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Инфоурок Иностранные языки Научные работыИсследовательская работа по английскому языку на тему" Сопоставление английских, русских пословиц и их эквивалентов на тему "Животные и птицы" (7 класс)

Исследовательская работа по английскому языку на тему" Сопоставление английских, русских пословиц и их эквивалентов на тему "Животные и птицы" (7 класс)

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Research work in English



Comparison of English, Russian Proverbs and their equivalents on topic “Animals and Birds









A.V. Gorbaneva



















2018

Content

Introduction ….............…..3

Chapter 1.1 What are proverbs and sayings?............................................................5

Chapter 1.2. Translation of proverbs from English into Russian languages……....6

Chapter 2. Classification of proverbs in Russian and English languages … 8

Conclusion……………………………………………………………….……......10

The list of literature…………………………………………………………….....12

Appendixes……………………………………………………………..…………13



































Introduction

This work is devoted to similarities and differences between the Belarusian, Russian and English proverbs and sayings. The reason of the topic choice is the desire to acquainte with the national cultures of the Belarusian-, Russian -, and English-speaking countries, to understand how we are similar or, on the contrary, how we are different, and also to reveal the peculiarities of the putting of English proverbs and sayings in Belarusian and Russian. There is a problem that Russian, Belarusian and English proverbs and sayings have many similarities, but also have many differences, which in turn assumes the search of those cultural values, which are reflected in English versions and the native language version. From the scientific point of view, the actuality of this work lies in the fact that, English, Belarusian and Russian have much in common and it bring people together. From the social point of view, the work is import because of while the person is learning the language of proverbs he understands the culture of its people and forms his own spirituality. Common characteristics of proverbs and sayings talk about the same traditions in the English and Russian cultures. The personal significance of the work lays in the fact that investigating language of proverbs and sayings you improve your linguistic competence, learn the culture of people. Educational research is implemented in the framework of the subject of literature and English.

The object of the research: comparison of Proverbs and their equivalents in two languages on the theme "Animals and birds"

The subject of the research: Proverbs in two languages

The aim of the research: to find and compare proverbs about animals and birds in two languages

The tasks of the research:

- find and study Proverbs and sayings in the two languages on the theme "Animals and birds»

- to make a comparative analysis.

This research work has a practical meaning because it helps to develop translation skills.

The following methods were used in the research:

1. The analysis and the synthesis dates of research;

2. The Comparison of the Russian and English proverbs;

The structure of the work is the following:

introduction

2 chapters

conclusion

bibliography

annex





























Chapter 1.1 What are proverbs and sayings?

Proverb [lat. — proverbium] is a genre of folklore, aphoristically concise, imaginative, logical and grammatically complete utterance with instructive sense in rhythmically organized form. Что посеешь, то и пожнешь, Пословица к слову молвится. Proverbs and sayings are well-aimed, accurate expressions, created by the people, translated from ancient sources, or borrowed from literary works. We also need to distinguish the proverb from the saying which approaches to idiom, to the frequent speech expression and does not have instructive, didactic sense in its nature.

The saying is a figurative expression, a figure of speech, which defines exactly any aspect of life. Семь пятниц на неделе, Положить зубы на полку. The primary sources of the Paremiography originate from ancient times. Aristotle was ascribed the first records of Proverbs. Records of the proverbs were studied by Greek, Alexandrian and Roman scientists.

The rich historical experience of the people, the cultural ideas are reflected in the proverbs and sayings. Correct and appropriate use of proverbs and sayings in speech gives a unique originality and expressiveness. What magnificence of these short sayings nor was, their power was ahead – it was in the middle of a conversation, when it was necessary to reinforce it with well-aimed remark, observation, conclusion, to identify the essence of what has been said. So, about indecisive, doubting, groom who has not still decided it was said: Молодец жениться, а во сне ему бредится: не платить бы попятного. About the jealous person it was said: В чужих руках пирог (или: ломоть) велик. The proverb is similar to direct judgment: Не зарься на чужое! The original idea is the same, only in the first case it is implied and the second is expressed as an instruction. Proverbs are valued for their original life position. The most ancient works which contain the Proverbs are dated to the XIIth century. They can be found in such works as "the Word about Igor's regiment"(«Слово о полку Игореве»), "the praying of Daniel Incarcerated” («Молении Даниила Заточника»). Proverbs and sayings carry the accumulated experience of generations and also adorn our speech and make it more expressive.


Chapter 1.2. Translation of proverbs from English into Russian languages

The centuries of experience of people speaking and writing in different languages testify that a good translator must not only understand the meaning of the translated text, but also have the phraseological richness of the language that is being translated. The English language has its own word order, while Russian and Belarusian have the other. In English the phrase can’t ever have two negatives, and in Russian we sometimes use them twice: "never", "no". The English phrase literally would sound like this: "In the English phrase can never ever have two negations". Russian language is flexible, and it allows you to keep the English word order in the phrase, but not always. The English phrase "He was not ready" literally translates as «он был не готов». This order of the words is jarring, and we change it to «Он не был готов» The difficulties of translation of English proverbs and sayings arose and always arise. And, considering all the language featured, It is very difficult to translate what is the part of the culture of one nation into another language. For example, the English proverb The pot calls the kettle black. The Literal translation of this proverb is: Горшок обзывает этот чайник чёрным. If for the English the meaning of the proverb is clear, for the Russian this proverb seems to be something new, so the meaning is not always fully disclosed. So in order to the Russian understand what you want to say by saying the British have to look for a Russian equivalent: Чья бы корова мычала, а твоя помолчала. This option is clearer and closer to the Russian. But if we translate it into English, we will get the following: Anyone’s cow may moo, but yours should keep quite. As you can see, the original version is far from the end. For example, saying The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. The literal translation of this proverb goes like this: Трава всегда зеленее по ту сторону забора. But in the Russian language this proverb sounds like: Хорошо там, где нас нет. In principle, these two proverbs are the equivalents in meaning. But the literal translation of the Russian proverb would be: Life is better, where we are not present. Belarusian variant has the similar semantic meaning: Там вороты пирагом падперты.

Let’s take the Russian expression «когда рак на горе свистнет», which is used to express the impossibility of any action. English equivalent of this saying has two expressions: “When pigs fly”, and “to wait till the cows come home”. All the examples of the Belarusian Proverbs indicate the event whose probability is practically equal to zero, i.e., the event that is just as real as the hair will grow on the palm, or magpie will be white.(Event will never come true).

Pay attention to Russian and English. It is clear that crayfish can't whistle, but why crayfich, and why on a mountain? We can't give a clear answer. It seems that there is much more logical expression in the English language. In my opinion, it was impossible to choose a heavier and clumsy animal than the pig: it will never be able to fly (even a flying cow found in Russian folklore more realistic than pigs with wings).

Thus, the English rational mind found nothing better than to combine these seemingly incompatible things - a flight and overweight pig. If we tried to translate our saying for English friends, the answer would have been most likely, misunderstanding look. Even it is more logical to think the equivalent “to wait till the cows come home”. During the creation of this proverb the life of the common Englishman was directly associated with the farming.











Chapter 2. Classification of proverbs in Russian and English languages

The literal translation coincides with the Russian proverb. Others require the explanation, because, on the contrary, they have nothing in common with our Russian expressions, although you can sometimes guess what the British want to say. As you can see, proverbs and sayings can be divided into the following categories:

1. English proverbs and sayings, which is fully translated in the same way into and Russian, i.e. the English version fully corresponds to the Russian;

2. English proverbs and sayings that are partially translated to and Russian language in the same way;

3. English proverbs and sayings that totally differ into Russian language.

Our analysis has shown that in most cases, each nation, borrowing Proverbs and sayings, brings them national character. As you have noticed, all the above Proverbs and sayings and their analogues are similar in meaning. In addition, the names of some animals and birds used in Proverbs and sayings also coincide, i.e. these Proverbs and sayings have a single structure and figurative and lexical-semantic basis in three languages. (Proverbs No. 4,10 coincided) what is the reason? The similarity of Proverbs of related and unrelated peoples is caused in some cases by genetic relations, in others-by the manifestation of common typological laws generated by similar conditions of social development. As for the genre as a proverb, it is impossible not to take into account its special property – mobility, relatively rapid spread in the speech of different peoples (Appendixes 1, 2)

We have found that the frequency of the use of certain names of animals and birds associated with the attitude of people to these animals. For example, often used horses and dogs, many people considered his best and most loyal friends among domestic animals the horse and the dog.For example, the British have a proverb “Love me, love my dog. Love me, Love my dog". Bashkirs kind to the horse and considered it sacred. Therefore, through the observation of the animals for their behavior in a given situation arose the proverb with the same values and with the same translation. Examples are Proverbs № 2,4,5,6, 10. In Proverbs 1 and 7 although the meaning is the same, do not match the names of animals and birds. This is because, as a reflection of the history, culture of life, mentality of the people, Proverbs and sayings in different languages are often based on their different image, and therefore different lexical design, although the meaning remains the same.

According to the degree of popularity of active vocabulary in the first place, this is a“dog” (mentioned 7 times in three languages), on the second place “horse” ( 5 times ),treem place “chicken” ( 3 times ). If we consider Proverbs and sayings in every language ,in the first place by the amount of active vocabulary is a Bashkir Proverbs ( a total of 13 names of animals and birds ), the second place Russian Proverbs ( 12 ), in third place English ( 9 ).






































Conclusion

It has been observed long ago that the wisdom and the spirit of the people appear in its proverbs and sayings, and knowledge of proverbs and sayings of people does not promote only better knowledge of the language, but also and better understanding of the nature and mindset of the people.

Comparison of proverbs and sayings of different nations shows how much these people have in common, which, in turn, contributes to their better understanding and rapprochement. In proverbs and sayings there are reflected the rich historical experience of the people, ideas, connected with lifestyle and culture of people. The correct and appropriate use of proverbs gives to speech unique identity and special expressiveness.

Thus, the work done allows drawing conclusions about the figurativeness associated with the animals, as well as the frequency of their appearance in the English proverbs and their Russian and Belarusian equivalents.

First, focus on the general terms:

As in English, Belarusian and Russian languages ​ the important place is occupied with the proverb mentioning pets (it is naturally, because of being of co-existence between people and animals for thousands of years).

Among the animals in the three languages ​​most frequently the dog, the horse (horse), cat are mentioned (what is probably due to the common historical development of mankind).

Among the differences, you can also note the following:

Not all the images of animals carry the same emotional meaning in proverbs. So, if the chicken is mentioned among the "positive leader" in the English proverb, the Russian and Belarusian proverbs it carries the "negative image".

The overall positive image in both languages the horse has got.

Judging by the proverbs, the people of England is more practical, as Slavs, often complicating the interpretation of proverbs, make them more imaginative and effective.

Thus, proverbs appear as a book of thoughts of the people, after reading that, you learn in just degree the national character.





























The list of literature

  1. Аникина В.П. Старинные русские пословицы и поговорки.-2-е изд.-М: «Детская литература», 1998 . -79 с.

  2. Боярина Е.Л. Русско-Белорусский, Белорусско- Русский словарь фразеологизмов. –Мн:Попурри, 2012.-352 с.

  3. Прохоров А.М. Советский энциклопедический словарь.-М: «Советская энциклопедия», 1996.-1599 с.

  4. Стефанович Г.А., Швыдская Л.И. English through proverbs.- Просвещение, 2005,-94 с.

  5. Mieder. International Proverb Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography. Supplement III (1990-2000). Bern, New York: Peter Lang, 2001.-159 с.

  6. David Mitchell. Go Proverbs (reprint of 1980). ISBN 0-9706193-1-6. Slate and Shell, 2001.-358 с.

  7. Schulte J.R. “The craft of translation”The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1989.-269 с.

  8. Schulte R. “Theories of translation: An anthology of essays from Dryden to Derrida”The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1992.-350 с.

  9. Warren R. “The art of translation: Voices from the field Northeastern University Press, Boston, 1992.-179 с.

  10. Электронный словарь «Lingwo 9.0», [Электронный ресурс]

  11. http:webprogram.narod.ru\proverb\ - English proverb –Английские пословицы с русским переводом.

  12. http://saying.ru\world\english-English proverb and saying with the transfer in the Russian.

  13. http://english-proverbs –Английские пословицы и поговорки






Appendixes


Appendix 1

  1. A cock is valiant on his own dunghill. [петух храбр на своей куче навоза]

Всяк кулик на своем болоте велик.

По смыслу пословицы на трех языках похоже, но речь идет о разных образах- птицах (в английской пословице это птица-«петух», в русской пословице –« кулик», а в башкирской пословице речь идет о «собаке»).

  1. Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth.[дареному коню в рот не смотри]

Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят.

В английской и русской пословице речь идет о «коне», а в башкирской - о «верблюде».

  1. One scabbed sheep will mar a whole flock.[паршивая овца испортит все стадо ]

Паршивая овца все стадо портит.

В пословицах упомянуты домашние животные: в английской и русской пословице – «овца», в башкирской –« корова».

  1. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.[ не считай цыплят пока, они не вылупились]

Цыплят по осени считают.

Полное совпадение смысла, перевода, образа - птицы “цыпленок” на трех языках.

  1. One old dog barks not in vain.[старая собака напрасно не воет]

Собака лает, волк знай себе ходит.

Полное совпадение пословиц по смыслу и по переводу на русском и на башкирском языках. Английская пословица по смыслу менее похожа на русскую и башкирскую.

  1. Dog does not eat dog. [собака не ест собаку]

Собака собаке на хвост не наступит.

Русский и английский эквиваленты пословиц совпадают по использованию слова- «собака» (домашнее животное), а в башкирской пословице использовано слово- «ворона» (птица).



  1. Two dogs over one bone seldom agree. [ две собаки редко могут поладить]

Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся.

По смыслу все три пословицы совпадают, а по использованию названий животных не совпадают. В пословицах использованы названия следующих животных: в английской пословице – «собаки», в русской пословице – «медведи», в башкирской – «бараны».



  1. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. [птица в руке стоит двух в кустах]

Лучше синица в руке, чем журавль в небе.

В английской пословице не упомянуто конкретное название птицы, а в русской пословице речь идет о “синице и журавле”, в башкирской пословице речь идет о “журавле и воробье”.

  1. One swallow doesn’t make a summer.

Одна ласточка весны не делает.

Эквиваленты пословиц по смыслу полностью совпадают, а использование названия птиц совпадает в английской и русской пословице это-«ласточка», в башкирской пословице это- птица «ворона».

  1. A horse stumbles that has four legs. [и конь спотыкается, хотя у него есть четыре ноги]

Конь о четырех ногах, и то спотыкается.



















Appendix 2

English

Russian



1

cock

kulik

2

horse

horse

3

sheep

sheep

4

chicken

chicken

5

dog

dog/ wolf

6

dog

dog

7

dog

bear

8

_

titmous/ crane

9

swallow

swallow

10

horse

horse

Таблица 1. Сопоставление названий животных и птиц в изученных английских, русских пословиц




















































Appendix 3

Таблица 2. Количество использованных названий животных и птиц.

English

Russian

in total

horse

2

2

4

dog

3

2

5

sheep

1

1

2

chicken

1

2

3

swallow

1

1

2

wolf

-

1

1

crane

-

1

1

crow

-

-

-

bear

-

-

-

titmouse

-

1

1

crane

-

1

1

camel

-

-

-

cow

-

-

-

cock

1

-

1

sheep

-

-

-

kulik

-

1

1


9,

- animals 6, - birds 3.

12,

- animals 6, birds -7.



















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