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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Использование поэтических стилей, метафор, аналогий и сравнений на уроках английского языка.

Использование поэтических стилей, метафор, аналогий и сравнений на уроках английского языка.

  • Иностранные языки

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Использование поэтических стилей, метафор, аналогий и сравнений на уроках английского языка.


Для отработки такого грамматического материала, как Subjunctive mood, Degrees of Comparison и разговорной темы ‘Professions’ можно использовать Noun Poetry.

Noun Poetry


Instructions:

Line 1: Choose a noun that describes the person, place, or thing you have selected.

Line 2: Describe this noun with two adjectives joined by the word and or but.

Line 3: Use a verb form and an adverb to show this noun in a typical action.

Line 4: Think up a comparison beginning with the word as or like to show a special quality this noun has.

Line 5: Use a phrase beginning with if only to express a wish regarding this noun.

Fireman.

Strong and fearless.

Fighting courageously.

As brave as a gladiator.

If only I could be a hero!

При изучении темы 'Choosing a career' я даю учащимся такое задание: Say why you think you will be suited (will not be suited) for this or that job; which qualities you think you have or lack”. После этого я предлагаю учащимся начать свой ответ строчкой из ГамлетаTo be, or not to be [(an actor/ driver etc.)] - that is the question’.

Следующий вид поэзии хайку является силлабическим, ритмика хайку основана на чередовании определённого количества слогов. Рифмы нет: звуковая и ритмическая организация трёхстишия очень важны. Такая стихотворная форма учит умению сказать многое в немногих словах, кроме того сочиняя хайку ученики учатся разбивать слова на слоги и определённому ритму. Хайку изображает жизнь природы и жизнь человека, поэтому этот вид поэзии лучше всего использовать при изучении темы ‘Nature’.

HAIKU: A form of Japanese poetry that follows a structured pattern.

For example:

Line 1: 5 syllables Soft wings fluttering

Line 2: 7 syllables Bright colors flying through air

Line 3: 5 syllables Lovely butterfly.

Scent of pink blossom

On the misty mountainous path

The huge rising sun

Джон Вероника

Изучая тему «Природа» можно дать учащимся в качестве домашнего задания описать какое-нибудь явление природы, цветок, дерево и т.п. в стихотворной форме хайку, а на уроке попросить прочитать стихотворение, соблюдая звуковую и ритмическую организацию стихотворения. После этого попросить учащихся закрыть на минутку глаза и представить, то о чем говорится в стихотворении, а затем попытаться составить рассказ, используя метафоры и сравнения.

Можно работать в таком режиме:

  1. Все учащиесяся читают свои стихи и выбирают одно лучшее, а затем все составляют рассказ (включая и того, чьё стихотворение выбрали). Это задание можно выполнять и письменно.

  2. Все уч-ся читают свои стихи и выбирают одно лучшее, а затем все вместе составляют один рассказ. После того, как рассказ составлен, кто-нибудь один рассказывает его снова.

  3. Каждый ученик читает своё стихотворение (хайку), а кто-нибудь один из группы составляет рассказ по этому стихотворению. И так до тех пор, пока каждый не прочтёт своё стихотворение и не составит рассказ по другому стихотворению.

Можно работать и в других режимах.

При изучении темы «Природа», или грамматической темы «Наречия» можно использовать такой вид поэзии, как alliteration.

alliteration: Verses where all the words begin with the same letter. For example:

Two tall trees try to touch tenderly.

Five freaky frogs fight fearlessly.

Six strange stars sparkle strongly.


При изучении грамматической темы «Наречия» и «Причастие настоящего времени», или разговорной темы 'Reality, Dreams and Fantasies' можно использовать такой вид поэзии, как windsparks:

windsparks: Verses with the following pattern:

Line 1: "I dreamed"

Line 2: "I was" someone or something

Line 3: Where

Line 4: Action

Line 5: How

For example:


I dreamed

I was a leaf

Growing in the forest

Providing food for caterpillars

Unwillingly


I dreamed

I was a bear

Living in the woods

Breaking trees and bushes

Mercilessly



При изучении ‘Subjunctive mood’ первую и вторую строчки можно заменить следующим образом:

Line 1: "I wished" I wished

Line 2: "I were" someone or something I were poison ivy

Line 3: Where In the woods

Line 4: Action Providing itches and rashes

Line 5: How Gleefully


Cтихотворная форма cinquain учит учащихся пользоваться синонимами, сравнениями, метафарами.

cinquain: Verses with the following pattern:

Line 1: One word title

Line 2: two words describing title

Line 3: three words showing action.

Line 4: four words showing a feeling about the title

Line 5: one word (simile or metaphor for the title)

For example:


Water

Still, quiet

Reflects, listens, shimmers

Waiting for a splash

Silence

Trees

Monumental, majestic

Towering, soldiering, guarding

Whispering giants standing tall

Sentries



Wind

Noisy, fresh

Blows,builds,destroys

Flying like a bird

Arrow

Елесеева Марина

Sun

Hot, bright

Rises, shines, sets

Giving people warmth and light

Heat

Джон Вероника


Poetic Portrait’ (Cinquain: a five-line poem.) поможет повторить –ing forms of the verb и описать человека, при изучении темы 'Appearance', ‘Friendship’

Title: Use the person’s name

Line 1: Give two adjectives describing the person.

Line 2: Begin with an –ing verb that tells what the person does.

Line 3: Begin with an –ing verb that tells what the person does.

Line 4: Begin with an –ing verb that tells what the person does.

Line 5: Use another word or name for the person.

Example:

Mrs. Mason

Nervous but enthusiastic

Trying to remember 150 new names and faces

Shuffling from room to room

Hoping we will enjoy this semester

A new teacher to Mt. View.


  1. name or nickname

  2. 4 adjectives for them

  3. relationships

  4. 3 things the student loves

  5. 3 things the student is afraid of

  6. 3 things the student would like to see

  7. how the poet (the student) feels about a person.


  1. Kate

  2. tall, energetic, intelligent, sociable

  3. a friend of mine

  4. who loves music, sports, cakes, summer

  5. who is afraid of spiders, snakes, bad marks

  6. who would like to see friendly people...

  7. I love her very much . She is great


Name Acrostic: the first letters of each line spell out the person’s name.

Используя Name Acrostic’, можно дать характеристику кому-либо не называя его имя, а зашифровывая его в первых буквах каждой строчки.

Example:


Mason

Monday morning dieter, religiously

A sinner by noon.

Struggling to juggle all her hats

Of wife, mother, teacher.

Never anxious for vacations to end.



Noble and remarkable for its beauty

Alive but in danger

Thankful for kindness

Unique and unhappy

Remembering everything

Exhausted


Limerick: a short, humorous poem that follows a particular pattern.

Лимерики помогают в шуточной форме рассказать о человеке, дать ему характеристику. Они не называют конкретные черты характера человека. Учащиеся сами должны догадаться о характере человека.



Lines 1,2, and 5 rhyme A.

Lines 3 and 4 rhyme B.

Lines 1,2, and 5 have eight to ten syllables each.

Lines 3 and 4 have five to seven syllables each.


A line (8-10 syllables)

A line (8-10 syllables)

B Line (5-7 syllables)

B Line (4-7 syllables)

A line (8-10 syllables)



Example:

Mason

There once was a teacher named Mason.

In her class, no time was a –wastin’.

If ten classes you’ve missed,

Be prepared to be hissed,

And enrolled in high school in Payson.


Прочитав учащимся этот лимерик, можно задать им следующие вопросы:

  1. Was Mrs. Mason kind, strict or indifferent to her pupils?

  2. How do you think whether she was a good teacher or not? Why?

  3. Was she glad when her pupils missed her classes?

  4. The line ‘Be prepare to be hissed’ means

  1. to be punished

  2. to have unpleasant talk with Mrs. Mason

  3. not to be allowed to be present in her classes

  1. What pupils do you think attend high school in Payson? Why do you think so?

  2. What kind of person do you think Mrs. Mason was?

  3. Would you like to have a teacher like Mrs. Mason?


Если ребята составляют описание человека в форме лимерика, то есть хорошая возможность отрабатывать прилагательные (синонимы, антонимы), характеризующие человека, например, такие, как hostilefriendly, level-headedhot-headed и многие другие.

Уч-ся прослушав лимерик, дают характеристику человеку, используя только прилагательные.


Poetry à la Emily Dickinson

Практически на любую тему можно написать стихотворение à la Emily Dickinson. Сочиняя стихотворения à la Emily Dickinson ребята учатся использовать образный стиль, метафоры


Ввести стихотворениеFameЭ. Дикинсон можно следующим образом.


Ask your students to read Emily Dickinson’s poem ‘Fame.’


Fame


Fame is a bee.

It has a song –

It has a sting –

Ah, too, it has a wing.

( Emily Dickinson )


Prior to reading, you may wish to discuss concepts such as:

figurative language

metaphorical expression

symbolism

abstract nouns

literary theme

Or, you may wish to wait until the students have read and responded to the poem.

When your pupils have read the poem and had a few moments to reflect, ask them:


  1. What do you think Emily Dickinson is trying to say to her readers?

  2. How would you interpret Fame is ‘song’? ‘sting’ ? ‘wing’?


Brainstorming for Description:

Following a discussion of the poem’s language and theme, tell the pupils that they will be writing poems in the same format as Dickinson’s ‘Fame.’ Help them brainstorm nouns for abstract concepts such as anger, imagination, power, wealth, an so on. Record their suggestions on the chalkboard.

At this point, ask the pupils to each choose one noun from the chalkboard a list of words and phrases that describe it. For example, the noun anger might elicit words and phrases:

Descriptive

Raging

Can’t be bottled up.


Then ask the pupils to select an animal possessing some of the same qualities, such as a tiger for anger. In a second list, they will list qualities or attributes of the animal they choose.

For example:


Sharp claws

A fast runner

Fierce

Takes its prey by surprise.

Protects its young (etc.).

Writing à la Emily Dickinson:


As they begin to write, the students must decide which of the possible comparisons between the abstract concept and the animal will make the best poem, and which comparison might provide the ‘twist’ for the last line.

For instance, a pupil comparing anger to tiger could try to imagine anger, in turn, as:


Having sharp claws

Being a fast runner

Being fierce

Taking its prey by surprise

Protecting its young (etc.)


In this example, possible last line might be created by changing Protecting its young to It protects its own.

Suggest to the pupils that they experiment until they find a comparison for the last line which, like Dickinson’s, causes the reader to stop and think.

In writing their poems, the pupils follow the format below. (Note that they may substitute is or another verb for has.)

Here are some examples written by my pupils:



Adventure is school.

You have a lot of fun

You have some difficulties

Ah, too, you acquire knowledge.

Елесеева Марина

City is a person

It has its birthday

It has its fame

Ah, too, it has a name.

Джон Вероника


При изучении таких тем, как "Personality", "Friendship", "Pets" и др. можно использовать следующий прием (a piece of poetry):


  1. name or nickname

  2. 4 adjectives for them

  3. relationships

  4. 3 things the student loves

  5. 3 things the student is afraid of

  6. 3 things the student would like to see

  7. how the poet (the student) feels about a person.


Example:


  1. Kate

  2. tall, energetic, intelligent, sociable

  3. a friend of mine

  4. who loves music, sports, cakes, summer

  5. who is afraid of spiders, snakes, bad marks

  6. who would like to see friendly people...

  7. I love her very much she is great



Сделать речь образной, интересной и запоминающейся помогают сравнения и метафоры. Прежде, чем приступить к работе, необходимо повторить или объяснить что такое метафоры и сравнения.


A METAPHOR is an expression which means or describes one thing or idea using words usually used of something else with very similar qualities (as in the sunshine of her smile or the rain came down in buckets.) without the words as or like.

SIMILE is an expression which describes one thing by directly comparing it with another (as in as white as snow) using the words as or like.

После этого уч-ся предлагается выполнить следующие задания:


I. Read and discuss with your partner, and speak about a metaphor.

Morning is

a new sheet of paper

for you to write on.


Если уч-ся трудно самим выполнить это задание, вы можете задать им следующие вопросы:

What is morning compared with?

Why is it compared with a new sheet of paper?

How do you understand the words ‘for you to write on’?


  1. Complete the sentences with suitable metaphors of your own.


  1. A school is …

  2. City is a …

  3. A dream is …

  4. A man is a …

  5. Television is … (etc.)


  1. Complete the similes by adding original comparisons.


  1. His story was … (as old as Adam)

  2. Suddenly her mood changed and she became … (as black as thunder)

  3. You should be more serious. You are … (as light as butterfly)

  4. The red car was as slow as … (tortoise)

  5. The setting sun was lake … ( etc.)


Например, при изучении слов stubborn, gloomy, silent, proud я ввожу такие сравнения, как ‘As obstinate/stubborn as a mule’, ‘As black as a thunder’, As black as ink’,’ As silent as the grave’, ‘As dumb as a fish’, ‘As proud as a peacock’, As proud as Lucifer’ и др.

Для того, чтобы лучше запомнить сравнения уч-ся рассказывают о своих друзьях (внешности, характере) используя сравнения. Иногда один из уч-ся описывает кого-либо, употребляя прилагательные (for example stubborn, gloomy, silent, proud), a другой ученик пересказывает его описание кого-либо, используя сравнения вместо прилагательных.

Можно провести игру 'Кто лучше знает similes.'

  1. Один из учеников называет какое-нибудь сравнение, а другой – сравнение с противоположным значением. Например, ‘As pale as ashes’ – ‘As red as lobster’.

  2. Один из учеников называет какое-нибудь сравнение, а другой – другое сравнение с таким же значением. Например, ‘As plain as daylight’, ‘As plain as the sun at noonday’.

  3. Группа делится на две подгруппы и каждой подгруппе дается задание составить полилог, рассказ, используя сравнения. Затем выбирается лучший.


















Poetry Styles

Noun Poetry


Line 1: Choose a noun that describes the person, place, or thing you have selected.

Line 2: Describe this noun with two adjectives joined by the word and or but.

Line 3: Use a verb form and an adverb to show this noun in a typical action.

Line 4: Think up a comparison beginning with the word as or like to show a special quality this

noun has.

Line 5: Use a phrase beginning with if only to express a wish regarding this noun.


Fireman.

Strong and fearless.

Fighting courageously.

As brave as a gladiator.

If only I could be a hero!

alliteration: Verses where all the words begin with the same letter.

Two tall trees try to touch tenderly.

Five freaky frogs fight fearlessly.


haiku: A form of Japanese poetry that follows a structured pattern.

For example:

Line 1: 5 syllables Soft wings fluttering

Line 2: 7 syllables Bright colors flying through air

Line 3: 5 syllables Lovely butterfly.


windsparks: Verses with the following pattern:

Line 1: "I dreamed"

Line 2: "I was" someone or something

Line 3: Where

Line 4: Action

Line 5: How

For example:

I dreamed I dreamed

I was poison ivy I was a leaf

In the woods Growing in the forest

Providing itches and rashes Providing food for caterpillars

Gleefully Unwillingly

cinquain: Verses with the following pattern:


Line 1: One word title

Line 2: two words describing title

Line 3: three words showing action.

Line 4: four words showing a feeling about the title

Line 5: one word (simile or metaphor for the title)


For example:


Water Trees

Still, quiet Monumental, majestic

Reflects, listens, shimmers Towering, soldiering, guarding

Waiting for a splash Whispering giants standing tall

Silence Sentries


Poetic Portrait’ (Cinquain: a five-line poem.)


Title: Use the person’s name

Line 1: Give two adjectives describing the person.

Line 2: Begin with an –ing verb that tells what the person does.

Line 3: Begin with an –ing verb that tells what the person does.

Line 4: Begin with an –ing verb that tells what the person does.

Line 5: Use another word or name for the person.

Example:


Mrs. Mason

Nervous but enthusiastic

Trying to remember 150 new names and faces

Shuffling from room to room

Hoping we will enjoy this semester

A new teacher to Mt. View.

  1. name or nickname

  2. 4 adjectives for them

  3. relationships

  4. 3 things the student loves

  5. 3 things the student is afraid of

  6. 3 things the student would like to see

  7. how the poet (the student) feels about a person.


Example.


  1. Kate

  2. tall, energetic, intelligent, sociable

  3. a friend of mine

  4. who loves music, sports, cakes, summer

  5. who is afraid of spiders, snakes, bad marks

  6. who would like to see friendly people

  7. I love her very much, she is great


Name Acrostic: the first letters of each line spell out the person’s name.


Example:


Mason

Monday morning dieter, religiously

A sinner by noon.

Struggling to juggle all her hats

Of wife, mother, teacher.

Never anxious for vacations to end.


Limerick: a short, humorous poem that follows a particular pattern.


Lines 1,2, and 5 rhyme A.

Lines 3 and 4 rhyme B.

Lines 1,2, and 5 have eight to ten syllables each.

Lines 3 and 4 have five to seven syllables each.

A line (8-10 syllables)

A line (8-10 syllables)

B Line (5-7 syllables)

B Line (4-7 syllables)

A line (8-10 syllables)

Mason

There once was a teacher named Mason.

In her class, no time was a –wastin’.

If ten classes you’ve missed,

Be prepared to be hissed,

And enrolled] in high school in Payson.


Poetry à la Emily Dickinson


Fame

Fame is a bee.

It has a song –

It has a sting –

Ah, too, it has a wing. ( Emily Dickinson )


________ is a ________ .

It has a _________ -

It has a _________ -

Ah, too, it has a ______ .


Example:

Love is a mole.

It can be secretive –

It can build tunnels –

Ah, too, it can be blind.



Краткое описание документа:

Использование различных поэтических стилей (Noun Poetry, Haiku, Alliteration, Windsparks, Cinquain, ‘Poetic Portrait’, Acrostic, Limerick, Poetry à la Emily Dickinson), метафор, аналогий и сравнений позволяет не только делать уроки интересными и отрабатывать различные грамматические явления и лексику по различным темам, но и учит учащихся логически думать, выражать свои мысли в сжатой форме, анализировать, а также развивает творческие (поэтические) способности учащихся. Ребята учатся сами писать стихотворения, используя разнообразные поэтические стили, метафоры и сравнения.

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Дата добавления 17.06.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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