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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Конспект по английскому языку на тему"Влияние англичан на Санкт-Петербург"
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  • Иностранные языки

Конспект по английскому языку на тему"Влияние англичан на Санкт-Петербург"

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лИЦЕЙ № 1568( ЗДАНИЕ 3)








Проектная работа


Ученицы 10 «Д» класса


Абляевой Ленары

По теме «THE ENGLISH INFLUENCE IN ST. PETERSBURG»



Руководитель -учитель английского языка


Акопова Лиана Грантовна.

















Москва



2014 ГОД



ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Introduction

2

The purpose of work and problem statement

2

Chapter 1. English places in St.-Petersburg

3

Chapter 2. English gardens

5

Chapter 3. English painting

5

Chapter 4. Bridges, factories, steamboats

6

Chapter 5. English words in Russian

7

Chapter 6. English sports

8

Chapter 7. The interesting facts and legends

9

Inference

12

The list of the used sources of the information
























ВСТУПЛЕНИЕ

Nowadays in St. Petersburg are mentioned a lot of things, connected with England, like: The English embankment, the English Prospect, the English bridge, English club, English garden, English pub


Jumper, pudding, hit, club, sports, football, the tourist, roast beef, jam, the businessman, puzzle, hobby, comfort … With what can be attributed this phenomenon?


Why my parents like to play with friends in a bridge, and the grandmother constantly drinks tea?


And why a sandwich it is simply tasty, and a sandwich from McDonald's it is very tasty?


Why the father has told "Perfectly" when has seen advertising of new English ale Old Bobby Ale from brewery "Baltic"?

And why I study English language, instead of Japanese?



The purpose of work and problem statement

The purpose of my work: to answer these questions and to understand, what influence was rendered by Englishmen on various aspects of life of Petersburg?

I have set for myself the following problem:

From information sources – books and Internet resources - to receive the information:

1. About the first Englishmen and English places in St.-Petersburg;

2. About English gardeners known all over the world, architects and the artists creating in our city;

3. About the contribution of Englishmen to development of a science and technics;

4. About the habitual words borrowed from English language;

5. About the English sports popular in our city;

6. About the interesting facts and the legends connected with Englishmen and St.-Petersburg.









Chapter 1. English places in St.-Petersburg

«I believe that in one part of the world to Englishmen isn't better, than in Petersburg» – so wrote Elizabeth Dzhastis, the governess of three daughters of the Petersburg merchant Hilla Evans living on coast of Neva with 1734 for 1737.

The first ship with British has arrived to Petersburg in 1704 It the Peter I who has been changed clothes by the pilot has spent on a waterway of Neva. It were seamen, engineers, mathematicians, doctors. They taught in Sea academy, treated, participated in building projects. The first ober-commandant of St.-Petersburg the descendant of kings of Scotland Robert Bruce (1668-1720) appointed Peter the Great, has entered tradition of opening of navigation on Neva. And naval art of Russian seamen was trained by British. For the organization of School of mathematical and navigating sciences – the first naval school - from Britain have been invited mathematician Andrew Farvarson who has made the tables of logarithms first in Russia and sine and taught astronomy, and Stefan Gvin and Richard Grejs for training to navigating sciences.


In 1723 In Petersburg there have begun work the English trading company and English church. The British community became one of the first foreign communities of St.-Petersburg, it continued to grow and after death of emperor Peter I.

Commercial "heart" of the Petersburg Englishmen was in a XVIII-th century on the Arrow of Vasilevsky island, at Gostini dvor. Here from England there arrived the ships, loaded the various goods - books, cards, engravings, furniture, clothes, horses, crews, the medicines, almost all subjects of use, comfort and luxury.

Naturally, carried in butts and an English ale with which the Petersburg dandies liked to wash down oysters. And in the Petersburg was three English breweries.

English merchants have occupied the whole quarter named the English line in Petersburg. The English line, or English quay originally carried the name Galernaja. The matter is that in the end of quay there was then Galernaja a shipyard. In the first years of existence of Petersburg the quay basically was built up with unpretentious houses of workers and employees, and had an unattractive appearance. After here rich English merchants have started to lodge in new magnificent private residences. With opening on quay of English church, and nearby in street Galernaja of English theater the name of English quay is fixed for a long time.


On March, 1st, 1770 businessman F. Gardner living on English quay had been based the English club many Russian aristocrats were which members. Among aristocrats was considered "absolutely uncivil" not to visit this most elite club of a city and simultaneously one of the largest gambling houses of Petersburg. Besides the club was famous for excellent English cuisine. Cooks of club were considered as the best in Russia. Clubmen sent on training of the cooks in English club. History of the St.-Petersburg English club inseparably linked with three-century history of Northern capital. Poets and writers were the well-known clubmen: Pushkin, Nekrasov, Krylov, Zhukovsky, Karamzin; politicians: Kochubey, Speransky, Yermolov, Bitterlings. The English club has stopped the existence in 1917. Has revived in 1998. The major making activity of club patronage of arts and charity now is.

From the middle of a XVIII-th century and throughout almost all XIX-th century the English quay was soul of aristocratic Petersburg and a favourite venue of every possible holidays, capital high life here boiled. In private residences on English quay passed the most well-known balls in capital, were spent literary and musicales.

Remarkable feature of quay – absence of gates, between buildings isn't present gleams. Entrance was on next, streets Galernaja. The English quay, as a matter of fact, was a smart facade of Northern capital. To the foreigners arriving to a city by the sea, one of the first the magnificent kind on English quay opened. The surprising kind to Petersburg from open spaces of Neva amazed and admired visitors of capital.

In Soviet period the English quay has been renamed into honor of seamen of Red Baltic fleet. In 90th years to it have returned the historical name. Today the English quay is one of cards of St.-Petersburg.

Near to English quay between quays of the rivers the Moika and Fontanka originates the English prospectus of Petersburg which has arisen in XVIII and since 1771 was called as Aglinsky prospect. This ancient name is connected by that the prospectus went in a direction to English quay. The English prospectus was mainly built up in XIX-XX centuries. Here a vein theatrical bohemia of Petersburg. Long time it was called as the prospectus of Maklina in honor of the head of English working-class movement John Maklina. In 1994 the historical name — the English prospectus is returned the prospectus.


Through the river Fontanka at an exit place to it of the English prospectus will throw the small foot English bridge. The bridge name is connected with the prospectus name. In 1910 the bridge was wooden. The modern bridge has been constructed of metal in 1962 - 1963 under the project of engineer A.A.Kerlikov and architects P.A.Areshev and V.S.Vasilkovsky.


Since 1956 the English city of Manchester became a twin-city of St.-Petersburg. In honor of this event in 1964 the street in the Vyborg area has been named by Manchester (former Isakov a lane).


Chapter 2. English gardens

In what so salutary English influence on Russian culture, as in creation of landscape English gardens wasn't expressed. For years of blossoming of park culture of Petersburg and vicinities there was Catherine II board. In 1771 to Russia under the invitation of the empress there has arrived English gardener John Bush. He was engaged in the English garden in Gatchina and a landscape part of Ekaterinisky park in Tsarskoje Selo.

In August, 1781 English garden master James Medersom and architect Dzhakomo Kvarengi creates the English garden which became the first landscape park in Peterhof. Now in the English garden restoration works are conducted.


Catherine II admired English park art. In the letter of that time addressed to Voltaire, she wrote: «I passionately love now gardens in English taste, curves, flat slopes, ponds in the form of lakes; deeply I despise straight lines».


Since 1770 in Petersburg architect Charles Kameron works. He creates in Tsarskoje Selo residence ensemble Kameronova of gallery, a term and a trailing garden.

In 1782 Kameron has started formation of residence of successor Pavel — Pavlovsk. Under its projects and under personal observations the palace, park and a number of park pavilions are constructed. The Pavlovsk ensemble is top of architecture and park building in Russia of the end of a XVIII-th century.

In 1783 at building of the Taurian palace by English garden master William Guldom the remarkable palace garden in landscape style has been broken. At garden construction trees and the bushes brought from England were used.

In 1784 under the invitation of Kameron to Russia there comes Adam Menelas, the native of Edinburgh. He has created park "Alexandria" in Peterhof and a summer palace "Cottage" in Gothic style, Aleksandrovsky park in Tsarskoje Selo etc. The Egyptian gate in Tsarskoje Selo became one of the latest works of the master.


Chapter 3. English painting

Foreigners were the first artists of new capital on coast of Neva. Among them already in a XVIII-th century in Petersburg English masters worked also. In particular, court engraver James Walker who lived and worked in Russia with 1785 on 1801 It has acquainted Russian public with new technics of engraving – metstso-tinto, (a black manner, manera negra), one of the most beautiful and refined the technician of an engraving received in Russia the name of "an English manner».

English artist John Atkinson Grimshaw with 1784 on 1802 has spent eighteen years of the life in St.-Petersburg.

In 1819-1829 English artist George Dawe worked in St.-Petersburg where has written by means of Russian painters of 329 portraits of generals-participants of Patriotic war of 1812 and foreign campaigns 1813—1814, M.I.Kutuzov and M.B.Barclay-de-Tolli's big portraits, 4 portraits of the soldiers-veterans (1828) who have made Military gallery in the Winter palace.

Kinds of Petersburg from the end XVIII and prior to the beginning of the XX-th century were carried out by many English draughtsmen: Joseph Hirn, Matthew Djuburg and others. The majority of these works has been published in the form of the engraved series leaving as a part of albums about the Russian empire. The first calendar series from twelve kinds of Petersburg in which every month year it is illustrated by the corresponding landscape townscape, known under the name «Year in St.-Petersburg» or «Twelve months», has been engraved by John Clark and Matthew Djuburg for the big album with the description of a city, its customs and the major sights. The album has been published in London in 1815.


City engraved views often decorated themselves the books-guidebooks leaving in London and calculated on the British travelers and businessmen, visiting capital of the Russian empire.


Since December, 9th 2010 on February, 27th 2011 in the Ioannovsky ravelin of the Peter and Paul Fortress the exhibition “Petersburg eyes of Englishmen” from funds of the State museum of history of St.-Petersburg worked. At an exhibition it has been presented about 40 engraved views of Petersburg executed by English artists in XVIII – the XX-th century beginning.





Chapter 4. Bridges, factories, steamboats


One of Catherine II Charles Kameron's favourite architects, has achieved arrival to Russia from England in 1784 of fellow countryman William Geste. William Geste quickly became one of leading architects of the Russian empire. At first it has become famous as the builder of bridges. With 1806 for 1818 under projects and under William Geste's supervision in Petersburg bridges are built Red, Dark blue and Kisses. The newest technology of building of bridges from metal has been thus applied. The green (Police) bridge became the first pig-iron bridge in Petersburg.


In XVIII-XIX century Englishmen have based a number of the industrial enterprises in Petersburg.

The first Russian steam vessel "Elizabeth", the ancestor of the first Russian has been constructed in 1815 at Charles Baird's factory and floated at the big gathering of people and in the presence of members of the most august surname. Charles Baird was born in Scotland. To Russia has arrived in 1786. In 1815 Baird has created the first shipping company on Neva and long time was a monopolist. Steamboats of Baird were engaged both passenger, and freight traffic. The competition between sailing courts and steamships proceeded not for long — use of steamships was much more conveniently and faster, thus, almost all transportations have appeared in hands of Baird. The name of Baird became a success symbol, there was a saying: Petersburgers answered a question "How are you doing?": “As at Baird, only a pipe more low, yes a smoke more liquid. For first thirty years of a XIX-th century at factory Baird it has been made about 200 steam-engines, 11 from which were steamboats. The factory has turned in due course to one of the best litejno-mechanical enterprises of Russia.

The factory has safely worked 200 years since 1792, and factory Baird has been closed in 1992. Today is a part of factory «Admiralty shipyards».

In 1868 Englishman James Mjurged has created Mechanical factory in Petersburg. The factory let out details of cars, then has adjusted own manufacture of steam-engines, elevating cranes, metalcutting machine tools, in 1914-17 let out ammunition. In 1922 has been renamed into factory "Sverdlov" and has gone bankrupt in 2005.


Chapter 5. English words in Russian

One of the main reasons of penetration of English words in Russian are diplomatic and trade relations. After the introduction on Peter I throne the great value began to be given to studying of English language. In XVIII century, at the time of Catherine II reign, the translational society where there were special translators from English language is established. Basically it is books about agriculture, about English legality, religion, history, about an English life, a fashion etc. Technical changes and discoveries – the invention of the steam engine, occurrence of the first steam locomotives, construction of the railway and other achievements of Englishmen – become known in Russia. Many advanced people of Russia of that time studied English language to have possibility to read the English literature. Known Russian writers, poets, critics loved and knew English language: A.S.Pushkin, V.A.Zhukovsky, M.Ju.Lermontov, A.S.Griboedov, I.S.Turgenev, L.N.Tolstoy, А.А. Fet and many other. To the middle of 1830th in Russia it has been translated about V.Scott 30 novels. Russian got acquainted for the first time with many English literary works through theater. Shakespeare's plays used especial success.


The first large dictionary of foreign words in Russian was N.M.Yanovsky's published in 1803-1806 the Dictionary.The dictionary fixes not less than 120 anglicisms: a penny, pound, shilling, a beefsteak, roast beef, a pudding, gin, rum, a flannel, the lady, the lord, club, park, Parliament, the pioneer, the standard, a brig, a boat etc.


Chapter 6. English sports

Englishmen were initiators of the Russian sports. In 1851 the newspaper «Northern bee» wrote: «With establishment of yacht-club, races at us English sports have started to develop». So in Russian – sports, and one more English word has entered into life of Petersburg – hobby for races on yachts and horse competitions.

Before revolution of 1917 in St.-Petersburg 10 yacht-clubs were. For today in St.-Petersburg 26 bases-parking of fleet of small size operate and seven yacht-clubs, annually pass sailing sports actions.

In 1893 near Kolomjazhsky highway (nowadays the Kolomjazhsky prospect) the Race society equipped a hippodrome where in summer months horse racing was spent.

The All-Russia horse games - 2008, St.-Petersburg

The Petersburg British became organizers of sports life of capital, founders of the first sports clubs: rowing, bicycle, athletic, boxing, tennis, and, of course, the football.

Fighting rack of English prize-winning boxer James Brauton (1740)

The boxer from St.-Petersburg Nikolay Valuev protected a title of champion WBA of 2009

The first tennis tournament in Petersburg took place in 1896.

Michael Yuzny winner of the international tennis tournament in St.-Petersburg 2004

The first football matches in Petersburg were spent among themselves by English employees of Sampsonievsky manufactories in 1879. The first official football match in the history of Russia has taken place in Petersburg on October, 12th, 1897 on the Military school parade-ground. In 1911 to Petersburg there has arrived an English team which, of course, didn't know to itself equal, in all matches Englishmen were invincible.

English game a bridge has won special popularity in the world the Bridge — unique of the gamblings, recognized as the International Olympic Committee as a sport. On the complexity, fascination and popularity the bridge ranks with such intellectual game, as chess. Since 1990 Russia became a member of the World Federation of the Bridge.


Chapter 7. The interesting facts and legends


By order of Catherine II in 1768 from London doctor Thomas Dimsdejl - for introduction in Russia of inoculations from a natural smallpox has been caused. The empress has left in Tsarskoje Selo where Dimsdejl has inoculated it and grand duke Pavel Petrovich. Recover of the empress and her son became significant event in life of Russian court yard. Since then in Russia about 200 years (till 1980) did inoculations from a smallpox.

Baron Thomas Dimsdejl is known to historians and as the author of memoirs about a Russian court yard.

In 1778 Catherine II has got an invaluable collection of Englishman Robert Uolpol. Behind 204 cloths of work of Rembrandt, Rubens, van Dejk has been sent the special ship. English newspapers wrote: “Sending of pictures to Russia – a vivid example of an eminence of our northern ally. Riches of the nation judge by quantity of works of art which it possesses”. Now without this collection it is impossible to present Hermitage meeting.


In Russia XVIII-XIX centuries were very popular «English tea drinking». In many aristocratic houses of St.-Petersburg morning tea preceded a breakfast. Even persistently getting on Russian tables of coffee couldn't force out some tea. Sometimes the coexistence on a morning table of a coffee pot and a samovar was a commonplace. It is impossible to imagine classical English tea drinking without a table served by graceful tea service. The porcelain and faience ware of factory Wedgwood was considered as the conventional standard of the refined esthetics and English quality. In 1774 the Russian empress Catherine II has ordered in Wedgwood “Service of a green frog” on 952 subjects from royal faience with images of English kinds. From Russia mark Wedgwood has received one more large order in 1994, has made it also the country government. Such service intended for special receptions in the Kremlin. And this time "court yard" has decided to choose a simple decor - the gold Russian arms on a white background.


By 1790 in Russian capital was 28 English trading houses and one and a half thousand natives of Britain constantly lived in Petersburg (It is a bit less 1 % of all population of a city). In 1910 the English community totaled 2200 British. In 1917 almost all Englishmen have emigrated. Prince Charles was the first of the British royal family who has visited Post-Soviet St.-Petersburg. The first visit has taken place in May, 1994 of the Second - in July, 2003 in connection with 300 – anniversary St.-Petersburg and the 450 anniversary of the British-Russian relations. Its Majesty Queen Elizabeth II has visited St.-Petersburg in October, 1994.

On an English legend jam was invented"by certain Dzhenit Kejler in the XVIII century beginning when her husband has bought many cheap oranges by the Spanish ship. Oranges were bitter, but Mrs. Kejler hasn't become puzzled and has made of them orange jam which soon became world famous. In Russian there was a word "варенье" as which was called both liquid, and dense jam. To distinguish dense jam from liquid, dense jam began to name an English word jam.

The slice of bread and butter received the English name sandwich in a XVIII-th century. On a legend in 1762 the sandwich had been named by name John Montegju, 4th column of the Sendvichsky, London minister and the player which during a card play lasting of some hours, has felt strong hunger. John Montegju has ordered in the servant that to it have submitted meal between two slices of bread. Its friends-players liked such way of meal without a separation from game, and they too have ordered bread "on-sendvichski". In England the sandwich became an integral part of culture of a food. In 1990th years, with opening of restaurants of a fast food, sandwiches have found popularity in Russia.


Legends about occurrence of a tuxedo, the most conservative kind of clothes, set. One of them says that the tuxedo was brought into fashion by the prime minister of Great Britain, the known dandy sir Benjamin Dizraeli in the middle of 1880th years, specially for slow after-dinner smoking in library. From here – satiny lapels from which it is easy to shake ashes. The first tuxedos were similar to dressing gowns, special hats also were applied on them with brushes is there were house clothes for smoking. Only after some decades the tuxedo has turned from house clothes to a basis of a man's dress suit. Today the tuxedo is in clothes of each politician respecting and the businessman of Russia.


In a XIX-th century a certain rich Englishman, heard about beauty of Petersburg he declared that it is absolutely necessary for him to visit Russia and to see a fencing of the summer garden and the Arrow of Vasilevsky Island. His yacht entered into Neva and dropped an anchor opposite to the summer garden. Amazed and fascinated by the fantastic beauty of northern masterpieces, the aged British refused to descend on coast. After that the yacht weighed anchor and headed for England.


In Tsarskoje Selo there is the most English place of Petersburg – a palace of grand duke Boris Vladimirovich, the cousin of last Russian emperor Nikolay II. Under the legend, this summer residence to Grand duke Boris Vladimirovich was presented by its godmother – English queen Victoria in 1896 It was erected from English materials, in style of English cottages or the hunting locks. This private residence became Ronald Ader's House in the well-known Russian serial about Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson's adventures.






















ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

Petersburg was created by Peter I as the international European center. The British culture affected practically all aspects of life of Petersburg - on medicine, formation, architecture and even the name of streets.


From information sources – books and Internet resources – I have learned about activity of Englishmen in St.-Petersburg:


1. The first Englishmen arrived to our county in 1704 In St.-Petersburg there is an English quay and the English prospect,

2. St. Petersburg kept creations of English garden affairs of masters, architects and artists.

3. Building of the first metal bridges and the first shipping company, manufacture of steam-engines, elevating cranes, metalcutting machine tools – all these achievements became possible thanks to activity of English industrialists.

4. English words for a long time have been entering into our use – sports, club, park, standard etc.

5. Fans of sports are proud of achievements of our sportsmen in such kinds, as football, tennis, and boxing – those sports with which Englishmen acquainted us.

I was once again convinced that the English culture became for a long time an integral part of Petersburg culture. English language one of the most popular among youth of our country. I am convinced that studying of English language it not only a craze and possibility to learn culture and the country history which representatives so have much made for our county more close.













The list of the used sources of the information

1. К.С.Горбачевич, Е.П.Хабло «Почему так названы» Лениздат 1985 г., 510 с.

2. В.Мюллер Большой Русско-Английский словарь, «ЛАДА» Москва 2008, 815 с.





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