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Phylum Pisces (Fish)
For Class 7: Phylum Pisces
Methodology : Hands on experience with shells
Time needed : 40 minutes
Aim : Establish a bond with the natural world especially with ocean dwelling animals. Develop higher order thinking skills from a very young age.
Specific objectives : ( Learning outcomes that can be tested for knowledge)
To become familiar with the class Fish
To know the names and at least three features of common fish
(Study and understand the features necessary, to) Acquire knowledge of how fishes adapt to their environment and of the role of humans in their habitat.
Develop the ability to communicate in formal scientific language ( develop specific vocabulary and its usage)
To develop observation, drawing and writing skills
Summary Living things are similar to and different from each other. When we look at the inside of a fish, we will learn that certain organs and systems in fish are similar to those in humans; and other organs and systems are not. Stomach contents can tell us much about a fish’s habit. The external anatomical features (outside body parts) of fish can also tell us a lot about a species--where it lives in the water, how it finds food, and how it protects itself from predators.
Objectives The objectives are to create a dynamic hands-on experience to assist in understanding the internal organs and system functions of a local fish species; for students to understand the external body parts of fish; and to discuss both internal and external features in relation to the human anatomy. After this presentation, students will be able to: • Identify 3-5 external anatomical features of a fish. • Identify the major internal organs of a fish. • Compare and contrast human and fish internal organs, structures, and systems.
Materials • 2 Fish for dissection • 2 scissors, scalpels, filet knives, or dissecting kits • 2 dissecting trays or cutting boards • Organ definition cards • Hand sanitizer • Laptop computer & projector • Fish mounts, models or pictures • Newspaper or protective table cover, 2 or more rags • Box of plastic gloves (non-latex) • Dissection Power Point presentation • Dissection Worksheet • Internal Anatomy Crossword Puzzle Grade Level(s): 6th – 8th Time: 40-80 minutes Group Size: 20-30 students
Core Curriculum MST Living Environment: Standard 4 Students will: understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science. • Key Idea 1: Living things are both similar to and different from each other and nonliving things. • Key Idea 4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development. • Key Idea 5: Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life.
• Anal Fin - fin located near the anal opening; used for balance and steering.
• Caudal or Tail Fin - fin at the tail of a fish; used for propulsion.
• Circulatory System - delivers blood and oxygen throughout the body via the heart.
• Digestive System – breaks down and processes proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
• Dorsal Fin – backside (top) fin on a fish; used for balance and protection.
• External Anatomy - the outside body parts, such as, fins, scales, mouth.
• Gills – organ used to obtain oxygen from the water and rid carbon dioxide.
• Gill Rakers – filter feed tiny prey; appendages along the front edge of the gill arch.
• Gonads – the sex organs; males have testes, females have ovaries. Some fish are hermaphroditic, meaning having both sets of gonads (male & female) in one fish.
• Lateral Line – organ of microscopic pores that sense low vibrations and water pressure.
• Nares - organ to smell; similar to nostrils.
• Nervous System - organs receiving and interpreting stimuli for nares, eyes, lateral line, muscles, and other tissues.
• Pectoral Fin - fins on the sides; used for balance and assist turning.
• Pelvic Fin - belly fins on a fish; used for balance and steering.
• Pyloric Caece – “finger-like” organ that aids in digestion, using bile from the liver.
• Reproductive System – the organs and tissues involved in reproduction, including gonads, eggs, sperm.
• Respiratory System – organs and tissues involved in the oxygen & carbon dioxide gas exchange, including gills, gill rakers, and gill filaments.
• Scales - protective cover on a fish; similar to skin.
• Slime – slippery covering on scales, protecting fish from bacteria, parasites, etc.
• Swim bladder – found only in “ray-finned” fish; a double sac used to assist in buoyancy.
• Urinary System – the kidneys remove nitrogen (ammonia) from the blood and regulate water balance in the blood and tissues.
• Vertebrate – an organism with a backbone or spine. Vocabulary words will show up once in bold
Fish and other vertebrates have much in common with humans. Many of the systems and organs are the same. Yet there are many unique differences in the organs and their functions in fish, and even between fish species. This lesson will be one for inquisitive exploration, and hands-on learning.
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