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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / К элективному курсу по подготовке к сдаче ЕГЭ

К элективному курсу по подготовке к сдаче ЕГЭ

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  • Иностранные языки

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Методическая разработка двух тем

«Работа. Карьера» и «Преступность»

в рамках курса «Подготовка к написанию

сочинения в формате ЕГЭ по английскому языку» (12 тем)

Автор – Азиева Л.С., учитель английского языка ГБОУ СОШ г. Беслан

Пояснительная записка

Курс «Подготовка к написанию сочинения в формате ЕГЭ по английскому языку» предназначен в качестве элективного для учащихся 10-11 классов. Основная образовательная программа курса определяется требованиями стандарта по иностранным языкам и необходимостью специализированно подготовки учащихся к сочинению, представляющему собой письменное высказывание своего мнения с элементами рассуждения в рамках сдачи экзамена по английскому языку в формате ЕГЭ.

Необходимость введения предлагаемого курса обусловлена высокой сложностью поставленных перед учащимися задач. Написание сочинения — задание высокого уровня, представляющее для учащихся наибольшую сложность. Специфика профильного обучения в английской спецшколе позволяет учащимся успешно справиться с базовым и повышенным уровнем ЕГЭ, но именно сочинение, как наиболее сложный элемент экзамена, требует дополнительной подготовки, что невозможно при действующем объеме часов изучения английского языка в старшей школе.

Актуальность программы на современном этапе развития школы определяется прежде всего тем, что полученные знания формируют умение грамотно выразить свои мысли и создавать собственные высказывания на английском языке с учетом задач общения, и позволяют без трудностей подготовить учащихся к сдаче ЕГЭ в 11 классе. Предоставленный курс также помогает учителю преодолеть трудности в подготовке учащихся к сочинению в формате ЕГЕ, представляющему собой письменное высказывание своего мнения с элементами рассуждения.

Предлагаемый курс рассчитан на учащихся 10-11 классов, планирующих сдавать ЕГЭ по английскому языку в предложенном формате. Его можно проводить в режиме 2 года (10-11 класс) по 1 часу в неделю или за один год – 2 часа в неделю. Разработанный материал можно использовать для проведения элективного курса в 10-11 классах при подготовке к ЕГЭ.

Курс является практико-ориентированным с элементами анализа и самоанализа учебной деятельности учащихся. Критерии отбора содержания учебного материала обусловлены спецификой формата ЕГЭ, требующего обобщения, углубления и систематизации знаний и умений, полученных на уроках английского языка в старших классах.

Новизна программы проявляется в логике построения учебного материала, способствующего формированию навыков правильного употребления лексических единиц, соответствующих высоким требованием экзамена, логической аргументации, грамматической и орфографической компетентности, а также в систематизации занятий в целях постепенного накопления навыков и умений, требуемых при сдаче экзамена, и в акцентировании внимания на самопроверке и рецензировании.

Значимость данной программы проявляется в углублении лингвистических знаний, в формировании и овладении культурой письменной речи, формировании умений применять полученные знания на практике, обеспечении сознательного усвоения материала при подготовке ученика к сдаче ЕГЭ.

Практическая направленность курса проявляется в расширении лексического запаса учеников, углубленном изучении структур речи и организации текста под формат ЕГЭ.

Материал построен таким образом, что соблюдается единство программы, ощущается взаимосвязь между отдельным занятием и всем курсом в целом. С целью предотвращения перегрузки учебный материал распределен таким образом, что фаза домашней подготовки доведена до минимума.

      1. Цели и задачи элективного курса

Цели:

  • подготовить учащихся к написанию сочинения в рамках ЕГЭ по английскому языку;

  • способствовать интеллектуальному развитию ученика;

  • создать условия для формирования у учащихся самостоятельно ставить перед собой задачу дальнейшего углубленного изучения английского языка;

  • создать возможности для приобретения учащимися умения практического использования английского языка для решения коммуникативных задач в сфере письменной речи;

  • расширить рамки изучения базового учебного предмета «Английский язык» в аспекте внутрипредметной специализации на этапе профессиональной ориентации учащихся;

  • воспитать качества самоорганизации, важные для человека, готовящегося вступить во взрослую жизнь.

Задачи:

Теоретические:

- повторение, углубление и систематизация знаний учащихся по соответствующим разделам английского языка, необходимым для сдачи экзамена (лексика, словообразование, фразеология, синтаксис, пунктуация).

Развивающие:

  • развитие интеллектуальных и творческих способностей учащихся,

  • развитие навыков логического мышления.

Практические:

  • ознакомление учащихся с экзаменационным форматом;

  • развитие логического мышления, необходимого для определения проблематики темы сочинения и подбора убедительных доказательств своей точки зрения;

  • повторение и обобщение материала по разделам «Грамматика» и «Лексика»;

  • расширение словарного запаса, развитие стилистического чутья;

  • формирование умения свободного владения письменной речью на английском языке;

  • развитие у учащихся навыка анализа и объективной оценки результатов собственной учебной деятельности;

Воспитательные:

  • развитие творческого потенциала учащихся;

  • воспитание человека, владеющего культурой письменной речи на английском языке.

      1. Планируемые результаты

Достижение учащимися уровня овладения навыками владения письменной речью на английском языке, позволяющего успешно сдать ЕГЭ по разделу «Письмо» (подраздел «Сочинение»). Это предполагает наличие у участников должного уровня функциональной грамотности и компетентности, которым они будут очевидно выделяться на общем фоне учащихся.

JOBS, CAREER, MONEY,SUCCESS

-to be one of the most important factors (money)

-further training, promotion, prospects and job conditions should be also taking into account

-to get satisfaction from your job

-to suit your interests

-to be interested and socially important

-some jobs are considered to be suitable for men and others for women

-to take into consideration your traits of character

-to work shift-work

-to be on flexi-time

-to work nine-to-five

to get the sack

-to be fired

-to be dismissed

-to be made redundant

-to be laid-off

-to give up work

-to be on (take) maternity leave

-to be on (take) sick leave

-to take early retirement

-to be a workaholic

-to be promoted

-to apply for a job

Adjectives to describe you:

-active, adaptable, aggressive, alert, ambitious, analytical, attentive, broad-minded,, conscientious, consistent, constructive, cooperative, creative, dependable, determined, diplomatic, disciplined, discreet, economical, efficient, energetic, enterprising, enthusiastic, extroverted, fair, forceful, imaginative. Independent, logical, loyal, mature, methodical, objective, optimistic, receptive, personable, pleasant, positive, practical, realistic, reliable, resourceful, respective, self-reliant, sincere, sophisticated, systematic, tactful, talented, willing to travel, willing to relax

ESSAYS

  1. Many people want to start their own business. However, others feel that this is too risky and brings too much responsibility. What is your opinion? Is it better to start your own business or work for someone else?

  2. Should teenagers take part-time jobs? What is your opinion?

  3. Not all people enjoy a 9-to-5 working day in a office. What is your opinion? Is it a better choice to work from home?

  4. Some teenagers would like to have a highly paid job; others believe that their job should be interesting and bring satisfaction. And what about you? What is the most important thing for you in your future occupation?

  5. only people who earn a lot of money are successful. What is your opinion?

  6. Some teenagers dream of becoming rich whereas others consider it to be rather dangerous. What is your opinion?

  7. Some people think that men and women have different natural abilities that make them suitable for different types of work. Others, however, believe that both men and women can be equally suited to do any type of work. What is your opinion?

STARTING THEIR OWN BUSINESS

The idea of setting up a business seems to be very attractive to some people. However, most people prefer to work for big companies finding it more secure and stable. From my point of view, taking a job in a company is more convenient for a vast majority of people.

First of all, according to some sociologists, only 5 % of people are likely to achieve success in business because the combination of such qualities as talent, incredible persistence, the ability to work 24 hours a day and to take risks is rather rare in one person. Secondly, running your own company involves taking responsibility for your employees and very few people are capable of doing it.

Yet, my opponents claim, that establishing your own company, you become more independent. Moreover, being your own boss, you do not have to work nine-to-five. . More than that, my counterparts say, that starting your own business is likely to be very lucrative.

Nonetheless, owners of companies are bound to work longer hours than their employees and depend not only on their workers but on the market conditions and many other important factors. Nevertheless, according to the statistics, most businessmen go bankrupt during the first year of work. Besides, the benefits of being rich cannot outweigh the hassles of entrepreneurship.

To conclude, I would like to stress, that working for a company enables people to develop a rewarding career whereas setting up a business involves too much stress and very little certainty that your attempt will turn out to be successful.

  1. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

1.What do you think is a good salary in your country? How much would you like to earn?

2.Would you like to work on commission? Why? Why not?

3.What should you do to make a good impression at a job interview?

4.Think of a job you would like to do in the future. What skills/qualifications do you need to do it?

5. For what reasons can people be sacked? For what reasons can people be made redundant? Why do people sometimes resign from their jobs?

6. At what age do men and women usually retire in your country? Do you think this is early, late or about right?

  1. Explain the difference in meaning between the following pairs of words/phrases

  1. an employer/an employee

  2. to win/to earn

  3. a salary/a wage

  4. unemployed/ on a pension

  5. to be sacked / to be made redundant

  6. a perk / a bonus

  7. to retire / to resign

  1. Which jobs in your country do you think are

Very exciting? Very boring? Very dirty? Very well paid? Very glamorous? Very dangerous?

  1. What is one of the best things and one of the worst things about jobs bellow?

  1. a dentist

  2. a waiter or waitress

  3. a salesclerk

  4. a secretary

  5. a police officer

  6. a flight attendant

  7. a teacher

  8. a soldier

  9. an actor or actress

  1. Here is a list of twelve points which you might find important when you are looking for a job. Which are the most important and the 3 least important points for you? Give your reasons

  1. Top wages

  2. Opportunities to use your own ideas

  3. on-the-job training when you begin

  4. Further training

  5. Chance to help other people

  6. Opportunity to become wll-known

  7. Outdoor work

  8. No special qualifications needed

  9. Regular working Hours

  10. Flexible working hours

  11. Work in a team with friendly people

  12. Opportunity to become self-employed

  1. Learn to fill in the following form

CURRICULUM VITAE

Surname…..

First name…

D.O.B. (Date of birth)…

Marital status… (single, married, divorced, separated)

Children…

Address

Tel No…

Education and Further studies

Dates Schools/colleges Qualifications

(name and address)

Experience

Dates Place of work job pay

(with address)

  1. Learn sample interview questions. Practise answering them.

1. Do you have any experience in this type of work?

2. Why did you leave your last job? Did you like it?

3. What hours are you available for work?

4. Why do you think you would like to work for this company?

5. Are you looking for a temporary or a permanent job?

6. Why do you think you can handle this job?

7. What are your future career plans?

8. What salary do you expect?

9. Have you had any serious illness or injury?

10. Do you prefer working with others or by yourself?

11. How long did you work for your last employer?

12. What hobbies do you have?

13. Are you willing to work anywhere your company sends you?

14. Are you willing to work overtime?

15. Tell me about yourself.

  1. Role-play a job interview with your partner (pair work)

ОБУЧЕНИЕ НАПИСАНИЮ ЭССЕ

TASK. COMMENT ON THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT

Many people want to start their own business. However, others feel that this is too risky and brings too much responsibility. What is your opinion? Is it better to start your own business or work for someone else?

Use the following plan:

-make introduction

-express your personal opinion

-give arguments for the opposite point of view and explain why you don’t agree with it

-draw a conclusion

Step 1. Introduction

Exam tip

Try to paraphrase the topic statement, using different grammatical structures. Remember that the purpose of the introduction is to attract reader’s attention and to give background information to the topic. Remember to express your opinion in the introduction

Think about beginnings for your introduction

According to…

It is often said that…

It is often argued that…

Nowadays, we are becoming aware of the fact that…

These days, it seems that…

Recently, we have all become concerned that…

There is no doubt that…

The idea of setting up a business seems to be very attractive to some people. However, most people prefer to work for big companies finding it more secure and stable. From my point of view, taking a job in a company is more convenient for a vast majority of people.

STEP 2. The body of the essay

Exam tips

    1. Think about language

Examples of phrases which are often used to give personal opinions

I believe that…

Personally, I feel that…

It seems to me that….

I would argue that…

I feel strongly that…

I am convinced that…

I am greatly in favor of (against)…

I am completely opposed to…

    1. Think about style

In discursive writing, especially in essays, it is important to use neutral style and avoid overgeneralizations ( e.g. use ‘People tend to”… instead of “People always”… )

3. Think about vocabulary

Qualities: talent, persistence, the abilities to work 24 hours a day

Word combinations and expressions: to set up a business; to be likely to achieve success; to take risks; to run a company; to take responsibility; to be your own boss.

    1. Think of 2 or 3 arguments to support your opinion

  1. the combination of such qualities as talent, incredible persistence and the ability to work 24 hours a day is rare

  2. very few people are capable of taking responsibility for other people

    1. Think of two arguments your opponents could use

    1. you become more independent

b) starting your own business is likely to be lucrative - the argument

most businessmen go bankrupt after the first year of work - the counterargument

    1. Think of two counterarguments

  1. being your own boss you are bound to depend not only on your workers but on the market conditions too

  2. most businessmen go bankrupt after the first year of work - the counterargument

5.Think about linking words to introduce arguments

Firstly,

Secondly,…

Moreover,…

Furthermore

In addition

Besides

    1. Think of transition between paragraphs as the links of a chain

However

Anyway

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

Example of the body of the essay

First of all, according to some sociologists, only 5 % of people are likely to achieve success in business because the combination of such qualities as talent, incredible persistence, the ability to work 24 hours a day and to take risks is rather rare in one person. Secondly, running your own company involves taking responsibility for your employees and very few people are capable of doing it.

Yet, my opponents claim, that establishing your own company, you become more independent. Moreover, being your own boss, you do not have to work nine-to-five. More than that, my counterparts say, that starting your own business is likely to be very lucrative.

Nonetheless, owners of companies are bound to work longer hours than their employees and depend not only on their workers but on the market conditions and many other important factors. Nevertheless, according to the statistics, most businessmen go bankrupt after the first year of work. Besides, the benefits of being rich cannot outweigh the hassles of entrepreneurship.

Step 3. Conclusion

Exam tip

Think about language

To sum up,…

In conclusion,…

To conclude

Example of the conclusion

To conclude, I would like to stress, that working for a company enables people to develop a rewarding career whereas setting up a business involves too much stress and very little certainty that your attempt will turn out to be successful.

              1. Crime

Vocabulary

  • to commit a crime/ to break the law

  • a serious/ violent/ petty crime

  • a criminal/ an offender

  • to be sent to prison/ to be behind bars/ to be kept in custody

  • to attack/ to assault

  • to be charged with/ to be accused of

  • to suspect smb of

  • to be found guilty/ innocent of

  • to be convicted

  • to be arrested/ questioned

  • to sentence to prison

  • to beat/ to combat/ to decrease the crime rate

  • to witness

  • to be a victim

  • to investigate a crime

  • to gather evidence at the scene of crime

  • an appropriate punishment

  • to do justice

  • a capital punishment/ a death penalty

  • to be kept in unbearable conditions

  • to acquire/ to gain criminal experience

  • to get deeper into the world of crime

  • to integrate into society

  • to be released/ to be set free

  • to deserve a severe punishment

  • to solve the problem of crime

  • to rehabilitate offenders

  • an alternative to imprisonment

  • to solve the problem of crime

  • a judicial murder

  • to apply death penalty to the most violent criminals

  • to support/ to oppose capital punishment

  • to be involved in a serious crime

I. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

  1. What makes people commit crimes? What is the major cause of crime nowadays? Why do the rich break the law?

  2. Why is the crime rate among the teenagers rather high?

  3. Do you think men are more likely to commit a crime than women? If so, why?

  4. Have you ever been a witness to a crime?

  5. Have you ever sat in a law court to see how the justice system works?

  6. In your opinion, should a burglar always be sent to prison if he/she burgles a house?

  7. What punishment do you think hijackers should receive if they eventually free their hostages?

  8. Are you in favour of the death penalty?

II. Explain the difference in meaning between the following pairs of words/phrases:

  1. a violent crime/a petty offence

  2. to defend/to prosecute

  3. a court/a trial

  4. a verdict/ a sentence

  5. a judge / the jury

  6. to admit/ to deny

  7. a theft / a burglary

III. Which crimes in your country do you think are

Very common? Serious? Petty? Often committed by teenagers? Possible to prevent? Impossible to prevent?

IV. What is one of the best things and one of the worst things about jobs bellow?

  1. a shoplifter/ a pickpocket/ a thief/ a burglar

  2. a robber/ a mugger

  3. a vandal/a hooligan

  4. a murder/ an assassin/ a rapist

  5. a hijacker/ a kidnapper

  6. a blackmailer/ a forger/ a smuggler

  7. a drink-driver/ a joy-rider

  8. an arsonist/ a terrorist

V. Here is a list of twelve reasons why people might commit crimes. Which are the most common and the 3 least common points for you? Give your reasons:

  1. Lack of money

  2. Family breakdown

  3. Poor living conditions

  4. Violence on TV

  5. Drug addiction

  6. Beating boredom

  7. Getting an adrenaline buzz

  8. Jealousy and envy

  9. Mental sickness

  10. Unemployment

  11. Stress in single parent families

  12. Challenging yourself

VI. Complete the table:

Crime Criminal Verb Definition

murder murderer murder killing someone

burglary burglar burgle stealing smth from someone’s house

smuggling

kidnapping

shoplifting

robbery

arson

blackmail

hijacking

mugging

terrorism

vandalism

rape

fraud

theft

pickpocketing

VII. Group work. Brainstorming ideas over the problem of capital punishment abolition

ОБУЧЕНИЕ НАПИСАНИЮ ЭССЕ

TASK. COMMENT ON THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT

Some people are sure that sending to prison is the only way to punish criminals. However, a lot of people believe that it is unfair to sentence young criminals committed petty crimes to imprisonment. What is your opinion?

Use the following plan:

- make an introduction (state the problem);

- express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion;

- express an opposing opinion and 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion;

- explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;

- make a conclusion restating your position.

Step 1. Introduction

Exam tip:

Try to paraphrase the topic statement, using different grammatical structures. Remember that the purpose of the introduction is to attract reader’s attention and to give background information to the topic. Remember to express your opinion in the introduction

Think about beginnings for your introduction

According to…

It is often said that…

It is often argued that…

Nowadays, we are becoming aware of the fact that…

These days, it seems that…

Recently, we have all become concerned that…

There is no doubt that…

Nowadays the crime rate among young offenders is on the increase. The most common crimes they commit are petty crimes, such as burglary, theft, shoplifting, drink-driving and others. There is no doubt that such offenders deserve some kinds of punishments for what they have done but not all people agree on imprisonment as an appropriate one.

STEP 2. The body of the essay

Exam tips: I. Think about language

Examples of phrases which are often used to give personal opinions

I believe that…

Personally, I feel that…

It seems to me that….

I would argue that…

I feel strongly that…

I am convinced that…

I am greatly in favor of (against)…

I am completely opposed to…

II. Think about style

In discursive writing, especially in essays, it is important to use neutral style and avoid overgeneralizations ( e.g. use ‘People tend to”… instead of “People always”… )

III. Think about vocabulary

to commit a crime/ to break the law; a serious/ violent/ petty crime; a criminal/ an offender; to be sent to prison/ to be behind bars/ to be kept in custody; to acquire/ to gain criminal experience; to get deeper into the world of crime; to integrate into society; to be released/ to be set free; to deserve a severe punishment

IV. Think of 2 or 3 arguments to support your opinion

  1. young people may lose their jobs, their homes or even families; they may find it difficult to integrate back into society after setting free

  2. there are some good alternatives to imprisonment

V. Think of two arguments your opponents could use and your

counterarguments

    1. prisons are supposed to rehabilitate offenders – the argument

people mix with mature criminals, acquire more criminal experience and get deeper into the world of crime – the counterargument

b) sentence to prison should be a reason to prevent teenagers from breaking the law - the argument

there are a lot of other ways to teach young people to appreciate

human values - the counterargument

VI. Think about linking words to introduce arguments

Firstly, Secondly,… Moreover,,… Furthermore,

VII. Think of transition between paragraphs as the links of a chain

However,

Yet,

Nevertheless,

Nonetheless,

Example of the body of the essay

In my opinion, young criminals should not be sent to prison. First of all, while young people are behind bars, they may lose their jobs, homes or even families. Therefore, they may find it difficult to integrate back into society after setting free. Secondly, there are some good alternatives to imprisonment such as any sort of community service that involves unpaid social work or a fine.

However, some people consider imprisonment to be the most effective punishment for young criminals as prisons are supposed to rehabilitate offenders. In addition, my opponents may also claim that sentence to prison should be a reason to prevent teenagers from breaking the law.

Yet, I would disagree with their point of view as I think that in most cases young people mix with mature criminals, acquire more criminal experience and get deeper into the world of crime. As a result, most ex-prisoners commit crimes again. Moreover, I believe that there are a lot of other ways to teach young people to appreciate human values without locking them up because petty offenders cannot be considered as a real threat to society.

Step 3. Conclusion

Exam tip: Think about language

To sum up, …

In conclusion, …

To conclude,

Example of the conclusion

In conclusion, I would like to point out that our society should pay more attention to the problems of young offenders and be very careful making decisions in order not to wreck their lives. I am convinced it is not worth sending such offenders to prison.

Требования по окончанию курса:

По окончании курса участники должны овладеть следующими навыками и умениями, предполагающими успешную сдачу ЕГЭ по разделу «Письмо» (подраздел «Сочинение»):

  • умение структурированно излагать свои мысли на заданную тему, выделив ее проблематику и осуществив логическую аргументацию;

  • умение организовать письменное высказывание в формате, требуемом на экзамене;

  • владение лексическими навыками соответствующими высокому уровню требований экзамена;

  • грамматическая компетентность;

  • орфографическая компетентность.

Владение перечисленными навыками, полученными в рамках предлагаемого курса, дадут учащимся возможность не только успешно сдать ЕГЭ, но и использовать их в практических целях в дальнейшей жизни и профессиональной деятельности.



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Автор
Дата добавления 10.01.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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