Turner’s Amazing World
Done by Natal’ya Artamonova
Teacher M.A. Firstova
My name is Natal’ya Artamonova. My project is called “Turner’s Amazing World”.
I am in the sixth form and also I am a student of art school. I do enjoy studying because I get new knowledge and impressions. One of my favourite subjects is English. We have lately learned the topic “Famous People”. And at one of the lessons I have learned a new name – J. Turner.
It is a pity, but there is only a little text and two tiny reproductions of his pictures without names in our textbook. I tried to learn their names. I took a great interest in Turner’s work. My teacher showed me some reproductions and offered to make a project, which I am representing now.
Turner was born in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London, England. His father, William Turner (1738–7 1829), was a barber and wig maker.
His mother, Mary Marshall, became increasingly mentally unstable, possibly due in part to the early death of Turner's younger sister, Mary Ann Turner, in 1786. Mary Marshall died in 1804.
Young Turner was sent to stay with his maternal uncle, Joseph Mallord William Marshall, to Brentford in 1785, which was then a small town west of London on the banks of the River Thames. It was here that he first expressed an interest in painting. A year later he attended a school in Margate on the north-east Kent coast. By this time he had created many drawings, which his father exhibited in his shop window.
He entered the Royal Academy of Art school in 1789, when he was only 14 years old, and was accepted into the academy a year later. Sir Joshua Reynolds, president of the Royal Academy, chaired the panel that admitted him. At first Turner showed a keen interest in architecture but was advised to continue painting by the architect Thomas Hardwick (junior). Turner’s watercolour was accepted for the Summer Exhibition of 1790 after only one year's study. He exhibited his first oil painting in 1796, Fishermen at Sea.
Turner travelled widely in Europe, starting with France and Switzerland in 1802 and studying in the Louvre in Paris in the same year. He also made many visits to Venice. As he grew older, Turner became more eccentric. He had few close friends except his father, who lived with him for thirty years, working as his studio assistant. His father died in 1829. He never married, although he had two daughters. Their motuer was Sarah Danby. In 1829 Turner met Sophia Booth. In 1933 they moved Chelsea.
He died in the house of his mistress Sophia Caroline Booth in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea on 19 December 1851. He is said to have uttered the last words "The sun is God" before expiring.
At his request he was buried in St Paul's Cathedral, where he lies next to Sir Joshua Reynolds. His last exhibition at the Royal Academy was in 1850.
Turner left a large fortune, which he hoped would be used to support what he called «decayed artists» of finished painting was bequeathed to the British nation. A prestigious annual art award, the Turner Prize, created in 1984, was named in Turner’s honour.
Modern critics consider Turner the most original artist in the English painting.
Turner’s talent was recognized early in his life: he became a full academician at the age of twenty three. The variety of his works strikes. His many- sided talent is incredible.
His early works stated true to the traditions of English landscape.
Topographic painting is the other side of his work. His engravings appeared in magazines in 1794. The sights of castles, temples, banks of the rivers were very popular.
Turner is also regarded as one of the founders of English water-colour landscape painting . His water-colours brought him the first success.
As a romantic Turner always tried to show nature in reality. He showed his own vision of it. The painter aspired to represent the wild might of nature, its storms, floods, downpours, waterspouts.
Turner was fascinated by the sea and could paint it. Sometimes he pictured the sea quiet and tender. But more often it is storming.
Turner admired the ships. His ships are cleaving the waves proudly and their feats often eclipse the feats of seamen. Ships and seascapes can make an elegiac mood.
“Dawn after the Wreck” was painted in 1840.
We see the endless sea and sky, and the dog, crying the wreck of the ship.
Turner is known as “the painter of light”. He was interested in sunsets and sunrises. Light is the main element of his pictures. He was keen on yellow light. And that keenness became legendary. He also used iodic scarlet made by Humphry Davy, the greatest scientist of the time.
The significance of light was the emanation of God’s spirit for Turner.
In his works the painter concentrated on the play of light on water, the radiance of skies and fires.
Turner placed human beings in many of his paintings to indicate his affection to humanity on the one hand, but the power of God and nature on the other hand.
Financial independence allowed Turner to innovate and his later pictures were called “fantastic puzzles”. Turner gave his pictures very long names to explain their contents. He wanted the audience to understand his works.
Turner was still recognized as an artistic genius. Influential English art critic John Ruskin described Turner as the artist who could most “stirringly and truthfully measure the moods of Nature”.
Turner’s distinctive style of painting in which he used watercolour technique with oil paints, created lightness, fluency and disappearing atmospheric effects.
And all these we can see in his masterpieses.
Snow Storm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps.
This picture was painted in 1812. Now it is in the Tate Gallery in London.
In this work Turner wanted to create the image of fear.
The painter pictured the famous Hannibal’s crossing the Alps in 218 BC.
We can see Hannibal in the distance. He is sitting on the elephant.
On the front there is Hannibal’s Army. His warriors are helpless to the nature. And a thin piece of blue sky lighting through the storm is the only hope for them.
Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus.
The painting was created in 1829. The plot was taken from the IXth part of “Odisseya”.
Ulysses and his companions were taken prisoners by Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon. Polyphemus ate several sailors, and then cute Ulysses could burn out his only eye and swim away.
But the main heroes of Turner’s work are colour effects.
Polyphemus looks like a white cloud. Light figures near the ship are the sea nymphs. And in a distance we can see the rising sun and horses. Accodingly to Greek myth it is Appolon galloping his chariot.
The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berth to Be Broken up.
This masterpiece was called the most amazing work of the greatest painter.
Turner liked this picture very much, called it “My Dear” and refused to sell it.
The sad image of the old ship was not only the symbol of going away sailing vessels, but the reminder of short eathly life.
The Fighting Temeraire looks like a ghost. The sunset symbolizes the end and the death. But it also shows the fame of the ship. And the sail painted in several touches reminds of that fame.
High in the sky we see the crescent moon as a symbol of a new era, the era of steamers.
In 2005 this picture was voted Britains “greatest painting” in a public poll organized by the BBC.
Rain, Steam and Speed – The Great Western Railway.
The work was pictured in 1844.
A real railway fever spreaded to England at that time. Many painters reflected it in their works.
But painting a machine Turner created the feeling of speed.
The train is rushing along a new bridge.
The brightest detail is the sparkling sphere of the steam locomotive.
White sports represent the clouds of steam. And this shows the speed of train.
We can see a tiny hare in the picture. The hare has always been the symbol of speed. But the hare in the picture lost.
In the lower part we see tiny figures of a boat and a ploughman symbolizing the leaving epoch.
This picture enraptured the impressionists.
Every picture is a whole world. And each detail in it is very important. It helps to discover the meaning of the work and the artist’s intention.
I have understood, that a picture like a book must be read very attentively.
It was very interesting to watch the things which I have already known from my history lessons and to learn the new.
I see how little I know and how much I would like to learn.
Turner’s pictures are full of mysteries and I can’t say that I understand everything in Turner’s works. But I can say what I like most of all. It is light, pouring from the skies. And it seems that the world is endless. I tried to draw several sketches. Look at them, please.
Энциклопедия Кирилла и Мефодия. М.: 2009
Художественная галерея №19, 2005
Е. Л. Занина, Английский язык. М.: Айрис Пресс, 2010. 272с.
The List of Supplement
1. Joseph Mallord William Turner
2. William Turner
3. Mary Marshall
4. Young Joseph Turner. Charles Turner’s drawing
5. Selected works
6. Selected pictures (CD)
7. My drawings
Joseph Mallord William Turner
Young Joseph Turner. Charles Turner’s drawing
1799–Warkworth Castle, Northumberland–Thunder Storm Approaching at Sun-Set, oil on canvas–Victoria and Albert Museum, London
1806–The Battle of Trafalgar, as Seen from the Mizen Starboard Shrouds of the Victory, oil on canvas–Tate Gallery, London
1812–Snow Storm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps, oil on canvas, Tate Gallery, London
1817–Eruption of Vesuvius, oil on canvas, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT
1822–The Battle of Trafalgar, oil on canvas, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London
1829–Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London
1835–The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, oil on canvas, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia.
1835–The Grand Canal, Venice, oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
1838–The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berth to Be Broken up, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London
1839–Modern Rome - Campo Vaccino, oil on canvas, Private Collection on loan to The National Gallery, Scotland
1840–Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On), oil on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
1840–Glaucus and Scylla, oil on canvas, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX.
1840–Rockets and Blue Lights (Close at Hand) to Warn Steamboats of Shoal Water, oil on canvas, Clark Art Museum, Williamstown, MA
1844–Rain, Steam and Speed–The Great Western Railway, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.
Акварель – water-colour
Атмосфера – atmosphere
Восход – sunrise
Видение – vision
Влиять – to influence
Восхищаться – admire
Выражать – to express
Вдали – in the distance
Выставляться – to be exhibited
Гравюра – an engraving
Гениальный художник – artistic genius
Действительный член академии – full art academician
Живопись - painting
Завещать – bequeath
Закат – sunset
Изображать, рисовать - depict
Картина – a picture, a painting
Картина маслом – an oil painting
Критик – critic
Кисть – brush
Королевская академия искусств – Royal Academy of Art
Масляная краска – an oil paint
Мощь природы – the power of nature
Настроение – mood
Неуловимый – disappearing
Независимость - Independence
Незабываемый – unforgettable
Наводнение – flood
Натюрморт – still-life
Насмехаться - deride
Образ – image
Пароход – steamer
Парус – sail
Паровоз – steam locomotive
Пейзажист – landscape painter
Портретист – portraitist
Пейзаж акварелью – water-colour landscapes paintings
Полотно – a canvas
Представлять – represent
Премия - avard
Рисовать – paint
Развивать – develop
Романтик – romantic
Создавать – create
Cвет – light
Страх – fear
Сюжет – plot
Скорость – speed
Техника – technique
Творческий – creative
Узнаваемый – disfinctive
Увлеченность – keenness
Художник – an artist, a painter
Художник-реалист – a realistic painter
Художественная галерея – art gallery
Шторм – storm
Экспериментировать – to innovate
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