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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Научные работы / Исследовательская работа по английскому языку "British Inventions"

Исследовательская работа по английскому языку "British Inventions"


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  • Иностранные языки

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Municipal budget educational institution “Gymnasium #3”











 Topic of the Research:

British inventions”



By: Chulbasheva Regina

Guided by:

O.V. Chupina























Gorno-Altaysk, 2016

Content

Introduction………………………………………………………………1

  1. English language………………………………………………………3

  2. The telephone………………………………………………………….3

  3. Theory of Evolution……………………………………………………3

  4. Steam Locomotive……………………………………………………..4

  5. Television………………………………………………………………4

  6. World Wide Web……………………………………………………….4

  7. Toothbrush (William Addis) …………………………………………..5

  8. Newton’s Laws…………………………………………………………5

  9. Lawnmower (Edwin Beard Budding) …………………………………5

  10. The United States of America………………………………………….6

Conclusion………………………………………………………………7

Literature……………………………………………………………….8
















Introduction

Great Britain produced many of the most influential scientists, mathematicians and inventors in modern history. With influential people, come influential ideas, theories and inventions, some of which have the potential to change the world forever.

During the English classes we talk about culture, festivals, and customs of the British people. We are also interested in the question of the objects around us and inventions, which creators are British. In the entire history of mankind British people made huge number of inventions, many of which are now perceived as something ordinary, but without which we cannot imagine our lives. Thus, we decided to analyze different types of literature and Internet resources to make the Top 10 British Inventions That Changed the World.

This list will look at our pick for the top 10 British inventions which did just that. Note that although a couple of these inventions have been disputed, they are all legally recognized as British inventions.

The aim of our work – to designate the importance of British inventions and analyze their significance

Tasks:

  1. To collect the information about the most important British inventions

  2. To analyze their importance

  3. To make a Top10 British inventions that changed the world










  1. English language

English is the second most widely spoken language in the world behind Mandarin. However, it is the official language of more countries worldwide than any other, and the most common second language globally. English is generally used as the intermediary language of choice at global events and international summits. That is why it must be Britain’s most influential invention.


  1. The telephone

In 1876, Alexander Bell, patented the first telephone and true communication took off to a new level and set in motion technology we see today in I-Phones and the technology we have with the phone today. This is without a doubt one of the top ten inventions in history not just British history.


  1. The Theory of Evolution

Charles Darwin was a British naturalist born in 1809. Darwin was the first person to propose how popular theories of evolution, natural selection and common descent. After a 5 year voyage around the globe aboard the HMS Beagle, Darwin returned to Britain finding himself a celebrity in scientific circles following distribution of his letters to various scientists at home while he had been away studying geology aboard the Beagle. Darwin went on to be elected to the Council of the Geological Society, later moving to London to continue his work and join a circle of scientists which included Charles Babbage. Darwin formed his theory of evolution over much of his life, only publishing it in his later years in his book “On The Origin of Species” for fear of how the public would respond to what was, at the time, a highly controversial theory, since it proposed a means by which life developed on Earth without a God. Charles Darwin continued, despite controversy (and in some cases ridicule), his work until his death on 19th April 1882 from heart disease, likely brought on from years of illness, overwork and stress.


  1. Steam Locomotive

The first steam locomotive was invented by Richard Trevithick, a British inventor and mining engineer. Trevithick’s steam locomotive was built in 1804 in Pen-y-Darren in South Wales to carrying cargo. Trevithick sold the patents to the steam locomotive to Samuel Homfray. In one of the earliest public demonstrations, the locomotive successfully carried an impressive load of 10 tons of iron, 5 wagons and 70 men 9.75 miles between Penydarren and Abercynon in 4 hours and 5 minutes. Trevithick continued to work with steam locomotives for many more years until his death in April 1833. A full-scale working replica of his first steam locomotive was built in 1981 for the Welsh Industrial and Maritime Museum, later moving to the National Waterfront Museum in Swansea. The locomotive is run several times a year along a short length of rail outside the museum.


  1. Television

The world’s first publicly demonstrated television was invented by British inventor John Logie Baird in 1925. Logie Baird is also credited with the invention of the first fully electric color television tube. The first public demonstration of Logie Baird’s television was performed before members of the Royal Institution on 26th January 1926. He also later demonstrated the first color television on 3rd July 1928. Logie Baird’s television displayed a 30 line vertically scanned image at 5 frames per second, with later models improving the frame rate to 12.5 frames per second by the time of its first demonstration. Logie Baird’s invention paved the way for what is now nearly a century of work on the development of television technology, which remains one of the most influential inventions in history, allowing people all over the world to communicate via moving images.


  1. World Wide Web

Not to be confused with the Internet (a global system of networked computers invented in the USA), the World Wide Web, invented by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee, is the system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. The World Wide Web is most commonly experienced as the system behind the concept of web pages and websites. Berners-Lee first proposed the concept of the World Wide Web in March 1989, later pitching it at CERN along with Belgian scientist Robert Cailliau. CERN then publicly introduced the project in December of 1990. The first website, info.cern.ch, went live at CERN on 6th August 1991. Interestingly, Berners-Lee, although realizing the potential for immense personal profit from his invention, chose instead to gift the idea to the world, requesting no payment.


  1. Toothbrush (William Addis)

William Addis created the first toothbrush in 1780 and it hit the stores selling like hot cakes as they say. This is a very important dental invention. Imagine having no toothbrush every single day. Our teeth would all be gone by the time we as a society reached thirty years of age. This invention helped pave a path that has led to advanced dental hygiene products


  1. Newton’s Laws

Isaac Newton was a British physicist and mathematician. Born in 1642, Newton discovered and documented for the first time three laws of motion in regard to physics. Newton’s Laws are as follows – 1st Law: An object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force and an object in uniform motion tends to remain in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force. 2nd Law: An applied force on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. 3rd Law: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Newton was also the first person to document the mechanics of universal gravitation. Newton’s work is some of the most influential in the history of modern science, many regarding him to be one of the most important scientists in human history.


  1. Lawnmower (Edwin Beard Budding)

The lawnmower was invented in 1827 and it changed the way we viewed our yards. This began the process of growing grass on purpose and having manicured lawns rather than dirt yards. Folks in the old days used to have to whack grass down with a scythe and do it all day now people use gas lawn mowers, riding lawn mowers and even electric lawn mowers


  1. The United States of America

Let’s open with a little controversy. The United States of America (USA) is a country occupying roughly half the continent of North America, mostly the southern half. As the sole current global superpower (by definition), The USA has been, and continues to be, one of the most influential countries in the world, especially in industry, culture and military power.The USA was formed when British colonies in North America declared independence after continued and growing disputes with the Kingdom of Great Britain (as it was then known) over taxation of the colonies without representation in British parliament. The Revolutionary War lasted 8 years from 1775 to 1783, resulting in victory and independence for the USA with decisive assistance from the French, Spanish and Dutch during the war.However, the fact remains that the colonists were British subjects until the point of victory in 1783, at which time they became independent Americans. By that reasoning, The USA was, at its inception, a British invention.













Conclusion

Every day we do a lot of ordinary actions with the help of ordinary things. But sometimes we forget the authors this things.

So Britain gave the world many influential scientists, mathematicians, and inventors. With such people come great ideas, theories and inventions. Some of them as we can see have changed our world.

























Litereture

1.Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/447659Olympic.org

2.Афанасьева О.В. Михеева И.В. Английский язык: Учеб. Для VI кл. шк. С углубл. изуч. Яз., лицеев, гимназий, колледжей. – 2-е изд. – М.: Просвещение, 1999. – 351 с

3. www.greatenglish.ucoz.ru

4. http://en.wikipedia.org


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