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Elektron dövlət

Vikipediya, açıq ensiklopediya

Elektron dövlət və ya e-dövlət — İKT-dən istifadə etməklə dövlət fəaliyyətinin informasiya aspektlərini həyata keçirmək üçün nəzərdə tutulmuş üsuldur. Elektron dövlətin fəaliyyətini İKT-nin köməyi ilə icraçı hakimiyyət (elektron hökumət), parlament (elektron parlament) və məhkəmə orqanları (elektron ədalət məhkəməsi) dəstəkləyir.

Azərbaycanda Elektron dövlətin yaradılması "Elektron Azərbaycan" proqramı daxilində həyata keçməli və dövlət idarəçiliyinin keyfiyyətinin artırılmasına yönəldilməlidir.

Elektron dövlət (ing. e-government) anlayışı çox hallarda Elektron hökumət kimi nəzərdə tutulur. Lakin bu cür ifadə düzgün deyildir. Belə ki, Elektron hökumət Elektron dövlətin bir qoludur. Müasir beynəlxalq hüquqi sənədlərdə, əsasən insan hüquqları üzrə Avropa məhkəməsinin qərarlarında "government" dedikdə bütünlükdə dövlət nəzərdə tutulur. Analoji olaraq, "three branches of government" ifadəsində yalnız hökumət deyil, dövlətin hər üç qolu nəzərdə tutulur. Hazırda elektron hökümətin qurulmasında elektron seçkilərin keçirilməsi tətbiq olunmaqdadır. [1]

Demokratiya və texnologiyalar mərkəzinin (ing. Center for Democracy and Technology - CDT) direktoru Ceyms Dempsi Elektron dövləti bu cür təsvir edir: "Elektron dövlət İKT-dən istifadə etməklə hökuməti vətəndaşlar üçün daha əlyetərli, effektiv və məsuliyyətli etmək məqsədi daşıyır. Elektron dövlətə keçid dövlət qulluqçularınınhər birinin iş otağının kompüterlə təchiz olunması demək deyildir. Əksinə, Elektron hökumətdə dövlət qulluqçuları ilə digər vətəndaşlar arasında qarşılıqlı münasibət dəyişməlidir".

Elektron dövlətin məqsədi öz idarəetmə fəaliyyətinə İKT-ni tətbiq etməklə dövlət xidmətlərini vətəndaşın, biznes dünyasının ixtiyarına vermək və daha təsirli və səmərəli bir idarəetməyə nail olmaqdır. E-dövlət xidmətləri hökumət vətəndaş (G2С), hökumət biznes (G2B), hökumət-hökumət (G2G), hökumət qulluqçu (G2E) və hökumət qeyri-kommersiya təşkilatları (G2N) əlaqələri üzərində qurulmuşdur 

Elektron hökumət

Vikipediya, açıq ensiklopediya

Elektron hökumət və ya e-hökumət — hər hansı bir ölkənin dövlət strukturlarının hamısı haqqında məlumatların hər bir vətəndaş üçün açıq olan şəbəkədəyerləşdirilməsi deməkdir. Yəni hər bir vətəndaş hər hansı bir nazirlik və komitədən tutmuş, mənzil-təsərrüfat idarəsi ilə məktəbə qədər olan idarənin mövcud durumu, bu qurumlara müraciət etmənin qaydalarını istənilən vaxt əldə edə və bu təşkilatlara elə elektron rabitə vasitəsilə müraciət edə bilər.

Mütəxəssislər hesab edirlər ki, "elektron hökumət"in qurulması ölkədə hakimiyyət strukturlarının şəffaf fəaliyyət göstərməsinə gətirəcək. Dünyanın inkişaf etmiş ölkələrinin əksəriyyətində "elektron hökumət" fəaliyyət göstərir. Azərbaycanda "elektron hökumət" layihəsi "Elektron Azərbaycan" dövlət proqramı çərçivəsində həyata keçirilir. Hazırda elektron hökümətin qurulmasında elektron seçkilərin keçirilməsi tətbiq olunmaqdadır. [1]

Azərbaycan MDB məkanında "elektron hökumət" layihəsi üzərində işlərin aparıldığı 4-cü ölkədir. Hazırda həyata keçirilən proqram ölkədə "elektron hökumət"in qurulmasının hazırlıq işlərinin 2008-ci ildə bitəcəyini və bundan sonra daha 4 il ərzində həyata keçəcəyini nəzərdə tutur. Mütəxəssislərin fikrincə, Azərbaycancəmiyyətində olan kompüter və informasiyadan istifadə mədəniyyəti elektron hökumətinin qurulması üçün bir qədər daha da inkişaf etməlidir.[2]

Elektron hökumət - hər hansı bir ölkənin dövlət strukturlarının fəaliyyətlərinin hər bir vətəndaş üçün açıq olan şəbəkədə yerləşdirilməsi deməkdir. Yəni hər bir vətəndaş hər hansı bir nazirlik və komitədən tutmuş, mənzil-təsərrüfat idarəsi ilə məktəbə qədər olan idarənin mövcud durumu, bu qurumlara müraciət etmənin qaydalarını istənilən vaxt əldə edə və bu təşkilatlara elə elektron rabitə vasitəsilə müraciət edə bilər.

E-hökumət probleminin tədqiqatçıları dövlət idarəetmə orqanlarının veb-nümayəndəliklərinin inkişafını 5 mərhələyə ayırırlar[3]:

  1. Baza saytı: Bu mərhələdə internetdə dövlət idarəetmə orqanı haqqında ilkin informasiya yerləşdirilir. Adətən bu cür saytlarda idarəetmə orqanının strukturu, funksiyaları, vəzifəli şəxsləri haqqında minimal informasiyalar verilir.

  2. İnformasiyanın dərci: İkinci mərhələdə dövlət idarəetmə orqanlarının saytları informasiya ilə doldurulur, onların strukturu mürəkkəbləşir, digər əlaqədar veb resurslara keçidlər meydana gəlir. Lakin informasiya mübadələsi imkanlarının olmamasına görə informasiyaların bir tərəfli xarakter daşıması bu mərhələdə məhdudiyyət kimi qalır.

  3. Qarşılıqlı əlaqələrin inkişafı: Bu mərhələnin əsas xüsusiyyəti saytın istifadəçiləri ilə informasiya mübadiləsi mexanizminin yaradılmasıdır. İnteraktiv elementlərə poçt formasını, ictimai rəy sorğularının təşkilini, forumları və diskusiya mərkəzlərini aid etmək olar. İstifadəçilərdə elektron vasitələrin köməyilə dövlət idarəetmə orqanlarından müəyyən informasiya xidmətlərini əldə etmək imkanı yaradır. Beləki, saytda məsələn müxtəlif sənədlərin yüklənib götürülməsinin təşkili göstərilir.

  4. Transaksiyaların inkişafı: Daxili informasiya infrastrukturu və onun e-hökumətin veb-interfeys ilə inteqrasiyası istifadəçilərə real zaman rejimində müxtəlif transaksiyaları həyata keçirməyə imkan verir. Bu cür əməliyyatlara vergilərin, qeydiyyat və lisenziya rüsumlarının, cərimələrin ödənilməsini, sosial vəsaitlərin alınmasını və s. aid etmək olar.

  5. Tam inteqrasiya: Sonuncu mərhələ hökumət portalının köməyilə bütün hökumət xidmətlərinin birləşmiş informasiya bazasına və tam e-xidmətlər kompleksinə vahid çıxış nöqtəsinin yaradılmasını nəzərdə tutur. Sutkanın 24 saatı və ilin 365 günü "vahid pəncərə" prinsipi üzrə işləyən birləşmiş hökumət portalı vətəndaşların informasiya və xidmətlərə çıxışını təmin edir.

  6. Elektron hökumət haqqında ümumi məlumat

  7. "Elektron Hökumət"in əsas fəaliyyət prinsipləri və əhəmiyyəti.

  8. Son illər inkişaf etmiş ölkələrdə demokratiyanı daha da inkişaf etdirən amillərdən biri “Elektron hökumət”in (ingilis dilində e-Government) formalaşdırılması hesab edilir.

    “Elektron hökumət” - müasir informasiya texnologiyalarından istifadə etməklə dövlət qurumları tərəfindən Azərbaycan Respublikasının ərazisində yaşayan bütün vətəndaşlara, hüquqi və fiziki şəxslərə, xarici vətəndaşlara və vətəndaşlığı olmayan şəxslərə informasiya və e-xidmətlərin göstərilməsininə şərait yaradır.

    Yaradılan yeni imkanların əsas məqsədi xidmətlərin göstərilməsi üçün dövlət qulluqçuları və vətəndaşlar arasında olan “məsafəni” maksimum azaltmaq, bu münasibətləri sadələşdirmək və şəffaflaşdırmaqdır. Dövlət orqanları tərəfindən elektron xidmətlərin geniş tətbiqi, onların sayının və keyfiyyətin artırılması, vətəndaşların xidmətlərdən məmnunluğunun yüksəldilməsi bu məqsədə çatmağın vasitələridir. Beynəlxalq təcrübəyə əsasən vətəndaşların dövlət orqanları ilə təmaslarının daha münasib şəkildə təşkili üçün “bir pəncərə” prinsipi əsasında təşkil olunan və dövlət orqanlarının göstərdiyi elektron xidmətlərin cəmləşdirildiyi “elektron hökumət” portalı tətbiq edilir.

    Ölkəmizdə “elektron hökumət”in formalaşdırılması beynəlxalq təcrübəyə əsaslanır və Azərbaycan Respublikası Prezidentinin “Azərbaycan Respublikasında rabitə və informasiya texnologiyalarının inkişafı üzrə 2010-2012-ci illər üçün Dövlət Proqramının (Elektron Azərbaycan)” təsdiq edilməsi haqqında Sərəncamı, “Dövlət orqanlarının elektron xidmətlər göstərməsinin təşkili sahəsində bəzi tədbirlər haqqında” 23 may 2011-ci il tarixli Fərmanı və digər normativ hüquqi aktlarla fəaliyyət üçün hüquqi baza yaradılmışdır.

    Rabitə və İnformasiya Texnologiyaları Nazirliyi bu sahədə görülən işlərin əlaqələndiricisi olaraq “elektron hökumət”in formalaşması üzrə digər dövlət orqanları ilə sıx fəaliyyət göstərir və müvafiq infrastrukturun yaradılması üzrə fəaliyyət həyata keçirir. Artıq elektron imzaların istifadəsi üçün Milli Sertifikasiya Xidmətləri Mərkəzi yaradılmışdır, dövlət qurumlarının informasiya sistemləri arasında informasiya mübadiləsini təmin edən infrastruktur qurulmuşdur, “Elektron hökumət” portal hazırlanaraq istifadəyə verilmişdir. Bütün dövlət qurumları bunlardan bəhrələnərək vətəndaşlara elektron xidmətlərin göstərilməsini təmin edə bilirlər.

    “Elektron hökumət”in əsas fəaliyyət prinsipləri:
    _________________________________________________________________
    ● Azərbaycan Respublikasının mövcud qanunvericiliyin tələblərinə riayət edilməsi;
    ● İnformasiyalaşdırma sahəsində dövlət siyasətinin həyata keçirilməsi, dövlət və milli maraqların qorunması;
    ● İstifadəçilərə təqdim olunan məlumatların tamlığının, həqiqiliyinin, aktuallığının, təhlükəsizliyinin, mühafizəsinin sadə və operativ şəkildə əldə edilməsi imkanlarının təmin olunması;
    ● Dövlət qurumları arasında səlahiyyət və məsuliyyət bölgüsü.  

    “Elektron hökumət”in əhəmiyyəti:
    _________________________________________________________________
    ● Dövlət idarəçiliyində müasir texnologiyaların tətbiqini genişləndirməklə həyata keçirilən fəaliyyətin səviyyəsinin yüksəldilməsi və onlardan istifadə imkanlarının sadələşdirilməsi;
    ● Dövlət qurumlarının və yerli özünüidarəetmə orqanlarının işinin səmərəliyinin artırılması və təqdim olunan elektron xidmətlərin keyfiyyətinin yüksəldilməsi;
    ● İstifadəçilərə dövlət qurumları tərəfindən təqdim olunan elektron xidmətlərin optimallaşdırılması və yerinə yetirilmə prosedurlarının sadələşdirilməsi;
    ● Elektron xidmətlər vasitəsilə istifadəçilərə təqdim olunan məlumatların həqiqiliyinin, tamlığının, etibarlılığının və sərbəst əldə olunmasının təmin edilməsi;
    ● İstifadəçinin sorğusuna əsasən məlumatların axtarılmasına və əldə edilməsinə sərf olunan vaxtın maksimum azaldılması;
    ● İstifadəçinin yerləşdiyi coğrafi məkandan asılı olmayaraq ölkənin bütün ərazisində təqdim olunan elektron xidmətlərdən istifadənin mümkünlüyü.
      “Elektron hökumət” virtual məkanın, müasir texnologiyaların imkanlarından, dövlət orqanlarında informasiyalaşdırmanın yüksək səviyyəsindən istifadə edərək ölkə vətəndaşlarına göstərilən xidmətlərin keyfiyyətcə yeni formada təqdim edilməsinə xidmət edir.

E-imza haqqında ümumi məlumat

E-imzanın qlobal mühitdə başlıca vəzifəsi və rolu.

https://www.e-gov.az/home/getfile/19

Kompüter texnologiyalarının inkişaf etməkdə olduğu dünyada informasiya təhlükəsizliyi məsələsi getdikcə daha vacib məsələ kimi ortaya çıxmışdır. Məlumat mübadiləsi zamanı ötürülən informasiyanın təhlükəsizliyinin qorunması çox mühüm məsələdir. Dövlət orqanları ilə müxtəlif əməliyyatlar həyata keçirərkən vətəndaşların şəxsi məlumatlarının üçüncü tərəfin ələ keçirməməsi üçün təhlükəsiz şəbəkələr getdikcə daha çox yayılır. Bundan başqa elektron əməliyyatların həyata keçirilməsi zamanı vətəndaşın kimliyinin ayırd edilə bilməsi də təhlükəsizlik qədər vacib məsələdir. Bütün qeyd olunanlar isə elektron imzanın zəruriliyini ortaya çıxarır.

Elektron imza ideyası 20-ci əsrin 70-80-cı illərdə meydana gəlib və əsas mahiyyəti informasiyanı hazırlayan şəxsin həqiqiliyinin yoxlanılması və  3-cü tərəfə (məhkəmə, internet market və s.) bu informasiyanı yaradan şəxsi müəyyən etməsinə imkan yaratmaqdır.

Hal-hazırda elektron imzanı tətbiq edən ölkələr digərlərinə nisbətən daha inkişaf etmiş hesab olunur və həmçinin belə ölkələrdə inkişaf daha da dinamik baş verir.

Bu gün elektron hökumətin əsas atributlarından sayılan elektron imza Azərbaycanda da uğurla tətbiq edilməkdədir. “Elektron imza və elektron sənəd haqqında” Azərbaycan Respublikasının Qanunu qəbul edildikdən sonra “elektron imza”nın reallaşdırılması mərkəzi icra orqanı kimi Rabitə və İnformasiya Texnologiyaları Nazirliyinə tapşırıldı.

Bu Fərmandan irəli gələrək hazırda fəaliyyət göstərən Sertifikat Xidmətləri Mərkəzinin əsas vəzifəsi Ali SXM kimi digər SXM-lərə nəzarət funksiyasını həyata keçirmək, onların Azərbaycan Respublikasının qanunvericiliyinə uyğun fəaliyyət göstərdiyini, düzgün proqram təminatından istifadə etməsini və s. yoxlamaqdan ibarətdir. 2011-ci ilin sentyabr ayından rəsmi olaraq fəliyyətə başlayan Mərkəz əhalinin müxtəlif təbəqələrinə, yəni adi vətəndaşlara, sahibkarlıq fəaliyyəti ilə məşğul olan hüquqi və fiziki şəxslərə, həmçinin dövlət qulluqçularına xidmət göstərir. Elektron imza xidmətlərini operativ şəkildə təmin etmək məqsədilə Bakı şəhərinin əsas mərkəzi poçt şöbələri və filiallarında, həmçinin ölkənin regionlarındakı poçt şöbələrində Qeydiyyat Mərkəzləri təşkil olunmuşdur.

Vətəndaşlara operativ şəkildə elektron imza xidmətlərini təşkil etmək, həmçinin onları maraqlandıran sualları cavablandırmaq məqsədilə Mərkəzin mütəxəssisləri tərəfindən www.e-imza.az saytı hazırlanmışdır. Sayt vasitəsilə vətəndaşlar Mərkəzin fəaliyyəti ilə yanaşı, elektron imzadan istifadə qaydaları, müxtəlif təlimatlar, öz sertifikatları haqqında ətraflı məlumat əldə edə bilərlər.

Bu gün respublikamızda elektron imza sisteminin tətbiqi və dövlət orqanlarında elektron xidmətlərin göstərilməsi gələcəkdə ölkəmizin dünya informasiya sisteminə, Avropaya inteqrasiyasını daha da sürətləndirmiş olacaq.

Elektron imza

Elektron imza Elektron dünyada şəxsiyyəti müəyyənləşdirmə vasitəsidir. Elektron imza anlayışı ümumi xarakter daşıyır. İnsanların əl imzalarının rəqəmli çeviricilərdən keçirilmiş, barmaq izləri, səs kimi bioloji əlamətlərinin və s. elektron halda kimliklərinin doğrulanmasını təmin edən vasitədir. Elektron imza elektron sistemdə imzanın malik olduğu bütün işləri yerinə yetirən, elektron sertifikat vasitəsilə bir elektron məlumata əlavə edilən və məlumatı göndərəni təyin edən bir ədədi koddur.


Mobil İD

Mobil-İD Mərkəzinin funksiyalarına vətəndaşların müraciəti əsasında mobil identifikasiya sertifikatlarının hazırlanması və təqdim edilməsi daxildir. Sahibinin şəxsiyyətini təsdiqləyən identifikasiya sertifikatı və müvafiq açıq və qizli açarlar mobil cihazda saxlanılır. Mobil-İD Mərkəzin açarının qorunması HSM-ə (avadanlıq təhlükəsizlik modulu) əsaslanır. HSM sistemində 3-cü qrup üzrə FİPS 140-3 səviyyəsində qoruma mövcuddur.


Elektron Hökümət Mərkəzi

Elektron Hökumət Mərkəzi. Bu Mərkəzin funksiyalarına hakimiyyət orqanları ilə münasibətləri təmin etmək üçün təsərrüfat subyektlərinə və vətəndaşlara gücləndirilimiş sertifikatların verilməsi daxildir. “Elektron imza və elektron sənəd” haqqında Azərbaycan Respublikasının qanununda göstərilir ki, dövlət hakimiyyəti və ya yerli özünüidarəetmə orqanlarına vətəndaşın, fiziki və ya hüquqi şəxsin göndərdiyi məlumat bildirişi onun gücləndirilmiş imzası ilə təsdiqlənməlidir.


Hakimiyyət Orqanları Mərkəzi

Hakimiyyət Orqanları Mərkəzi. Bu Mərkəzin funksiyalarına daxili və təşkilatlararası sənəd dövriyyəsini təmin etmək üçün ali icraedici və qanunverici dövlət orqanlarının, nazirlik və komitələrin, bələdiyyələrin və dövlət qurumların əməkdaşlarına gücləndirilmiş sertifikatların verilməsi daxildir. “Elektron imza və elektron sənəd” haqqında Azərbaycan Respublikasının qanununa əsasən dövlət hakimiyyəti və yerli özünüidarəetmə orqanları sahə üzrə akkreditə edilmiş mərkəzinin xidmətlərindən istifadə etməlidir.

http://e-imza.gov.az/imza.html



https://www.e-gov.az/az

http://www.e-imza.az/index.php?lang=az



Elektron imza (ing. Electronic signature) – elektron formada olan verilənlər yığımıdır, digər verilənlərlə (elektron sənədproqram faylları və s.) məntiqi əlaqəli olur və buverilənlər yığımını yaradan (generasiya edən) şəxsi birqiymətli identifikasiya etməyə imkan verir.[1]

Elektron rəqəm imzası (en. Digital signature, ru. Электронная цифровая подпись)

  1. Elektron imzanın növlərindən biridir, asimmetrik şifrələməyə əsaslanan texnologiyadan ibarətdir. Rəqəm imzası konkret məlumata ( mətnəfayla və ya ixtiyari uzunluqlu istənilən bitlər yığımına) əlavə olunan və xüsusi: məlumatın müəllifinin identifikasiyası və autentikasiyası; məlumatın bütövlüyünün təsdiqi (sanksiyasız dəyişilmələrin yoxluğu); məlumatın müəllifliyindən imtinanın qeyri-mümkünlüyünə zəmanət kimi şərtləri təmin etməyə imkan verən qeyd olunmuş (sabit) uzunluqlu informasiya blokudur.

  2. Fiziki şəxsin əllə yazılmış imzasının analoqu olub, bağlı ERİ açarından istifadə etməklə elektron verilənlərin kriptoqrafik dəyişmə nəticəsində simvollar ardıcıllığı kimi təsvir edilir. Bağlı ERİ açarı açıq ERİ açar istifadəçisinin informasiyanın tamlığını və dəyişməzliyini təyin etməyə şərait yaradır.

Intranet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An intranet is a computer network that uses Internet Protocol technology to share information, operational systems, or computing services within an organization. This term is used in contrast to extranet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes, the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure, and may be composed of multiple local area networks. The objective is to organize each individual's desktop with minimal cost, time and effort to be more productive, cost efficient, timely, and competitive.

An intranet may host multiple private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration. Any of the well known Internet protocols may be found in an intranet, such as HTTP (web services), SMTP (e-mail), and FTP (file transfer protocol). Internet technologies are often deployed to provide modern interfaces to legacy information systems hosting corporate data.

An intranet can be understood as a private analog of the Internet, or as a private extension of the Internet confined to an organization. The first intranet websites and home pages were published in 1991,[1][2] and began to appear in non-educational organizations in 1994.[3]

Intranets are sometimes contrasted to extranets. While intranets are generally restricted to employees of the organization, extranets may also be accessed by customers, suppliers, or other approved parties.[4] Extranets extend a private network onto the Internet with special provisions for authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA protocol).

In many organizations, intranets are protected from unauthorized external access by means of a network gateway and firewall. For smaller companies, intranets may be created simply by using private IP address ranges. In these cases, the intranet can only be directly accessed from a computer in the local network; however, companies may provide access to off-site employees by using a virtual private network, or by other access methods, requiring user authentication and encryption.

Contents

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Uses[edit]

Increasingly, intranets are being used to deliver tools, e.g. collaboration (to facilitate working in groups and teleconferencing) or sophisticated corporate directories, sales and customer relationship management tools, project management etc., to advance productivity.

Intranets are also being used as corporate culture-change platforms. For example, large numbers of employees discussing key issues in an intranet forum application could lead to new ideas in management, productivity, quality, and other corporate issues.

In large intranets, website traffic is often similar to public website traffic and can be better understood by using web metrics software to track overall activity. User surveys also improve intranet website effectiveness. Larger businesses allow users within their intranet to access public internet through firewall servers. They have the ability to screen messages coming and going keeping security intact.

When part of an intranet is made accessible to customers and others outside the business, that part becomes part of an extranet. Businesses can send private messages through the public network, using special encryption/decryption and other security safeguards to connect one part of their intranet to another.

Intranet user-experience, editorial, and technology teams work together to produce in-house sites. Most commonly, intranets are managed by the communications, HRor CIO departments of large organizations, or some combination of these.

Because of the scope and variety of content and the number of system interfaces, intranets of many organizations are much more complex than their respective public websites. Intranets and their use are growing rapidly. According to the Intranet design annual 2007 from Nielsen Norman Group, the number of pages on participants' intranets averaged 200,000 over the years 2001 to 2003 and has grown to an average of 6 million pages over 2005–2007.[5]

Benefits[edit]

  • Workforce productivity: Intranets can help users to locate and view information faster and use applications relevant to their roles and responsibilities. With the help of a web browser interface, users can access data held in any database the organization wants to make available, anytime and — subject to security provisions — from anywhere within the company workstations, increasing employees' ability to perform their jobs faster, more accurately, and with confidence that they have the right information. It also helps to improve the services provided to the users.

  • Time: Intranets allow organizations to distribute information to employees on an as-needed basis; Employees may link to relevant information at their convenience, rather than being distracted indiscriminately by email.

  • Communication: Intranets can serve as powerful tools for communication within an organization, vertically strategic initiatives that have a global reach throughout the organization. The type of information that can easily be conveyed is the purpose of the initiative and what the initiative is aiming to achieve, who is driving the initiative, results achieved to date, and who to speak to for more information. By providing this information on the intranet, staff have the opportunity to keep up-to-date with the strategic focus of the organization. Some examples of communication would be chat, email, and/or blogs. A great real world example of where an intranet helped a company communicate is when Nestle had a number of food processing plants in Scandinavia. Their central support system had to deal with a number of queries every day.[6] When Nestle decided to invest in an intranet, they quickly realized the savings. McGovern says the savings from the reduction in query calls was substantially greater than the investment in the intranet.

  • Web publishing allows cumbersome corporate knowledge to be maintained and easily accessed throughout the company using hypermedia and Web technologies.[7] Examples include: employee manuals, benefits documents, company policies, business standards, news feeds, and even training, can be accessed using common Internet standards (Acrobat files, Flash files, CGI applications). Because each business unit can update the online copy of a document, the most recent version is usually available to employees using the intranet.

  • Business operations and management: Intranets are also being used as a platform for developing and deploying applications to support business operations and decisions across the internetworked enterprise.[7]

  • Cost-effective: Users can view information and data via web-browser rather than maintaining physical documents such as procedure manuals, internal phone list and requisition forms. This can potentially save the business money on printing, duplicating documents, and the environment as well as document maintenance overhead. For example, the HRM company PeopleSoft "derived significant cost savings by shifting HR processes to the intranet".[6] McGovern goes on to say the manual cost of enrolling in benefits was found to be USD109.48 per enrollment. "Shifting this process to the intranet reduced the cost per enrollment to $21.79; a saving of 80 percent". Another company that saved money on expense reports was Cisco. "In 1996, Cisco processed 54,000 reports and the amount of dollars processed was USD19 million".[6]

  • Enhance collaboration: Information is easily accessible by all authorised users, which enables teamwork.[7]

  • Cross-platform capability: Standards-compliant web browsers are available for Windows, Mac, and UNIX.

  • Built for one audience: Many companies dictate computer specifications which, in turn, may allow Intranet developers to write applications that only have to work on one browser (no cross-browser compatibility issues). Being able to specifically address your "viewer" is a great advantage. Since Intranets are user-specific (requiring database/network authentication prior to access), you know exactly who you are interfacing with and can personalize your Intranet based on role (job title, department) or individual ("Congratulations Jane, on your 3rd year with our company!").

  • Promote common corporate culture: Every user has the ability to view the same information within the Intranet.

  • Immediate updates: When dealing with the public in any capacity, laws, specifications, and parameters can change. Intranets make it possible to provide your audience with "live" changes so they are kept up-to-date, which can limit a company's liability.[7]

  • Supports a distributed computing architecture: The intranet can also be linked to a company’s management information system, for example a time keeping system.

Planning and creation[edit]

Most organizations devote considerable resources into the planning and implementation of their intranet as it is of strategic importance to the organization's success. Some of the planning would include topics such as:

  • The purpose and goals of the intranet[8][9]

  • Persons or departments responsible for implementation and management

  • Functional plans, information architecture, page layouts, design[10]

  • Implementation schedules and phase-out of existing systems

  • Defining and implementing security of the intranet

  • How to ensure it is within legal boundaries and other constraints

  • Level of interactivity (e.g. wikis, on-line forms) desired.

  • Is the input of new data and updating of existing data to be centrally controlled or devolved

These are in addition to the hardware and software decisions (like content management systems), participation issues (like good taste, harassment, confidentiality), and features to be supported.[11]

Intranets are often static sites. Essentially they are a shared drive, serving up centrally stored documents alongside internal articles or communications (often one-way communication). However organisations are now starting to think of how their intranets can become a 'communication hub' for their team by using companies specialising in 'socialising' intranets.[12] The actual implementation would include steps such as:

  • Securing senior management support and funding.[13]

  • Business requirements analysis.

  • Identify users' information needs.

  • Installation of web server and user access network.

  • Installing required user applications on computers.

  • Creation of document framework for the content to be hosted.[14]

  • User involvement in testing and promoting use of intranet.

  • Ongoing measurement and evaluation, including through benchmarking against other intranets.[15][16]

Another useful component in an intranet structure might be key personnel committed to maintaining the Intranet and keeping content current. For feedback on the intranet, social networking can be done through a forum for users to indicate what they want and what they do not like.

Intranet software[edit]

Microsoft SharePoint is the dominant software used for creating intranets. Estimates indicate that around 50% of all intranets are developed using SharePoint,[17]however there are many alternatives.[18] Other intranet software includes:



İntranet

Vikipediya, açıq ensiklopediya

İntranet - Internet protokolları olan TCP/IP protokolları ilə korporativ şəbəkə də qurmaq olar. Bu şəbəkədə də İnternetdə olduğu kimi HTML səhifələri, keçidlər, URLünvanları, Veb-saytlar yerləşdirmək olar və bu şəbəkənin İnternet şəbəkəsinə qoşulmağı o qədər də vacib deyil. Belə şəbəkə İntanet (İntraşəbəkə) adlanır vəİnternetdən fərqi ondan ibarətdir ki, xaricdən bu şəbəkəyə müraciət mümkün deyil. İntranetin köməyi ilə informasiya mübadiləsi təşkilat daxilində aparılır ki, bu da həm vaxta, həm də pula qənaət deməkdir.



İnternet

Vikipediya, açıq ensiklopediya


İnternet

Bu məqalənin azərbaycan dili əlifbasının ərəb qrafikası ilə qarşılığı vardır. Bax: اينترنت

İnternet — bir neçə kompüterlər sisteminin bir birinə bağlı olduğu, dünya səviyyəsində yayımlanan və daimi olaraq inkişaf edən əlaqə şəbəkəsidir.

Mündəricat

  [gizlə

Tarixi[redaktə]

İnternetdə vahid idarəetmə mərkəzi yaxud vahid müdiriyyət yoxdur. Buna baxmayaraq, şəbəkənin belə təşkili əslində dərindən düşünülmüş struktur deməkdir. Bu struktur 1969-cu ildə Amerika Birləşmiş Ştatları Təhlükəsizlik nazirliyi tərəfindən işlənmiş ARPAnet layihəsi çərçivəsində qurulmuş və on minlərlə dünya proqramçılarının kollektiv şüuru ilə getdikcə inkişaf etdirilmiş və mükəmməlləşdirilmişdir. Gələcək şəbəkənin strukturuna ilk addımlardan başlayaraq informasiyanın nəqlinin etibarlılığı və yuksək səviyyəli qəzaya qarşı müqavimət əsas rol oynayır. Bu gün İnternet demək olar ki, dünyanın bütün ölkələrini əhatə edir və onun istifadəçilərinin sayı getdikcə artır.

1958-ci ildə SSRİnin kosmosa ilk süni peyki buraxması ABŞ-ı müasir texnologiyaların inkişafını sürətlndirməyə sövq etdi. Bu məqsədlə yaradılmış xüsusi tədqiqat agentliyi olan DARPA yerüstü məlumat ötürülməsinin sürətləndirilməsi yönündə tədqiqatlara başladı. Bunun üçün ilk öncə ABŞ-da yerləşən bütün radarların vahid şəbəkədə birləşdirilməsi işinə başlanıldı. Bunun üçün müxtəlif məntəqələrdə, PentaqondaHərbi Hava QüvvələriHava Hücümundan Müdafiə bazalarında və digər məntəqələrdə yerləşən kompüterləri vahid şəbəkədə birləşdirmək lazım idi. Bu işi görmək üçün ABŞ-ın ən yaxşı kompüter mütəxəssisləri bir araya gətirildi. Uzun illər davam edən gərgin əmək və çoxlu tədqiqatlardan sonra 29 oktyabr 1969-cu ildə Kaliforniya Universitetindəki laboratoriyaların birində alimlər iki kompüteri vahid sistemdə birləşdirə bildilər. Bu tarix internetin dünyada ilk dəfə meydana gəldiyi tarix hesab olunur. Artıq 1971-ci ildə 15 müxtəlif obyektlərdə olan kompüterləri vahid şəbəkədə birləşdirmək mümkün olmuşdu. Bu sistemin adı ilk illər ARPANET olmuşdu. 1972-ci ildə ARPANET vasitəsilə elektron məktub göndərilməsinə imkan verən program yaradıldı. İlk dəfə olaraq @ işarəsi elektron poçt ünvanlarında işlədilməyə başlandı və 1980-ci ildə bu işarə Beynalxalq standart kimi təsdiqləndi. 1973-1974-cü illərdə TCP/İP protokolu meydana çıxdı. TCP/İP protokolları ARPANET-in əsas qurucularından olan Robert Ken və Vindon Serf tərəfindən təklif olunub. TCP/İP protokolu 2 rabitə protokolundan ibarətdir. Transmission Control Protocol ötürməyə nəzarət protokolu – verilənlərin ötürülməsinə nəzarət edən protokol və İnternet Protocol yəni internet protokolu. 1980-ci ildə DNS yaradıldı. 1985-ci ildə ABŞ milli elm fonduna məxsus NSFNET – Milli elm fondu şəbəkəsi yaradıldı. Həmin ildə ilk dəfə olaraq 56 kb/saniyə sürətilə informasiya ötürülməsinin üsulu tapıldı. Növbəti ildə isə informasiya ötürülməsi üçün 1,5 Mb sürət əldə edildi. Lakin ilk illərdə bu sürəti qlobal olaraq hər yerdə deyil, yalnız laboratoriya daxilində tətbiq etmək olurdu.

Şəbəkə vasitəsilə kompüterlərdə olan çoxlu sayda sənədlərdən hamı eyni vaxtda istifadə edə bilməsi üçün 1989-1990-cı illərdə www sistemi yaradıldı. Tim Börner Lihiper mətnli sənədlər texnologiyasını yaratdı. Qeyd etmək yerinə düşər ki, Ser titulu qazanan Tim Börner 2004-cü ildə 15 il öncəki kəşfinə görə Beynalxalq Fond tərəfindən 1.000.000 avro məbləğində pul mükafatı qazanıb. İnternetin qloballaşması 1988-1989-cu illərə təsadüf edir. Bu illərdə KanadaFransaAlmaniya və 1992-ci ildə Böyük Britaniya və Latviya NSFNET vasitəsilə internetə qoşuldular. İnternet sözü isə ilk dəfə olaraq 1990-cı ildə istifadə olunmağa başlayıb. 1994-cü ildə ilk dəfə olaraq internetdən elektron kommersiya məqsədilə istifadəyə başlanılıb. [1] Azərbaycanda isə internetdən ilk dəfə olaraq 1995-ci ildə istifadə olunmağa başlanılıb.

İstifadəsi[redaktə]

İnternet istifadəçilərin "məlumatın saxlanması, paylaşması və rahat əldə olunması" istəkləri nəticəsində yaranmış bir texnologiyadır. Bu texnologiyanın köməyi ilə insanlar məlumatları rahat şəkildə əldə edə bilirlər. İnterneti bir məlumat dənizinə yaxud çox böyük kitabxanaya bənzədə bilərik.

İnternetin əsas xidmətləri Elektron poçt ( e-mail ), Telekonfranslar və nəhayət WWW - informasiya-sorğu verilənlər bazaları, hökümət sənədləri, kitabxana kataloqları və sair kimi çoxsaylı müxtəlif sənədlərdən ibarət olan hipermətn mühiti.

İki və ya bir neçə kompüter verilənlər mübadiləsi məqsədi ilə bir birinə qoşulduqda kompüter şəbəkəsi yaranır.

Bir təşkilatın kompüterlərini birləşdirən şəbəkəyə Lokal şəbəkə və ya LAN (Local Area Network) deyilir.

Lokal şəbəkələri və fərdi istifadəçiləri birləşdirən şəbəkə Qlobal şəbəkə və ya WAN (Wide Area Network) adlanır.

Lokal şəbəkəni (LAN) qlobal şəbəkə (WAN) ilə birləşdirən kompüter və bu kompüterdəki proqram təminatı şlyuz (Gateway) adlanır.

Qlobal şəbəkələri birləşdirən daha yüksək səviyyəli şəbəkə də mövcuddur. Bu şəbəkə İnternet adlanır. İnternet bütün dünya üzrə müxtəlif kompüterlər arasında ünsiyyət üçün imkan yaradan və informasiya mübadiləsini təmin edən şəbəkələr şəbəkəsidir.

Müxtəlif tipli, müxtəlif əməliyyat sistemli kompüterlərin belə bir ünsiyəti nəticəsində ortaya üyğunluq problemi çıxır. Bu problemi aradan qaldırmaq məqsədi ilə informasiya mübadiləsinin təşkili üçün vahid qaydalar, yəni vahid standart (protokol) işlənmişdir. Bu protokol - TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) - verilənlərin nəqlinə nəzarət/İnternet protokoludur.

İnternetə qoşulma ayrılmış kanal vasitəsi ilə və ya zəng etmə yolu ilə, yəni telefon xətti ilə həyata keçirilir. Ayrı-ayrı kompüterlərin ayrılmış kanal vasitəsi ilə və ya telefon xətti ilə şəbəkəyə qoşulması üçün nəzərdə tutulmuş qurğuya Modem (modulyator- demodulyator) deyilir.

Sizin İnternetə qoşulmanızı, məktublarınızın göndərilməsini, alınmasını və qorunub saxlanmasını təmin edən təşkilat internet-provayder adlanır. İnternet-provayder İnternetlə bağlı başqa xidmətlər də göstərir. İnternetdə sizin kompüterin identifikasiyası, yəni müəyyənləşdirilməsi üçün provayder tərəfindən ona IP-ünvan təyin edilir. IP-ünvan, hər birisi səkkiz ikilik rəqəmdən ibarət olan dörd qrupdan ibarətdir, və çox zaman onluq şəkildə yazılır. Məsələn: 255.255.100.123 . Burada axırıncı (dördüncü) rəqəmlər qrupu şəbəkədə kompüterin nömrəsini, üçüncü qrup isə şəbəkənin nömrəsini göstərir.

Rəqəmli nömrələri yadda saxlamaq çətin olduğundan domen adlarından istifadə olunur. Məsələn, www.elm.az Burada www(world wide web) elm domen .az isə birinci səviyyəli domendir. İnternetdə altdomenlər (subdomain) də mövcuddur. Məsələn http://www.firststeps.az. Ünvanın bir şəkildən başqa şəklə çevirilməsi xüsusi Domen Adları xidməti (DNS - domain name service) tərəfindən yerinə yetirilir.

Göstərilən birinci səviyyəli, təşkilat domenləri mövcuddur:

  • .com kommersiya ilə məşğul olan təşkilatlar

  • .edu - təhsillə məşğul olan təşkilatlar

  • .org - kommersiya ilə məşğul olmayan təşkilatlar

  • .gov - hökumət təşkilatları

  • .mil - Amerika Birləşmiş Ştatları -ın hərbi təşkilatları

  • .int - beynəlxalq təşkilatlar

  • .net - şəbəkə xidmətləri göstərən təşkilatlar


Məsələn: www.azercell.com ; www.wikipedia.org. Birinci səviyyəli təşkilat domenlərindən başqa, kompüterin yerini müəyyənlaşdirən coğrafi domenlər də var.

Birinci səviyyəli coğrafi domenlərə nümunələr:

Məsələn: www.google.az; yandex.ru

İnformasiyanın texniki vasitələrin köməyi ilə nəqli, saxlanması və işlənməsi zamanı, o, ikilik kod da, yəni sıfırlar və birlərin ardıcıllığı kimi təsvir edilir. İnformasiyanın ən kiçik ölçü vahidi bitdir. 1 bit - bir ikilik movqeyin daşıdığı informasiyanın miqdarıdır. 8 bit bir bayta bərabərdir.

1 bit = 1 dərəcə (0 və ya 1);

1 bayt = 8 bit;

1 Kbayt = 1024 bayt;

1 Mbayt = 1024 Kbayt; 1000 000 bayt = 106 bayt

1 Gbayt = 1024 Mbayt; 1000 000 000 bayt = 109 bayt

1 Tbayt = 1024 Gbayt. 1000 000 000 000 bayt = 1012 bayt


İnformasiyanın nəqli zamanı onun sürəti saniyədə bitlə və ya saniyədə impulsla (bod (boud)) ölçülür.

Hər ay İnternet kanalları ilə orta hesabla 30 Terabitdən artıq informasiya nəql edilir. Bu, hərəsi 700 səhifədən ibarət olan 30 million kitaba bərabərdir. Brauzer və yaVeb səyyah - Sizin kompüterdə işləyən və İnternet-səhifələrin axtarışına və baxılmasına imkan yaradan bir proqramdır. İnternetdən sizə və sizdən İnternetə informasiya göndərərkən, brauzer müştəri-server sxemindən istifadə edir. Bu sxemdə sizin kompüter - müştəri kimi, uzaqda yerləşən kompüter isə server kimi çıxış edir.

Siz istifadəçi olduğunuz halda kompüterinizdəki müştəri proqramı (brauzer) server adlanan şəbəkə qovşağına qoşulur və ona informasiya almaq üçün sorğu göndərir. Serverdəki proqram, öz növbəsində, bu informasiyanı sizə göndərir və növbəti sorğunu gözləyir. Belə iş rejiminə On-line iş rejimi deyilir (On-line).

Çoxfunksiyalı bir proqram kimi brauzer avtonom rejimdə - İnternetə qoşulmadan - HTML- sənədlərə və GIF, JPG və ya JPEG formatlı şəkillərə baxmaq üçün istifadə olunur. Bu rejim Off-line iş rejimi adlanır.

Müxtəlif şirkətlər tərəfindən yaradılmış bir çox brauzerlər mövcuddur. Lakin bütün dünyada istifadəçilərin əksəriyyəti Microsoft şirkətinin Internet Explorer və yaxud Mozilla şirkətinin Firefox proqramların seçir.

Ümumdünya Torunun (WWW) əsasını lazımi sənədlərin ünvanlarını göstərən əlaqələr sistemi təşkil edir. Əlaqənin yaradılması texnologiyalarından asılılığı aradan qaldırmaq məqsədilə WWW üçün xüsusi ünvan sistemi URL yaradılmışdır. URL( universal ünvangöstəricisi ) sənədin adı ilə birgə ona çatma protokolunu da göstərir.

İstinada, yəni URL-ünvana müraciət etdikdə, sorğunun yerinə yetirilməsi 4 mərhələyə bölünür:

  1. Connection (Qoşulma)

  2. Request (Sorğu)

  3. Response (Cavab)

  4. Close (Əlaqənin kəsilməsi)

Birinci mərhələdə Web-müştəri serverlə əlaqə yaradmağa çalışır. Qoşulduqdan sonra, müştəri verilmiş protokola əsasən serverə axtarılan obyekt barəsində sorğu göndərir. Server sorğuya cavab tapan kimi bu cavabı müştəriyə ötürür. Bundan sonra əlaqə kəsilir və brauzer alınmış sənədləri əks etdirir. Bu prosses HTTP-nin - hipermətnin köçürülməsi protokolunun əsasını təşkil edir.

Klaviaturada Enter düyməsini basın. Göstərilmiş ünvana əsasən Web-səhifə axtarılan zaman pəncərənin aşağısında yerləşən məlumat sətrində yüklənən səhifənin IP-ünvanı, sənədin adı və sair göstərilir. İstəsəniz, F11 düyməsini basmaqla səhifəni bütün ekran boyu aça bilərsiniz.

URL -ünvanlarala yanaşı əlaqə və ya hiperəlaqələrdən də istifadə olunur. Bu istinadlar adətən rəngli mətn, işarə, rəsm şəklində olur, çərçivəyə də alına bilər.

Səhifənin sol tərəfindəki mətnə diqqət yetirin. Şəkil və ya mətnin hiperistinad olub olmadığını yoxlamaq üçün mausun göstəricisini onun üzərinə gətirin. hiperistinadın üzərinə gətirildikdə göstərici görünüşünü dəyişərək, məsələn, əl şəklini ala bilər. Məlumat sətrində bu zaman istinadın URL-ünvanı göstərilir.

İstinaddan istifadə etmək üçün onun üzərində mausun düyməsini bir dəfə basmaq kifayətdir. Bu zaman istinadın işarə etdiyi Web-səhifənin axtarışı başlanır.

Web-səhifə demək olar ki bütün hallarda bir neçə əlaqəli HTML-sənəddən ibarət olur. Hiperəlaqələrlə və eləcədə vahid mövzu, müəllif və sairlə biri birinə bağlı olan bir qrup Web-səhifəyə Sayt (Site) deyilir.

İnternetdə Dil[redaktə]

İnformasiya resurslarına İnternetin istifadəçilərinin girişinin azadlığı dövlət sərhədləriylə və ya milli domenlərlə məhdudlaşdırılmır, amma dil sərhədləri mövcuddur. İngilis dili internetdə əsas üstünlüyə malik olan dildir. İkinci ən populyar dil çin dili, üçüncü isə ispan dilidir[2] Dil internetin dövlətlər, regionlar və birinci səviyyəli domenlərə görə bölünmə yanaşı tez-tez istifadə edilən bölünmə əlamətlərindən biridir.

Xidmətləri[redaktə]

Xüsusi qeydlər[redaktə]

  • "Kommunikasiyalar üzrə dialoq, müzakirələr və konsensusun əldə olunmasını təşviq etdiyinə" görə İnternetin namizədliyi Nobel Sülh Mükafatı nominasiyası üzrə irəli sürülüb. "Nobel" sülh mükafatının alınması üçün Qlobal Şəbəkənin namizədliyini tanınmış "Wired" jurnalının İtaliyadakı nəşriyyatı irəli sürüb. Jurnal hesab edir ki, dünyada inqilab yaradan internet demokratiyanın yayılması istiqamətində mühüm rol oynaya bilib. Şəbəkənin namizədliyini 2003-cü ilin "Nobel" mükafatı laureatı Şirin Ebadi və onkologiya sahəsində tədqiqatları ilə tanınan italiyalı cərrah Umberto Veronezi dəstəkləyiblər. "Wired" Qlobal Şəbəkənin 2010-cu ilin sentyabr ayında keçiriləcək "Nobel" sülh mükafatına laureat kimi dəstəklənməsi üçün kampaniyaya da başlayıb[3].

  • Finlandiya hər bir insanın internetə çıxış hüququnu qanuniləşdirən ilk ölkədir. Belə ki, Finlandiyada istənilən insan üçün bu, qanunda nəzərdə tutulmuş hüquq sayılır. Qanun 2010-cu il iyulun 1-dən etibarən internet-provayderlərin üzərinə bütün vətəndaşlara genişzolaqlı internetə çıxışı təmin etmək öhdəliyi qoyub



Internet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the worldwide computer network. For other uses, see Internet (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with the World Wide Web.

Internet


Computer network types
by spatial scope

Page semi-protected

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite(TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide. It is an international network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government packet switched networks, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), theinfrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing and telephony.

The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks.[1] While this work, together with work in the United Kingdom and France, led to important precursor networks, they were not the Internet. There is no consensus on the exact date when the modern Internet came into being, but sometime in the early to mid-1980s is considered reasonable.[2] From that point, the network experienced decades of sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, andmobile computers were connected to it.

The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks.[3] Though the Internet has been widely used by academia since the 1980s, thecommercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of June 2012, more than 2.4 billion people—over a third of the world's human population—have used the services of the Internet; approximately 100 times more people than were using it in 1995.[4][5] Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s to early 2000s and from the late 1990s to present in the developing world. In 1994 only 3% of American classrooms had access to the Internet while by 2002 92% did.[6]

Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television(IPTV). Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into bloggingand web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging,Internet forums, and social networkingOnline shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies.[7] Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.[8]

Terminology

See also: Capitalization of "Internet"

The Internet, referring to the specific global system of interconnected IP networks, is a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the media and common use it is often not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as a verb or an adjective.[9] The Internet is also often referred to as the Net.

Historically the word internet was used, uncapitalized, as early as 1883 as a verb and adjective to refer to interconnected motions. Starting in the early 1970s the term internet was used as a shorthand form of the technical term internetwork, the result of interconnecting computer networks with special gateways or routers. It was also used as a verb meaning to connect together, especially for networks.[10][11]

The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech; it is common to speak of "going on the Internet" when invoking a web browser to view web pages. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is just one of a very large number of services running on the Internet. The Web is a collection of interconnected documents (web pages) and other web resources, linked byhyperlinks and URLs.[12] As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.[13] In addition to the Web, a multitude of other services are implemented over the Internet, including e-mailfile transferremote computer controlnewsgroups, and online games. All of these services can be implemented on any intranet, accessible to network users.

The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user.[14]

History

Main articles: History of the Internet and History of the World Wide Web

Research into packet switching started in the early 1960s and packet switched networks such as Mark I at NPL in the UK,[15]ARPANETCYCLADES,[16][17] Merit Network,[18] Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, where multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.[19]

The first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Leonard Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) inMenlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969.[20] The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics center at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971.[21][22] These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing.

Early international collaborations on ARPANET were sparse. For various political reasons, European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks.[23] Notable exceptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) in June 1973, followed in 1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter T. Kirstein's research group in the UK, initially at the Institute of Computer ScienceUniversity of London and later at University College London.[24][25][26]

In December 1974, RFC 675 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and later RFCs repeat this use.[27] Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET). In 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) was standardized and the concept of a world-wide network of fully interconnected TCP/IP networks called the Internet was introduced.

TCP/IP network access expanded again in 1986 when the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations, first at 56 kbit/s and later at 1.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.[28] Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. The Internet was fully commercialized in the U.S. by 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.[29] The Internet started a rapid expansion to Europe and Australia in the mid to late 1980s[30][31] and to Asia in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[32]

Since the mid-1990s the Internet has had a tremendous impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near instant communication by email, instant messagingVoice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls", two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web[33] with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, andonline shopping sites. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more.

Worldwide Internet users

 

2005

2010

2013a

World population[34]

6.5 billion

6.9 billion

7.1 billion

Not using the Internet

84%

70%

61%

Using the Internet

16%

30%

39%

Users in the developing world

8%

21%

31%

Users in the developed world

51%

67%

77%

a Estimate.
Source: 
International Telecommunications Union.[35]

The Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge, commerce, entertainment and social networking.[36] During the late 1990s, it was estimated that traffic on the public Internet grew by 100 percent per year, while the mean annual growth in the number of Internet users was thought to be between 20% and 50%.[37] This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.[38] As of 31 March 2011, the estimated total number ofInternet users was 2.095 billion (30.2% of world population).[39] It is estimated that in 1993 the Internet carried only 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunication, by 2000 this figure had grown to 51%, and by 2007 more than 97% of all telecommunicated information was carried over the Internet.[40]

Governance

The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. It operates without a central governing body.

The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.

To maintain interoperability, the principal name spaces of the Internet are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), headquartered in Marina del Rey, California. ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, application port numbers in the transport protocols, and many other parameters. Globally unified name spaces, in which names and numbers are uniquely assigned, are essential for maintaining the global reach of the Internet. ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and other non-commercial communities. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body for the global Internet.[41]

Allocation of IP addresses is delegated to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs):

The National Telecommunications and Information Administration, an agency of the United States Department of Commerce, continues to have final approval over changes to the DNS root zone.[42][43][44]

The Internet Society (ISOC) was founded in 1992, with a mission to "assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world".[45] Its members include individuals (anyone may join) as well as corporations, organizations, governments, and universities. Among other activities ISOC provides an administrative home for a number of less formally organized groups that are involved in developing and managing the Internet, including: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Internet Architecture Board (IAB), Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), andInternet Research Steering Group (IRSG).

On 16 November 2005, the United Nations-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.

Infrastructure

The communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture.

Routing and service tiers

Internet service providers connect customers, which represent the bottom of the routing hierarchy, to customers of other ISPs via other higher or same-tier networks. At the top of the routing hierarchy are the tier 1 networks, large telecommunication companies that exchange traffic directly with each other via peering agreements. Tier 2 and lower level networks buy Internet transit from other providers to reach at least some parties on the global Internet, though they may also engage in peering. An ISP may use a single upstream provider for connectivity, or implementmultihoming to achieve redundancy and load balancing. Internet exchange points are major traffic exchanges with physical connections to multiple ISPs.

Computers and routers use routing tables in their operating system to direct IP packets to the next-hop router or destination. Routing tables are maintained by manual configuration or automatically by routing protocols. End-nodes typically use a default route that points toward an ISP providing transit, while ISP routers use the Border Gateway Protocol to establish the most efficient routing across the complex connections of the global Internet.

Large organizations, such as academic institutions, large enterprises, and governments, may perform the same function as ISPs, engaging in peering and purchasing transit on behalf of their internal networks. Research networks tend to interconnect with large subnetworks such as GEANTGLORIADInternet2, and the UK's national research and education networkJANET.

It has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks.[46]

Access

Common methods of Internet access by users include dial-up with a computer modem via telephone circuits, broadband over coaxial cablefiber optic or copper wires,Wi-Fisatellite and cellular telephone technology (3G4G). The Internet may often be accessed from computers in libraries and Internet cafesInternet access pointsexist in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops. Various terms are used, such as public Internet kioskpublic access terminal, and Web payphone. Many hotels also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based. These terminals are widely accessed for various usage, such as ticket booking, bank deposit, or online payment. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to the Internet via local computer networks. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes, where users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA. These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based.

Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in London, ViennaToronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench.[47] Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services. High-end mobile phones such as smartphones in general come with Internet access through the phone network. Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software. More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs, though this is not as widely used.[48] An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online.

Protocols

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/UDP_encapsulation.svg/300px-UDP_encapsulation.svg.png

As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmittedover the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.

Internet protocol suite

Application layer

Transport layer

Internet layer

Link layer

While the Internet's hardware can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been assumed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).[49] The IETF conducts standard-setting work groups, open to any individual, about the various aspects of Internet architecture. Resulting discussions and standards are published in a series of publications, each called a Request for Comments (RFC), on the IETF web site.

The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards. Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices (BCP) when implementing Internet technologies.

The Internet standards describe a framework known as the Internet protocol suite. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols, originally documented in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123. The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is the application layer, the space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications. For example, a web browser program uses the client-server application model and a specific protocol of interaction between servers and clients, while many file-sharing systems use a peer-to-peer paradigm. Below this top layer, the transport layerconnects applications on different hosts with a logical channel through the network with appropriate data exchange methods.

Underlying these layers are the networking technologies that interconnect networks at their borders and hosts via the physical connections. The internet layer enables computers to identify and locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and routes their traffic via intermediate (transit) networks. Last, at the bottom of the architecture is the link layer, which provides connectivity between hosts on the same network link, such as a physical connection in form of alocal area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection. The model, also known as TCP/IP, is designed to be independent of the underlying hardware, which the model therefore does not concern itself with in any detail. Other models have been developed, such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, that attempt to be comprehensive in every aspect of communications. While many similarities exist between the models, they are not compatible in the details of description or implementation; indeed, TCP/IP protocols are usually included in the discussion of OSI networking.

The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP), which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. IP enables internetworking and in essence establishes the Internet itself.Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of the Internet and is still in dominant use. It was designed to address up to ~4.3 billion (109) Internet hosts. However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion, which entered its final stage in 2011,[50] when the global address allocation pool was exhausted. A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed in the mid-1990s, which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. IPv6 is currently in growing deployment around the world, since Internet address registries (RIRs) began to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion.[51]

IPv6 is not directly interoperable by design with IPv4. In essence, it establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for networking devices that need to communicate on both networks. Essentially all modern computer operating systems support both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructure, however, is still lagging in this development. Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts, e.g., peering agreements, and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies.

Services

The Internet carries an extremely large number of network services, including the World Wide Webelectronic mailInternet phoneaudio, video and file transferservices.

World Wide Web

Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web, or just the Web, interchangeably, but the two terms are notsynonymous. The World Wide Web is only one of hundreds of services used on the Internet. The Web is a global set ofdocumentsimages and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers(URIs). URIs symbolically identify services, servers, and other databases, and the documents and resources that they can provide. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the main access protocol of the World Wide Web. Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data.

World Wide Web browser software, such as Microsoft's Internet ExplorerMozilla FirefoxOperaApple's Safari, and Google Chrome, lets users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. These documents may also contain any combination of computer data, including graphics, sounds, textvideomultimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page. Client-side software can include animations, gamesoffice applications and scientific demonstrations. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google, users worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to printed media, books, encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information on a large scale.

The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay. Publishing a web page, a blog, or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available. Publishing and maintaining large, professional web sites with attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition, however. Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result.

One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work.[original research?]Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated. Whereas operations such asAngelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and Twitter currently have large followings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts.[citation needed]

Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.

When the Web developed in the 1990s, a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server, formatted in HTML, complete for transmission to a web browser in response to a request. Over time, the process of creating and serving web pages has become dynamic, creating flexible design, layout, and content. Websites are often created using content management software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of an organization or the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in HTML form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.

Communication

Email is an important communications service available on the Internet. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Pictures, documents and other files are sent as email attachments. Emails can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses.

Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable orADSL. VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple, inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer.

Voice quality can still vary from call to call, but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialing and reliability. Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available. Older traditional phones with no "extra features" may be line-powered only and operate during a power failure; VoIP can never do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices. VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications, as a form of communication between players. Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak. Modern video game consoles also offer VoIP chat features.

Data transfer

File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. A computer file can be emailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication, the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands for access to the file. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed – usually fully encrypted – across the Internet. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.

Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions. They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. The range of available types of content is much wider, from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where – usually audio – material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide.

Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. For example, standard image quality needs 1 Mbit/s link speed for SD 480p, HD 720p quality requires 2.5 Mbit/s, and the top-of-the-line HDX quality needs 4.5 Mbit/s for 1080p.[52]

Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture either is usually small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time. Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily.[53]

Social impact

Main article: Sociology of the Internet

The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access.

Users

See also: Global Internet usageEnglish on the Internet and Unicode

Overall Internet usage has seen tremendous growth. From 2000 to 2009, the number of Internet users globally rose from 394 million to 1.858 billion.[58] By 2010, 22 percent of the world's population had access to computers with 1 billion Google searches every day, 300 million Internet users reading blogs, and 2 billion videos viewed daily on YouTube.[59]

The prevalent language for communication on the Internet has been English. This may be a result of the origin of the Internet, as well as the language's role as a lingua franca. Early computer systems were limited to the characters in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), a subset of the Latin alphabet.

After English (27%), the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (25%), Spanish (8%), Japanese (5%), Portuguese and German (4% each), Arabic, French and Russian (3% each), and Korean (2%).[56] By region, 42% of the world's Internet users are based in Asia, 24% in Europe, 14% in North America, 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean taken together, 6% in Africa, 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia/Oceania.[60] The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in the world's widely used languages. However, some glitches such as mojibake(incorrect display of some languages' characters) still remain.

In an American study in 2005, the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference reversed in those under 30. Men logged on more often, spent more time online, and were more likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate (such as email). Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos. Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking.[61] More recent studies indicate that in 2008, women significantly outnumbered men on most social networking sites, such as Facebook and Myspace, although the ratios varied with age.[62] In addition, women watched more streaming content, whereas men downloaded more.[63] In terms of blogs, men were more likely to blog in the first place; among those who blog, men were more likely to have a professional blog, whereas women were more likely to have a personal blog.[64]

According to Euromonitor, by 2020 43.7% of the world's population will be users of the Internet. Splitting by country, in 2011 Iceland, Norway and the Netherlands had the highest Internet penetration by the number of users, with more than 90% of the population with access.

Usage

The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, including through mobile Internet devices. Mobile phones, datacardshandheld game consolesand cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, the services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available. Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.

Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Examples range from CBeebies, through school and high-school revision guides and virtual universities, to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar. For distance education, help withhomework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time, or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. Further, the Internet allows universities, in particular researchers from the social and behavioral sciences, to conduct research remotely via virtual laboratories, with profound changes in reach and generalizability of findings as well as in communication between scientists and in the publication of results.[65]

The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form. An example of this is the free software movement, which has produced, among other things, LinuxMozilla Firefox, and OpenOffice.org. Internet chat, whether using an IRC chat room, an instant messaging system, or a social networking website, allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way while working at their computers during the day. Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. These systems may allow files to be exchanged, drawings and images to be shared, or voice and video contact between team members.

Content management systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents simultaneously without accidentally destroying each other's work. Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing. Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy spread.

The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be. They may do this with or withoutcomputer security, i.e. authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements. This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can access their emails, access their data using cloud computing, or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection on the Internet. This can give the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data, including email and other applications, while away from the office. It has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare,[66] because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into remote locations and its employees' homes.

Social networking and entertainment

See also: Social networking service § Social impact

Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests. People usechat, messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops, where users can access their files and settings via the Internet.

Social networking websites such as FacebookTwitter, and Myspace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs.

The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic. Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos. Over 6 million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas. The Internet pornography and online gambling industries have taken advantage of the World Wide Web, and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for other websites.[67] Although many governments have attempted to restrict both industries' use of the Internet, in general this has failed to stop their widespread popularity.[68]

Another area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming.[69] This form of recreation creates communities, where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing video games to online gambling. While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer.[70] Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others.

Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness.[71] Lonely people tend to use the Internet as an outlet for their feelings and to share their stories with others, such as in the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread.

Cybersectarianism is a new organizational form which involves: "highly dispersed small groups of practitioners that may remain largely anonymous within the larger social context and operate in relative secrecy, while still linked remotely to a larger network of believers who share a set of practices and texts, and often a common devotion to a particular leader. Overseas supporters provide funding and support; domestic practitioners distribute tracts, participate in acts of resistance, and share information on the internal situation with outsiders. Collectively, members and practitioners of such sects construct viable virtual communities of faith, exchanging personal testimonies and engaging in collective study via email, on-line chat rooms and web-based message boards."[72]

Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a 2003 study by Peninsula Business Services.[73] Internet addiction disorder is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. Psychologist Nicolas Carr believe that Internet use has other effects on individuals, for instance improving skills of scan-reading and interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity.[74]

Electronic business

Main article: Electronic business

Electronic business (E-business) involves business processes spanning the entire value chain: electronic purchasing and supply chain management, processing orders electronically, handling customer service, and cooperating with business partners. E-commerce seeks to add revenue streams using the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners.

According to research firm IDC, the size of total worldwide e-commerce, when global business-to-business and -consumer transactions are added together, will equate to $16 trillion in 2013. IDate, another research firm, estimates the global market for digital products and services at $4.4 trillion in 2013. A report by Oxford Economicsadds those two together to estimate the total size of the digital economy at $20.4 trillion, equivalent to roughly 13.8% of global sales.[75]

While much has been written of the economic advantages of Internet-enabled commerce, there is also evidence that some aspects of the Internet such as maps and location-aware services may serve to reinforce economic inequality and the digital divide.[76] Electronic commerce may be responsible for consolidation and the decline of mom-and-popbrick and mortar businesses resulting in increases in income inequality.[77][78][79]

Telecommuting

Main article: Telecommuting

Remote work is facilitated by tools such as groupwarevirtual private networksconference callingvideoconferencing, and Voice over IP (VOIP). It can be efficient and useful for companies as it allows workers to communicate over long distances, saving significant amounts of travel time and cost. As broadband Internet connections become more commonplace, more and more workers have adequate bandwidth at home to use these tools to link their home to their corporate intranet and internal phone networks.

Crowdsourcing

Internet provides a particularly good venue for crowdsourcing (outsourcing tasks to a distributed group of people) since individuals tend to be more open in web-based projects where they are not being physically judged or scrutinized and thus can feel more comfortable sharing.

Crowdsourcing systems are used to accomplish a variety of tasks. For example, the crowd may be invited to develop a new technology, carry out a design task, refine or carry out the steps of an algorithm (see human-based computation), or help capture, systematize, or analyze large amounts of data (see also citizen science).

Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.[80] In those settings, they have been found useful for collaboration on grant writingstrategic planning, departmental documentation, and committee work.[81] The United States Patent and Trademark Office uses a wiki to allow the public to collaborate on finding prior art relevant to examination of pending patent applications. Queens, New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park.[82]

The English Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web[83] and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic.[84]

Politics and political revolutions

The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing in order to carry out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism, most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring.[85][86]

The New York Times suggested that social media websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, helped people organize the political revolutions in Egypt where it helped certain classes of protesters organize protests, communicate grievances, and disseminate information.[87]

The potential of the Internet as a civic tool of communicative power was thoroughly explored by Simon R. B. Berdal in his thesis of 2004:

As the globally evolving Internet provides ever new access points to virtual discourse forums, it also promotes new civic relations and associations within which communicative power may flow and accumulate. Thus, traditionally ... national-embedded peripheries get entangled into greater, international peripheries, with stronger combined powers... The Internet, as a consequence, changes the topology of the "centre-periphery" model, by stimulating conventional peripheries to interlink into "super-periphery" structures, which enclose and "besiege" several centres at once.[88]

Berdal, therefore, extends the Habermasian notion of the Public sphere to the Internet, and underlines the inherent global and civic nature that interwoven Internet technologies provide. To limit the growing civic potential of the Internet, Berdal also notes how "self-protective measures" are put in place by those threatened by it:

If we consider China’s attempts to filter "unsuitable material" from the Internet, most of us would agree that this resembles a self-protective measure by the system against the growing civic potentials of the Internet. Nevertheless, both types represent limitations to "peripheral capacities". Thus, the Chinese government tries to prevent communicative power to build up and unleash (as the 1989 Tiananmen Square uprising suggests, the government may find it wise to install "upstream measures"). Even though limited, the Internet is proving to be an empowering tool also to the Chinese periphery: Analysts believe that Internet petitions have influenced policy implementation in favour of the public’s online-articulated will ...[88]

In fairness, incidents of politically motivated internet censorship have now been recorded in many countries, including western democracies.

Philanthropy

The spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has opened up new possibilities for peer-to-peer charities, which allow individuals to contribute small amounts to charitable projects for other individuals. Websites, such as DonorsChoose and GlobalGiving, allow small-scale donors to direct funds to individual projects of their choice.

A popular twist on Internet-based philanthropy is the use of peer-to-peer lending for charitable purposes. Kiva pioneered this concept in 2005, offering the first web-based service to publish individual loan profiles for funding. Kiva raises funds for local intermediary microfinance organizations which post stories and updates on behalf of the borrowers. Lenders can contribute as little as $25 to loans of their choice, and receive their money back as borrowers repay. Kiva falls short of being a pure peer-to-peer charity, in that loans are disbursed before being funded by lenders and borrowers do not communicate with lenders themselves.[89][90]

However, the recent spread of low cost Internet access in developing countries has made genuine international person-to-person philanthropy increasingly feasible. In 2009 the US-based nonprofit Zidisha tapped into this trend to offer the first person-to-person microfinance platform to link lenders and borrowers across international borders without intermediaries. Members can fund loans for as little as a dollar, which the borrowers then use to develop business activities that improve their families' incomes while repaying loans to the members with interest. Borrowers access the Internet via public cybercafes, donated laptops in village schools, and even smart phones, then create their own profile pages through which they share photos and information about themselves and their businesses. As they repay their loans, borrowers continue to share updates and dialogue with lenders via their profile pages. This direct web-based connection allows members themselves to take on many of the communication and recording tasks traditionally performed by local organizations, bypassing geographic barriers and dramatically reducing the cost of microfinance services to the entrepreneurs.[91]

Security

Main article: Internet security

Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale, highly engineered, yet highly complex system".[92] The structure was found to be highly robust to random failures,[93] yet, very vulnerable to high degree attacks.[94]

Therefore, the Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively and the possibility of developing alternative structures has been investigated.[95]

Surveillance

Main article: Computer and network surveillance

See also: Signals intelligence and Mass surveillance

The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet.[96] In the United States for example, under the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, all phone calls and broadband internet traffic (emails, web traffic, instant messaging, etc.) are required to be available for unimpeded real-time monitoring by Federal law enforcement agencies.[97][98][99]

Packet capture (also sometimes referred to as “packet sniffing”) is the monitoring of data traffic on a computer network. Computers communicate over the Internet by breaking up messages (emails, images, videos, web pages, files, etc.) into small chunks called "packets", which are routed through a network of computers, until they reach their destination, where they are assembled back into a complete "message" again. Packet Capture Appliance intercepts these packets as they are travelling through the network, in order to examine their contents using other programs. A packet capture is an information gathering tool, but not an analysis tool. That is it gathers "messages" but it does not analyze them and figure out what they mean. Other programs are needed to perform traffic analysis and sift through intercepted data looking for important/useful information. Under the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act all U.S. telecommunications providers are required to install packet sniffing technology to allow Federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies to intercept all of their customers' broadband Internet and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) traffic.[100]

There is far too much data gathered by these packet sniffers for human investigators to manually search through all of it. So automated Internet surveillance computers sift through the vast amount of intercepted Internet traffic, and filter out and report to human investigators those bits of information which are "interesting"—such as the use of certain words or phrases, visiting certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or chat with a certain individual or group.[101] Billions of dollars per year are spent, by agencies such as the Information Awareness OfficeNSA, and the FBI, to develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems which intercept and analyze all of this data, and extract only the information which is useful to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.[102]

Similar systems are now operated by Iranian secret police to identify and suppress dissidents. All required hardware and software has been allegedly installed by German Siemens AG and Finnish Nokia.[103]

Main articles: Internet censorship and Internet freedom

See also: Culture of fear

Some governments, such as those of BurmaIranNorth Korea, the Mainland ChinaSaudi Arabiaand the United Arab Emirates restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet, especially political and religious content. This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention.[108]

In Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily, possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law, agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities. While this list of forbidden URLs is supposed to contain addresses of only known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret.[109] Many countries, including the United States, have enacted laws against the possession or distribution of certain material, such as child pornography, via the Internet, but do not mandate filtering software. There are many free and commercially available software programs, called content-control software, with which a user can choose to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit a child's access to pornographic materials or depiction of violence.

Performance

[icon]

This section requires expansion.(July 2014)

The Internet is heterogeneous; for instance, data transfer rates and physical characteristics of connections vary widely, and exhibits emergent phenomena that depend on its large-scale organization. For example, data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity.

Outages

An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signalling interruptions. Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the 2008 submarine cable disruption. Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links. Land cables are also vulnerable, as in 2011 when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia.[110] Internet blackouts affecting almost entire countries can be achieved by governments as a form of Internet censorship, as in the blockage of the Internet in Egypt, whereby approximately 93%[111] of networks were without access in 2011 in an attempt to stop mobilization for anti-government protests.[112]

Energy use

Attempts to quantify the energy used by the Internet have been made. In 2011 researchers estimated that the Internet consumed between 170 and 307 GW, less than 2 percent of the energy used by humanity. This estimate includes the energy needed to build, operate, and periodically replace the estimated 750 million laptops, a billion smart phones and 100 million servers worldwide as well as the energy that routers, cell towers, optical switches, Wi-Fi transmitters and cloud storage devices use when transmitting Internet traffic.



Domain name

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/DNS-names-ru.svg/220px-DNS-names-ru.svg.png

The hierarchy of labels in a domain name.

This article is about domain names in the Internet. For other uses, see Domain.

domain name is a unique name that identifies an internet resource such as a website. It is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control on the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules of theDomain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. The functional description of domain names is presented in the Domain Name System article. Broader usage and industry aspects are captured here.

Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a web site, or the web site itself or any other service communicated via the Internet. In 2014, the number of active domains reached 271 million.[1]

Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains cominfonetedu, and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run web sites. The registration of these domain names is usually administered by domain name registrars who sell their services to the public.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is a domain name that is completely specified in the hierarchy of the DNS, having no parts omitted.

Domain names are usually written in lowercase, although labels in the Domain Name System are case-insensitive.

Purpose[edit]

Domain names serve as more easily memorable names for Internet resources such as computers, networks, and services. A domain name represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource. Individual Internet host computers use domain names as host identifiers, or host names. Host names are the leaf labels in the domain name system usually without further subordinate domain name space. Host names appear as a component in Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) for Internet resources such as web sites (e.g., en.wikipedia.org).

Domain names are also used as simple identification labels to indicate ownership or control of a resource. Such examples are the realm identifiers used in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), the Domain Keys used to verify DNS domains in e-mail systems, and in many other Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs).

An important function of domain names is to provide easily recognizable and memorizable names to numerically addressed Internet resources. This abstraction allows any resource to be moved to a different physical location in the address topology of the network, globally or locally in an intranet. Such a move usually requires changing the IP address of a resource and the corresponding translation of this IP address to and from its domain name.

Domain names are used to establish a unique identity. Organizations can choose a domain name that corresponds to their name, helping Internet users to reach them easily. For instance IBM's web site is at ibm.com, and GNU's is at gnu.org.

Generic domain names increase popularity. A generic domain name may sometimes define an entire category of business that a company is involved in, rather than being the name of the company. Some examples of generic names include books.com, music.com, travel.com and art.com. Companies have created successful brands based on a generic name, and such generic domain names tend to be very valuable.

Domain names are often referred to simply as domains and domain name registrants are frequently referred to as domain owners, although domain name registration with a registrar does not confer any legal ownership of the domain name, only an exclusive right of use for a particular duration of time. The use of domain names in commerce may subject them to trademark law.

History[edit]

The practice of using a simple memorable abstraction of a host's numerical address on a computer network dates back to the ARPANET era, before the advent of today's commercial Internet. In the early network, each computer on the network retrieved the hosts file (host.txt) from a computer at SRI (now SRI International).[2][3]which mapped computer host names to numerical addresses. The rapid growth of the network made it impossible to maintain a centrally organized hostname registry and in 1983 the Domain Name System was introduced on the ARPANET and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force as RFC 882 and RFC 883.

Domain name space[edit]

Today, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages the top-level development and architecture of the Internet domain name space. It authorizes domain name registrars, through which domain names may be registered and reassigned.

The domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. Each node in the tree holds information associated with the domain name. The tree sub-divides into zones beginning at the DNS root zone.

Domain name syntax[edit]

A domain name consists of one or more parts, technically called labels, that are conventionally concatenated, and delimited by dots, such as example.com.

  • The right-most label conveys the top-level domain; for example, the domain name www.example.com belongs to the top-level domain com.

  • The hierarchy of domains descends from the right to the left label in the name; each label to the left specifies a subdivision, or subdomain of the domain to the right. For example: the label example specifies a node example.com as a subdomain of the com domain, and www is a label to create www.example.com, a subdomain of example.com. This tree of labels may consist of 127 levels. Each label may contain from 1 to 63 octets. The empty label is reserved for the root node. The full domain name may not exceed a total length of 253 ASCII characters in its textual representation.[4] In practice, some domain registries may have shorter limits.

  • hostname is a domain name that has at least one associated IP address. For example, the domain names www.example.com and example.com are also hostnames, whereas the com domain is not. However, other top-level domains, particularly country code top-level domains, may indeed have an IP address, and if so, they are also hostnames.

  • Hostnames impose restrictions on the characters allowed in the corresponding domain name. A valid hostname is also a valid domain name, but a valid domain name may not necessarily be valid as a hostname.

Top-level domains[edit]

The top-level domains (TLDs) such as com, net and org are the highest level of domain names of the Internet. Top-level domains form the DNS root zone of the hierarchical Domain Name System. Every domain name ends with a top-level domain label.

When the Domain Name System was devised, in the 1980s, the domain name space was divided into two main groups of domains.[5] The country code top-level domains (ccTLD) were primarily based on the two-character territory codes of ISO-3166 country abbreviations. In addition, a group of seven generic top-level domains(gTLD) was implemented which represented a set of categories of names and multi-organizations.[6] These were the domains goveducommilorgnet, and int.

During the growth of the Internet, it became desirable to create additional generic top-level domains. As of October 2009, 21 generic top-level domains and 250 two-letter country-code top-level domains existed.[7] In addition, the ARPA domain serves technical purposes in the infrastructure of the Domain Name System.

During the 32nd International Public ICANN Meeting in Paris in 2008,[8] ICANN started a new process of TLD naming policy to take a "significant step forward on the introduction of new generic top-level domains." This program envisions the availability of many new or already proposed domains, as well as a new application and implementation process.[9] Observers believed that the new rules could result in hundreds of new top-level domains to be registered.[10]

IANA maintains an annotated list of top-level domains in the root zone database as well as a list of special-use (reserved) top-level domain names.

Second-level and lower level domains[edit]

Below the top-level domains in the domain name hierarchy are the second-level domain (SLD) names. These are the names directly to the left of .com, .net, and the other top-level domains. As an example, in the domain example.co.ukco is the second-level domain.

Next are third-level domains, which are written immediately to the left of a second-level domain. There can be fourth- and fifth-level domains, and so on, with virtually no limitation. An example of an operational domain name with four levels of domain labels is sos.state.oh.us. Each label is separated by a full stop (dot). 'sos' is said to be a sub-domain of 'state.oh.us', and 'state' a sub-domain of 'oh.us', etc. In general, subdomains are domains subordinate to their parent domain. An example of very deep levels of subdomain ordering are the IPv6 reverse resolution DNS zones, e.g. 1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.ip6.arpa, which is the reverse DNS resolution domain name for the IP address of a loopback interface, or the localhost name.

Second-level (or lower-level, depending on the established parent hierarchy) domain names are often created based on the name of a company (e.g. bbc.co.uk), product or service (e.g. hotmail.com). Below these levels, the next domain name component has been used to designate a particular host server. Therefore,ftp.example.com might be an FTP server, www.example.com would be a World Wide Web server, and mail.example.com could be an email server, each intended to perform only the implied function. Modern technology allows multiple physical servers with either different (cf. load balancing) or even identical addresses (cf. anycast) to serve a single hostname or domain name, or multiple domain names to be served by a single computer. The latter is very popular in Web hosting service centers, where service providers host the websites of many organizations on just a few servers.

The hierarchical DNS labels or components of domain names are separated in a fully qualified name by the full stop (dot, .).

Internationalized domain names[edit]

Main article: Internationalized domain name

The character set allowed in the Domain Name System is based on ASCII and does not allow the representation of names and words of many languages in their native scripts or alphabets. ICANN approved the Internationalized domain name (IDNA) system, which maps Unicode strings used in application user interfaces into the valid DNS character set by an encoding called Punycode. For example, københavn.eu is mapped to xn--kbenhavn-54a.eu. Many registries have adopted IDNA.

Domain name registration[edit]

History[edit]

The first commercial Internet domain name, in the TLD com, was registered on 15 March 1985 in the name symbolics.com by Symbolics Inc., a computer systems firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

By 1992, fewer than 15,000 com domains had been registered.

In December 2009, 192 million domain names had been registered.[11] A large fraction of them are in the com TLD, which as of March 15, 2010 had 84 million domain names, including 11.9 million online business and e-commerce sites, 4.3 million entertainment sites, 3.1 million finance related sites, and 1.8 million sports sites.[12] As of July 2012 the com TLD has more registrations than all of the ccTLDs combined.[13]

Administration[edit]

The right to use a domain name is delegated by domain name registrars, which are accredited by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the organization charged with overseeing the name and number systems of the Internet. In addition to ICANN, each top-level domain (TLD) is maintained and serviced technically by an administrative organization operating a registry. A registry is responsible for maintaining the database of names registered within the TLD it administers. The registry receives registration information from each domain name registrar authorized to assign names in the corresponding TLD and publishes the information using a special service, the WHOIS protocol.

Registries and registrars usually charge an annual fee for the service of delegating a domain name to a user and providing a default set of name servers. Often, this transaction is termed a sale or lease of the domain name, and the registrant may sometimes be called an "owner", but no such legal relationship is actually associated with the transaction, only the exclusive right to use the domain name. More correctly, authorized users are known as "registrants" or as "domain holders".

ICANN publishes the complete list of TLD registries and domain name registrars. Registrant information associated with domain names is maintained in an online database accessible with the WHOIS protocol. For most of the 250 country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), the domain registries maintain the WHOIS (Registrant, name servers, expiration dates, etc.) information.

Some domain name registries, often called network information centers (NIC), also function as registrars to end-users. The major generic top-level domain registries, such as for the COMNETORGINFO domains and others, use a registry-registrar model consisting of hundreds of domain name registrars (see lists at ICANN orVeriSign). In this method of management, the registry only manages the domain name database and the relationship with the registrars. The registrants (users of a domain name) are customers of the registrar, in some cases through additional layers of resellers.

Technical requirements and process[edit]

In the process of registering a domain name and maintaining authority over the new name space created, registrars use several key pieces of information connected with a domain:

  • Administrative contact. A registrant usually designates an administrative contact to manage the domain name. The administrative contact usually has the highest level of control over a domain. Management functions delegated to the administrative contacts may include management of all business information, such as name of record, postal address, and contact information of the official registrant of the domain and the obligation to conform to the requirements of the domain registry in order to retain the right to use a domain name. Furthermore the administrative contact installs additional contact information for technical and billing functions.

  • Technical contact. The technical contact manages the name servers of a domain name. The functions of a technical contact include assuring conformance of the configurations of the domain name with the requirements of the domain registry, maintaining the domain zone records, and providing continuous functionality of the name servers (that leads to the accessibility of the domain name).

  • Billing contact. The party responsible for receiving billing invoices from the domain name registrar and paying applicable fees.

  • Name servers. Most registrars provide two or more name servers as part of the registration service. However, a registrant may specify its own authoritative name servers to host a domain's resource records. The registrar's policies govern the number of servers and the type of server information required. Some providers require a hostname and the corresponding IP address or just the hostname, which must be resolvable either in the new domain, or exist elsewhere. Based on traditional requirements (RFC 1034), typically a minimum of two servers is required.

Domain names may be formed from the set of alphanumeric ASCII characters (a-z, A-Z, 0-9), but characters are case-insensitive. In addition the hyphen is permitted if it is surrounded by a characters or digits, i.e., it is not the start or end of a label. Labels are always separated by the full stop (period) character in the textual name representation.

Business models[edit]

Domain names are often seen in analogy to real estate in that (1) domain names are foundations on which a website (like a house or commercial building) can be built and (2) the highest "quality" domain names, like sought-after real estate, tend to carry significant value, usually due to their online brand-building potential, use in advertising, search engine optimization, and many other criteria.

A few companies have offered low-cost, below-cost or even cost-free domain registrations with a variety of models adopted to recoup the costs to the provider. These usually require that domains be hosted on their website within a framework or portal that includes advertising wrapped around the domain holder's content, revenue from which allows the provider to recoup the costs. Domain registrations were free of charge when the DNS was new. A domain holder can give away or sell infinite number of subdomains under their domain name. For example, the owner of example.org could provide subdomains such as foo.example.org and foo.bar.example.orgto interested parties.

Because of the popularity of the Internet, many desirable domain names are already assigned and users must search for other acceptable names, using Web-based search features, or WHOIS and dig operating system tools. Many registrars have implemented Domain name suggestion tools which search domain name databases and suggest available alternative domain names related to keywords provided by the user.

Resale of domain names[edit]

Main article: List of most expensive domain names

The business of resale of registered domain names is known as the domain aftermarket. Various factors influence the perceived value or market value of a domain name.

Most of the million dollar domain deals are carried out privately and go unreported. As of 2011, the most expensive domain name sales on record were:

  1. Insure.com $16 million in 2009 [14]

  2. Fund.com 2008 £9.99 million[14]

  3. Sex.com for $14 million in October 2010[14][15]

  4. Porn.com 2007 $9.5 million[14]

  5. Fb.com for $8.5 million in November 2010[14][not in citation given]

Domain name confusion[edit]

Intercapping is often used to emphasize the meaning of a domain name. However, DNS names are not case-sensitive, and some names may be misinterpreted in certain uses of capitalization. For example: Who Represents, a database of artists and agents, chose whorepresents.com, which can be misread as whore presents. Similarly, a therapists' network is named therapistfinder.com. In such situations, the proper meaning may be clarified by use of hyphens in the domain name. For instance, Experts Exchange, a programmers' discussion site, for a long time used expertsexchange.com, but ultimately changed the name to experts-exchange.com.

Intellectual property entrepreneur Leo Stoller threatened to sue the owners of StealThisEmail.com on the basis that, when read as stealthisemail.com, it infringed on claimed (but invalid) trademark rights to the word "stealth".

Use in web site hosting[edit]

The domain name is a component of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to access web sites, for example:

  • URL: http://www.example.net/index.html

  • Top-level domain name: net

  • Second-level domain name: example.net

  • Host name: www.example.net

A domain name may point to multiple IP addresses in order to provide server redundancy for the services to be delivered; such multi-address capability is used to manage the traffic of large, popular web sites.

More commonly, however, one server, at a given IP address, may host multiple web sites in different domains. Such address overloading enables virtual web hosting, commonly used by large web hosting services to conserve IP address space. IP-address overloading also requires that each request identify the domain name being referenced, for instance by using the "Host" HTTP request header field, or Server Name Indication.

Abuse and regulation[edit]

Critics often claim abuse of administrative power over domain names. Particularly noteworthy was the VeriSign Site Finder system which redirected all unregistered .com and .net domains to a VeriSign webpage. For example, at a public meeting with VeriSign to air technical concerns about SiteFinder,[16] numerous people, active in the IETF and other technical bodies, explained how they were surprised by VeriSign's changing the fundamental behavior of a major component of Internet infrastructure, not having obtained the customary consensus. SiteFinder, at first, assumed every Internet query was for a website, and it monetized queries for incorrect domain names, taking the user to VeriSign's search site. Unfortunately, other applications, such as many implementations of email, treat a lack of response to a domain name query as an indication that the domain does not exist, and that the message can be treated as undeliverable. The original VeriSign implementation broke this assumption for mail, because it would always resolve an erroneous domain name to that of SiteFinder. While VeriSign later changed SiteFinder's behaviour with regard to email, there was still widespread protest about VeriSign's action being more in its financial interest than in the interest of the Internet infrastructure component for which VeriSign was the steward.

Despite widespread criticism, VeriSign only reluctantly removed it after the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) threatened to revoke its contract to administer the root name servers. ICANN published the extensive set of letters exchanged, committee reports, and ICANN decisions.[17]

There is also significant disquiet regarding the United States' political influence over ICANN. This was a significant issue in the attempt to create a .xxx top-level domainand sparked greater interest in alternative DNS roots that would be beyond the control of any single country.[18]

Additionally, there are numerous accusations of domain name front running, whereby registrars, when given whois queries, automatically register the domain name for themselves. Network Solutions has been accused of this.[19]

Truth in Domain Names Act[edit]

In the United States, the Truth in Domain Names Act of 2003, in combination with the PROTECT Act of 2003, forbids the use of a misleading domain name with the intention of attracting Internet users into visiting Internet pornography sites.

The Truth in Domain Names Act follows the more general Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act passed in 1999 aimed at preventing typosquatting and deceptive use of names and trademarks in domain names.

In the early 21st century, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) began using a tactic ofseizing domain names, based on the legal theory that domain names constitute property used to engage in criminal activity, and thus are subject to forfeiture. For example, in the seizure of the domain name of a gambling website, the DOJ referenced 18 U.S.C. § 981 and 18 U.S.C. § 1955(d).[20][dead link]. In 2013 the US government seized Liberty Reserve, citing 18 U.S.C. § 982(a)(1).[21]

The U.S. Congress passed the Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act in 2010. Consumer Electronics Association vice president Petricone was worried that seizure was a blunt instrument that could harm legitimate businesses.[22][23] After a joint operation in February 15, 2011, the DOJ and the Department of Homeland Security claimed to have seized ten domains of websites involved in advertising and distributing child pornography, but also mistakenly seized the domain name of a large DNS provider, temporarily replacing 84,000 websites with seizure notices.[24]

Fictitious domain name[edit]

fictitious domain name is a domain name used in a work of fiction or popular culture to refer to a domain that does not actually exist, often with invalid or unofficialtop-level domains such as ".web", a usage exactly analogous to the dummy 555 telephone number prefix used in film and other media. The canonical fictitious domain name is "example.com", specifically set aside by IANA in RFC 2606 for such use, along with the .example TLD.

Domain names used in works of fiction have often been registered in the DNS, either by their creators or by cybersquatters attempting to profit from it. This phenomenon prompted NBC to purchase the domain name Hornymanatee.com after talk-show host Conan O'Brien spoke the name while ad-libbing on his show. O'Brien subsequently created a website based on the concept and used it as a running gag on the show.[



Hostname

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In computer networking, a hostname (archaically nodename[1]) is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication such as the World Wide Web, e-mail or Usenet. Hostnames may be simple names consisting of a single word or phrase, or they may be structured.

On the Internet, hostnames may have appended the name of a Domain Name System (DNS) domain, separated from the host-specific label by a period ("dot"). In the latter form, a hostname is also called a domain name. If the domain name is completely specified, including a top-level domain of the Internet, then the hostname is said to be a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). Hostnames that include DNS domains are often stored in the Domain Name System together with the IP addresses of the host they represent for the purpose of mapping the hostname to an address, or the reverse process.

Overview[edit]

Hostnames are human-readable nicknames that correspond to the address of a device connected to a network. They are used by various naming systems, e.g.,Network Information Service (NIS), Domain Name System (DNS), Server Message Block (SMB), and the meaning of hostname will vary according to the naming system used. A hostname meaningful to a Microsoft NetBIOS workgroup may be an invalid Internet hostname. When presented with a hostname without any context, it is usually safe to assume that the network is the Internet and the hostname's naming system is the DNS.

Host names are typically used in an administrative capacity and may appear in computer browser lists, active directory lists, IP address to hostname resolutions, email headers, etc.

Example[edit]

Saturn and jupiter may be the hostnames of two devices connected to a network named Alpha. Within Alpha the devices are addressed by their hostname. The domain names of the devices would be saturn.alpha and jupiter.alpha, respectively. If alpha is registered as a second-level domain name in the Internet, e.g. alpha.net, the hosts may be addressed by the fully qualified domain names saturn.alpha.net and jupiter.alpha.net.

Internet hostnames[edit]

On the Internet, a hostname is a domain name assigned to a host computer. This is usually a combination of the host's local name with its parent domain's name. For example, en.wikipedia.org consists of a local hostname (en) and the domain name wikipedia.org. This kind of hostname is translated into an IP address via the localhosts file, or the Domain Name System (DNS) resolver. It is possible for a single host computer to have several hostnames; but generally the operating system of the host prefers to have one hostname that the host uses for itself.

Any domain name can also be a hostname, as long as the restrictions mentioned below are followed. So, for example, both en.wikipedia.org and wikipedia.org are hostnames because they both have IP addresses assigned to them. The domain name pmtpa.wikimedia.org is not a hostname since it does not have an IP address (as of now), but rr.pmtpa.wikimedia.org is a hostname. A hostname may be a domain name, if it is properly organized into the domain name system. A domain name may be a hostname if it has been assigned to an Internet host and associated with the host's IP address.

Restrictions on valid host names[edit]

Hostnames are composed of series of labels concatenated with dots, as are all domain names. For example, "en.wikipedia.org" is a hostname. Each label must be between 1 and 63 characters long,[2] and the entire hostname (including the delimiting dots) has a maximum of 255 characters.

The Internet standards (Requests for Comments) for protocols mandate that component hostname labels may contain only the ASCII letters 'a' through 'z' (in a case-insensitive manner), the digits '0' through '9', and the hyphen ('-'). The original specification of hostnames in RFC 952, mandated that labels could not start with a digit or with a hyphen, and must not end with a hyphen. However, a subsequent specification (RFC 1123) permitted hostname labels to start with digits. No other symbols, punctuation characters, or white space are permitted.

While a hostname may not contain other characters, such as the underscore character (_), other DNS names may contain the underscore.[3] Systems such asDomainKeys and service records use the underscore as a means to assure that their special character is not confused with hostnames. For example,_http._sctp.www.example.com specifies a service pointer for an SCTP capable webserver host (www) in the domain example.com. Note that some applications (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer) won't work correctly if any part of the hostname contains an underscore character.[4]

One common cause of non-compliance with this specification is that the rules are not applied consistently across the board when domain names are chosen and registered.

The hostname en.wikipedia.org is composed of the DNS labels en (hostname or leaf domain), wikipedia (second-level domain) and org (top-level domain). Labels such as 2600 and 3abc may be used in hostnames, but -hi-,_hi_ and *hi* are invalid.

A hostname is considered to be a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) if all the labels up to and including the top-level domain name (TLD) are specified. The hostnameen.wikipedia.org terminates with the top-level domain org and is thus fully qualified. Depending on the operating system DNS software implementation, an unqualified hostname such as csail or wikipedia may be automatically combined with default domain names configured into the system, in order to determine the fully qualified domain name. As an example, a student at MIT may be able to send mail to "joe@csail" and have it automatically qualified by the mail system to be sent tojoe@csail.mit.edu.

General guidelines on choosing good hostnames are outlined in RFC 1178




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This text is about Internet and some information about its features. This information is in Azerbaijani. You can get info about Internet and some explanation about terminology. As we know internet became very important even unseperatable part of our life. We can keep in touch with all over the world through internet. it makes our life easier and makes our long way shoter. Reading this material you can get some useful information. You can also get information about history of Internet. You can get information about some explanation among some terminology differences. Read and enjoy dear readers!

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