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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Научные работы / Исследовательская работа по теме "Флаги мира"
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Исследовательская работа по теме "Флаги мира"

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BASHKIR GYMNASIUM













RESEARCH WORK

FLAGS OF THE WORLD”



















STUDENT: KATE NIKEROVA

TEACHER: GUZEL GIZATULLINA







NEFTEKAMSK -2015



CONTENTS:



1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3

2. THE HISTORY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4

3. TYPES OF FLAGS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5

4. NATIONAL FLAGS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7

5. THE FLAG OF OUR TOWN NEFTEKAMSK……………………………………………………………………………………9

6. INTERNATIONAL FLAGS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………10

7. RESEARCH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11

8. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12

9. LITERATURE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13

10. APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………14

































1. INTRODUCTION.

Most of the people are fond of travelling and they are looking forward to visiting new places. Some people go abroad, the others travel in their own country.

I am also fond of travelling. And I think that a real traveller must follow certain rules. These rules are simple but very important. First of all, you need to learn about the history, culture and traditions of the country you are going to visit. Everybody in our family tries to follow this rule.

We realized that it is necessary to start our acquaintance with a country by the study of the national flag. This idea came to our minds after my brother's trip to London, where he bought a souvenir, the flag of the United Kingdom. And this symbol became the basis of our family collection, which includes flags of different countries.

I supposed that a great variety of colours, sizes and shapes of flags should have some meaning. That's why the aim of my research is to analyze a variety of flags and find out the most popular colours used in flags. (pic.1)



































2. THE HISTORY.

A flag is a piece of fabric which is most often rectangular with a distinctive design that is used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or as decoration. The term flag is also used to refer to the graphic design for signalling and identification, especially in environments where communication is challenging. National flags are patriotic symbols with varied wide-ranging interpretations, often including strong military associations due to their original and ongoing military uses. Flags are also used in messaging, advertising, or for other decorative purposes. The study of flags is known as vexillology, from the Latin word vexillum, meaning flag or banner.

In antiquity, field signs or standards were used in warfare. For example, the standard of the Roman legions which was let fly freely in the wind, carried by a horseman, but judging from depictions it was more similar to an elongated dragon kite than to a simple flag.(pic.2)

Flags were originally used to identify armies and important people, such as kings and queens. Flags were first seen 5000 years ago in China, when bright silk flags were used in battle and religious processions.

During the Middle Ages flags came to be used primarily as a heraldic device in battle to identify a knight.

During the peak of the age of sail, beginning in the early 17th century, it was customary for ships to carry flags designating their nationality. These flags eventually evolved into the national flags and maritime flags of today. Flags also became the preferred means of communications at sea, resulting in various systems of flag signals.

Pirates also used flags to terrify other ships at sea. Their flags, known as “ Jolly Rogers”,had a picture of a skull and crossbones. Today it is used to signal danger.(pic.3)

Use of flags outside of military or naval context begins only by the end of the 18th century; the earliest national flags date to that period, and during the 19th century it became common for every sovereign state to introduce a national flag.

















3.TYPES OF FLAGS.

1. Civil flags

A civil flag is a version of the national flag that is flown by civilians on non-government installations or craft. The use of civil flags was more common in the past, in order to denote buildings or ships that were not manned by the military. In some countries the civil flag is the same as the war flag or state flag, but without the coat of arms, such as in the case of Spain, and in others it's an alteration of the war flag.

2.War flags

Several countries (including the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union) have had unique flags flown by their armed forces, rather than the national flag. Large versions of the war flag flown on the warships of countries' navies are known as battle ensigns. In war waving a white flag is a banner of truce or surrender.

3.International flags

Among international flags are the Flag of the United Nations, the Olympic flag, and the Paralympic flag.

4. At sea

Flags are flown on boats to indicate the country of the ship.There is a system of international maritime signal flags for numerals and letters of the alphabet. As well, semaphore flags can be used to communicate on an ad hoc basis from ship to ship over short distances. Traditionally, a vessel flying under the courtesy flag of a specific nation, regardless of the vessel's country of registry, is considered to be operating under the law of her 'host' nation.

4. Religious flags

Flags can play many different roles in religion. In Buddhism, prayer flags are used, usually in sets of five differently colored flags. Many national flags and other flags include religious symbols such as the cross, the crescent, or a reference to a patron saint. Flags are also adopted by religious groups and flags such as the Jain flag and the Christian flag are used to represent a whole religion.

5. Linguistic flags (Flag of Esperanto)

6. In sports

Because of their ease of signalling and identification, flags are often used in sports. In auto and motorcycle racing, racing flags are used to communicate with drivers. Most famously, a checkered flag of black and white squares indicates the end of the race, and victory for the leader. A yellow flag is used to indicate caution requiring slow speed and a red flag requires racers to stop immediately. A black flag is used to indicate penalties.

7. Diplomatic flags

Some countries use diplomatic flags, such as the United Kingdom(Image of the Embassy flag) and the Kingdom of Thailand(Image of the Embassy flag)

8. In politics

The Rainbow flag of the LGBT social movement. Similar flags are used in Europe to support pacifism and in Peru and Bolivia to represent the indigenous peoples of the Andes. Social and political movements have adopted flags, to increase their visibility and as a unifying symbol.

9. Vehicle flags

Flags are often representative of an individual's affinity or allegiance to a country, team or business and can be presented in various ways. A popular trend that has surfaced revolves around the idea of the 'mobile' flag in which an individual displays their particular flag of choice on their vehicle. These items are commonly referred to as car flags and are usually manufactured from high strength polyester material and are attached to a vehicle via a polypropylene pole and clip window attachment.

10. Swimming flags

In Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United Kingdom a pair of red/yellow flags is used to mark the limits of the bathing area on a beach, usually guarded by surf lifesavers. If the beach is closed, the poles of the flags are crossed. The flags are colored with a red triangle and a yellow triangle making a rectangular flag, or a red rectangle over a yellow rectangle. On many Australian beaches there is a slight variation with beach condition signaling. A red flag signifies a closed beach (in the UK also other dangers), yellow signifies strong current or difficult swimming conditions, and green represents a beach safe for general swimming. In Ireland, a red and yellow flag indicates that it is safe to swim; a red flag that it is unsafe; and no flag indicates that there are no lifeguards on duty. Blue flags may also be used away from the yellow-red lifesaver area to designate a zone for surfboarding and other small, non-motorised watercraft.

11. Railway flags

Railways use a number of colored flags. When used as wayside signals they usually use the following meanings (exact meanings are set by the individual railroad company):

red = stop

yellow = proceed with care

green or white = proceed.

a flag of any color waved vigorously means stop

4. NATIONAL FLAGS.

One of the most popular uses of a flag is to symbolize a nation or country. Some national flags have been particularly inspirational to other nations, countries, or subnational entities in the design of their own flags. Some prominent examples include:

The flag of Russia is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields; white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom. The flag was first used as an ensign for Russian merchant ships and became official as the flag of the Tsardom of Russia in 1696. It remained in use until the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic in 1917. It was re-introduced as the flag of the Russian Federation in 1991. The Russian flag has three wide stripes on it. The stripes are white, blue and red. The upper stripe is white, the middle stripe is blue and the red stripe is at the bottom. These colours have always been symbolic in Russia: white – noble and sincere, blue – honesty and devotion (to friends, family and to the country), red - love and bravery. (pic.7)



The flag of Bashkortostan contains a Kurai Flower, a symbol of friendship, and its seven petals represent the seven tribes who bring unity, and consolidation to Bashkortostan. The blue represents the integrity, and the excellence of the thoughts of the Bashkir people, and the white stands for their peacefulness, and their willingness to cooperate, and the green for freedom, and eternal life. The flag was adopted on February 25, 1992. The proportions are 1:2. (pic.8)

The Union Flag (Union Jack) of the United Kingdom is the most commonly used. British colonies typically flew a flag based on one of the ensigns based on this flag, and many former colonies have retained the design to acknowledge their cultural history. Examples: Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Tuvalu, and also the Canadian provinces of Manitoba, Ontario and British Columbia, and the American state of Hawaii. It symbolises the union of England. The flag is made up of the crosses of the patron saints of the UK : the Saint George´s cross, the Saint Andrew`s cross, the Saint Patrick`s cross. (pic.5-6)

The flag of the United States is nicknamed The Stars and Stripes or Old Glory. Some nations imitated this flag so as to symbolize their similarity to the United States and/or the American Revolution. Examples: Liberia, Chile, Uruguay[citation needed], Taiwan (ROC), Malaysia and the French region of Brittany. The flag of the USA is called “Stars and Stripes”. It consists of 50 stars (as there are 50 states in the USA since 1960) and 13 stripes (as originally there were 13 colonies). The official flag dates back to June 14, 1777. (pic.4)

The flag of Turkey, which is very similar to last flag of the old Ottoman Empire, has been an inspiration for the flag designs of many other Muslim nations. During the time of the Ottomans the crescent began to be associated with Islam and this is reflected on the flags of Algeria, Azerbaijan, Comoros, Libya, Mauritania, Pakistan and Tunisia.

The Soviet flag, with its golden symbols of the hammer and sickle on a red field, was an inspiration to flags of other communist states, such as East Germany, People's Republic of China, Vietnam, Angola, Afghanistan (1978–1980) and Mozambique.

The flag of Venezuela, created by Francisco de Miranda to represent the independence movement in Venezuela that later gave birth to the "Gran Colombia", inspired the flags of Colombia and Ecuador, both sharing three bands of yellow, blue and red with the flag of Venezuela.

The flag of Argentina, created by Manuel Belgrano during the war of independence, was the inspiration for the United Provinces of Central America's flag, which in turn was the origin for the flags of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua.







































5. THE FLAG OF OUR TOWN NEFTEKAMSK.

The central elements of the flag are the three keys symbolizing the developed industries: energy, machine building, light industry. In each field, the stars are located in black with golden rays, symbolizing the oil industry of the region - the basis of the origin and development of the town. The stars also represent the town as a center of industry, education and culture of the northwest region of Bashkortostan. Seven rays of the stars represent the former Bashkir tribes, which formed the nation of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Blue colour represents the beauty, the grandeur, the development, progress and hope. The gold colour is a symbol of wealth, justice. Black is the colour of oil, at the same time it symbolizes wisdom and erudition.

(pic.9)







































6. INTERNATIONAL FLAGS.

International flags represent a group of countries, an organization or an event. (pic.10)

The flag of Europe is blue with 12 yellow stars to represent the original 12 members of the European council.

British Commonwealth flag symbolizes its sunny future.

The emblem on the flag of the United Nations shows a map of the world, surrounded by a wreath of olive branches.(pic.11)

On the flag of the Olympic games, the 5 rings stand for the 5 continents of the world. (pic12).

The organization Red Cross is named after its flag.A red cross on a white background is the symbol of the Christian religion.( pic 13).

The flag of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO) shows the official emblem of this organization. (pic.14).

































7.RESEARCH.

Judging by the results of my research I came to the first conclusion. It turns out that
for the majority of countries:

green colour means revival, nature. It’s also the color of Islam.
Blue - loyalty, honesty.
White - the colour of purity and innocence.
Red - endurance, strength.
Yellow – sun, charity.

I decided that these are the most popular colours of flags. After breaking down the flags by the continents I compared them and received the following results.
It turns out the most popular colour in the flags of the European countries is the red color - 40 flags, then comes the white color - 31 flags.
In Asia, the leader was the same red colo
ur , it occurs 41 times, and just behind him is white.
In Africa, the first place was given to green - it occurs 44 times, followed by the red again 43 times.
In America, white is at the top - 26 times, followed by the red color - 25 times.
In the countries of Oceania, the first place takes white - 11 times, the second place - blue.
We have a Russian leader: red color - 50 times, followed by blue color - 44 times.
So the three leaders are red, white, blue. These are the colours of the Russian flag! (pic.15-21).

Now let's check if it’s true that the horizontal position of stripes is the most popular.
Location of stripes: horizontal - 158 , vertical - 67 and another location - 91 . Indeed, horizontal arrangement of stripes is the most popular. (pic22).

         Now let's determine whether the tricolor is the most popular form of flags.(pic.23).

  We can see that the shape of flags is not very diverse. The rectangular shape is the most common. There are only few countries with unusual forms of the flags. The most unusual form of the flag is the flag of the Kingdom of Nepal, in the shape of two superimposed triangles. The Flag of Switzerland has a square shape. And the flags of several states of America are narrowed to the right.(pic.24).

Here's another interesting fact : the flags of some countries have different images on the front and back side, for example, the flag of Moldova, the Mari El Republic, Paraguay, the states of Alabama, Oregon and Massachusetts. (pic.25).









8. CONCLUSION.

I came to the conclusion that the most popular flag is a rectangular tricolor. It has got stripes of red, white and blue colors. According to the results of my research the most popular flag looks like the flag of the Russian Federation!
It is also the flag of Luxembourg
as well as the Flag of the Netherlands.

Inspired by the great variety of flags we have created together a flag of our family. The sun, offered by my mother symbolizes our family, four rays mean my father, mother, brother and me. The yellow colour , as it was said earlier, means compassion, kindness and warmth of relationships. We decided that our flag should contain the blue colour which stands for loyalty and green - the colour of peace, knowledge and new ideas. How do you like it? Try to create a flag of your family and you will see that it is very interesting. (pic.26).





































9. LITERATURE.

1. William Crampton “Flags of the world”, Usborn Spotter’s Guides, Chester (UK), 2011

2. www. usborn-quicklinks.com

3. L.N. Kolodyazhnaya ”This is Great Britain”,M: Airis-Press,2006.

4.O.V.Afanasyeva, I.V.Mikheeva “English -7” ,student’s book, M:Prosvescheniye, 2009.

5. Kathy Gude, Jayne Wildman “Matrix Intermediate Student’s Book”, Oxford University Press, 2010.

6. Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley “Discover our Amazing world”, UK: Express Publishing, 2013.







































10. APPENDIX.



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A:\england flag.gifA:\scotland-s flag.gif

A:\northen ireland flag.gif

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Continents and countries

white

blue

red

green

yellow

black

other

Europe

31

26

40

8

18

4

-

Asia

30

13

41

19

7

12

3

Africa

17

21

43

44

21

16

3

America

26

24

25

13

17

9

-

Oceania

11

10

9

2

6

2

-

Russia

40

44

50

21

18

2

2

TOTAL

155

138

208

107

87

45

8


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Picture 25











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Дата добавления 30.03.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
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