during times of damage indicating , for the hosts of glittering stars , constantly pours from the height of the light with extraordinary mobility and let succession contemplates separate parts of the whole year and most days with nights , a timing clock , even contemplates balanced interior of the earth with its mountains and continuously flowing rivers with their sources , with their vast sea waves and beaches, constant , with the greatest proportionality sprawled throughout the air , all animating his seasonable and then pouring rain from the clouds thickened , then by vacuum clouds, clear weather returns - and in all these parts of nature let contemplates inhabitants peculiar to each part : in the air - birds in the water - fish , and on earth - human . These , they say , and other works of God should be a spectacle for the faithful Christians. What theater sostroenny human hands can compare with these cases ? Let it be built of the great piles of stones - but peaks of mountains above it , and let it shine with gold ceilings , but the stars shine their potemnyaet completely . So , never be surprised human affairs , who recognizes himself as the son of God ! "
Pushkin against Shakespeare and Marlowe
Alexander Pushkin's hardly a man who calls the immaculate . But now, like a real Russian man, he could not refuse from Orthodoxy , Christian views of the surrounding reality .
Russian early XIX century gradually sank into the swamp strictly following the rules and regulations of western existence. But , unlike England , the country remained Orthodox faith . Abomination of being caused Shakespeare to despair , Pushkin has spawned an appeal to St.. Ephraim the Syrian .
And if the egoistic civilization Shakespeare rejected all hope of eternal life, in civilization Pushkin even death threats cry out to God and immortality. Pushkin's " Feast or Famine " ( tied to the plot of the Western European culture and history) reveals quite optimistic Christian Russian and semantic content
In Western Europe , including in Britain, for four or five centuries extremely popular story of Faust - mage and warlock , in later centuries - the scientist. Most lovers of literature knows basically work of Goethe. But Shakespeare was a contemporary playwright Christopher Marlowe ( 1564-1593 ) . He was one of the first unwound "image" Faust. Marlowe - a forger and a libertine, and his hero kind of made like himself .
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Faustus Marlowe eager for power , money and revelry , knowing he needed just for that. Writer and not thinking seriously condemn Faust ( unlike previous creators of " Faustiany "). Curious and tragedy of Christopher Marlowe " Edward II». This tragedy tells the story of the plight of homosexuals on the throne ...
At Alexander Pushkin no Faust nor Edward . Pushkin world does not accept such , is anti-Christian , characters . However, the Russian genius and not Hamlet , and Romeo and Juliet side-stepped . Dubrovsky - not Hamlet , but rather Robin Hood . By the way , Shakespeare could still see the festivities on May 1 in honor of Robin Hood , canceled Protestants until the middle of the XVII century. But the case of Robin Hood is not prompted by English playwright to create the tragedy of " freelancers ".
Pushkin created a feather " Ruslan and Lyudmila " but his suffering Romeo and Juliet alien to him ( mature love do not tolerate child exalted love , albeit sad ending ) .
In the XXI century the West comes to Russia on all fronts. Ideological canons Shakespeare civilization imposed on us constantly . Only what we are ? Why do we rejection of Orthodoxy ? Why do we denial of God ? Why do we rejection of his self ? Pushkin civilization do not need Shakespeare joy and sins ( and do not forget - behind Shakespeare's characters looming mug "heroes" Marlowe ) . We're subjected to another's influence too much. After all, someone else's patterns of behavior seem to be quite harmless. But ... How much time reading in the newspapers about suicide very young lovers, we are faced with a mention of Romeo and Juliet ! How many times on TV in serials modern extolled Dr. Fausta ! ..
But " King Lear " ( which did not took Leo Tolstoy !) , Perhaps the media do not promote . And this is not surprising ! In nursing homes in Russia have their "kings lira ", and the property is given to children , and retire ...
We often do not understand why the West uses "double standards" against us in politics , economy and culture. And you just have to read the works of William Shakespeare , and much will become clear . Shakespeare perfectly found the principles for whom lives and operates the West forever. Read Shakespeare now and do not need to satisfy the aesthetic hunger , but also for the sake of our own spiritual security .
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The first "Globe" Shakespeare's time
"Globus" was owned by many actors who were also shareholders of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Two of the six shareholders "Globe " , Richard Burbage and his brother Cuthbert Burbage , were the owners of the double amount of stake to 25 % each. Other four actors , Shakespeare, John Hemings, Augustine Phillips and Thomas Pope, had single stakes of 12.5 %. (Originally William Kemp intended to be the seventh partner, but he sold his share to the four minority shareholders , leaving them more than the originally planned 10%). These initial proportions changed over time , when joined by the new shareholders . Win Shakespeare throughout his professional activity decreased from 1/8 to 1/14 , or about 7 %.
"Globe" was built in 1599 using timber structures earlier theater ( the first public theater in London ) , simply called "Theatre" , which was built by the father of Richard Burbage , James Burbage , in Shoreditch in 1576 . Burbage originally rented place , which was built on the "Theatre" , 21 years . In 1598, the owner of the land on which the "Theatre" , raised the rent. Burbage dismantled "Theatre" beam for beam and transported him to the Thames , and there he was already assembled again as "Globus".
In July 1613 the theater "Globe" was burned during the performance of "Henry VIII».
Theatrical cannon, which was shot during the performance, misfired, igniting the wooden beams and roof of straw. According to one of the surviving descriptions of the event, no one was hurt, except for one viewer who put out the burning desire it short pants (Pantaloons) bottle ale.
Second "Globus". Excavations .
Like all the other theaters in London, "Globus", rebuilt after a fire in 1614, was closed in 1642 by the Puritans. Two years later it was demolished to make room for the construction of apartment buildings. Its exact location remained unknown until then, until in 1989 the remains of its foundation were not found under the parking «Anchor Terrace» on Park Street (circuit repeated basement car park on the surface). Under Anchor Terrace
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there may be other remnants of the theater , but the terrace of the XVIII century included in the list of historical values and, therefore, cannot be explored by archaeologists.
Reconstruction of the Globe Theatre , London.
Shakespeare troupe "Servants of the Lord Chamberlain " was a special relationship with King James, especially after its renaming in 1603 in the "Servants of the King." Although records of productions scattered, we can talk about seven productions of Shakespeare's plays at court between 1 November 1604 and 31 October 1605 , including two productions , " The Merchant of Venice ." After 1608 they started performing in the winter in the indoor theater " Blackfriars " and " Globe " to work in the summer. Good space in conjunction with royal patronage allowed Shakespeare to introduce props in his plays more complex devices . For example, in " Cymbeline " Jupiter descends " in thunder and lightning , sitting on an eagle : he throws lightning. Bring fall on their knees . "
In Shakespeare troupe consisted of well-known actors such as Richard Burbage , William Kemp, Neri Condell and John Heminges . Burbage was the first performer of the main roles of many of Shakespeare's plays , including " Richard III», « Hamlet ," " Othello " and " King Lear ." The popular comic actor William Kemp, among other characters , played by Pietro in "Romeo and Juliet " and Dogwood in " Much Ado About Nothing ." At the turn of the XVI and XVII centuries was replaced by Robert Armin , who performed roles such as Touchstone in " As You Like It " and the Clown of "King Lear" . In 1613, Henry Wotton reported held staging of "Henry VIII». June 29 , during the staging of this play gun misfired and set fire to the thatched roof of the building , so that the whole theater burned down. This fact allows us to set up a good time writing plays.
Actual dimensions of the " Globe" is unknown, but his plan may be almost exactly restored , based on research conducted over the past two centuries. These data suggest that it was a three-tier outdoor amphitheater surrounded by a high wall with a diameter from 97 to 102 feet ( 29,6-31,1 m), which could accommodate up to 3,000 spectators. In the sketch and " Long landscape " London Vaclav hollar ( 1647 ) "Globus" is shown as a circular building towers c . In 1989, the foundations of "Globe " was unearthed . Discovered fragments of the basement wall and the outer one of the towers ( which is absent in hollar ) confirmed the hypothesis that the theater was not in terms of the round , but twenty - or vosemnadtsatigranym .
Scene rectangle , also known as
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" Proscenium " , nominated in the middle of the open courtyard . The scene had a size of about 43 feet wide ( 13.1 m), 27 feet in depth and was raised by almost 5 feet ( 1.52 m) from the ground. At this stage was hatch that artists used to come out of the basement under the stage . Could be other hatches around the scene. Theater stage had no curtain .
On the inner side walls of the theater were lodges for the aristocracy . Above them were placed galleries wealthy citizens . There were three levels of seating. Certain privileged spectators were on stage. At the base of the stage area was - " pit " or " yard " (by analogy with the popular theater that played at inns ), where for 1 penny people (" graundlingi " - lowbrow viewers) could see the view while standing. Graundlingi while presenting eating hazelnuts - during excavations " Globes " found a lot of walnut husk , preserved in the mud - or oranges.
Huge columns on the sides of the stage supported a roof over the rear part of the scene . Ceiling under this roof was called " heaven " and could be painted with sky with clouds. Hatch in " heaven," gave an opportunity performers " descend from heaven » (deus ex machina), using a device of ropes and cords .
The back wall scene had two or three doors on the main level with a curtained inner stage and the balcony above it. These doors were backstage , where the actors dressed and expected its output . Balcony could accommodate musicians and could also be used for scenes requiring the use of the upper space , such as for example in the balcony scene from "Romeo and Juliet ."
Performances in the theater were in daylight , without intermission , and with a minimum of scenery (see theater technique in the age of Shakespeare ) .
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London and theatrical career………………………………………………………………………5
Last years and death……………………………………………………………………………….6
Style by William Shakespeare…………………………………………………………………...12
The plays of William Shakespeare………………………………………………………………13
Shakespeare and Pushkin………………………………………………………………………...14
Pushkin against Shakespeare and Marlowe……………………………………………………...15
Second "Globus". Excavations…………………………………………………………………..17
Reconstruction of the Globe Theatre , London……………………………………………….….18
Disposition of the "Globe "………………………………………………………………………18
Copies of theater in other countries……………………………………………………………...21
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On the explicit request of the American actor and director Sam Uenameykera new theater "Globe" was built on the plan of the Elizabethan time. The team of the project to rebuild the theater were Theo Crosby of Pentagram, as an architect, Bury Happold as structural engineer and service engineer , and the firm Boyden & Co, as a building inspector . The project consultant was Shakespeare Professor Andrew Herr . Construction took over the firm McCurdy & Co. Opened in 1997 under the name " Shakespeare Theatre " Globus " ." Now comes stage performances each summer (May to October). The first artistic director of contemporary theater "Globe" in 1995 was appointed Mark Raylens . In 2006, Dominic Dromgoole succeeded him in office.
New Theatre on Bankside is almost 225 yards ( 205 m) from the original location , starting from the center of the old theater to the center of the new .
It was the first building with a thatched roof, Building Permits in London since the Great Fire in 1666.
Like the first "Globe" , today's theater scene has an extension , which is issued in a huge round courtyard surrounded by seating on three tiers of steeply pitched . Seven standing tickets ( necessarily stand , sit not allowed ) in the yard are available on each view 5 pounds each. The only part of the closed roof of the amphitheater - and this scene (more expensive ) seats . In winter, when the theater season closed , the theater is used for educational purposes. Guided tours are available year-round.
When recreating the theater eager to get as close as possible to the original copy. This was facilitated by the detection of residues of the original theater "Globe" , which influenced the final plans and the decision on the location of the new building. Modernization theater included the installation of lighting equipment ( performances in Shakespeare's time were conducted in the afternoon) , the sprinklers on the roof for protection from fire, and that the theater partially connected with modern foyer, visitors center and the backstage area for additional support of the representations. According to safety regulations , may be present at the performance of no more than 1,300 people , which is less than half of those 3,000 people , which is believed to be able to accommodate the theater in Shakespeare's time .
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Copies of theater in other countries
A large number of copies and free interpretations "Globe " was built around the world:
OSF Elizabethan Theatre, Ashland , Oregon, built in 1935 , rebuilt in 1947 and 1959 ;
San Diego, Old Theatre "Globus" , built in 1935 ;
Cedar City , Utah , Adams Shakespearean Theatre
Chicago, Illinois, Chicago Shakespeare Theater on Navygator Pier was built in 1999;
Odessa, Texas, Old Theatre "Globus" , built in 1936 ;
Williamsburg, Virginia, theater " Globe " was built in 1975
Neuss , Globe Neuss built in 1991;
Rust (Baden ), Europa-Park was built in 2000
Schwäbisch Hall , Baden-Wurttemberg
Rome , theater "Globe" name Silvano Toti , built in 2003.
Hall "Globus" Theatre School of Dramatic Art, Moscow
"School of Dramatic Art" - theater, founded in 1987 by director Anatoly Vasiliev . The basis of the "Schools" principles laid gaming theater and theater - concept lab , focused on finding , researching and scenic experiments. The structure consists of several theater 'laboratories' , developing new productions.
Located in Moscow, Sretenka street , house 19 . Opened February 24, 1987 .
Artistic director - director Igor Jacko .
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Shakespeare wrote many plays. More precisely, he wrote them not to read, not for publication, not as examples of literature - its tragedy and comedy were scenarios or libretto for theatrical productions. He had not even thought about publishing. And while such a polished style!
Of course, Shakespeare is great especially that made in the great drama of poetic talent, talents surpassing all his predecessors. Second - this unique sense of drama, which nobody in the world had neither before nor after Shakespeare.
English genius scholar A. Anikst believes that " Shakespeare in drama brought important new artistic principles , to which he had no art. The characters in ancient drama had only one important feature of any. Shakespeare created heroes and heroines, endowed with features live spiritually rich personality. However, he showed his heroes characters in development. These artistic innovations have enriched not only art, but also an understanding of human nature. "
Shakespeare lived at a time conducive to creativity. While in England and was the despotic power of the king, but the country was on the rise. England began to conquer new lands. Emancipate people's minds. Theatre has become a favorite pastime of the people.
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William Shakespeare - English poet and playwright, often regarded as the greatest English-language writer and one of the best playwrights in the world. Often referred to as the national poet of England. Extant works, including some written with other authors, consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, poems and 4 3 epitaphs. Shakespeare's plays have been translated into all major languages and put more than the works of other playwrights.
William Shakespeare was born in Stratford -upon-Avon (Warwickshire) in 1564, baptized April 26 , the exact date of birth is unknown . Tradition relates it to the birth of April 23 this date coincides with the exactly known day of his death. Also , April 23 is the day of St. George , patron saint of England , and to this day the legend could be timed specifically birth greatest national poet . With the English name "Shakespeare" is translated as "stunning spear."
His father, John Shakespeare, was a wealthy craftsman, often elected to various important public offices. In 1565 John Shakespeare was an alderman, and in 1568 - bailiff. He did not attend church services, that paying large fines. Shakespeare's mother, nee Mary, belonged to one of the oldest Saxon families. Total, the couple had eight children, William was born third.
It is believed that Shakespeare attended the Stratford "grammar school ", where he was to get a good knowledge of Latin: Stratford teacher of Latin literature and wrote poetry in Latin. Some scholars argue that Shakespeare attended the school of King Edward VI. in Stratford -upon-Avon , where he studied the works of such poets as Ovid and Plautus , but did not survive the school magazine , and now nothing can be said for sure.
In 1582, at the age of 18 , he married Anne Hathaway , the daughter of a local landowner , the former is 8 years older than him . At the time of the marriage Anne was pregnant. In 1583 the couple had a daughter, Susan, in 1585 - twins : Hemnet son , who died at age 11 in August 1596 , and a daughter Judith .
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On further events of Shakespeare's life , there are only assumptions. The first mention of the London theatrical career relate to 1592 , and between 1585 and 1592 , researchers called the " lost years" of Shakespeare. Attempts biographers learn about the actions of Shakespeare in this period led to the emergence of many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer , believed that he left Stratford to avoid prosecution for poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. It is also assumed that Shakespeare avenged Lucy , writing in his address several obscene ballads. According to another version of the XVIII century , Shakespeare began a theatrical career minding the horses of theater patrons in London . John Aubrey wrote that Shakespeare was a schoolteacher . Some scientists XX century believed that Shakespeare was the teacher of Alexander Naughton from Lancashire , as it was a Catholic landowner certain " William Sheykshaft ."
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London and theatrical career
Not known exactly when Shakespeare began writing theatrical works , and moved to London , but the first extant sources talking about this , refer to 1592. This year's diary entrepreneur Philip Henslowe mentions historical chronicle Shakespeare "Henry VI», which was owned by Henslow in the theater "Rose" . In the same year, posthumously published pamphlet writer and playwright Robert Greene , the latter angrily hit Shakespeare , without naming names, but ironically beating her - «shake-scene» paraphrase a line from the third part of " Henry VI» « Oh, tiger's heart in this women's clothing! "as" the heart of tiger skin litsedeya . "
Biographers believe that Shakespeare's career could begin at any time since the mid- 1580s . From 1594 Shakespeare's plays were staged only troupe "Servants of the Lord Chamberlain ." The members of the troupe entered and Shakespeare , who at the end of the same in 1594 became its co-owner. The troupe soon became one of the leading theater companies in London. After the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 , the troupe has received a royal patent by the new ruler , Jacob I, and became known as the "Servants of the King ."
In 1599, members of the partnership group built on the south bank of the Thames a new theater, called "The Globe ." In 1608 they also acquired an indoor theater " Blackfriars ." Reports on real estate purchases by Shakespeare and his investments show that the company made him a wealthy man. In 1597 he bought the second-largest house in Stratford - New Place.
Some of Shakespeare's plays were published In-quarto in 1594 . In 1598, his name began to appear on the title pages of publications. But after Shakespeare became famous as a playwright, he continued to play in theaters. The publication of works by Ben Jonson 1616 Shakespeare name included in the list of actors who performed the play " We all have our quirks " ( 1598 ) and "The Fall of Sejanus " ( 1603 ) . However, his name was missing from the list of actors play Johnson " Volpone " in 1605 , which is seen by some scholars as a sign of the end of the London Shakespeare's career . Nevertheless , in 1623 the First Folio Shakespeare called "the principal actor in all these plays ," and some of them were staged for the first time after " Volpone ", although it is not known what role they played in Shakespeare . In 1610, John Davis wrote that "good Will " played " royal " role . In 1709 , in his work , Rowe wrote already established by the time the opinion that Shakespeare played the shadow of Hamlet's father . Between acting and dramatic activities Shakespeare lived in London , but some of his time and also in Stratford. In 1596 , a year after the purchase of New Place, he lived in the parish of St. Helena in Bishopgeyte , on the north side of the Thames. After the construction of the theater "Globe" Shakespeare in 1599 moved to the other side of the river - in Southwark , where he was a theater. In 1604 he moved across the river again , this time in the area north of St Paul's Cathedral , where there is a large number of good homes.
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Last years and death
There is a traditional view that a few years before his death he moved to Stratford Shakespeare . Shakespeare's first biographer , to deliver such an opinion was Rowe . One reason for this is the fact that the London public theaters repeatedly stopped working because of outbreaks of plague, and the actors did not have enough work. Complete care of affairs was a rarity in those days , and Shakespeare continued to visit London . In 1612, Shakespeare acted witness in the case against Bellot Mountjoy , litigation dowry for his daughter Mary Mountjoy . In March 1613 he bought a house in the former parish Blekfriarskom and in November 1614 he spent several weeks with his son in law , John Hall .
1606-1607 years after Shakespeare wrote a few plays, and after the 1613 general stopped building them. His last three plays he wrote jointly with another playwright , probably with John Fletcher , who succeeded Shakespeare as chief dramatist troupe "Servants of the King."
All surviving signatures on documents Shakespeare (1612-1613) have a very poor handwriting , based on which some researchers believe that it was at that time seriously ill.
April 23, 1616 Shakespeare died. Traditionally, it is assumed that he died on his birthday, but confidence that Shakespeare was born on April 23 , no. Shakespeare experienced widow , Ann, and two daughters. Susan Shakespeare was married to John Hall in 1607 , and Judith Shakespeare married two months after the death of Shakespeare for the winemaker Thomas Queenie .
In his will Shakespeare left the bulk of his property of his eldest daughter , Susan . After her it must have inherited her direct descendants . Judith had three children , and they all died , never married . Susan had one daughter , Elizabeth, who married twice but died childless in 1670. She was the last direct descendant of Shakespeare. In his will Shakespeare his wife is mentioned only briefly, but she had already had to get a third of the husband's property . However, there stated that he leaves her " my second quality bed ," and this fact has led to a variety of different assumptions. Some scientists believe it is an insult to Anne , whereas others argue that the second quality of the bed - it marital bed , and, therefore, nothing offensive about it.
Three days later, the body of Shakespeare was buried in Stratford Church of the Holy Trinity
Shortly before 1623 the church was erected painted bust of Shakespeare, showing it in the process of writing . Epitaphs in English and Latin compared with Shakespeare pilosskim wise king Nestor , Socrates, and Virgil .
Worldwide installed many statues of Shakespeare , including funeral monuments in Southwark Cathedral and Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey .
Название документа 7.docx
Shakespeare's literary heritage is split into two unequal parts: verse (poems and sonnets) and dramatic. Belinsky wrote that "it would be too bold and bizarre Shakespeare give a decisive advantage to all the poets of humanity itself as a poet but as a playwright and now he is without rival, whose name can be used was put beside his name."
From fairest creatures we desire increase,
That thereby beauty's rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decease,
His tender heir might bear his memory:
But thou, contracted to thine own bright eyes,
Feed'st thy light's flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies,
Thyself thy foe, to thy sweet self too cruel.
Thou that art now the world's fresh ornament
And only herald to the gaudy spring,
Within thine own bud buriest thy content,
And, tender churl, mak'st waste in niggarding:
Pity the world, or else this glutton be,
To eat the world's due, by the grave and thee.
When forty winters shall besiege thy brow,
And dig deep trenches in thy beauty's field,
Thy youth's proud livery so gazed on now
Will be a tottered weed of small worth held:
Then being asked where all thy beauty lies,
Where all the treasure of thy lusty days,
To say within thine own deep-sunken eyes
Were an all-eating shame, and thriftless praise.
How much more praise deserved thy beauty's use,
If thou couldst answer, 'This fair child" of mine
Shall sum my count, and make my old excuse',
Proving his beauty by succession thine.
This were to be new made when thou art old,
And see thy blood warm when thou feel'st it
Researchers Shakespeare ( Danish literary critic G. Brandes , Russian publisher of the complete works of Shakespeare SA Vengerov ) in the late XIX - early XX centuries . , Based on the chronology of the works presented his spiritual evolution from " cheerful mood ," faith in justice humanistic ideals in the beginning of the road to disappointment and destruction at the end of all illusions . However, in recent years, the view that the conclusion about the identity of the author based on his works there is an error .
In 1930 Shakespeare EK Chambers suggested chronology of Shakespeare by genre features , it was later corrected J. Makmanueem . There were four periods: the first (1590-1594) - Early Chronicles , Renaissance comedy "tragedy of horror " (" Titus Andronicus "), two poems , the second ( 1594-1600 ) - Renaissance comedy, tragedy first mature ( "Romeo and Juliet ") , chronicles with elements of tragedy , ancient tragedy ( " Julius Caesar " ) , sonnets , and the third ( 1601-1608 ) - the great tragedy , ancient tragedy , " dark comedy " , the fourth ( 1609-1613 ) - Drama - tale with a tragic intonation and a happy ending . Some of Shakespeare , including AA Smirnov , combined first and second periods in one early .
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Most playwrights of the period created their works in collaboration with other writers , and critics believe that Shakespeare also wrote some of his plays together with other authors , mainly refers to the early and late works. For some works, such as " Titus Andronicus " and early historical plays , it is established that they are just co-written , whereas for "Two noble kinsmen " and a lost play " Cardenio " is documented . Data obtained from the texts also suggest that some of the other writers were altered relative to the original text.
Some of the earliest works of Shakespeare - "Richard III» and three part " Henry VI», written in the early 1590s , a period when it was in vogue historical drama . Shakespeare's plays are difficult to dating , but researchers texts suggest that " Titus Andronicus ," " The Comedy of Errors ," " The Taming of the Shrew " and " Two Gentlemen of Verona " also includes top creative way Shakespeare. His first Chronicles , likely based on the 1587 edition of "The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland " by Raphael Holinshed , represented the destructive results of the rule of weak and corrupt rulers and to some extent served as a justification of the Tudor dynasty . On the early plays of Shakespeare influenced the work of other Elizabethan dramatists , especially Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe , and traditions of medieval drama plays of Seneca . " Comedy of Errors " is also built on the classical model , found sources for " Taming of the Shrew ", although it is associated with another play of the same name , played in London theaters in the 1590s and may have folk roots.
In the mid- 1590s there was a shift from Shakespeare and mocking in its style of farcical comedies to romantic works. " Midsummer Night's Dream " - a witty mixture of romance, fairy magic and low life of society. The following are also romantic , Shakespeare " The Merchant of Venice " contains a portrait of a vengeful moneylender Jew Shylock , which reflected the racial prejudices of Elizabethan English . Witty play " Much Ado About Nothing ", perfectly depicting life in the province of " As You Like It " fun and lively "Twelfth Night (play ) " complementary series of comedies of Shakespeare. After lyric " Richard II», written almost entirely in verse , Shakespeare introduced prose comedy into their chronicles "Henry IV, Part 1 " and 2 , and "Henry V». His characters become more complex and delicate , it is very cleverly alternates between comic and serious scenes , prose and poetry , so his mature works achieve narrative diversity. This period began and ended the tragedy " Romeo and
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Juliet " , the famous story of love and death, boys and girls , and " Julius Caesar " , based on" Comparative biography " Plutarch .
In the beginning of the XVII century, Shakespeare wrote several so-called "problem plays ": " Measure for Measure ", " Troilus and Cressida " and " All's well that ends well " , as well as some of the most famous tragedies. Many critics believe that the tragedy of this period represent the peak of Shakespeare . Hamlet , the title character of one of the most famous of Shakespeare's tragedies , is perhaps the most researched of the playwright character , especially the famous solilokviya beginning "To be or not to be, that is the question ." Unlike the introverted Hamlet , oscillating hero , heroes subsequent tragedies , King Lear and Othello , suffer from too hasty decisions. Shakespeare's tragedy is often built on the shortcomings or fatal deeds of heroes, destroying him and his loved ones. In "Othello" villain Iago brings jealousy to the point of the title character , who kills his innocent wife . In " King Lear, " the old king commits the mistake of giving up their rights to power, which leads to horrific events such as the killing of the youngest daughter , Cordelia Lear . In "Macbeth" , the very short and concise Shakespeare , uncontrollable ambition motivate Macbeth and his wife , Lady Macbeth , to murder the rightful king and usurpation of the throne , and , ultimately , destroys their own awareness of their guilt. In this play, Shakespeare adds to the tragic structure element of the supernatural . His last major tragedies , "Antony and Cleopatra " and " Coriolanus" , according to some critics , contain some of his finest poems.
In the final period of his life Shakespeare turned to romance or tragicomedy genre and finished the three big plays: " Cymbeline ," " The Winter's Tale " and " The Tempest" , and , together with another playwright , the play " Pericles ." The works of this period, less gloomy than any preceding tragedy , but more serious than comedy of the 1590s , but they end with reconciliation and deliverance from poverty . Some researchers believe that these changes were of changing attitudes to Shakespeare's life , become more calm , but perhaps reflected in the plays just theatrical fashion of the time. Two further surviving plays of Shakespeare were written by him in collaboration with John Fletcher possible : "Henry VIII» and " Two noble kinsman ."
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William Shakespeare - English poet and playwright , often regarded as the greatest English-language writer and one of the best playwrights in the world. Often referred to as the national poet of England. Extant works, including some written with other authors , consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets , poems and 4 3 epitaphs. Shakespeare's plays have been translated into all major languages and put more than the works of other playwrights.
William Shakespeare was born in Stratford -upon-Avon ( Warwickshire ) in 1564 , baptized April 26 , the exact date of birth is unknown . Tradition relates it to the birth of April 23 this date coincides with the exactly known day of his death. Also , April 23 is the day of St. George , patron saint of England , and to this day the legend could be timed specifically birth greatest national poet . With the English name "Shakespeare" is translated as " stunning spear ."
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