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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Исследовательская работа " ИДЕАЛЬНАЯ ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ ПОЗИЦИЯ ПОДРОСТКА"

Исследовательская работа " ИДЕАЛЬНАЯ ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ ПОЗИЦИЯ ПОДРОСТКА"

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Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение



Лицей №4 г. Данков Липецкой области

Лицейское научное общество

«синяя птица»





Конкурс исследовательских работ


«первые шаги в науку»



Секция: Языкознание




Тема проекта: ИДЕАЛЬНАЯ ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ ПОЗИЦИЯ ПОДРОСТКА











Автор: Дегтерева Татьяна

МБОУ лицей №4, 11а класс

Руководитель: Черных Н.И.

учитель английского языка














г. Данков

2013-2014


Оглавление.

  1. Введениестр. 2

  2. Анализ литературы стр.3

  3. Основная часть

  • Глобализация

  • Современная история стр. 4 - 5

  • Международная торговля стр. 5

  • Налоговые убежища стр. 6 - 7

  • Международный туризм стр. 7

  • Международный спорт стр. 7 - 8

  • Экономическая глобализация стр. 8

  • Антиглобалисткое движение стр. 8 -9

  • Глобальная справедливость и неравенство стр. 9 - 10

  • Политика

  • Политическая партия стр. 10 - 11

  • Опрос стр. 11 - 12

  • Детские права и обязанности стр. 12 - 14

  1. Вывод стр. 15

  2. Библиографический список стр. 16

  3. Приложение стр. 17 - 19
















Introduction

Relevance of the chosen subject.

The problem of civic development of the younger generation, which is always a strategic resource for society - one of the most urgent in Russian education. Therefore, the most important part of the process of modernization of education in the country was the organization of civic education system. That school is able to make a significant contribution to the formation of new vital installations, including citizenship identity. At school teenagers formed a vital position, ideals and aspirations, providing them with the opportunity for successful adaptation to the modern world.



Purpose: to find a picture of ideal citizenship teenager.



Tasks:

- to collect information

- to analyze the information

- to determine the ideal teenage citizen

- to get acquainted with the concept of globalization, politics

- to know what rights and responsibilities, lifestyle and social behavior

- to conduct a survey among students of adolescence

- to formulate a picture of ideal citizenship teen



Hypothesis: there are no ideal teenagers, but there are those who are trying to be active, they want to show their best side. This can manifest itself in relation to globalization, their rights and duties, politics, lifestyles, social behavior, contribution to school life.



Subject of research - a civil position.



Object of research - a teenager.









Analysis of the Literature.



In our work we have used online resources, and we have studied several books on the subject and on the basis of the information we have done the project.



















































Globalization.

Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.

Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization - cite_note-GL-H-10-5 In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly.

The term globalization has been in increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactionscapital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economicssocio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

Modern History.

During the 19th century, globalization approached its modern form as a result of the industrial revolution. Industrialization allowed standardized production of household items using economies of scale while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities. Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism. In the 19th century, steamships reduced the cost of international transport significantly and railroads made inland transport cheaper. The transport revolution occurred sometime between 1820 and 1850. More nations embraced international trade. Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism such as in Africa and Asia. The invention of shipping containers in 1956 helped advance the globalization of commerce.

After the Second World War, work by politicians led to the Bretton Woods conference, an agreement by major governments to lay down the framework for international monetary policy, commerce and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to facilitate economic growth multiple rounds of trade opening simplified and lowered trade barriers. Initially, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), led to a series of agreements to remove trade restrictions. GATT's successor was the World Trade Organization (WTO), which created an institution to manage the trading system. Exports nearly doubled from 8.5% of total gross world product in 1970 to 16.2% in 2001. The approach of using global agreements to advance trade stumbled with the failure of the Doha round of trade-negotiation. Many countries then shifted to bilateral or smaller multilateral agreements, such as the 2011 South Korea–United States Free Trade Agreement.

Since the 1970s, aviation has become increasingly affordable to middle classes in developed countries. Open skies policies and low-cost carriers have helped to bring competition to the market. In the 1990s, the growth of low cost communication networks cut the cost of communicating between different countries. More work can be performed using a computer without regard to location. This included accounting, software development, and engineering design.

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. This slowed down from the 1910s onward due to the World Wars and the Cold War but has picked up again since neoliberal policies began in the 1980s and perestroika and the Chinese economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping opened the old Eastern Bloc to western capitalism. In the early 2000s, much of the industrialized world entered into the Great Recession,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization - cite_note-31 which may have slowed the process, at least temporarily.

Trade and globalization have evolved tremendously today. Globalized society offers a complex web of forces and factors that bring people, cultures, markets, beliefs and practices into increasingly greater proximity to one another.

Aspectsglobal business organization.

With improvements in transportation and communication, international business grew rapidly after the beginning of the 20th century. International business includes all commercial transactions (private salesinvestmentslogistics, and transportation) that take place between two or more regionscountries and nations beyond their political boundaries. Such international diversification is tied with firm performance and innovation, positively in the case of the former and often negatively in the case of the latter. Usually, private companies undertake such transactions for profit. These business transactions involve economic resources such as capital, natural and human resources used for international production of physical goods and services such as financebankinginsurance, construction and other productive activities.

International business arrangements have led to the formation of multinational enterprises (MNE), companies that have a worldwide approach to markets and production or one with operations in more than one country. A MNE may also be called a multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational company (TNC). Well known MNCs include fast food companies such as McDonald's and Yum Brands, vehicle manufacturers such as General MotorsFord Motor Company and Toyota, consumer electronics companies like SamsungLG and Sony, and energy companies such as ExxonMobilShell and BP. Most of the largest corporations operate in multiple national markets.

Businesses generally argue that survival in the new global marketplace requires companies to source goodsserviceslabor and materials overseas to continuously upgrade their products and technology in order to survive increased competition.

International trade.

International trade is the exchange of capitalgoods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). Industrialization, advanced transportationmultinational corporationsoffshoring and outsourcing all have a major impact on world trade. The growth of international trade is a fundamental component of globalization.

An absolute trade advantage exists when countries can produce a commodity with less costs per unit produced than could its trading partner. By the same reasoning, it should import commodities in which it has an absolute disadvantage. While there are possible gains from trade with absolute advantage, comparative advantage—that is, the ability to offer goods and services at a lower opportunity cost—extends the range of possible mutually beneficial exchanges. In a globalized business environment, companies argue that the comparative advantages offered by international trade have become essential to remaining competitive.

Trade agreements, economic blocks and special trade zones.

Establishment of free trade areas has become an essential feature of modern governments to handle preferential trading arrangements with foreign and multinational entities.

Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws. "Nationwide" laws may be suspended inside these special zones. The category 'SEZ' covers many areas, including Free Trade Zones (FTZ), Export Processing Zones (EPZ), Free Zones (FZ),Industrial parks or Industrial Estates (IE), Free Ports, Urban Enterprise Zones and others. Usually the goal of a structure is to increase foreign direct investment by foreign investors, typically an international business or a multinational corporation (MNC). These are designated areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all in order to encourage economic activity. Free ports have historically been endowed with favorable customs regulations, e.g., the free port of Trieste. Very often free ports constitute a part of free economic zones.

A FTZ is an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and re-exported without the intervention of the customs authorities. Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become subject to the prevailing customs duties. Free trade zones are organized around major seaports, international airports, and national frontiers—areas with many geographic advantages for trade. It is a region where a group of countries has agreed to reduce or eliminate trade barriers.

Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) are industrial parks that house manufacturing operations in Jordan and Egypt. They are a special free trade zones established in collaboration with neighboring Israel to take advantage of the free trade agreements between the United States and Israel. Under the trade agreements with Jordan as laid down by the United States, goods produced in QIZ-notified areas can directly access US markets without tariff or quota restrictions, subject to certain conditions. To qualify, goods produced in these zones must contain a small portion of Israeli input. In addition, a minimum 35% value to the goods must be added to the finished product. The brainchild of Jordanian businessman Omar Salah, the first QIZ was authorized by the United States Congress in 1997.

The Asia-Pacific has been described as "the most integrated trading region on the planet" because its intra-regional trade accounts probably for as much as 50-60% of the region's total imports and exports. It has also extra-regional trade: consumer goods exports such as televisions, radios, bicycles, and textiles into the United States, Europe, and Japan fueled the economic expansion.

The ASEAN Free Trade Area is a trade bloc agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations supporting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries. The AFTA agreement was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore. When the AFTA agreement was originally signed, ASEAN had six members, namely, BruneiIndonesiaMalaysiaPhilippinesSingapore and ThailandVietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999.

Tax havens.

A tax haven is a state, country or territory where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all, which are used by businesses for tax avoidance and tax evasion. Individuals and/or corporate entities can find it attractive to establish shell subsidiaries or move themselves to areas with reduced or nil taxation levels. This creates a situation of tax competition among governments. Different jurisdictions tend to be havens for different types of taxes and for different categories of people and companies. States that are sovereign or self-governing under international law have theoretically unlimited powers to enact tax laws affecting their territories, unless limited by previous international treaties. The central feature of a tax haven is that its laws and other measures can be used to evade or avoid the tax laws or regulations of other jurisdictions. In its December 2008 report on the use of tax havens by American corporations, the US Government was unable to find a satisfactory definition of a tax haven but regarded the following characteristics as indicative of it: nil or nominal taxes; lack of effective exchange of tax information with foreign tax authorities; lack of transparency in the operation of legislative, legal or administrative provisions; no requirement for a substantive local presence; and self-promotion as an offshore.

A 2012 report from the Tax Justice Network estimated that between USD $21 trillion and $32 trillion is sheltered from taxes in unreported tax havens worldwide. If such wealth earns 3% annually and such capital gains were taxed at 30%, it would generate between $190 billion and $280 billion in tax revenues, more than any other tax shelter. If such hidden offshore assets are considered, many countries with governments nominally in debt are shown to be net creditor nations.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization - cite_note-cbc12-56 However, the tax policy director of the Chartered Institute of Taxation expressed skepticism over the accuracy of the figures. Daniel J. Mitchell of the US-based Cato Institute says that the report also assumes, when considering notional lost tax revenue, that 100% money deposited offshore is evading payment of tax.

Tax havens have been criticized because they often result in the accumulation of idle cash that is expensive and inefficient for companies to repatriate. The tax shelter benefits result in a tax incidence disadvantaging the poor. Many tax havens are thought to have connections to "fraud, money laundering and terrorism." While investigations of illegal tax haven abuse have been ongoing, there have been few convictions. Lobbying pertaining to tax havens and associated transfer pricing has also been criticized.Accountants' opinions on the propriety of tax havens have been evolving, as have the opinions of their corporate users, governments, and politicians, although their use by Fortune 500 companies and others remains widespread. Reform proposals centering on the Big Four accountancy firms have been advanced. Some governments appear to be using computer spyware to scrutinize some corporations' finances.

International tourism.

Tourism is travel for recreationalleisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". There are many forms of tourism such as agritourismbirth tourismculinary tourismcultural tourismeco-tourismextreme tourismgeotourismheritage tourismLGBT tourismmedical tourismnautical tourismpop-culture tourismreligious tourismslum tourismwar tourism, and wildlife tourism.

Globalization has made tourism a popular global leisure activity. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 500,000 people are in flight at any one time.

As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. One notable exception to more free travel is travel from the United States to bordering countries Canada and Mexico, which had been semi-open borders. Now, by US law, travel to these countries requires a passport.

In 2010, international tourism reached US$919B, growing 6.5% over 2009, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7%. In 2010, there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals worldwide.

International sports.

Modern international sports events can be big business for as well as influencing the political, economic and other cultural aspects of countries around the world. Especially with politics and sports, sports can affect countries, their identities, and in consequence, the world.

The ancient Olympic Games were a series of competitions held between representatives of several city-states and kingdoms from Ancient Greece, which featured mainly athletic but also combat and chariot racing events. During the Olympic Games all struggles against the participating city-states were postponed until the games were finished. The origin of these Olympics is shrouded in mystery and legend. During the 19th century Olympic Games became a popular global event.

While some economists are skeptical about the economic benefits of hosting the Olympic Games, emphasizing that such "mega-events" often have large costs, hosting (or even bidding for) the Olympics appears to increase the host country's exports, as the host or candidate country sends a signal about trade openness when bidding to host the Games. Moreover, research suggests that hosting the Summer Olympics has a strong positive effect on the philanthropic contributions of corporations headquartered in the host city, which seems to benefit the local nonprofit sector. This positive effect begins in the years leading up to the Games and might persist for several years afterwards, although not permanently. This finding suggests that hosting the Olympics might create opportunities for cities to influence local corporations in ways that benefit the local nonprofit sector and civil society. The Games have also had significant negative effects on host communities; for example, the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions reports that the Olympics displaced more than two million people over two decades, often disproportionately affecting disadvantaged groups.

Globalization has continually increased international competition in sports. The FIFA World Cup, for example, is the world's most widely viewed sporting event; an estimated 700 million people watched the final match of the 2010 FIFA World Cup held in South Africa.

According to a 2011 A.T. Kearney study of sports teams, leagues and federations, the global sports industry is worth between €350 billion and €450 billion (US$480-$620 billion).This includes infrastructure construction, sporting goods, licensed products and live sports events.

Economic globalization.

Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology and capital. Whereas the globalization of business is centered around the diminution of international trade regulations as well as tariffs, taxes, and other impediments that suppresses global trade, economic globalization is the process of increasing economic integration between countries, leading to the emergence of a global marketplace or a single world market. Depending on the paradigm, economic globalization can be viewed as either a positive or a negative phenomenon. Economic globalization comprises the globalization of productionmarketscompetition, technology, and corporations and industries. Current globalization trends can be largely accounted for by developed economies integrating with less developed economies by means of foreign direct investment, the reduction of trade barriers as well as other economic reforms and, in many cases, immigration.

In 1944, 44 nations attended the Bretton Woods Conference with a purpose of stabilizing world currencies and establishing credit for international trade in the post-World War II era. While the international economic order envisioned by the conference gave way to the neo-liberal economic order prevalent today, the conference established many of the organizations essential to advancement towards a close-knit global economy and global financial system, such as the World Bank, the International, and the International Trade Organization.

As an example, Chinese economic reform began to open China to globalization in the 1980s. Scholars find that China has attained a degree of openness that is unprecedented among large and populous nations, with competition from foreign goods in almost every sector of the economy. Foreign investment helped to greatly increase product quality and knowledge and standards, especially in heavy industry. China's experience supports the assertion that globalization greatly increases wealth for poor countries. As of 2005–2007, the Port of Shanghai holds the title as the World's busiest port.

As another example, economic liberalization in India and ongoing economic reforms began in 1991. As of 2009, about 300 million people—equivalent to the entire population of the United States—have escaped extreme poverty. In Indiabusiness process outsourcing has been described as the "primary engine of the country's development over the next few decades, contributing broadly to GDP growth, employment growth, and poverty alleviation".

Anti-globalization movement.

Anti-globalization, or counter-globalisation, consists of a number of criticisms of globalization but, in general, is critical of the globalization of corporate. The movement is also commonly referred to as the alter-globalization movement, anti-globalist movement, corporate globalizationmovement, or movement against neoliberal globalization. It can be explained as encompassing the ideologies present in the following other “movements”, which will be discussed below: opposition to capital market integration, social justice and inequality, anti-consumerism, anti-global governance and environmentalist opposition. Each of these ideologies can be framed around a specific strand of the anti-globalization movement, but in general the movement gears their efforts towards all of these primary principles. It is considered a rather new and modern day social movement, as the issues it is fighting against are relevant in today’s time. However, the events that occurred which fuels the movement can be traced back through the lineage of the movement of a 500-year old history of resistance against European colonialism and U.S. imperialism. This refers to the continent of Africa being colonized and stripped of their resources by the Europeans in the 19th century. It is also related closely with the anti-Vietnam war mobilizations between 1960 and 1970, with worldwide protests against the adjustment of structure in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Although British sociologist Paul and political economist Grahame F. Thompson note the term is vague; "anti-globalization movement" activities may include attempts to demonstrate sovereignty, practice local democratic decision-making, or restrict the international transfer of people, goods and capitalist ideologies, particularly free market deregulation. Canadian author and social activist Naomi Klein argues that the term could denote either a single social movement or encompass multiple social movements such as nationalism and socialism. Bruce Podobnik, a sociologist at Lewis and Clark College, states that "the vast majority of groups that participate in these protests draw on international networks of support, and they generally call for forms of globalization that enhance democratic representation, human rights, and egalitarianism." Economists Joseph Stiglitz and Andrew Charlton write:

The anti-globalization movement developed in opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. The term 'anti-globalization' is in many ways a misnomer, since the group represents a wide range of interests and issues and many of the people involved in the anti-globalization movement do support closer ties between the various peoples and cultures of the world through, for example, aid, assistance for refugees, and global environmental issues.

In general, opponents of globalization in developed countries are disproportionately middle-class and college-educated. This contrasts sharply with the situation in developing countries, where the anti-globalization movement has been more successful in enlisting a broader group, including millions of workers and farmers.

These supporters of the movement are aware of the unequal power and respect in terms of international trade between the developed and underdeveloped countries of the world. The activists that support the AGM, as mentioned previously before, can range in terms of the specific issue(s) that they oppose. Again, there are a few different dimensions of globalization: economic, political, cultural, ecological and ideological. The diverse subgroups that make up this movement include some of the following: trade unionists, environmentalists, anarchists, land rights and indigenous rights activists, organizations promoting human rights and sustainable development, opponents of privatization, and anti-sweatshop campaigners.

Global justice and inequality.

The global justice movement is the loose collection of individuals and groups—often referred to as a "movement of movements"—who advocate fair trade rules and perceive current institutions of global economic integration as problems. The movement is often labeled an anti-globalization movement by the mainstream media. Those involved, however, frequently deny that they are anti-globalization, insisting that they support the globalization of communication and people and oppose only the global expansion of corporate power. The movement is based in the idea of social justice, desiring the creation of a society or institution based on the principles of equality and solidarity, the values of human rights, and the dignity of every human being. Social inequality within and between nations, including a growing global digital divide, is a focal point of the movement. Many nongovernmental organizations have now arisen to fight these inequalities that many in Latin America, Africa and Asia face. A few very popular and well known Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) include: War Child, Red Cross, Free The Children and CARE International. They often create partnerships where they work towards improving the lives of those who live in third world countries by building schools, fixing infrastructure, cleaning water supplies, purchasing equipment and supplies for hospitals, and other aid efforts.

Politics.

Politics (from Greekpolitikos, meaning "of, for, or relating to citizens") is the practice and theory of influencing other people on a civic or individual level. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state. A variety of methods are employed in politics, which include promoting its own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governmentscompanies and institutions up to sovereign states, to international level.

political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's RepublicAristotle's Politics and opus of Confucius.

Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship between people and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose government officials and make decisions about public policy".

Political party 

A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to attain and maintain political power within government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.

Political science, the study of politics, examines the acquisition and application of power.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics - cite_note-18 Political scientist Harold Lass well defined politics as "who gets what, when, and how". Related areas of study include political philosophy, which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behaviour, political economy, which attempts to develop understandings of the relationships between politics and the economy and the governance of the two, and public administration, which examines the practices of governance. The philosopher Charles Blattberg, who has defined politics as "responding to conflict with dialogue," offers an account which distinguishes political philosophies from political ideologies.

The first academic chair devoted to politics in the United States was the chair of history and political science at Columbia University, first occupied by Prussian émigré Francis Lieber in 1857.

Left-right politics

Recently in history, political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and right wing politics, often also using the idea of center politics as a middle path of policy between the right and left. This classification is comparatively recent (it was not used by Aristotle or Hobbes, for instance), and dates from the French Revolution era, when those members of the National who supported the republic, the common people and a secular society sat on the left and supporters of the monarchyaristocratic privilege and the Church sat on the right.

The meanings behind the labels have become more complicated over the years. A particularly influential event was the publication of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in 1848. The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian revolution to overthrow the bourgeois society and abolish private property, in the belief that this would lead to a classless and stateless society.

The meaning of left-wing and right-wing varies considerably between different countries and at different times, but generally speaking, it can be said that the right wing often values tradition and social stratification while the left wing often values reform and egalitarianism, with the center seeking a balance between the two such as with social democracy or regulated capitalism.

According to Norberto Bobbio, one of the major exponents of this distinction, the Left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality, while the Right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to enforce social equality as utopian or authoritarian.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics - cite_note-Bobbio-24

Some ideologies, notably Christian Democracy, claim to combine left and right wing politics; according to Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood, "In terms of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views held by liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles." Movements which claim or formerly claimed to be above the left-right divide include Fascist Terza Posizione economic politics in Italy, Gaullism in France, Peronism in Argentina, and National Action Politics in Mexico.

Authoritarian-libertarian politics

Authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state. One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and conformities", while libertarians generally oppose the state and hold the individual as sovereign. In their purest form, libertarians are anarchists, who argue for the total abolition of the state, of Political parties and of other political entities, while the purest authoritarians are, theoretically, totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society.

For instance, classical liberalism (also known as laissez-faire liberalism, or, in much of the world, simply liberalism) is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited government. This includes the importance of human rationality, individual property rightsfree marketsnatural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitation of government, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of John LockeAdam SmithDavid HumeDavid RicardoVoltaireMontesquieu and others. According to the libertarian Institute for Humane Studies, "the libertarian, or 'classical liberal,' perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by 'as much liberty as possible' and 'as little government as necessary.'" For anarchist political philosopher L. Susan Brown "Liberalism and anarchism are two political philosophies that are fundamentally concerned with individual freedom yet differ from one another in very distinct ways. Anarchism shares with liberalism a radical commitment to individual freedom while rejecting liberalism's competitive property relations."

Survey.

We conducted a survey on "The ideal civic position of the teenager " students' 11 "A" and "B" grades.

Questions.

1. What foreign languages ​​do you study in school?

A) English

B) French

С) German

2. Do you have certain responsibilities? (athome / at school )

A) Yes

B) No

3. Do you do any contribution to school life, in your opinion?

A) Yes

B) No

4. Have you any extracurricular load? (sections, tutors , etc.)

A) Yes

B) No

5. Does your lifestyle student status?

A) Yes

B) No

6. Approve if your lifestyle around?

A) Yes

B) No

7. Does your behavior on your life?

A) Yes

B) No

8. Who has the greatest influence on you?

A) parents

B) friends

С) teachers at school

9. Your attitude to politics.

A) positive

B) negative

С) neutral

10. Your attitude to globalization.

A) positive

B) negative

С) neutral





Based on the results we have compiled a table.

See Appendix 1



And also on the basis of the survey, we have learnedhow high school students apply to a globalization in our high school.

See Appendix 2



Children's rights and responsibilities

Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on in 1989.  Estonia joined the convention in 1991. The Child Protection Act of the Republic of Estonia  adopted in 1992 also follows the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by the United Nations.

 The Convention on the Rights of the Child lists internationally acknowledged rights of children. The aim of the adoption of the convention was to emphasize something that adults tend to forget – a child is a human together with all the rights a parent has. The Convention on the Rights of the Child sees child as a subject of law or, to put in another way, as a holder of rights. This means that a child is an individual who has human rights and no one has owner’s rights over the child, including parents.

 Rights of a child are human rights. These are rights which apply to everyone, irrespective of age, gender, nationality or other characteristics. Therefore a child has mostly the same rights that adults have. When we speak about rights of a child we mean the child’s human rights.

 Children of different age and gender have various interests and needs. But despite the differences, they have equal rights. All of them have the right to equal treatment. All children have equal rights.

 In addition to rights, children also have responsibilities, like adult members of the society. A child’s rights end where the rights of another child or an adult begin. This means that rights have limits and a child must consider the rights of other children and adults when exercising his/her rights. Rights and responsibilities go hand in hand.

 A child has the right to education, but at the same time his/her duty is to attend school.  A child has a right to health protection, but he/she has an obligation take care of his/her health. A child has a right to free speech, but by exercising one's right to free speech, the child must respect the rights of other children and adults, above all the right to protect one's honor and dignity.

 The Convention on the Rights of the Child gives the child the right to exercise his/her rights and bear obligations. This means that as the child grows his/her right to decide himself/herself increases and so does the scope of responsibility. Until a child is not able to execute his/her rights, his/her parents or representatives will do it. The interests of the child must always be the starting point.



Based on our survey, we found that most teens have extracurricular load.

See Appendix 3



 As children cannot always protect their rights and interests, they need help and protection from adults. Children have to be protected from mental and physical violence, injustice, negligence, abuse, sexual abuse and other threats. Additionally, adults must ensure that children have what they need to live and establish suitable conditions for the development of children's skills and interests.

 The basis for a mutually respectful living environment is mutual respect. Children must respect adults (parents, grandparents, kindergarten and school teachers, etc.) and other children like adults must respect children and other adults. Mutual respect and consideration of wishes is one of the important premises of the society's coexistence.

 The Convention on the Rights of Children lists four general principles: prohibition of unfair treatment, setting the interests of a child as a priority, survival of a child, ensuring a child's development and taking a child's opinions into consideration. These four principles form the basis of the convention and a child friendly environment standard, which enables the child to develop harmoniously and realize all his/her potentials, if it is followed. (Read more: Children’s rights. Estonian Union for Child Welfare: Tallinn, 2005, pages 11–15, 41.)

 

  1. Prohibition of unfair treatment. All children have equal rights. A child cannot be treated worse than others due to his/her gender, origin, nationality, race, health condition or some other reason.

  2. Setting the interests of a child as a priority. One of the main principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child is to always make the interests of the child as priority when making decisions that have an impact on the child.   To guarantee a child friendly society, the legislator, government, employees, unions and members of the society must evaluate the impact of decisions and activities on children. The interests of a child must always be taken into account when making decisions and planning activities. Setting the interests of a child as a priority means, among other things, that the child's concerns are paid attention to and his/her opinion is taken into consideration.

  3. Guaranteeing survival and development. Every child has a right to life and development. The primary obligation of parents is to do whatever they can to establish a growth environment for their children, which enables them to grow and to realize their talents and skills. In relation to that, the state must offer every kind of help, counselling and support to parents. If the parents, despite every kind of help from the state, cannot guarantee necessary development conditions for children, the state must take this obligation over from parents. 

  4. Paying attention to the child’s opinions. A child's opinion must be heard and taken into consideration in child related issues. This principle must be applied in all aspects of a child's life.



Also based on the survey, we found that most teenagers aware that his behavior has a direct impact on life.

See Appendix 4

So, we conclude that the greatest impact on teen parents have, the smallest value on life teen have teachers.

See Appendix 5

















Conclusion

Through our project, we found out that, despite the attitude to concepts such as politics, globalization, social behavior, etc., there is no ideal civil position for a teenager. However, there are teenagers, whose position is close to the ideal. Therefore, we should all be more likely to look at myself from the outside, to rectify and to strive to achieve the goal.

















































Библиографический список.

  1. О предмете, структуре и методах глобалистики

Автор: А. А. Королев

  1. Интересы и потребности современных детей и подростков

Автор: Б. З. Вульфов, Ю. В. Синягин, Н. Ю. Синягина, Е. В. Селезнева

  1. Конвенция о правах ребенка (КПР)

  2. Девиантное поведение детей и подростков

Автор: Л. Б. Шнейдер

  1. Социальные и психологические основы формирования современной цивилизованной личности

Авторы: В.Г. Татаринцев, Н.М. Неупокоева

  1. Философия политики

Авторы: В. В. Ильин, А. С.Панарин































Appendix.

Appendix 1.



Variant of answer

А

В

С

1

42



2

36

6


3

17

25


4

39

3


5

32

10


6

36

6


7

37

5


8

32

8

2

9

10

6

26

10

15

3

24











Appendix 2.

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Appendix3.



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Appendix4.



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Appendix 5.



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22


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