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Исследовательская работа по английскому языку на тему "Отражение национального характера английского народа в пословицах и поговорках"

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During English lessons we often talk about the national features of the British, rate them positively or negatively, relying on the texts from our books, information from television and the Internet. But, unfortunately, none of us has visited England yet, so our information about what kind of people Englishmen are, we collected   from different English books of sayings and proverbs, also many different dictionaries. I also knew a lot of interesting things from my questionnaires.

The aim of my work: to identify the national characteristics of the English using proverbs and sayings.

To achieve this aim, I put forward the following objectives:

Ø To interview pupils of our school to identify their point of view on the character of the British;

Ø To study cultural, documentary and journalistic literature on the subject we study;

Ø To make a literal translation of proverbs and determine their meaning;

Ø To classify proverbs into groups, according to certain character features of the Britons;

Hypothesis: The most bright character features of British people can be found in proverbs, as an essential attribute of a nation's culture, reflecting the life, way of thinking and the nature of the nation they belong to.

What can English proverbs tell us about the English character? D For this purpose, we analized with Venera Gagikovna more than 100 proverbs.

1.     Most popular in the survey were such qualities of character as conservatism and restraint in words and emotions. And indeed in such proverbs as:

Custom is a second nature. - Привычка - вторая натура.

There is many a good tune played on an old fiddle. – На старой скрипке можно сыграть много хороших мелодий.

Old friends and old wine are best. - Нет ничего лучше старых друзей и старого вина.

One of the main features of the national character of the British - devotion to traditions and customs.

2.     The British believe that self-control is one of the main features of the national character     of human nature. Words: "Learn to control yourself’ like nothing better express the motto of this nation. The better a person is able to control himself, the worthier he is. The famous English restraint, the desire to hide their emotions are the result of a strict upbringing. "Silence is gold", "Less said, faster fixed” - inspire children from a very young age. These people know the value of words, and the following proverbs say about this:

Great boast, small roast - Много слов, да мало дела.

First think, than speak - Сначала подумай, потом говори.

Keep your mouth shut and your ears open - Держи рот на замкеа уши открытыми.

No wisdom like silence - Нет ничего умнее молчания.

When angry, count to a hundred. - Когда рассердишьсясосчитай до ста.

     No less popular in our survey were character features such as

Strike while the iron is hot – Куйпока железо горячо.

A golden key opens every door. - Золотой ключик открывает любые двери.

These proverbs describe the British as clever energetic and tireless in the ways of making  money. According to the British point of view, money affects friendly relations between people:

When I lent I had a friend, when I asked he was unkind. - Я богати друг мне радГде должокА он - молчок.

Lightly come, lightly go. - Что легко пришло, легко и уйдет

Ill-gotten gains never prosper. - Нечестно нажитое впрок не идет

   It is necessary to say that wealth does not come to the British easily, but come to them through hard work, integrity, and working skills, as we can read in proverbs:

Never do things by halves. - He делай ничего наполовину

The early bird catches the worm. - Кто рано встаеттому Бог подает

Don't put of till tomorrow what you can do today. - He оставляй на завтра точто можно сделать сегодня.

You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs. - Нельзя приготовить омлетне разбив яиц.

Little strokers fell great oaks - Малые удары валят большие дубы

Such quality as laziness, was totally unacceptable to the British.

   It is well known that the house occupies more significant place than work in the life of Englishmen - "My home is my castle!". And what English proverbs say about this? The proverb “There is no place like home.”

(Нет места подобного дому.) It speaks about a great love for native home, inherent in these people. The same thing can be said about the saying “East or West, home is best” (В гостях хорошоа дома лучше). Hearth takes a great place in their lives. Home for them is truly the center of existence.                                                                                                                       With neighbours British people stay friendly and helpful. With strangers or uninvited visitors usually speak only through the door, not inviting them inside. Guests are invited only in advance and only at a certain hour. An unexpected knocking at the front door is very rare in London. The house serves as the Englishman's castle, where he can hide not only from unwanted visitors, but also from boring troubles.

 Let the world wag and take mine ease in mine inn. - Пусть мир шатается, но оставит меня в покое на моем постоялом дворе.

Dry bread at home is better than roast meat abroad. - Сухой хлеб дома лучшечем жареное мясо за границей

Love your neighbour, yet pull not down your fence. - Люби своего соседано из-за высокого забора.

A constant guest is never welcome. - Постоянному гостю не рады.

But despite the stereotype about the English, as contained people, it is impossible to judge their character so one-sided. Other proverbs provide more accurate representation of the variaty of the national character of the inhabitants of the "Albion":

United we stay, divided we fall. - Вместе мы выстоимврозь – пропадем.

A house divided against itself can't stand.  Дом, разделившийся внутри, устоять неможет.

   The theme of family relations is very common in English proverbs, relations between parents and children. Deep down, Britons believe that the parents should better be more strict than soft. Widespread English proverb "Spare the rod means to spoil the child" confirms this. The higher in society you are, the more strictness you have to show.

“Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise”. – consider the Britons.

While children grow at home, they should not be heard. And since school age, ideally, should not be visible. It is a characteristic feature of the English way of life. Being the birds lovers, the British made such proverb: "Chicks should be thrown out of the nest to learn how to fly."

Parents are patterns – Родители – образец для подражания

A man’s mother is his other God - Мать человека – его второй бог

    For Russian people it is amasing fact that in English families pets occupy a higher position than the children. The British have fervent love for pets. The British are convinced that the person who loves animals, can't be bad. They love animals. Animals are allowed to do all the things in the house for which children, most likely, will be severely punished.

A cat may look at a king. - Кошка может смотреть на короля

Love me, love my dog. – Люби меня, люби и мою собаку

The early bird catches the worm - Ранняя птичка червячка ловит

Every dog has his day. - У каждой собаки свой праздник

In a sociological survey pupils called such qualities of character as a caution, carefulness, patience. They are unconditionally peculiar to the Englishmen, before Everything is good in its season. - Всему свое время.

Look before you leap. — Осмотрись, прежде чем прыгать

Slow but save. – Медленно, но безопасно

Discretion is the better part of valor. - Осторожность — лучшая часть доблести

Every man is an architect of his own fortune – Каждый человек творец своей судьбы

Never say never – Никогда не говори - никогда

Fortune favors the bold. — Удача любит смелых

Nothing venture, nothing ham (have). - Риск — благородное дело

Classification of sayings and proverbs in Russian and English languages.

Proverbs in the English and Russian languages can be divided into three groups.

1. More than one third of proverbs can be translated by "calques", that is a literal translation: a living dog is better than a dead lion.

2. Less than one third of proverbs has the same structure, but the images for expressing are different: Ворон ворону глаз не выклюет - "hawk does not eat hawks’ eye."

 3. The last proverbs cannot be translated literally, as they differ in design and use of animals: honey catches more flies than a vinegar- доброе слово и кошке приятно."

The most interesting for me to study, of course, are the sayings of the third group.  So exploring proverbs I explore the country and culture, consciousness and thoughts of people. It will be interesting to follow the general nature of proverbs of each language.

 The Russian expression «Когда рак на горе свистнет " is used to express the impossibility of any action. The English equivalent of this saying are two expressions - "When pigs fly" and "To wait till the cows come home"

 It is clear that cancer cannot whistle, but why the cancer is, and why it is on the mountain.  I cannot give a definite answer to this question. The expression in the English language seems much more logical.

 I can take the other phrase "Buy a cat in a bag”. Literally, it means that if you buy at the market some animals, such as pigs, you should carefully check everything, or, otherwise you will   find at home instead of a pig a cat. In the English version it sounds like a proverb "Never buy a pig in a bag"

Another difference between Russian and English proverbs is the breadth of the animals. In English proverbs pets are often used, there is particularly common opposition of "cat-mouse". As a result, there is a Russian proverbs` opposition of "rabbit -wolf", which is absent in the English proverbs. It is interesting that the horse in proverbs - "international" animal.

Differences and similarities of English and Russian proverbs and sayings according to its classifications and linguistic features.

The animals mentioned in proverbs more often:

The dog, the horse and the cat are mentioned more frequently among domestic animals in both languages. However, there are some differences: for example, among the most popular animals in Britain are fish and poultry, and in Russia are wolf, bear, mouse.

The English typical proverbs:

1. Убить двух зайцев.  Then kill two birds with one stone.

2. Яйца курицу не учат.-Never offer to teach fish to swim.

The Russians typical proverbs:

1. Старый волк знает толк.-An old ox ploughs a straight furrow.

2. Не убив медведя, шкуры не делят.-Never fry a fish till is caught. (Appendix # 3).

Comparing the English and Russian versions of proverbs we can come to the conclusion that they differ in several characteristics, which in turn allows us to classify them as follows:

 Classification of proverbs in terms of matches in the English and Russian languages:

1)    Proverbs are the same in both languages:

The higher the ape goes, the more he shows his tail.

Чем выше взбирается обезьяна, тем виднее ее хвост. (Appendix # 4).

2)    Proverbs with minor differences:

A lazy sheep thinks its wool heavy.

Ленивой лошади и хвост в тягу. (Appendix # 4).

3) Proverbs which are in two languages, but they differ from each other in structure:

Кукушка хвалит петуха за то, что хвалит он кукушку.

Claw me and I will claw thee. (Appendix # 4).

 In English and Russian Proverbs and sayings have their positive and negative characters. Using the classification presented below, the animals are divided into the following groups: Goodies for the Russian language, positive for the English language; Goodies for both languages, negative for both languages; negative heroes for the Russian language, negative for the English language.

 Classification by the presence of negative and positive characters in the English and Russian Proverbs and sayings.

Comparing the two languages, there many proverbs with negative (in Russian) or neutral (in English) and much less of positive meaning.

So, if the wolf and the bear are mentioned among the "negative leaders" in both languages, the negative images of "donkey" and "fish" are more typical of English proverbs and sayings, as "dogs" and "sheep" for the Russians. At the same time, "bird" and "dog" are positive images in English proverbs and sayings, and in Russian are "cow" and "fish".

General positive images in both languages are "horse" and "horse".

1)    Negative characters for both languages:

С волками жить – по - волчьи выть.

Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl. (Appendix # 2).

2)    Positive characters for both languages:

На послушного коня и кнута не надо.

A good horse is seldom spurred. (Appendix # 2).

3)    Positives for Russian:

   Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла.

All is fish that comes to the net. (Appendix # 2).

4) Positive for English: 

На своей улочке и курочка храбра. Every dog is a lion at home.

(Appendix # 2).

5)Negative characters for Russian:

   Паршивая овца все стадо портит

There is a black sheep in every flock. (Appendix # 2).

6)Negative characters for English:

   Посади свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол.

Jest with an ass he will flap you in the face with his tail. (Appendix # 2).

 In general, the majority of English and Russian proverbs and sayings with a component "pet" is associated with images of animals such as dogs and cats. This is because these animals were near the person.

The image of a dog

Comparative analysis show that there are more proverbs and sayings with the component “dog” in English than in Russian (29 proverbs and sayings in English, and 20 - in Russian).

Image of a dog is associated with a hidden danger in proverbs and sayings in both languages. For example:

 Beware of a silent dog and still water; Dumb dogs are dangerous - Не буди спящего пса: пес спит, а ты мимо; Не ступай собака на волчий след: оглянетсясъест и др.

 One of the main features of this pet is the skill to bark and it is also clearly reflected in the English and Russian proverbs: The dog barks, but the caravan goes on; One barking dog sets the whole street a-barking; What does the moon care if the dogs bark at her -  Собака и на владыку лает и др. На собаку можно свалить всю вину и наказать; Give a dog a bad name and hang it - Кому надо собаку ударить, тот и палку сыщет и др.

In both traditions dog is associated with old age, but if Russian proverbs are characterized by a positive meaning, the English are negative: An old dog will learn no new trick, стар пес да верно служит.

The image of a cat

The image of the other pet – a cat - is also characterized by a slight similarity, although the exact match is not demonstrated. The word “cat” is in 20 English proverbs and sayings. The cat was a symbol of witchcraft and evil in both countries and it is partly reflected in English and Russian proverbs and sayings. The cat shuts her eyes while it steals cream; Чует кошка, чье мясо съела. There is the necessity to put an end to the mischief in Russian proverbs: Не все коту масленица, будет и великий пост.

 The image is contrasted with the images of mice and dogs in the proverbs and sayings of the two languages under consideration: When the cat's away, the mice will play; Agree like cats and dogs; Отольются кошке мышкины слезы; Жить как кошка с собакой. Cats hide their clows; Кошка спит, а мышей видит.
Other characteristics associated with this pet in English and Russian proverbs and sayings do not coincide. So, the cat is associated with survivability in English proverbs and sayings: A cat has nine lives;
влез кот на сало и кричит: «Мало»!

The image of a horse

A significant number of Russian and English proverbs and sayings is also connected with   20 proverbs and sayings in Russian and in English. Both peoples used horse both in agriculture and as a vehicle away from home and at the hunt.
It should be noted proverbs and sayings which match in the meaning and form: look not a gift horse in the mouth;
даренному коню в зубы не смотрят. A horse stumbles that has four legs; конь о 4 ногах и тот спотыкается; Don't change horses in midstream; коней на переправе не меняют.

In both languages the image of horse is traditionally connected with care and usage: spur, saddle, cart, grass etc. Meaning at its core is the same in the both languages: лошадь ест траву и овес, содержится в стойле, используется на пашне, ее запрягают, нужен кнут, уздечка и т.д. However in Russian proverbs names of spurs and saddles are not represented as they are in English: Never spur a willing horse; I will either win the saddle or lose the horse; Set the saddle on the right horse. In English proverbs names of reins and bridles are not mentioned. На вожжах и лошадь умна; И золотые удила коню не милы.

2.4 Comparison of proverbs and sayings of different nations

The horse is presented as drawn, and in the English as a horse. In both languages the horse is connected with food: While the grass grows, the horse starves - Ретивому коню корм тот же, а работы вдвое.
More heavy work of a horse is reflected in Russian proverbs and sayings -
Коня положили, да зайца уходили; Был конь, да изъездился. There are less of English proverbs and sayings about the hard work of horse and they are not so categorical: Never spur a willing horse.
Actions that can be performed by a horse are very similar in proverbs and sayings of the two languages. You can ride on a horse, it is possible to change it, lead it. In English proverbs it can be spurred, in Russian - to sit on it.

The image of a sheep

There are a bit of proverbs and sayings with the component "sheep" -

13 proverbs and sayings in Russian and 6 in English. As a rule, in both languages the sheep is associated with corruption, laziness: A lazy sheep thinks its wool heavy; If one sheep leaps over the ditch, all the rest will follow; одна паршивая овца все стадо портит; Без пастуха овцы не стадо.

There is the opposition of the sheep and the wolf in both traditions, and the image of a pet is associated with vulnerability: A lone sheep is in danger of the wolf; Не ставь неприятеля овцой, ставь его волком.

 The image of a pig

Proverbs and sayings with the component "pig" are less common –

10 proverbs and sayings with this component in Russian and 7 in English but it should be noted that the image of this animal in Russian and English languages are actually the same and carries a negative assessment: the pig is usually associated with careless, ignorant and unworthy person - Cast pearls before swine; Метать бисер перед свиньями; Посадишь свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол.

However, there are some differences. In Russian proverbs and sayings this image is associated with stupidness and arrogance: У богатого гумна и свинья умна; Свинья только рыло просунет, и вся пролезет. In English proverbs and sayings there is the need for carefulness before buying the animal - Never buy a pig in a poke. The image of the pet can also be used to transfer the impossibility of any action, for example, When pigs fly; or unusual happening, for example, Pigs might fly if they had wings.

The image of a hen

Comparative analysis show that in Russian proverbs and sayings the component "hen" is more common than in English - 12 Russian proverbs and sayings and 4 English. In the Russian proverbs and sayings the image of hen is associated with hunger - Голодной курице все просо снится; stupidity: умницакак попова курица; Дай курице грядуизроет весь огород.

In Russian proverbs and sayings this image is also associated with poverty: Ни кола, ни двора, ни куриного пера. The only coincidence in Russian and English images of this pet is the relationship between parents and children - Even one hen makes a busy; A black hen lays a white egg; Яйца курицу не учат.

In ancient times, the British hen was a symbol of wealth and prosperity in the family - Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow.

The image of the cow

The "cow" is used in Russian and English proverbs and sayings infrequently 8 proverbs and sayings in Russian and 5 in English. In addition, it is not the same in English and Russian traditions.

In the Russian proverbs and sayings the image of the cow is associated with harm and malice: Безрогая корова хоть шишкой, да боднет; Бодливой корове бог рог не дает. However, the importance of this pet is not questioned: Была бы корова, найдем и подойник. This means that the cow was significant in the economy. In the Russian proverbs and sayings this image is also associated with poverty: Привыкает корова и ко ржаной соломе. In the English proverbs and sayings this animal is associated with age, flexibility and necessity: The old cow thinks she was never a calf; If you agree to carry a calf, they will make you to carry the cow. As a rule, in the English proverbs and sayings the cow is opposed to the calf: A good cow may have an evil calf.

The image of a cockerel

Proverbs and sayings with the component "cockerel" are found in 7 proverbs and sayings of the Russian language and in 5 of English. The image of the cockerel as the bully is characterized for proverbs and sayings of both languages –

It will be a forward cock that crows in the shell; That cockerel won't fight; young, Из молодых, да ранний петухом кричит.. Historically, it is motivated in different ways. Russian peasants have observed this feature in the process of breeding, while the English traditions prove that cockfights were very popular as a kind of spectacle.

In the proverbs and sayings of the both languages special attention is paid to the crowing of the cockerel as one of its main characteristics - As the old cockerel crows, so does the young; поп да петух не евши поют. I must also mention that this image is universal - it is used with different concepts in different situations. So in Russian proverbs and sayings it can be connected with success and pride –

Кому повезет, у того и петух несется; Гордый петух стареет облезлым. In English proverbs and sayings fatalism and foolish courage are presented with this image: Let the cockerel crow or not, the day will come; A cockerel is bold on his own dunhill.

The image of the goose

The image of a goose is also rare in both languages (4 proverbs and sayings in Russian and 8 in English). It should be noted that the image in Russian and English are not the same.

The goose was the beginning of all beginnings to the Russians.  However, in English proverbs and sayings goose usually symbolizes ignorance and laziness - Geese with geese women with women; Feather by feather of a goose is plucked; A wild goose never laid a tame egg. This image is always negative - Every man thinks his own geese swans.

Russian image of the goose in proverbs is cunning - Прилетел гусь на Русь – погостит да улетит; Перо страшно не у гусака, а у дьяка.

 The image of a donkey

The image of the donkey in both languages is quite rare, too (4 proverbs in Russian and 6 in English). It is associated with stupidity, stubbornness and willfulness - All donkeys wag their ears; Осла знать по ушам, медведя по когтям, а дурака по речам. This image has a negative meaning and is rare in the English and Russian languages as this pet almost was not used in the household, except that the British sometimes used it as a means of transport. The cult of the donkey came to Europe from Asia, where this animal was of great importance, but in England and Russia, it couldn't compete with the horse.

2.5. Difficulties of translation

Proverbs and sayings are interesting and varied, but it is not always possible to translate them correctly, keeping the meaning and content.

Proverbs and sayings are often found in various kinds of texts in English due to its brightness, imagery and emotion. However, when we translate proverbs and sayings in the English texts into the Russian language we often meet difficulties   because their meaning cannot always be clear, and in the English-Russian and Russian-English dictionaries are not always given their translation.

I can say that many English and Russian proverbs and sayings are multi-valued which make them difficult to translate and compare. It is important to remember that the English and the Russians used different images to express the same or similar thoughts which are not absolutely equivalent. I found in both languages many phrases and expressions that cannot be understood literally, even if you know the meaning of each word and grammatical construction clearly. The meaning of those phrases is strange and not clear. The literal translation of proverbs and sayings can lead to unexpected, often absurd result. For example, the English phrase - "Not room to swing a cat "(literally: "Нет места, чтобы размахивать кошкой ") corresponds to the Russian expression "Яблоку негде упасть".

I think proverbs are the means of international communication. They help people of different nations to understand other people better.

3.Conclusion

    Analyzing a large number of proverbs, we noticed that the ideal of Englishmen are such qualities as independence, scholarship, dignity, honesty, tact and grace of manners. They all reflected in English proverbs.

   However, it should be noted that such features as generosity, emotionality, openness were not popular in our study of proverbs.

 

M. I. Dubrovin wrote: "Wisdom and spirit of the people display in proverbs, and knowing the proverbs of that or another nation not only contributes to a better knowledge of the language, but also a better understanding of the mindset and character of the people."

While learning English character and lifestyle we must turn to proverbs as the most valuable pastterns of the language. Proverbs and sayings are the most valuable treasure of the spiritual culture of the people.

The analysis of a number of English proverbs and their classification show that our hypothesis about the reflection of the most bright features of the national character of the British in their proverbs has confirmed. In addition, it became clear that the study of proverbs gives the opportunity to learn Englishmen from another side- it allows to open a little - known features of the English temperament, such as for example, risk-taking, optimism, etc.

During the classification and comparative analysis of the images of animals in English and Russian proverbs and sayings I found similarities and differences. The main differences between English and Russian proverbs and sayings are the historical development of countries, the traditions, manners, customs, mentality and character of the English and Russians; flora and fauna, ancient religious beliefs.
Today the facts prove that the English and Russian languages belong to different groups, no close contacts between our nations and each country went his own way of historical development.

In conclusion I would like to emphasize that most of the proverbs (32%) reflect a human value, as good and bad actions. Using a particular proverb, the speaker tries to emphasize the meaning.  Because proverbs give speech a more colourful sound.

The list of literature:

1.Anikin V. P. Russian Proverbs and sayings. Moscow. Fiction.1988
2.Dahl V. I. Proverbs of the Russian people. Sbornik.,1984
3.Zharkova T. I.,Sinicka O. V. Reflection of national character in Proverbs and sayings.
4.Kuzmin S. S.,Shadrin N. L Russian-English dictionary of Proverbs and sayings 1989
5.Kuskovskaya S. F. a Collection of English Proverbs and sayings. Mn. Your. SHK.1987 

6.Martynov A. M. Proverbs. Sayings. Puzzles. M, Sovremennik, 1986
7.Mitina I. E. and savings English proverbs and their Russian equivalents Russian Proverbs and sayings and their English equivalents.

8.http://medianet.yartel.ru/koshkicenter/images/stories/MOteacher/inostrannyyazuk/markelov.

9. http://videouroki.net/filecom.php?fileid=98686570

10. http://videouroki.net/filecom.php?fileid=98686570

 

Appendix 1

Propotion of English and Russian proverbs and sayings

In English

Literal translation

Russian equivalent

1.When the cat is away, the mice will play

Когда кот уйдет, мыши будут играть

Без кота мышам раздолье

2.A cat in gloves catches no mice

Кот в перчатках не поймает мышь

Без труда не вынешь рыбку из пруда

3.Curst cows have curt horns

Бодливые коровы имеют крученые рога

Бодливой корове бог рогов не дает

4.Pigs might fly if they had wings

Свиньи смогут летать, если у них будут крылья

Бывает, что и курица петухом поет

5.A bird may be known by its song  

Птицу можно узнать по пению

Видна птица по полету

6.Hunger drives the wolves out of the wood

Голодный везет волков из лесу

Волка ноги кормят

7.He that fears every bush must never go a-birding

Тот, кто боится каждый кустик, никогда не должен ходить на охоту

Волков бояться - лес не ходить  

8.Dog doesn’t eat dog

Собака не ест собак

Волк волка не съест

9.Every dog is a lion at home

Каждая собака лев дома

Всяк кулик на своем болоте велик

10.Every bird likes its own nest best

Каждой птичке нравится свое собственное гнездо

Каждая курица свой насест хвалит

11.All is fish that comes to the net

Вся рыба, что зашла в сеть

Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла

12.Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth  

Не смотри дареному коню в рот  

Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят  

13.Two dogs over one bone seldom agree

Две собаки редко соглашаются на одну кость

Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся

15.Don’t swap the horses in the middle of the stream

Не меняй лошадей посреди потока

Коней (лошадей) у переправы не меняют

16.A black hen lays a white egg

Черная курица несет белое яйцо

Корова черна, да молоко у нее белое

17.A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

Птица в руках стоит двух в кустах

Лучше синица  в руке, чем журавль в небе  

18.Barking dogs seldom bite

Лающие собаки редко кусаются

Не бойся собаки брехливой, бойся молчаливой    

19.Let sleeping dogs lie

Позволь спящим собакам лежать

Не дразни собаки, так и не укусит

20.Nightingales will not sing in a cage

Соловьи не будут петь в клетке

Не нужна соловью золотая клетка, а нужна зеленая ветка  

Appendix 2

Classification according to negative and positive characters in the English and Russian languages

 Positive characters for both languages

Negative characters for both languages

1.Лошадь (конь): Старый конь

борозды не испортит; Do not spur a willing horse; На послушного коня и кнута не надо; A horse stumbles that has four legs; Конь о четырех ногах, да и тот спотыкается; Кто в кони пошел, тот и воду возит; Don’t swap the horses in the middle of the stream; Коней (лошадей) у переправы не меняют; Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth; Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят.    

1.Волк: Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl; С волками житьпо - волчьи выть; Не клади волку пальца в рот; Волк волка не съест; Волков бояться - лес не ходить; Hunger drives the wolves out of the wood; Волка ноги кормят.

2.Медведь: First catch your hare, and then cook it; Не убив медведя, шкуры не делят; Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся.

  English negative characters

Russian negative characters.

1.Осел: Jest with an ass and he will flap you in the face with his tail; He who makes himself an ass must not take ill if men ride him.

2.Рыба: All is fish that comes to the net.

   

1.Собака: Собака лает, караван идет; С собакой ляжешь, с блохами встанешь; Не дразни собаки, так и не укусит; Не бойся собаки брехливой, бойся молчаливой.

2.Овца: Паршивая овца все стадо портит.  

 English positive characters.              

Russian positive characters

1.Птица: A bird may be known by its song; Every bird likes its own nest best; A black hen lays a white egg; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; Nightingales will not sing in a cage; One swallow doesn’t make a summer;

2.Собака: The dogs bark, but caravan goes on; Let sleeping dogs lie; Barking dogs seldom bite; He that wants to beat a dog is sure to find a stick ; Two dogs over one bone seldom agree; Every dog is a lion at home; Dog doesn’t eat dog.

1.Корова: Корова черна, да молоко у нее белое; Бодливой корове бог рогов не дает.

2.Рыба: Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла.

Appendix 3  Classification according to popularity                  

            Typical for English                     

                    Typical for Russian

1.Рыба: All is fish that comes to the net.

2.Птица: A bird may be known by its song; Every bird likes its own nest best; A black hen lays a white egg; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; Thought pigeons are little, but they can carry great messages; Nightingales will not sing in a cage; One swallow doesn’t make a summer; Old birds are not to be caught with chaff.  

1.Волк: С волками жить–

по - волчьи выть; Не клади волку пальца в рот; Волк волка не съест; Волков бояться - лес не ходить.

2.Медведь: Не убив медведя,

шкуры не делят; Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся.  

Appendix 4  Classification according to coincidence

          Full coincidence

Coincidence with insignificant differences

1. The mouse that has one hole is quickly taken= Худа та мышь, которая одну лазейку знает.

2. The dogs bark, but caravan goes on= Собака лает, караван идет.

3. He that lies down with dogs must rise up with= С собакой ляжешь, с блохами встанешь.

4. One swallow doesn’t make a summer= Одна ласточка весны не делает.

5. Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl= С волками житьпо - волчьи выть.

1. An old ox ploughs a straight furrow= Старый конь борозды не испортит.

2. Its foolish (ill) bird that fouls (files) its own nest = Худа та птица, которой гнездо свое не мило.

3. Let sleeping dogs lie = Не дразни собаки, так и не укусит.

4. Barking dogs seldom bite =  Не бойся собаки брехливой, бойся молчаливой.

5. Do not spur a willing horse = На послушного коня и кнута не надо.

Differ from each other

1. Jest with an ass and he will flap you in the face with his tail= Посади свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол.

2. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush = Лучше синица в руке, чем журавль в небе.

3. Two dogs over one bone seldom agree= Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся.

4. All is fish that comes to the net = Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла.

5. A cat in gloves catches no mice = Без труда не вынешь рыбку из пруда.      

 

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