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Исследовательская работа "Британские и русские суеверия"

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Contents.


I. Introduction p.2


II. The definition of the word “superstition”. p.3


III. The causes to believe in superstitions. p.3


IV. Origin of some British superstitions. p.3


V. Kinds of superstitions. p.4


VI. Comparison of British and Russian superstitions. p.7


VII. Conclusion. p.10


VIII. List of literature. p.11






















I. Introduction.


The strong desire of people to protect themselves from the unknown power has brought thousands of superstitions in our world. In our century of technology and progress lots of people continue to believe in them. I think my work is of current interest because today we can visit Great Britain for traveling and study, so knowledge of British superstitions will help us to understand British people and avoid some problems. Moreover this work will be interesting and useful for pupils who interested in English language and British traditions.

The object of research is superstitions.

The subject is the most popular British and Russian superstitions.

The aim of my work is to find out the similarities or differences between British and Russian superstitions.

The tasks are to find, study, analyze and classify information about British and Russian superstitions.


Because all nations are unique and have their own traditions, my hypothesis is superstitions in Britain and in Russia are different.

To prove my hypothesis I used the following research methods:

1) search and examination of information

2) analysis

3) classification

4) comparison

5) generalization

II. The definition of the word “superstition”.


Oxford dictionary sais that superstition is a widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influences, especially as leading to good or bad luck, or a practice based on such a belief.

According to Webster's dictionary, superstition is any belief that is inconsistent with the known laws of science or with what is considered true and rational; esp., such a belief in omens, supernatural things.

So a superstition is a belief in something that is non-physical and does not follow the rules of science. Superstition is often associated with luck. Different superstitions often came from beliefs, religions and cultures had in the past. It is a mystery why people don't pay attention to facts and still believe in superstitions.


III. The causes to believe in superstitions.

According to the Russian Public Opinion Research Centre 50 % of Russians believe in superstitions. The British Medic Forum sais that 80% of British are superstitious.

Scientists can not give a clear answer why people believe in superstitions. Some people want to be sure in future events, others are not confident and signs help to find them their confidence. For some people the cause is in the stories of their friends and relatives about the influence of superstitions on somebody’s life.

Professor Stella Mc Guaira from London University made a research. She asked 5000 people and made an interesting conclusion: superstitious people live longer. Among the respondents, 97% older 90 and 93% older 80 years are strongly believe in superstitions. So this belief allows a person to think carefully about his own actions, prepare for a possible failure, protect him from stress.


IV. Origin of some British superstitions.


Although many people believe in superstitions they don’t know their origin. But each superstitions has its own history. These are some popular British superstitions and their origins.


Don’t open an umbrella indoors (bad luck).

It appeared in Egyptian times when umbrellas were used to protect people from the sun. To open an umbrella indoors meant the insult to the God of the Sun.

Don’t walk under a ladder (bad luck).

It is of the most common superstitions in Britain. It appeared in Egypt thousands years ago. The Egyptians strongly believed in the power of the pyramids. A ladder formed a triangle symbolized a pyramid for them. So they believed that walking under a ladder would break the “power” of the pyramid and bring bad luck.


Don’t put new shoes on the table (bad luck).

According to superstition in the UK, you should never put new shoes on a table as it is symbolizes death of a family member.  The tradition relates to the coal mining industry in the North of England. When a miner died his shoes were placed on the table as a sign of respect.

Touch wood (good luck).

Ancient Celts believe that good spirits lived in wood. So when they touched the wood, they got the help of good spirits.

Four-leaf clover (good luck).

Hundreds, possibly thousands of years ago, Druids believed four-leaf clover that helped to keep away the demons.


V. Kinds of superstitions.


All superstitions are connected with definite things, so we divided them in several groups but all of them mean good or bad luck.

body

animals, birds


wedding



things

flowers, trees


superstitions



food

travelling

money

clothes

children












bad luck / good luck







These are examples of all kinds of superstitions but I can’t find some of them in culture.


Animals and birds superstitions


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

Saying “White Rabbits” three times on the first day of each month brings good luck.

Unlucky to see one magpie, lucky to see two, etc…


If ravens shout near your house it’s bad luck.


If a swallow flies near the ground it will be rain soon.


Flowers and trees superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

Catch falling leaves in Autumn and you will have good luck. Every leaf means a lucky month next year.


Don’t give yellow flower to your girlfriend. It means that your relationship will end.


Children superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

If a baby is born on Christmas Day, it will have a special fortune.


If a child rides on a bear’s back it will be protected from a cough.


Don’t buy clothes and other things for the baby before his birth.

Only parents can see a baby during his first month of life.




Money superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

Putting money in the pocket of new clothes brings good luck.


If you whistle in the house you will have problems with money.


Wedding superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

For good luck the bride should wear “something borrowed, something blue, something old and something new”.


Bad luck is to marry in May. The family life will be very difficult.


Food superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

If you spill salt, it’s bad luck and leads to conflict.

If you spill salt, it’s bad luck and leads to conflict.



Body superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

Cut your hair when the moon is waxing and you will have good luck.

Cross your fingers before an important event for good luck.

If your ears or cheeks are hot, someone is thinking or talking about you.

If your right eye itches, you're going to be happy soon. If your left eye itches, you'll be sad.


Things superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

A horseshoe over the door brings good luck.

Seven years bad luck to break a mirror.

If you meet a woman with empty buck it’s bad luck.

If you eat from a knife, you'll be "angry like a dog".



Clothes superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions

If you wear clothes inside out, you will get a gift.

Unlucky to put new shoes on the table.


If you wear clothes inside out, you will get beaten.


Travelling superstitions.


British Superstitions


Russian Superstitions


Return to your home after closing the door is bad luck. You must look in a mirror .

Before a long trip you must sit for a minute and you trip will be good.



VI. Comparison of British and Russian superstitions.


Studied and analyzed the superstitions of Britain and Russia I can divided them in four groups:

  1. Identical superstitions.

  2. Superstitions with some differences but with similar meaning.

  3. Superstitions with opposite meaning.

  4. British superstitions without Russian analogues.


Identical superstitions.


  • A horseshoe over the door brings good luck.

  • Unlucky to spill salt.

  • Cross your fingers before an important event for good luck.

  • The number thirteen is unlucky. Friday the thirteenth is a very unlucky day.

  • If you drop a table knife expect a male visitor, if you drop a fork a female visitor.

  • Lucky to touch or to knock on wood especially if you have said or think something wrong.

  • A groom mustn’t see the bride in her wedding clothes before the day of wedding. Bad luck.


Superstitions with some differences but with similar meaning.



British superstitions


Russian superstitions

Lucky to find a clover plant with four leaves.


Lucky to find a clover plant with four leaves.

Lucky to find a lilac flower with five leaves.

Cut your hair when the moon is waxing and you will have good luck.

Cut your hair when the moon is waxing and it will grow better. (it’s lucky especially for girls)


If a sparrow enters a house it is an omen of death to one of the people who live there.

If a bird knocks in the window it means death to one of the people or pets who live there.



Superstitions with opposite meaning.


British superstitions

Good luck


Russian superstitions

Bad luck

If you wear clothes inside out, you will get a gift.


If you wear clothes inside out, you will be beaten.


Lucky to meet a black cat.



Black cat crossing your path is bad luck.

If the left hand itches you will lose money.

If the left hand itches you will get money.


Black ravens bring luck.

Black ravens bring bad luck.



British superstitions without Russian analogues.


  • The first day of the month it is lucky to say "white rabbits, white rabbits white rabbits".

  • Catch falling leaves in Autumn and you will have good luck. Every leaf means a lucky month next year.

  • Putting money in the pocket of new clothes brings good luck.

  • Unlucky to see one magpie, lucky to see two, etc…

  • Unlucky to put new shoes on the table.

  • Unlucky to open an umbrella in doors.

  • When finished eating a boiled egg, push the spoon through the bottom of the empty shell to let the devil out.

  • Crossed spoons and forks on your plate and expect a quarrel.

  • For good luck the bride should wear “something borrowed, something blue, something old and something new”.

  • Unlucky to walk under a ladder. 

  • Unlucky to wear new shoes on Christmas Day.

  • Pick up a left glove lying on the road is bad luck.

  • If a neighbor treat you some food, you must give him his plate dirty, washing it brings bad luck.


VII. Conclusion.


In my work I studied 30 British superstitions. 7 of them – 23,3% have similar meaning with Russian superstitions, 310% with some differences but with similar meaning, 413,3% have the opposite meaning and 1343,3% have no Russian analogues. So my hypothesis that British and Russians superstitions are different is true.

The aim and the tasks are made, the hypothesis is proved.































VIII. List of literature.


  1. Barbin A.V. The Superstitions. M.: Eksmo , 1999

  2. Hoggarth S. Culture and traditions of Great Britain M.: White city, 2004

3. Mathews B. Customs, traditions and superstitions in Great Britain, Prosveshenie, 2005.

4. Lavrova R. Russian superstitions. M.: Prosveshenie, 2001.

5.http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/index/symbols.htm

6. http://www.russia-ukraine-travel.com/russian-superstitions.html


7. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/superstition


8. http://study-english.info/topic-superstitions.php#ixzz3SxjG6lSd 










12


Выбранный для просмотра документ суеверия.pptx

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British and Russian superstitions
The object of research is superstitions. The subject is the most popular Bri...
My hypothesis is superstitions in Britain and in Russia are different. 	Rese...
Superstition is a widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influenc...
 		Russia				Great Britain	 		 50%					80%
 Don’t open an umbrella indoors (bad luck).
 Touch wood (good luck). Four-leaf clover (good luck).
superstitions things animals, birds flowers, trees children money body weddi...
Animals and birds superstitions British Superstitions Russian Superstitions U...
Flowers and trees superstitions. British Superstitions Russian Superstitions...
Body superstitions. Britishsuperstition Russian superstition Cross your finge...
Things superstitions. British superstition Russian superstition Seven years b...
Travelling superstitions. British superstition Russian superstition - Before...
Comparison of British and Russian superstitions. Identical superstitions. Su...
Identical superstitions.
Superstitions with some differences but with similar meaning.   British supe...
Superstitions with opposite meaning.
 British superstitions without Russian analogues.
British superstitions without Russian analogues.
Conclusion. 30 British superstitions 23,3% have similar meaning with Russian...
 Thank you for your attention.
22 1

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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 British and Russian superstitions
Описание слайда:

British and Russian superstitions

№ слайда 2 The object of research is superstitions. The subject is the most popular Bri
Описание слайда:

The object of research is superstitions. The subject is the most popular British and Russian superstitions. The aim of my work is to find out the similarities or differences between British and Russian superstitions. The tasks are to find, study, analyze and classify information about British and Russian superstitions.  

№ слайда 3 My hypothesis is superstitions in Britain and in Russia are different. 	Rese
Описание слайда:

My hypothesis is superstitions in Britain and in Russia are different. Research methods: 1) search and examination of information 2) analysis 3) classification 4) comparison 5) generalization

№ слайда 4 Superstition is a widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influenc
Описание слайда:

Superstition is a widely held but irrational belief in supernatural influences, especially as leading to good or bad luck.

№ слайда 5  		Russia				Great Britain	 		 50%					80%
Описание слайда:

Russia Great Britain 50% 80%

№ слайда 6
Описание слайда:

№ слайда 7  Don’t open an umbrella indoors (bad luck).
Описание слайда:

Don’t open an umbrella indoors (bad luck).

№ слайда 8  Touch wood (good luck). Four-leaf clover (good luck).
Описание слайда:

Touch wood (good luck). Four-leaf clover (good luck).

№ слайда 9 superstitions things animals, birds flowers, trees children money body weddi
Описание слайда:

superstitions things animals, birds flowers, trees children money body wedding clothes travelling food

№ слайда 10 Animals and birds superstitions British Superstitions Russian Superstitions U
Описание слайда:

Animals and birds superstitions British Superstitions Russian Superstitions Unlucky to see one magpie, lucky to see two, etc… If a swallow flies near the ground it will be rain soon.

№ слайда 11 Flowers and trees superstitions. British Superstitions Russian Superstitions
Описание слайда:

Flowers and trees superstitions. British Superstitions Russian Superstitions Catch falling leaves in Autumn and you will have good luck. Every leaf means a lucky month next year. Don’t give yellow flower to your girlfriend. It means that your relationship will end.

№ слайда 12 Body superstitions. Britishsuperstition Russian superstition Cross your finge
Описание слайда:

Body superstitions. Britishsuperstition Russian superstition Cross your fingers before an important event for good luck. If your ears or cheeks are hot, someone is thinking or talking about you.

№ слайда 13 Things superstitions. British superstition Russian superstition Seven years b
Описание слайда:

Things superstitions. British superstition Russian superstition Seven years bad luck to break a mirror. If you meet a woman with empty buck it’s bad luck.

№ слайда 14 Travelling superstitions. British superstition Russian superstition - Before
Описание слайда:

Travelling superstitions. British superstition Russian superstition - Before a long trip you must sit for a minute and you trip will be good.

№ слайда 15 Comparison of British and Russian superstitions. Identical superstitions. Su
Описание слайда:

Comparison of British and Russian superstitions. Identical superstitions. Superstitions with some differences but with similar meaning. Superstitions with opposite meaning. British superstitions without Russian analogues.

№ слайда 16 Identical superstitions.
Описание слайда:

Identical superstitions.

№ слайда 17 Superstitions with some differences but with similar meaning.   British supe
Описание слайда:

Superstitions with some differences but with similar meaning.   British superstition Russian superstition

№ слайда 18 Superstitions with opposite meaning.
Описание слайда:

Superstitions with opposite meaning.

№ слайда 19  British superstitions without Russian analogues.
Описание слайда:

British superstitions without Russian analogues.

№ слайда 20 British superstitions without Russian analogues.
Описание слайда:

British superstitions without Russian analogues.

№ слайда 21 Conclusion. 30 British superstitions 23,3% have similar meaning with Russian
Описание слайда:

Conclusion. 30 British superstitions 23,3% have similar meaning with Russian superstitions 10% with some differences but with similar meaning 43,3% have no Russian analogues

№ слайда 22  Thank you for your attention.
Описание слайда:

Thank you for your attention.


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Дата добавления 15.02.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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