Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Исследовательская работа "Экологические проблемы"
МБОУ лицей № 4 г. Данкова
Лицейское научное общество
Конкурс исследовательских работ
«Первые шаги в науку»
Тема проекта: How can we help to save the Earth
Ростова Оксана Евгеньевна
Учитель английского языка
Global environmental problems……………………………………………..4
Ecological organizations and their activities in the world…………………..8
Regional environmental problems and nature conservative regulations…..18
The ways to help the ecosystem……………………………………………20
The initial steps towards saving the Earth …………………………………21
The Earth is the only planet that people can live on, but nowadays they seem to be doing everything to make their home unfit for living. Industrialization has brought us into conflict with the natural environment. Our planet is in danger: air, water and land pollution have disastrous consequences which threaten human life on Earth. However, many people still believe that nature is doing well by itself and don’t think how awful the consequences may be. Nature can’t do without our help. People must always remember that the Earth is our home and it depends on us what it will be like.
So, the object of our research has become discourse about environmental problems and the ways to solve them in order to reduce pollution and help to improve our lives on Earth.
The aim of our work is to make students realize that ecological problems concern everybody.
We set ourselves the following tasks:
To pay students’ attention to the results of people’s influence on the environment;
To find out as much as possible about ecological organizations and their campaigns, influence public opinion and help to form a correct attitude to nature;
To make students’ survey to learn what ecological problems exist in their locality and worry them, what can be done for their local environment.
The ways of research are:
To select information
To analyze information
To make questionnaire
To summarize information.
We pull out the hypothesis: If we don’t worry about the environment and make a small effort to improve it, we won’t survive in future.
The practical value of work is evident. It is important and useful. I can help to raise ecological awareness and consciousness of students and make them realize that ecological problems concern everybody and much can be done by their own efforts.
Global environmental problems
Our environment is constantly changing. There is no denying that. However, as our environment changes, so does the need to become increasingly aware of the problems that surround it. With a massive influx of natural disasters, warming and cooling periods, different types of weather patterns and much more, people need to be aware of what types of environmental problems our planet is facing.
Major Current Environmental Problems
1) Pollution: Pollution of air, water and soil require millions of years to recoup. Industry and motor vehicle exhaust are the number one pollutants. Heavy metals, nitrates and plastic are toxins responsible for pollution. While water pollution is caused by oil spill, acid rain, urban runoff; air pollution is caused by various gases and toxins released by industries and factories and combustion of fossil fuels; soil pollution is majorly caused by industrial waste that deprives soil from essential nutrients.
2) Global Warming: Climate changes like global warming is the result of human practices like emission of Greenhouse gases. Global warming leads to rising temperatures of the oceans and the earth’ surface causing melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea levels and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as flash floods, excessive snow or desertification.
3) Overpopulation: The population of the planet is reaching unsustainable levels as it faces shortage of resources like water, fuel and food. Population explosion in less developed and developing countries is straining the already scarce resources. Intensive agriculture practiced to produce food damages the environment through use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides and insecticides. Overpopulation is one of the crucial current environmental problem.
4) Natural Resource Depletion: Natural resource depletion is another crucial current environmental problems. Fossil fuel consumption results in emission of Greenhouse gases, which is responsible for global warming and climate change. Globally, people are taking efforts to shift to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind, biogas and geothermal energy. The cost of installing the infrastructure and maintaining these sources has plummeted in the recent years.
5) Waste Disposal: The over consumption of resources and creation of plastics are creating a global crisis of waste disposal. Developed countries are notorious for producing an excessive amount of waste or garbage and dumping their waste in the oceans and, less developed countries. Nuclear waste disposal has tremendous health hazards associated with it. Plastic, fast food, packaging and cheap electronic wastes threaten the well being of humans. Waste disposal is one of urgent current environmental problem.
6) Climate Change: Climate change is yet another environmental problem that has surfaced in last couple of decades. It occurs due to rise in global warming which occurs due to increase in temperature of atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels and release of harmful gases by industries. Climate change has various harmful effects but not limited to melting of polar ice, change in seasons, occurrence of new diseases, frequent occurrence of floods and change in overall weather scenario.
7) Loss of Biodiversity: Human activity is leading to the extinction of species and habitats and loss of bio-diversity. Eco systems, which took millions of years to perfect, are in danger when any species population is decimating. Balance of natural processes like pollination is crucial to the survival of the eco-system and human activity threatens the same. Another example is the destruction of coral reefs in the various oceans, which support the rich marine life.
8) Deforestation: Our forests are natural sinks of carbon dioxide and produce fresh oxygen as well as helps in regulating temperature and rainfall. At present forests cover 30% of the land but every year tree cover is lost amounting to the country of Panama due to growing population demand for more food, shelter and cloth. Deforestation simply means clearing of green cover and make that land available for residential, industrial or commercial purpose.
9) Ocean Acidification: It is a direct impact of excessive production of CO2. 25% of CO2 produced by humans. The ocean acidity has increased by the last 250 years but by 2100, it may shoot up by 150%. The main impact is on shellfish and plankton in the same way as human osteoporosis.
10) Ozone Layer Depletion: The ozone layer is an invisible layer of protection around the planet that protects us from the sun’s harmful rays. Depletion of the crucial Ozone layer of the atmosphere is attributed to pollution caused by Chlorine and Bromide found in Chloro-floro carbons (CFC’s). Once these toxic gases reach the upper atmosphere, they cause a hole in the ozone layer, the biggest of which is above the Antarctic. The CFC’s are banned in many industries and consumer products. Ozone layer is valuable because it prevents harmful UV radiation from reaching the earth. This is one of the most important current environmental problem.
11) Acid Rain: Acid rain occurs due to the presence of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. Acid rain can be caused due to combustion of fossil fuels or erupting volcanoes or rotting vegetation which release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere. Acid rain is a known- environmental problem that can have serious effect on human health, wildlife and aquatic species.
12) Water Pollution: Clean drinking water is becoming a rare commodity. Water is becoming an economic and political issue as the human population fights for this resource. One of the options suggested is using the process of desalinization. Industrial development is filling our rivers seas and oceans with toxic pollutants which are a major threat to human health.
13) Urban Sprawl: Urban sprawl refers to migration of population from high density urban areas to low density rural areas which results in spreading of city over more and more rural land. Urban sprawl results in land degradation, increased traffic, environmental issues and health issues. The ever growing demand of land displaces natural environment consisting of flora and fauna instead of being replaced.
14) Public Health Issues: The current environmental problems pose a lot of risk to health of humans, and animals. Dirty water is the biggest health risk of the world and poses threat to the quality of life and public health. Run-off to rivers carries along toxins, chemicals and disease carrying organisms. Pollutants cause respiratory disease like Asthma and cardiac-vascular problems. High temperatures encourage the spread of infectious diseases like Dengue.
15) Genetic Engineering: Genetic modification of food using biotechnology is called genetic engineering. Genetic modification of food results in increased toxins and diseases as genes from an allergic plant can transfer to target plant. Genetically modified crops can cause serious environmental problems as an engineered gene may prove toxic to wildlife. Another drawback is that increased use of toxins to make insect resistant plant can cause resultant organisms to become resistant to antibiotics.
The need for change in our daily lives and the movements of our government is growing. Because so many different factors come into play; voting, governmental issues, the desire to stick to routine, many people don’t consider that what they do will affect future generations. If humans continue moving forward in such a harmful way towards the future, then there will be no future to consider. Although it’s true that we cannot physically stop our ozone layer from thinning (and scientists are still having trouble figuring out what is causing it exactly,) there are still so many things we can do to try and put a dent in what we already know. By raising awareness in your local community and within your families about these issues, you can help contribute to a more environmentally conscious and friendly place for you to live.
Ecological organizations and their activities in the world
The mission of Kids for A Clean Environment is to provide information on environmental issues to children, to encourage and facilitate youth's involvement with effective environmental action and to recognize those efforts which result in the improvement of nature.
Kids F.A.C.E. translated = Kids (F) or (A) (C) clean (E) environment.
Kids F.A.C.E. started in 1989, in Nashville by Melissa Poe. The first club had six members.
Impetus for the creation of Kids F.A.C.E. was driven by Melissa's correspondence to then - President Bush to help clean up the environment. Over 250 billboards with Melissa's letter to the president were placed across the United States in April, 1990.
First chapter of the club was formed in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, in 1990 after Melissa's appearance on the TODAY show. After that appearance, the organization startedto grow.
Today there are more than 2,000 club chapters in fifteen countries and more than 300,000 individual members. The organization is the world's largest youth environmental organization. Membership is free to children and teachers.
Kids F.A.C.E. members have distributed and planted over 1 Million trees. Ongoing tree-planting projects include the creation of Kid's Yards - backyard wildlife habitats and currently Kids F.A.C.E. is involved in the exciting Earth Odyssey.
Kids F.A.C.E. incoming 800 telephone hot-line responds to children's requests to become members or to receive information. As many as 40,000 calls have been recorded in one month.
Kids F.A.C.E. members created the world's largest environmental flag - measuring 100' x 200' - to symbolize the concerns youth have about nature and the future world. The Flag was unveiled during the twenty-fifth celebration of Earth Day in Washington, D.C.
Kids F.A.C.E. has received national awards for its youth environmental projects including the "1997 A Pledge and a Promise" award for the Power of One program.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity and focuses its campaigning on world- wide issues such as climate change, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclear issues. It uses direct action, lobbying, and research to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations, or political parties, relying on 2.9 million individual supporters and foundation grants. Greenpeace has a general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and is a founding member of the INGO Accountability Charter; an international non-governmental organization that intends to foster accountability and transparency of non-governmental organizations.
Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. Greenpeace has raised environmental issues to public knowledge, and influenced both the private and the public sector. Greenpeace has also been a source of controversy; its motives and methods have received criticism and the organization's direct actions have sparked legal actions against Greenpeace activists.
Greenpeace consists of Greenpeace International (officially Stichting Greenpeace Council) based in Amsterdam, Netherlands, and 28 regional offices operating in 45 countries.The regional offices work largely autonomously under the supervision of Greenpeace International.
Greenpeace receives its funding from individual supporters and foundations.Greenpeace screens all major donations in order to ensure it does not receive unwanted donations.The organization does not accept money from governments, intergovernmental organizations, political parties or corporations in order to avoid their influence
Summary of priorities and campaigns
On its official website, Greenpeace defines its mission as the following:
Catalysing an energy revolution to address the number one threat facing our planet: climate change.
Protecting the world's remaining ancient forests which are depended on by many animals, plants and people.
Creating a toxin free future with safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals in today's products and manufacturing.
Campaigning for sustainable agriculture by encouraging socially and ecologically responsible farming practices.
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is a charity operating in England and Wales that promotes animal welfare. In 2012, the RSPCA investigated 150,833 cruelty complaints.It is the oldest and largest animal welfare organisation in the world and is one of the largest charities in the UK, with 1,453 employees (as of 2009). The organisation also does international outreach work across Europe, Africa and Asia.
The charity's work has inspired the creation of similar groups in other jurisdictions, starting with the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (founded in 1836), and including the Scottish Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1839), the Dublin Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1840), the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1866), the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals(1882), and various groups which eventually came together as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Australia (1981), the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Hong Kong) (1997) - formerly known as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Hong Kong) (1903-1997).
The RSPCA is funded primarily by voluntary donations. In 2012, RSPCA total income was £132,803,000, total expenditure was £121,464,000.Its patron is Queen Elizabeth II.
The organisation was founded in 1824 (without the "royal" prefix) as the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals; it was established by a group of 22 reformers led by Richard Martin MP, William Wilberforce MP, and the Reverend Arthur Broome in "Old Slaughter's Coffee House", St Martin's Lane, near the Strand. The foundation is marked by a plaque on the modern day building at 77-78 St Martin's Lane.
The society was the first animal welfare charity to be founded in the world. In 1824 it brought sixty three offenders before the courts.It was granted its royal status by Queen Victoria in 1840 to become the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, as it is today.In the late 1830s the society began the tradition of the RSPCA inspector, which is the image best known of the organisation today.
The RSPCA lobbied Parliament throughout the nineteenth century, resulting in a number of new laws. The Cruelty to Animals Act 1835 amended Martin's Act and outlawed baiting. In 1876 the Cruelty to Animals Act was passed to control animal experimentation. In 1911 Parliament passed Sir George Greenwood's Animal Protection Act.
Since that time the RSPCA has continued to play an active role, both in the creation of animal welfare legislation and in its enforcement. An important recent new law has been the Animal Welfare Act 2006.
RSPCA centres, hospitals and branches operate throughout England and Wales. In 2012 RSPCA centres and branches assisted and rehomed 55,459 animals.
In 2013 the society owned four animal hospitals, Birmingham, Greater Manchester, Putney (south London) and the Harmsworth Memorial Hospital in Holloway (north London), and a number of clinics which provide treatments to those who could not otherwise afford it, neuter animals and accept animals from the RSPCA inspectorate.
RSPCA animal centres deal with a wide range of injured and rescued animals, working alongside its inspectorate, volunteers, and others to ensure that each animal is found a new home.
In 2013 the Society had four wildlife centres at East Winch (Norfolk), West Hatch (Somerset), Stapeley Grange (Cheshire) and Mallydams Wood (East Sussex), which provide treatment to sick, injured and orphaned wild animals to maximise their chances of a successful return to the wild.
The RSPCA is a registered charity (no. 219099) that relies on donations from the public. The RSPCA states that its mission as a charity is, by all lawful means, to prevent cruelty, promote kindness to and alleviate suffering of animals.
RSPCA inspectors respond to calls from the public to investigate alleged mistreatment of animals. They offer advice and assistance to improve animal welfare, and in some cases prosecute under laws such as the Animal Welfare Act 2006.
Animals rescued by the RSPCA are treated, rehabilitated and rehomed or released wherever possible.
The RSPCA brings private prosecution (a right available to any civilian) against those it believes, based on independent veterinary opinion, have caused neglect to an animal under laws such as the Animal Welfare Act 2006. The Society has its own legal department and veterinary surgeons amongst the resources which facilitate such private prosecutions. All prosecutions are brought via independent solicitors acting for the RSPCA, as the Association has no legal enforcement powers or authority in its own right.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA; stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president. A non-profit corporation with 300 employees, it says it has three million members and supporters and is the largest animal rights group in the world. Its slogan is "animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, use for entertainment or abuse in any way."
Founded in March 1980 by Newkirk and fellow animal rights activist Alex Pacheco, the organization first caught the public's attention in the summer of 1981 during what became known as the Silver Spring monkeys case, a widely publicized dispute about experiments conducted on 17 macaque monkeys inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland. The case lasted ten years, involved the only police raid on an animal laboratory in the United States, triggered an amendment in 1985 to that country's Animal Welfare Act, and established PETA as an internationally known organization. Today it focuses on four core issues—opposition to factory farming, fur farming, animal testing, and animals in entertainment. It also campaigns against eating meat, fishing, the killing of animals regarded as pests, the keeping of chained backyard dogs, cock fighting, dog fighting, and bullfighting.
Neutering, backyard dogs, working animals, and pets
PETA runs several programs though its Community Animal Project for cats and dogs in poorer areas of Virginia, near its headquarters. In 2008 they neutered 7,485 cats, dogs, and rabbits in that area, including pit bulls and feral cats, at a discounted rate or free of charge. They shelter neglected dogs and cats who are ill and injured, and pursue cruelty cases. They set up dog houses with straw bedding for dogs chained outside all winter.They urge population control through neutering and adoption from shelters, and campaign against organizations such as the American Kennel Club that promote the selection of purebred breeds.
Wildlife conservation personalities
PETA is critical of television personalities they call self-professed wildlife warriors, arguing that while a conservationist message is getting across, some of the actions are harmful to animals, such as invading animals' homes, netting them, subjecting them to stressful environments, and wrestling with them—often involving young animals the group says should be with their mothers
PETA opposes animal testing—whether toxicity testing, basic or applied research, or for education and training—on both moral and practical grounds. Newkirk told Vogue magazine in 1989 that even if it resulted in a cure for AIDS, PETA would oppose it. The group also believes that it is wasteful, unreliable, and irrelevant to human health, because artificially induced diseases in animals are not identical to human diseases. They say that animal experiments are frequently redundant and lack accountability, oversight, and regulation. They promote alternatives, including embryonic stem cell research and in vitro cell research. PETA employees have themselves volunteered for human testing of vaccines; Scott Van Valkenburg, the group's Director of Major Gifts, said in 1999 that he had volunteered for human testing of HIV vaccines.
PETA opposes the use of animals for producing clothing that utilizes fur, leather, wool, or silk. PETA also opposes the use of down from birds and the use of silk from silkworms or spiders.
PETA Asia-Pacific was founded by Ingrid Newkirk in Hong Kong in 2005 to support animal rights programs and campaigns in Asia. Jason Baker, a former staff member of PETA who was involved in setting up PETA India and PETA Australia, is PETA Asia Pacific's first director. Its offices are in Hong Kong and Manila. It works through public education, animal cruelty investigations, research, animal rescue, legislation, special events, celebrity involvement, and protest campaigns. Its campaigns cover countries including China, Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea.
PETA Asia-Pacific promotes vegetarian and vegan diets through three specific campaigns: education about the benefits of a vegetarian diet,demonstrations and celebrity involvement against fast food outlets,and undercover investigations of animals used for live transport and traditional religious slaughter. The organization has also used the PETA Lettuce Ladies in local demonstrations. PETA Asia-Pacific regularly demonstrates against KFC outlets to promote better treatment of chickens used by the company.
PETA Asia-Pacific supports the PETA campaign "I'd Rather Go Naked Than Wear Fur", in which celebrities appear nude to express their opposition to wearing fur.The group also stages anti-fur events to publicize their opposition to fur.PETA Asia-Pacific has been involved in several undercover investigations of fur farms in China.
Animals used for entertainment
The group regularly protests the use of animals in entertainment, including circuses. These demonstrations are specific to the area, including anti-bull riding, not keeping wild animals in chains, and stopping human–animal wrestling matches.
Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries.
Friends of the Earth was founded in 1969 as an antinuclear group by Robert O Anderson who contributed $200,000 in personal funds to launch FOTE with David Brower, Donald Aitken and Jerry Mander after Brower's split with the Sierra Club. FOTE main mission was to lock up and prevent further development of nuclear energy. Their first employee was Amory Lovins, who kicked off FOE in the UK. It became an international network in 1971 with a meeting of representatives from the U.S., Sweden, the UK and France.
Friends of the Earth consider environmental issues in their social, political and human rights contexts. Their campaigns stretch beyond the traditional arena of the conservation movement and seek to address the economic and development aspects of sustainability. Originally based largely in North America and Europe, its membership is now heavily weighted toward groups in the developing world.
The current campaign priorities of Friends of the Earth internationally are:
climate justice and energy
The campaign priorities are set at the bi-annual general meeting of Friends of the Earth International.
In addition to the priority campaign areas Friends of the Earth International has a number of other campaign areas which are active internationally. They include:
consumption and intensive meat production
All FoEI International campaigns incorporate elements of three core themes which are:
protecting human and environmental rights
protecting the planet's disappearing biodiversity
the repayment of ecological debt owed by rich countries to those they have exploited.
The Friends of the Earth in each country are themselves many-tiered networks reaching from individual activists up to the national pressure group which campaigns for environmentally progressive and sustainable policies. The groups and activists at all levels also carry out educational and research activities.
Friends of the Earth groups are required to act independently of party political, religious or other influences; be open,democratic and non-discriminatory in their internal structures; and be willing to cooperate with other organizations who are working for the same goals. These are conditions of remaining a member of FOEI.
The national groups work on the main issues affecting their own country and choose to participate in the international campaigns of FoEI which are relevant to them. In turn, the local campaigners can work on local, national and/or international campaigns.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded on April 29, 1961, and is working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment. It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world's largest conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,30 conservation and environmental projects. WWF is a foundation,in 2010 deriving 57% of funding from individuals and bequests, 17% from government sources (such as the World Bank, DFID, USAID) and 11% from corporations.
The group's mission is "to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature".Currently, much of its work focuses on the conservation of three biomes that contain most of the world's biodiversity: oceans and coasts, forests, and freshwater ecosystems. Among other issues, it is also concerned with endangered species, pollution and climate change.
The giant panda has become the symbol of WWF.
WWF's Giant Panda logo originated from a panda named Chi Chi that had been transferred from Beijing Zoo to London Zoo in 1958, three years before WWF became established. Being famous as the only panda residing in the Western world at that time, its uniquely recognisable physical features and status as an endangered species were seen as ideal to serve the organisation's need for a strong recognisable symbol that would overcome all language barriers. Moreover, the organisation also needed an animal that would have an impact in black and white printing. The logo was then designed by Sir Peter Scott from preliminary sketches made by Gerald Watterson, a Scottish naturalist.However the logo shown on this page is not the logo designed by Peter Scott but a later one, designed for WWF when it changed its name from World Wildlife Fund to World Wide Fund for Nature.
WWF's current strategy for achieving its mission specifically focuses on restoring populations of 36 species (species or species groups that are important for their ecosystem or to people, including elephants, tunas, whales, dolphins and porpoises), and ecological footprint in 6 areas (carbon emissions, cropland, grazing land, fishing, forestry and water).
The organization also works on a number of global issues driving biodiversity loss and unsustainable use of natural resources, including finance, business practices, laws, and consumption choices. Local offices also work on national or regional issues.
Invasive Species Specialist Group
The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) is a global network of scientific and policy experts on invasive species, organized under the auspices of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). ISSG aims to reduce threats to natural ecosystems and the native species they contain by increasing awareness of invasive alien species, and of ways to prevent, control or eradicate them. ISSG was established in 1993 by the SSC, comprising a global network of scientific and policy experts on invasive species. The ISSG in 2015 is made up of 203 experts drawn from over 35 countries. A wider informal membership of over 1700 practitioners and researchers contribute to its work. The ISSG promotes and facilitates the exchange of information and knowledge on invasive alien species across the globe and ensures the linkage between knowledge, practice and policy so that decision making is informed. The core activity areas of the ISSG are policy and technical advice, and information management and exchange through development of knowledge products and networking. The ISSG was chaired by Mick Clout from 1993-2008, and by PieroGenovesi from 2009 to the present. The ISSG over the past two decades has dedicated its activities to policy support, advocacy and the management and dissemination of global IAS data and information. ISSG published the twice-yearly Aliens Newsletter and hosts the Global Invasive Species Database, considered the most autoritative data repository on invasive species.
IV. Regional environmental problems and nature conservative regulations
Lipetsk region is a well-known industrial centre a big agricultural complex. But it is facing the same environmental problems: toxic pollution of atmosphere, water pollution, destruction of soil, disappearance of forests and distractions of green zones, threat to some flora and fauna representatives, noise pollution etc.
The quality of air is affected by traffic. Factories and plants release poisonous chemical into the air.
Water is polluted because of industrial sewages, agricultural and public facilities, domestic waste-use of detergents for cleaning houses and cars, ets.
People cut down and burnt big areas of forests. This means there are fewer trees, and of course, more carbond dioxide! It causes the process of global warning. Some species of rare animals and birds have disappeared.
Besides, the land and water is suffered from Chernobyl disaster. Some areas were contaminated by radioactive elements. The agriculture suffered. Health state of people living in polluted areas is worsened. The level of cancer has increased, the immunity of children and grown- ups is weaken .
But nowadays city’s authorities, Novolipetsk Corporation and other enterprises, ecologists, deputies, representatives of mass media and others draw much attention to the solution of acute ecological problems. A total of environmental expenditures in the Lipetsk Region amounted to one million rubles. The application of these investments enabled the Novolipetsk company to reduce 4,3% specific emissions per ton of produced steel. The consumption of river water has decreased cut down as much. Today more than 95% of emissions is constituted by substances, which are harmless for human health in existing concentrations.
NLMK was one of the first steel-making companies that has been granted the Certificate of Environment Management Compliance with the Requirements to International ISO 14001 Standard.
According to Oleg Korolev it has done a lot to reduce deleterious effect upon environment, but other enterprises and establishments as well should equally be responsible for strict observance of nature-conservative regulations. He puts a strong emphasis upon the principles of clarity and publicity. He says that they should inform the public regularly about the measures, carried out to improve the ecological situation and invest more money into the application of their ecological programs.
Lately strategy in the field of waste management is exposed to essential changes. It’s a result of dynamic development of economy, stimulation of use of the of the best accessible “green technologies” , occurrence of scientific and technical achievements and methods of economic regulation at introduction of technologies without waste; the occurred changes in the ecological policy and legislation.
For these reasons Administration of the Lipetsk Region initiates the international ecological forum “Formation of system of ecological safety of regions in the conditions of dynamic development of economy “EcoRegion.” During the forum the most significant questions will be discussed in sphere of the reference with a waste, ways of processing and neutralization of waste and working out of corresponding legislative initiatives. It assumes participation not only representatives of public authorities, representatives of business, the scientific world, the public sphere.
V. The ways to help the ecosystem
1)Reduce or eliminate the use of household chemicals and pesticides that can hurt the environment. Harsh chemicals in typical store bought cleaners can get into the water supply and leak into ecosystems when disposed of. You can make your own cleaning solutions using distilled vinegar and baking soda. You can also purchase "green" cleaning products. Brands, such as Seventh Generation and Clorox Green Works, make their cleaning products with chemicals that are more environmentally friendly than conventional cleaners.
2)Recycle as much waste as you can and reduce the amount of waste you produce. You can create separate bins in your house and label them for glass, plastic, paper and aluminum. Take your bins to your nearest recycling center. (To find recycling centers in your area click on the link "Earth 911: Recycling Centers" in the Resources section.)
Reducing your waste is one of the best ways to help the environment. Rather than using disposable paper towels, use reusable towels that can be washed rather than thrown away. Use reusable bags at the grocery store rather than using disposable plastic or paper bags.
3)Reduce your carbon footprint. There are numerous ways to cut back on how much you pollute resulting in a smaller carbon footprint. In your house, you can turn your hot water heater down a few degrees, wash dishes in the sink rather than the dishwasher, take showers rather than baths, turn down your air conditioner or heater, and use energy efficient light bulbs and electronics. Choose transportation that pollutes less, such as public transportation and choosing to take a train over taking a plane.
4)Choose foods that are locally grown and grown sustainably. The industrial food system requires food to be transported from all over the country and internationally and for food to be grown abundantly, which requires pesticides. The transportation methods transporting food pollute the environment, but local foods do not need to be transported far. Organically grown food is also more sustainable, because it does not use pesticides, which harm ecosystems. Your local farmer's market is a way to find locally grown food and organically grown food.
VI. The initial steps towards saving the Earth
You are lust one of 6,000 million people, who live on our Earth. So can your actions really make a difference to its future?
The answer is yes, they certainly can. Because if you try to live in a way that will save the world rather than destroy it, you won’t be alone. Your example will encourage your friends and family to do the same. Then they will tell their friends and families about helping to care for the environment.
Here are some initial steps to begin trying to save the Earth right now(according student’s survey).
1. Try not to waste energy. Don’t stand with the fridge door open while you wonder what to eat – make your mind up before you open the door. The fridge warms up when the door is open and it takes extra energy to make it cold again.
2. Keep yourself informed about environmental problems.
3. Before you throw anything away, stop and think. Might someone else have a use for it? Charities are often pleased to have old books, clothes and toys.
4. Take as much rubbish as you can to local recycling centres.
5. If you have a choice try to avoid buying packaged goods.
6. Don’t waste paper. When you are writing, use both sides of the paper.
7. Before you buy anything, ask yourself if you really need it. You don’t need everything that adverts say you do. Try to avoid buying things you really don’t have any use for.
8. Walk or cycle whenever possible.
9. Never drop litter, use litter bins.
10. Help to clean up your local environment. There is probably a group in your area which spends weekends cleaning up ponds, rivers, parks and woods. Take some friends along and join the group – you’ll have fun as well as helping the environment.
11. Try to reduce noise pollution.
12. Put out food for wild animals in winter.
13. Not to kill animals and birds.
14. Not to pick huge bunches of forests or meadow flowers.
15. Save rainforests, plant more trees.
16. Save water from your baths and use it for the garden in summer.
17. Turn the tap on only when you need water.
18. Use less detergents for cleaning your houses and cars to reduce water pollution.
It won’t always be easy to follow them. Your friends and family may not to always agree with you. And if you can manage to carry out at least some of them, you will know that you are contributing towards saving the Earth.
We strongly feel that the more money is invested in ecology projects, the better our lives are going to be. People have technologies to make our planet cleaner: we can control pollution, recycle waste materials, protect rare animals and plants and install antipollution equipment. We need more disaster-prevention programs in order to control environmental. There should be more organizations that will help protect the animal world and stop environmental degradation. Such organizations influence public opinion and raise environment culture. There should be more newspaper articles, TV-programs and science-popular films about ecological problems.They help people become environment-educated and realize that much can be done by an average citizen. So, it is only the duty of the government and big companies to make our planet cleaner. Everybody must take part in reducing pollution and improving his/her local environment.
1) Regional newspapers
How environmentally aware are you?
1. What does your family do with empty bottles?
А) take them to a recycling bin
B) return them to the supermarket
C throw them in the rubbish bin
2. When you buy one or two items at the supermarket, you
A) take a plastic carrier bag.
B) reuse an old plastic carrier bag.
C) use your own bag.
3. How often do you choose products which contain recycled materials?
4. H you were asked to contribute to a Save the Animals project, you would
A) give generously.
B) give a small amount.
C) refuse to give anything.
5. A local beach has been polluted with oil. You
A) donate money for the clean-up project.
B) do nothing.
C) volunteer to help with the clean-up project.
6. You eat a chocolate bar in the street. What do you do with the wrapper?
A) drop it on the pavement
B) put it in a litter bin
С) save it for recycling
7. When you buy paper products, you
A) buy whatever is cheapest.
B) try to purchase recycled paper.
C) purchase recycled paper as long as it doesn't cost more.
8. When you clean your teeth, you
A) turn the tap on only when you need water.
B) leave the tap running until you have finished.
С) only use one glass of water.
Only when all the rivers
have run dry
And all the fish in the sea have died
Only when all the rainforests
have been burnt down
And there is no food for animals
Only when all the blue skies
have been filled with smoke
And the cities of the world have choked
Will the white man understand that
It’s too late to save the earth.
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