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Исследовательская работа по английскому языку. Тема: «История создания Храма Рождества Христова в посёлке Анна Воронежской области»
Всероссийский конкурс исследовательских работ учащихся
“ЮНОСТЬ, НАУКА, КУЛЬТУРА”
Направление: лингвистика (английский язык)
Тема: «История создания Храма Рождества Христова в посёлке Анна Воронежской области»
МКОУ «Аннинская СОШ с углублённым изучением отдельных предметов», Воронежская область
Кузнецова М.В., учитель английского языка
г. Обнинск, 2013/2014 учебный год
1. Introduction p 2
2. The building of the Church in Anna p 3
3. Consecration of the Church p 4
4. Closing of the Temple p 5
5. The Temple of Nativity in the years of the Second World War p 6-7
6. The Temple in Khrushchev's period of leading p 8-9
7. Revival of the Church life p 10-12
8. Conclusion p 13
9. Bibliography p 14
10. Appendix p 15
The history of the Russian Orthodox Church is studied quite well. But the history of individual churches and parishes is studied much less. Therefore, studying of the past of the church in my native place seems to me quite interesting and necessary. The history of the church in Anna is the history of the whole small Motherland.
The purpose of the research: to research the history of the Church of Nativity since the first historical events till nowadays.
The topicality of the research: The theme of my research is interesting and actual for me because I live in a period of rebirth of orthodox values not only in Russia but in my native village Anna. I’m sure it’s is impossible to bring up a real patriot of Russia without knowledge of historical facts in our native places. Many contemporaries are worried by revival of modern values. Without doubt the problem of keeping traditional Russian shrines, bringing up of modern generation in the best Russian traditions is the main goal for Russian nationhood. As for me, I am keen on learning English language. I’m trying to improve it as much as possible. I’d like to introduce my research in English.
The main tasks are: 1) to use and learn the documentary literary sources;
2) to collect and classify the material on the topic;
3) to learn archival documents of the Church of Nativity
4) to meet and interview orthodox priests of the Church of Nativity;
The object of the research: historical documents connected with the history of foundation of the Church in Anna.
Hypothesis: Let’s assume that historical events and government policy influenced both the birth and closing of the church and also its revival.
2. The building of the Church in Anna
The prince Baryatenskiy instructed to build an Orthodox Church on the territory of Anna. The famous architect of Voronezh Stanislav Myslovskiy created the plan of building of the Church in the village Anna Bobrov uezd. The project of building was approved by the Prince Vladimir Baryatinskiy in March 1892. On the 14 August 1982 the bishop of Voronezh and Zadonsk Anastasiy blessed the building of the construction. At once people began to prepare building materials in the estate. In June 1894 the first Temple was laid. It was made in honor of Baryatinskiy’s silver wedding jubilee. It was decided to build the new temple to the north of the old temple. Worship took place in the old building. The foundation stone was blessed by the archpriest Vasiliy Vyshnevskiy. In five years the temple was ready for blessing. Contemporaries were impressed by such unusual beautiful construction for the countryside. People were admired by architecture and the size of the temple. Baryatinskiy’s financial opportunities gave a chance for the architect not to limit his creative skills. The architect was very talented, well- educated and had great experience. On 10 May 1899 the temple was passed the comission headed by the engineer A. Kuprinskiy and the local priest Dmitriy Nikonov. The church has been built in Byzantine style. It is built in the shape of a cross and crowned by 13 domes. On the west side there is a four-tiered bell tower, the height of which, together with a cross is 43 meters, the length of the temple with a bell tower is 43 meters, the width is 28. The temple has three pristols: The Chief is in the honor of the Nativity of Christ and two, northern and southern, in honor of St. Vladimir and the holy matyr Nadezhda. Iconostasises were done in St. Petersburg in the workshop of the trading house of Slonov and Vitaliev. Iconostasises hasn’t been kept. They were destroyed in the 30s of the 20th century. In the Temple heating was arranged. It was a rarity in those days, even in large cities. In the basement of the temple ovens were stacked, from which the warm air took place in winter and cool in summer. They created heating and ventilation. The Total construction costs 150 thousand rubles. Solonov’s and Vitaliev’s House set for the Temple different accessories worth over 24 thousand rubles. Our ancestors describe their memories about delivering of the big bell to the temple. Its weight was nearly five tons. Special roads were built for such occasion. Peasants were driving the bell from the station to the temple on their shoulders. 1[1. с.8]
3. Consecration of the Church
The Baryatinskiys have got a postcard from the empress Maria Fedorovna on the day of the consecration of the church. Senior people arrived at Anna for such important event. They were Pavel Aleksandrovich Sleptsov, the head of Gubernia, Vasiliy Aleksandrovich Vvedenskiy, managing the south-west railway and others. Consecration was taken place on 1-2 June 1899. Worshipers have started to come to the temple from Anna and different surrounding villages since early morning. People were allowed to enter into the temple according to special tickets. It was organized for keeping order and protection. The bishop Anastasiy has being waited by everybody. It was 7 a.m. when people could hear the sounds of the bell, which gave a sign that the train came to Anna. In ten minutes all bells began to sound. They informed gathered public about coming of the bishop. Anastasiy bowed the Holy Cross and came into the church. The crowed followed after him and solemn service started in the new temple. The church service took place in honor of the new temple and Nativity of Christ. There were a lot of splendid lamps and candles. Luxury clothes of priesthood were shining because of much light. Choristers were dressed in a special uniform. The conductor of the choir was Polyakov. 2 He was invited from St. Petersburg. This outstanding event was over at 11 p.m. After that anointing with oil began. A plenty of people gathered in the church. This ceremony finished at night, nearly at 12 p.m. Not everyone could take part in this ritual. On 1 June the last liturgy was held in the old church. Consecration of water was in the new temple at 8 a.m. and at 8.30. a.m. the big bell began to sound. At 9 a.m. the Overlord arrived, who was met with “great glory” At the end of the vestments, the Bishop Anastasius wore a silk srachitsu at the top of sakkos. Everything it was unusually, especially for the common people, and all eyes looked at the Archbishop. Consecration was made with full reverence and due solemnity. 3 [1. с. 23]
4. Closing of the Temple
At the end of 1917 soldiers began to come back from the fronts in the villages. The first Sovety of Peasants’ Deputies were formed. In 1930 local authorities prohibited worship in the local temple. The destroyed a belfry and domes. Grain was kept inside of the Church of Nativity. All the icons and utensils were taken to the util. Utile was called a barn of waste and things unfit for consumption. Clothes and expensive icons were packed into bales and sent to Voronezh. Then they threw the bell and began to dismantle the bell tower. People say that a senior person was driving passed Anna. He was disgusted by communists’ activities. He couldn’t understand who ordered to break monuments of architecture. He ordered to stop work. Corrupted and ravaged church had stood before 1942. The fact that the temple was converted into a granary, has played in its life a positive role: It has been survived much better than other churches which were turned into shops and auto repair shops, or in1960s salt and chemical fertilizers were kept in them. They corrode bricks. 4 [1. с. 43]
5. The Temple of Nativity in the years of the Second World War
The Day of June 22, 1941 was sunny and warm and it began from usual peaceful affairs like in many places of our huge country. The news about war people has got working in the fields and being on haymaking. In a month or two only women, small children and old people were in villages. All adults and young girls and boys went to struggle with the enemy. At the end of June 1942, German troops began to attack Voronezh. At the beginning of July they captured almost the right bank. The Front was 100 kilometers from Anna. People remember that evacuated people of Voronezh were walking through Anna with herds of the cattle from the west to the east. On July 7 Voronezh Front was formed and the army headquarters was settled in Anna. In this difficult time believing citizens of Anna addressed in the front headquarters with permission to worship in the temple. The Temple was opened, cleaned floors were washed and surviving icons were brought. Believers in God prayed for their alive and dead relatives and friends. It seemed that church life was lost, but it was resumed with even greater force. Mobilization to the front was going on. “Everything for the Front. Everything for the Victory!”- the slogan said. Women and children worked hard, practically without having a rest. Conditions of work were terrible. People were hungry and tired. But nobody thought about themselves. Everybody dreamt about the quickest victory over Nazi Germany. Citizens of Anna gathered money and things for our soldiers. In this action not only teachers but pupils took part. Fundraising was also in the temple of Christ. In the report for the 1st half of 1994 the following information was: " Clergy and church parishioners collected 10550 rubles in cash. 373 rubles the Red Army got for gifts, sick and wounded soldiers got 5830 rubles in hospitals. So, 16733 rubles were given to soldiers of our army from religious people. After opening of the temple of Christ in 1942, the first service was committed by protorierey Aleksey Obraztsov. Soon the archbishop Pete Sviridov arrived who send Aleksey to Nickolskiy Cathedral in Voronezh and appointed him the regional Reverence. Parish life was revived in Anna. On 1 August 1943 Georgiy Sadovskiy became the abbot of the church in Anna. Soon the archpriest Nikolay Borisoglebskiy was sent to Anna like the second priest. Legally Orthodox community was formed in 1944. On 30 May 1944 citizens of Anna got a stone church building without a tower from the executive committee of the regional council of workers' deputies for unlimited free use. In October 28, 1944 the Community of the Church of the Nativity of the village Anna was registered by V.Gostev, the Council for Russian Orthodox Church in the USSR of Voronezh region. In six months after the patriarch Sergey’s death the Council elected the Metropolitan Alexey the Patriarch of Moscow and of Russia. Regulations of the Administration of the Russian Orthodox Church were adopted. These regulations kept in order parish life. On 18 June 1945 the archpriest Evgeniy Lukin arrived at Anna. He organized a meeting where "The situation at the Local Council in Moscow, January 31, 1945” was announced. At the meeting in November 1944 it was decided to appoint Sergey Boldyrev as the churchwarden of the temple. About the situation and conditions in the church Georgiy Borisoglebskiy reported. He told that economic status of the church needed to be improved in many ways. During past six months in 1945 the temple was corrected in some places floors were replaced, gradually windows were glazed. Instead of the church-porch a small paved platform with steps was built at the entrance. In June people started to make the fence around the temple. There is a need for a partial correction of the roof of the church, in the completion of the c utensils and resume painting. On 24 August 1945 Nikolay Bogoyavlenskiy was appointed the archpriest of the Nativity Church in the village Anna. Contemporaries told about the archpriest Nikolay Bogoyavlenskiy. They say that in 1930s he worked in Anna. He and his wife were condemned according to the Article 58 when communists started to keep down the clergy. His wife was suggested to recant from her husband but she didn’t do it. Nikolay was sentenced to ten years of prison and his wife got 8 years. Citizens from Anna loved Nikolay and his family. After their arrest the parish took their children to bring up. On 8 June 1947 after Nikolay’s death the archpriest Peter Tkachenko was appointed in the local Nativity Church. Peter Tkachenko reported that there was much work done by the clergy of Anna. The roof of the temple is repaired. Interior view of the temple has a decent form, walls are whitewashed, evangelists are written on the main dome. Above the iconostasis the holy Nativity is painted. Though, the iconostasis, brought from the nearest village. was very bad. Restoration and improvement of the temple continued. In 1948 the altar cross was built and two bells. People of Anna were preparing for the golden jubilee of their temple. Solemn celebrating was appointed in May 29, 1949 , on Sunday of the blind. The Bishop of Voronezh and Ostrogozhsky Iosif warmly congratulated the clergy and parishioners on the fiftieth anniversary of the consecration of the temple. Despite the fact that regular worship took place , it has been used as a granary by the village council for many years. In those years, the temple didn’t have the premises, all housed were under the bell tower, where now the is library, there was a large Russian stove, communion bread was baked there. Later a small house for the clergy was built on the territory of the church. After that apartments for christening and refectory were done. But the 1960s were approaching, the years of Khrushchev's persecution. True relations of the Church with the godless state Nikita Khrushchev has stopped. 5 [1. с. 47]
6. The Temple in Khrushchev's period of leading
It was a very difficult period for Russian Church when Khrushchev managed our state. In 1970 his goal was to show “the last pope” on TV. On 18 July 1961 at the Council of Bishops the entire tenor of the church life was destroyed under pressing of the state. In 50-60s Russian Church was under the hardest pressure of our government. It demanded from the church to change many religious regulations including those parts of the documents which are connected with organization of the parish management. Voronezh region wasn’t an exception. Meetings were held where some types of statutes were changed and new regulations were adopted. According to the new regulation a priest will not interfere in economic affairs of the parish, also he is forbidden to speak, to address to people at meetings, to attend them and generally to give any pastoral advice to members of the executive body. Before a priest had the right to be a chairman of the meeting. But in Khrushchev’s times he became a free citizen of the country participating in elections of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He was deprived of electoral rights in parish life. A priest could perform a religious service if an executive authority allowed to conclude a labor agreement. By the way, this labor agreement could be concluded for a year. That days a warden was the "main man" in a parish. In the country a systematic persecution of the faith and the Church began. Churches, monasteries, seminaries were closed. Church bells were prohibited . Children and youth were forbidden to participate in the sacraments and visit temples. Priests were prohibited to do religious rites at home. Even prostration and Holy Communion were strictly banned. Also Russian Church experienced an economic oppression. The state imposed huge taxes on the Church. In1960 the Archpriest Eugeniy Tolochkov refered to the Metropolitan Iosif with a request. He wrote about the life level of the priest Aleksandr Demchuk from Anna. The priest has done a lot of useful things for the Church, but he lived very poor. He was ill. His food was scarce. Iosif asked to give 1500 rubles to the priest. Though according to the law Aleksandr Demchuk had the right to get this amount of money every month. In 1960 three abbots were changed.The Clergy was infringed upon the rights of, and financially. They were transferred from one place to another. Churches have not been repaired, church utensils haven’t been updated. Income has been transferred to the Fund of Peace. Sometimes temples were repaired secretly if a village headmen was a religious person. Authorities demanded the reduction or even dismissal of regular singers. Yakov Demchuk was working as a regent of the right choir during six years. He was a very talented person. Moreover, he had a great experience. People respected an appreciated him. Unfortunately such priests weren’t respected by irreligious power. In 1960 local authorities announced that they weren’t satisfied by the church choir and demanded to disband singers. Thus, the temple of Anna has lost the choir and the right to sing on Easter holidays. Yakov Demchuk transferred to the village Usman. Later he worked in Elets. All citizens who baptized children were recorded by a check men. They had to write down not only a personal information of parents baptized children, but also their Godmothers and God fathers. So the party workers had a chance to find baptized people and use strict administrative methods for them. These people were expelled from the party or fired from the job. In those years parents baptized their children could lose different benefits, career and premiums. If an authorized found out a priest who baptized children without special permission, he had to leave the parish. Such priests weren’t allowed to get a registration in the other parish. No matter what, people from Anna baptized their children secretly. As a rule, they went to the village Malye Yasyrki. There was a small church which was situated near the forest and the village belonged to the other district. 6
7. Revival of the Church life
In 80-s of XX century our country is preparing for the great jubilee the thousandth anniversary of Christening of Russia. In 1985 a new political course was chosen by the USSR. This course was called “perestroika”. During that period the soviet government reviewed a policy towards Russian Christian Church. Persecution of the church have been stopped. All types of mass media inform population of the country about an outstanding event in the life of all Christians, Christening of Russia. People became free in choosing of their belief in God. They can frankly speak about it. They can go to churches and temples without any fear. Citizens have got an opportunity to christen their children and have wedding ceremony in a church without any secrecy. Also positive changes began in Anna region. Local authorities reported on innovations, connected with the process of democracy. Some of them touched upon religious life of the district. The number of religious people was rising. It’s necessary to notice that not only old people went to the temple of Nativity but also the youth did it. A lot of people could be seen in the local church not only on holidays and at weekends. They came there every day to pray during the morning and the evening prayer. People began to go to a church library to take books for reading. Many of them have rich home libraries which contain religious literature. Some people used to fast. Spiritual and moral education became very important and popular among young people. Different meetings with priests of the temple were organized at schools of the district. For example, the spiritual father Vyacheslav Minenkov meeting with pupils told about Christening of Russia in 1988 by the prince Vladimir, about the importance of this rite for the population. In the anniversary year a new Statute of the Russian Orthodox churches was adopted which restored the rights of priests. In towns and villages temples were opened and restored. Residents of Anna dreamt about restoring of the belfry. Old documents of the building of the temple weren’t found. Decision was to make a new project. However, at the last moment a woman fount an old photo where the belfry was. Thanks to the photo the construction looked like the previous one. In rebuilding of the belfry residents of the village took part. Besides, acquisition of the belfry was a happy event for people of Anna district. In March 12, 1995 at the temple of Nativity the Sunday school for children was opened, where they were able to learn the Word of God, to get acquainted with the Orthodox spiritual values, to learn the history of the Church, to participate in worship. There was a library of the orthodox literature opened. Parishioners-children and adults-use its services and get the necessary books, information and help. Here we can watch a movie, listen to spiritual music, to take CDs at home to watch and to listen them in the family. Residents of Anna were ready to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of its consecration. In 1996-1998 the church building was renovated, arches and walls of the temple were decorated with paintings, church utensils were updated. At the entrance of the temple new granite steps were laid. Everything was done due to efforts of the parish council, district leaderships and parishioners. Its anniversary the temple has met updated. Celebrating of the 100th anniversary of the temple was solemnly and publicly. In conclusion of the Liturgy, a procession and a thanksgiving service was held on the square in front of the temple. The Metropolitan Methodios handed the Archpriest Leonid Patrakhin the Order of St. Sergius of the III degree. Also Methodios presented a icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The district administration has given a great new bell. To Leonid Patrakhin’s request bags in ancient traditions with the image of the Nativity and the domes of the temple were made. It became a tradition to celebrate the Patronal Feast in Anna. It’s Christmas. The temple is decorated with fir and pine branches. On Christmas Eve on the main square of our small town a den, covered with pine branches is arranged. There is the Virgin Mary with the Christ Child, the elder Joseph, the shepherds in the consecrated cave. At Christmas night the festive divine service takes place in the temple. It continues at noon January 7 in the Central House of the Culture. For this day, students of Sunday school ,the Art schools and pupils from all schools of the district prepare a large festive presentation . Sunday school students prepare a play or a story. In the hall there are a lot of people. They are leaders of plants an farms, small children, adults , the whole families , and guests from other parishes . Usually at the end of the feast the Archpriest Leonid Patrakhin and the head of the district Vasily Avdeev appeal to inhabitants with best wishes. Every year, for Easter, at Christmas and Victory Day, students of Sunday school prepare concerts and gifts for older people who live in the in the home for the elderly which is in the village Old Toyda. One of the holiest sites of the temple is an icon of r of God’s Mother. On 12 July residents of Anna celebrate the day of birth of Anna. In these days it has become a tradition when the Metropolitan of Voronezh and Borisoglebsk Sergiy makes Divine Liturgy. On 12 July 2009 people celebrated the 110 anniversary of the temple. It was also one of the remarkable days in the life of the district. On 6 May 2010 the district administration made the decision to replace the old iconostasis into new one. Funds for the new iconostasis were contributed by the local administration, managers, businessmen, farmers, population. In February 2011 all details for the iconostasis were brought and painstaking work started. On 23 February 2011 the work was over. New icons painted by Alexander Petrovich Hodyakov, took their places on the iconostasis. Porcelain, bright and festive, iconostasis beautifully blended into the interior of the church. The iconostasis is made in the shape of Byzantine church. Acoustics was recovered in the church. Simultaneously with the iconostasis two large porcelain kiots were booked. By the end of July reconstruction of the altar was completed. In July 30, the Metropolitan Sergiy consecrated the new iconostasis and made Sunday night vigil in the renewed church. The head of Anna district Vasily Avdeev was awarded by the Order of Daniel of the II degree. Vasiliy Sherbakov and Ivan Brovkin have got medals of St. Mitrophan of Voronezh. Baryatinsky’s great-granddaughter the princes Elizabeth Apraksina specially arrived at these celebrations. Residents of Anna love their wonderful temple and gratefully remember and pray for its founders. The Temple of Nativity and its parishioners have gone through different historical events of the XX century and with God's help they overcame all troubles. 7
ВСЁ бывало в нашей жизни,-
Лихолетье, и гоненья, и война.
Церковь оскверняли, закрывали,
Но не было на то Господней воли:
Купола сияли как лучи.
Храм-хранитель мудрости и веры
И святыня Аннинской земли;
Храм сегодня гербом служит
И спасеньем страждущей души. 8 [8. с. 73]
On 27 December 2011 Anna blagochinie was founded. It consists of some districts of Voronezh region. They are Anna Ertil and Panino districts. The priest Gleb Patrakhin was appointed as the rural dean of the deanary. Today the parish the temple takes an active part in public life of the district. It supports good relations with the district and region administration. Furthermore, the parish cooperates with social service of Anna. Particular attention is paid to the bringing up of the young generation, and increasing the strength of families.
In conclusion, I’d like to notice that my research was interesting and useful for me. It was very pleasant for me to work at the collecting of necessary material. During my research I have learned a lot of information sources. I’ve learned how to work in the church library with orthodox literature, archival documents. Communication with the Archpriest Leonid and priests was held informatively and effectively. At first I learned and described the history of building of the temple in Baryatinskiy’s period. After that I found analyzed some information, connected with consecration and closing of the Church. Then some important historical periods in the life of the country and our temple were learned and described by me. As for me I carefully have selected information about revealing of the church. I found the confirmation of my hypotheses. On the basis of the collected material I can conclude that historical events and the state policy influenced both the birth and closing of the temple. Assumption is justified. All information of my research proves that the temple of Christ is a historical monument indeed, the center of spiritual culture of the people in the village. We should feel responsible for the lives of our descendants, to avoid the destruction of holy places of Russia. I came to conclusion that spiritual revival is necessary for the younger generation to know better the history of our country and my small Motherland. It allows the youth to feel themselves inheritors of the past and to be responsible for future.
1. «The archive of the parish of Hristorozhdestvensky Church», Kopylin – M, 1985
2. «The century is after the century», Voronezh, 1998
3. «The History of Voronezh diocese from its inception until 1960» the Archbishop Sergiy Petrov, 2011.
4. «The church service during the last centuries», Prosvestchenie, 1999
1 Жемчужина Воронежского края, Протоирей Леонид Патрахин - Анна 2012
3Жемчужина Воронежского края, Протоирей Леонид Патрахин - Анна 2012
4Жемчужина Воронежского края, Протоирей Леонид Патрахин - Анна 2012
5Жемчужина Воронежского края, Протоирей Леонид Патрахин - Анна 2012
8 Сборник стихов «Мой край родной», А.А.Тимашов – Воронеж, 2010
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