Муниципальное бюджетное образовательное учреждение лицей № 4 г. Данков
Лицейское научное общество « Синяя птица»
Конкурс исследовательских работ « Первые шаги в науку»
Профессии, которые мы выбираем.
Ульянова Кира Валерьевна
11 а класс
Черных Наталия Ивановна
учитель английского языка
1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………. 3
2. Typology of professions
the person — the person………………………………………………………….. 4
the person — the technician……………………………………………………….5
the person — an artistic image…………………………………………………….5
the person — the nature……………………………………………………………5
the person — a sign………………………………………………………………..6
3. What is the profession?..............................................................................................7
4. HOW TO CHOOSE THE PROFESSION?...............................................................8
5. The most demanded professions in the world……………………………………...9
6. Professions which will be popular in the future……………………………………13
Purpose: to acquaint pupils with priorities of interests in receiving professions.
- to inform pupils on a condition of a labor market.
- to realize influence of public opinion and stereotypes on choice of profession.
- to acquaint with the basic principles of choice of profession.
- to acquaint pupils with features of some professions.
- to prepare pupils for a choice of future profession.
- to create understanding of responsibility for a choice of future profession.
Hypothesis: one of the most difficult problems which faces the young man, the solution of a question on a choice of future profession. The help is necessary to the young man to make a right choice.
Conclusion: choice of profession - very serious step. Now, under modern conditions of the market relations it is very difficult for young man to settle in life, to manage to protect the living position. Adults have to try to help teenagers with choice of profession, but young people have to make a final decision and further bear responsibility for the choice.
Typology of professions.
The person — the person — all professions connected with education, service, training of people, communication with them. All pedagogical and medical professions, professions of a services sector and others belong to this group.
The person — the technician — all professions connected with creation, service and equipment operation. These are such professions as: design engineer, car mechanic, system administrator and others.
The person — an artistic image — all professions connected about creation, copying, reproduction and studying of artistic images. Such professions belong to this group as: artist, actor, singer, restorer, art critic and others.
The person — the nature — all professions connected with studying, protection and nature transformation. Such professions belong to this group as: veterinarian, gardener, agronomist, ecologist and others.
The person — a sign — all professions, knitted with creation and use of sign systems (digital, alphabetic, musical). Translators of art and technical texts, analytics, financiers and others treat this group.
Feature of application of this classification consists presently in that, simple professions with one object of work consign to the past and they are succeeded by professions with several objects of work, or with difficult object of work. For example, the profession of the landscape designer at the same time belongs both to type of people nature and to type of people - an artistic image.
The person — the person
Here the main, leading object of the labor - people.
Professions: doctor, teacher, psychologist, hairdresser, guide, manager, head of art collective, etc.
Like professions it is possible to distinguish from it:
• the professions connected with training and education of people, the organization of children's collectives;
• the professions connected with production management, the management of people, collectives;
• the professions connected with consumer, trade services;
• the professions connected with information service;
• the professions connected with information and art service of people and the management of art collectives;
• the professions connected with medical care.
For successful work by professions of this type it is necessary to learn to establish and keep in touch with people, to understand people, to understand their features, and also to seize knowledge in the corresponding area of production, science, art.
The short list of qualities which are very important in work:
• steady good mood in the course of work with people,
• need for communication,
• ability to understand intentions, thoughts, moods of people,
• ability quickly to understand relationship of people,
• ability to find a common language with different people.
The person — the technician
Here the main, leading object of the labor - technical objects (cars, mechanisms), materials, types of energy.
Professions: drifter, joiner, technician-metallurgist, mechanical engineer, architect, construction electrician, radio mechanic, builder, collector of computers, telecommunications specialist, etc.
Certainly, work of workers here is directed not only on equipment, but nevertheless a leading subject of professional attention - area of technical objects and their properties.
Like "people technicians" it is possible to distinguish from professions:
• professions on production, processing of soil, rocks;
• professions on processing and use of nonmetallic industrial materials, products, semi-finished products.
• professions on production and processings of metal, mechanical assembly, to installation of cars, devices;
• professions on repair, adjustment, service of technological machines, installations, vehicles;
• professions on installation, repair of buildings, constructions, designs;
• professions on assembly, installation of electric equipment, devices, devices;
• professions on repair, adjustment, service of electric equipment, devices, devices;
• the professions connected with application of lifting, vehicles, management of them;
• professions on processing of products of agriculture.
When processing, transforming, movement or estimates of technical objects from the worker are required the accuracy, definiteness of actions. As technical objects practically are always created by the person, in the world of equipment there are especially ample opportunities for innovation, an invention, technical creativity. Along with creative approach to matter in equipment area from the person the high performing discipline is required.
The person — an artistic image
Here the main, leading object of the labor - an artistic image, ways of its construction.
Professions: actor, artist, musician, designer, carver of a stone, literary worker.
Professions like "people - an artistic image" include:
• the professions connected with graphic activity,
• the professions connected with musical activity,
• the professions connected with literary and art activity,
• the professions connected with actor's and scenic activity.
One of features of professions like "people - an artistic image" consists that the considerable share of labor expenses remains hidden from the detached onlooker. Moreover, special efforts for creation of effect of ease, ease of the end result of work are quite often made.
The person — the nature
Professions: seed grower, master cattle breeder, livestock specialist, agronomist, cynologist, chemical and bacteriological analysis laboratory assistant, etc.
Like "people - the nature" it is possible to distinguish the professions from professions, which object of the labor: vegetable organisms, animal organisms, microorganisms.
These are the professions connected with rural economy, the food industry, medicine and scientific researches (biology, geography). Strangely enough, the psychologist, the tourism and hotel business manager have to have a certain interest to the nature.
The specified division doesn't mean, of course, that work of the person is directed only on the subjects mentioned above. Plant breeders, for example, work in collective, use various equipment, deal with issues of an economic assessment of the work. But nevertheless the main subject of attention and cares of plant breeders - plants and their environment of existence.
With other party, At choice of profession of this type it is very important to understand, how exactly you treat the nature: as to the vacation spot or as to a workshop in which you are going to direct all efforts to production.
And one more moment which should be considered at choice of profession. Feature of biological objects of work consists that they are difficult, changeable (under the internal laws), are non-standard. Both plants, and animals, and microorganisms live, grow, develop, and also are ill, perish. The worker needs to know much not simply about live organisms, but to expect possible changes in them which are sometimes irreversible. From the person the initiative and independence in the solution of specific labor objectives, care, foresight is required.
The person — a sign
Here the main, leading object of the labor - conventional signs, figures, the codes which are natural or artificial languages.
Professions: translator, draftsman, engineer, topographer, secretary-typist, programmer, etc.
Professions like "people - sign systems" include:
• the professions connected with paperwork, office-work, the analysis of texts or their transformation, code conversion,
• professions an object of the labor in which are numbers, quantitative ratios,
• the professions connected with information processing in the form of system of conventional signs, schematic images of objects.
Successfully to work by profession, special abilities mentally to plunge into the world, apparently, dry designations are necessary, to distract from actually subject properties of world around and to concentrate on data which bear in itself these or those signs. At information processing in the form of conventional signs there are problems of control, check, the account, processing of data, and also creations of new signs, sign systems.
Under the terms of work allocate four groups of professions
• Work in the conditions of a usual (household) microclimate
(accountant, engineer, programmer, administrative assistant).
• Work with stay in the open air with sharp temperature drops, humidity
(builder, fireman, agriculturist, agronomist).
• Work in unusual conditions: underground, under water, at height, in air, in hot shops, in shops with inevitable production vrednost
(pilot, miner, diver, bureaucrat).
• Work with the increased moral responsibility for health, life of people, for big public, material values
(teacher, doctor, safety engineer, auditor).
Depending on means of labor of a profession subdivide into 4 departments
• The professions connected with use of manual skills
(joiner, assembler of radio equipment, jeweler, musician, surgeon).
• The professions connected with use of cars with manual control
(turner, driver, driver, communications operator).
• The professions connected with use of semiautomatic devices, machine guns, automatic transfer lines, robotic complexes
(steelmaker, printer, bureaucrat, dispatcher of a power supply system).
• The professions connected with use of functional means, instruments of labor
(teacher, actor, conductor, director, athlete).
Depending on the purpose of work it is possible to allocate three classes of professions
• Gnostic: to distinguish, distinguish, estimate, check
(health officer, literary critic, controler, commodity researcher, expert, investigator).
• Reformative: to process, move, organize, transform
(driver, painter, teacher, parquet floor layer, mechanic, tailor,).
• Prospecting: to invent, think up, find new option, to design
(cutter, marker, selector, artist designer)
What is the profession?
The profession is the social characteristic of the person indicating his belonging to certain category of people who are engaged in an identical type of work. Work is professional if two conditions are satisfied at least.
First, the profession is characterized by existence of a demanded skill level, that is skill, abilities, knowledge and skills which almost always is confirmed by special documents on professional education: diplomas, certificates, certificates, certificates.
Secondly, the profession is peculiar goods which can be sold on a labor market. And, goods which is in demand for which employers are ready to pay. That is, the profession is an income source for her owner.
How it is possible to learn about a profession. There are some ways of search and collection of information about professions:
You can ask to tell about professions of knowing people interesting you.
You have opportunity to read about different professions in literature or to learn about some of them in movies.
The following sources of information can represent the greatest interest: books; newspapers and magazines; television and radio; video movies; information on computer disks, information on the Internet.
It is possible to observe work of experts on their workplace. Supervision over work of professionals gives you opportunity to receive own impression about some professions.
HOW TO CHOOSE THE PROFESSION?
On occupation characteristics people unite in categories or groups of the people who are engaged in an identical type of work. Means, to choose a profession is not so much to choose to itself work, how many to be admitted to a certain group of people, to accept its ethical standards, rules, the principles, values, a way of life.
Today in their Russia more than six thousand are, and everyone imposes certain requirements to the person. One professions demand from the person of force and dexterity, others - mainly mind and accuracy, the third - sociability and restraint.
That it was easier to be guided in this huge world of professions, experts united them in groups on various types and classes. The type of a profession indicates with what the person should deal in the course of the activity. Distinguish five types of professions - "person person", "person nature", "person technician", "the person - sign system", "the person - an artistic image". And the class of professions speaks about degree of complexity and demanded qualification of the person, i.e. about nature of work which can be executive or creative.
Job search begins with choice of profession. Be convinced that your profession is that is necessary for you. First of all, it is quite good to find out why you want to choose this or that profession, what requirements you impose to it:
• You want that your profession was prestigious, used recognition in society?
• You would like to get any profession if only it was well paid?
• You want that your profession was interesting?
• You look for a profession which would be characterized by good working conditions?
• You choose a profession which is easiest for getting?
• You are going to cast in the lot with a profession by council or an example of other people?
Professional suitability is requirements to a state of health of the person, the requirement to professional qualification and requirements to professional abilities. Health, qualification and abilities of the person are his professionally important qualities. If level of their development is surpassed by what is required for mastering a profession, the person can be considered professionally suitable for this profession.
For psychologists the greatest interest is represented by abilities. At their existence, and also in the presence of health always it is possible to gain qualification, experience, knowledge and skills.
So, in order that it is correct to choose to itself a profession, you should orient in three things.
• To define, what your professional interests and tendencies, i.e. desires of the person, motivation, need for certain kinds of activity, aspirations not only to result, but also to the process of that the person does. Appeal of work, interest to it depends on tendencies. Tendencies conditionally designate expression "I want".
• To estimate your professionally important qualities which define, eventually, your professional suitability. Except health and qualification, abilities, i.e. such individual qualities of the person on which possibility of successful implementation of activity (for example, temperament) depends belong to this group. Abilities conditionally put into words "I Can".
• To learn, what professions are in demand for employers on a labor market, by what professions can find work. In other words, to define what "Is necessary" today.
In case you manage to combine I "Want", I "Can" and It "is necessary", your professional choice will be successful. In other words, your task consists in finding a profession, which:
• It is interesting and attractive to you,
• Corresponds to your abilities,
• Is in demand on a labor market.
In life the following main options of choice of profession meet:
• choice according to family tradition;
• choice occasionally, at random
• choice on calling;
• choice by calculation.
The most demanded professions in the world.
This profession enjoys more than 15 years wide popularity among women and men. As many want to become competent experts, to arrive on law department quite difficult. However, if you have a certificate of the lawyer, you always will have a work with a good salary.
Experts who work in the sphere of information technologies
Today IT specialists are very prestigious and demanded. Usually such experts don't work in one company, as a rule, for them some sources of the income, thanks to what for them high earnings.
Such position is in each company. Managers carry out many duties, for example, advertize goods, communicate with clients.
Such vacancies in firms meet not often, but it is one of the most popular specialties. Designers gain income from own creativity.
If the accountant well knows the business, without work he never remains. Experts of this profession earn very much.
Not for nothing say that this profession very prestigious and well paid. The profession is always demanded, there are good opportunities of career growth and excellent working conditions.
During such work it is usually necessary to visit various actions, to be aware of the last novelties in the market. This specialty is very popular.
Experts in the field of advertizing
Them still call PR specialists, this profession is very popular as the income is brought in by own ideas.
To become the doctor, it is necessary to study long, and even after training practice is necessary to become the competent representative of the most important profession. Certainly, in some medical institutions compensation really high.
Except good money there is an opportunity to communicate with interesting persons, to visit various actions, to get experience of the analysis of relationship of people that surely will help with life.
One of the most interesting professions in the field of jurisprudence. Career opportunities and salaries are endless. You can choose the forum work that is like.
Disadvantages of the profession
We have to protect both the innocent and the guilty defendants, it is difficult psychologically. The attitude towards lawyers in state bodies kind... Unstable income.
Pluses of the profession
The opportunity to leave their mark in science. Communication with the famous scientists. You can work both in Russia and abroad.
Disadvantages of the profession
Low wages in the Russian research Institute. Long painstaking work, the results of which can not be seen immediately. The path your career may take years.
Intensive development of tourism allows talented managers very quickly to make a career. Some eventually open their own firm. Working with securities alternating with trips to different countries.
In high season, so many customers that are often one and the text has to be repeated several times, that is tiring. Even if a bad mood, have to smile every customer.
Ability to communicate with different people, learn the culture of other countries, go on trips abroad. Professional translators earn good money.
Intense competition in the labor market. Low salaries novice translators
One of the most sought-after experts in the field of IT. Ability to create new programs, creative work. Wide scope of work: you can do software or adapt existing programs to the needs of a particular company. The opportunity to work not only in Russia but also abroad.
Intense competition in the labor market. Laborious work. A large strain on the eyes. Job requires great patience and attention.
The most interesting thing in the profession - the constant drive. Always present something new clients , acquaintances , themes . The great demand for professionals in the labor market .
PR people on a huge responsibility : any error or wrong unnoticed spoken word can erase hard time previously achieved . Frequent misunderstanding of the situation supervisor or customer representative at the agency. Sometimes one of the links in the chain on the project fails for various force majeure .
Interesting creative work. Ability to solve the real problems of the people. Wide scope of work.
Not too high salaries. Work for people with a stable psyche.
Opportunity to help people. Solid salaries. Great demand on a labor market. Opportunity to work both in state and in commercial structures.
It isn't really pleasant to work with others mouth. Physically hard, it is necessary to be constantly in the bent situation, all day – standing. Nervous work. Clients come across the different.
Wide scope of work. The good sociologist can always find to himself work on taste. The interesting work, the first you can collect, process information and, having drawn analytical conclusions, to understand that occurs in society.
At all variety of spheres where people with sociological education are required, specifically for sociologists on job offering sites it is a little vacancies. It is laborious work with calculations, tables and the schedules, demanding assiduity and limit attention. Not really high salaries.
Universality – can be found work in any sphere of economy. Great demand on a labor market. Possessing knowledge of economy, it is possible to begin own business.
Laborious work with figures which not to all will seem to the interesting. Big responsibility – depends on your calculations success of firm. The high competition on a labor market.
Professions which will be popular in the future.
• Engineers. Already now there is an acute shortage of professional engineers, technical specialists and heads of an average link on production. The combination of technical and economic or legal education will be appreciated especially.
• IT specialists and developers of computer hardware. There is no wonder, computers strongly entered our life. Now the smallest gap between requirements of the market and release of young specialists appeared in IT industry, but it is difficult to predict need for experts for five years forward.
• Experts in the field of nanotechnologies. As expected, nanotechnologies will capture mechanical engineering, space technologies, the food industry, medicine etc.
• Specialists in electronics and biotechnologies. Biotechnologies are used in molecular medicine, in biopharmaceutical productions and in other branches. Creation of new power supplies or the electronic schemes based on live microorganisms can be the purpose of scientific development, for example.
• Marketing specialists. It is predicted that in about 10 years on the Russian commodity market and services there will be a glut. And therefore marketing specialists – the strategists of the company leading system, focused on production of the various benefits and satisfaction of interests of producers and consumers be required.
• The experts connected with service. Income of the population grows, the number of middle class grows, so, the need for high-quality service will increase. And demand for services industry professions as shows experiment of the West European countries and the USA, will annually increase.
• Logisticians. Rossi's integration into the world market will demand inflow of professional logisticians. [I would call them "логистиками" or "experts in the field of logistics"]
• Ecologists. It is supposed that further the increasing place will be taken by problems of preservation of environment. Growth of harmful emissions in the atmosphere puts environmental problems on one of the first places in future global world.
• Physicians. In particular, increase in demand in this area connect with search of means of extension of life.
• Chemists. Experts in the field of chemistry, first of all, will be demanded in the power sphere. Though, as we know, for the closest 10 years of stocks of oil will suffice, already now the mankind works over development of alternative energy sources.
A survey among the students of 11 classes.
Does school help young people in their choice of professions in your opinion?
a) Yes b) No
What professions are most popular with young people who are going to universities?
a) Economic b) Medical c) Technical d) Creative
3.Do you like mental or physical work more?
a) mental b) physical
4.What do you think of your parents’ jobs?
a) isn't pleasant b) pleasant
5.What is more important for you: a good career or a happy family life?
a) good career b) happy family life
6.What is more important for you in the job: interest or money?
a) interest b) money
7.You have already chosen the right profession?
a) Yes b)No
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