Конспект по теме: Русская кухня.
Цель работы: Изучение Русской кухни, приготовления различных блюд, рецепты, манеры поведения за столом
Задание 1: Прочитать и перевести тексты.
Задание 2: Написать рецепт своего любимого блюда.
Good table manners avoid ugliness. All rules of table manners are made to avoid it. To let anyone see what you have in your mouth is offensive. So is to make a noise. To make a mess in the plate is disgusting. So there are some rules how to behave yourself at the table:
Do not attract undue attention to yourself in public. When eating take as much as you want, but eat as much as you take.
Never stretch over the table for something you want, ask your neighbour to pass it.
Take a slice of bread from the bread-plate by hand, don't harpoon your bread with a fork.
Never read while eating (at least in company).
When a dish is placed before you do not eye it suspiciously as though it were the first time you had seen it, and do not give the impression that you are about to sniff it.
Chicken requires special handling. First cut as much as you can, and when you can't use knife or fork any longer, use your fingers.
The customary way to refuse a dish is by saying, "No, thank you" (or to accept, "Yes, please"). Don't say "I don't eat that stuff", don't make faces or noises to show that you don't like it.
In between courses don't make bread-balls to while the time away and do not play with the silver.
Do not leave spoon in your cup when drinking tea or coffee.
Do not empty your glass too quickly — it will be promptly refilled.
Don't put liquid into your mouth if it is already full.
Don't eat off the knife.
Vegetables, potatoes, macaroni are placed on your fork with the help of your knife.
If your food is too hot don't blow on it as though you were trying to start a campfire on a damp night.
Try to make as little noise as possible when eating.
And, finally, don't forget to say "thank you”
Russian sumptuous feast
By tradition, having invited guests to celebrate the occasion, we organize a dinner-party. A well-dressed table, flavored of aromas from delicious dishes, makes people closer, relieves a stress and disposes to a friendly warmhearted conversation. We also gather at table in hard times - to share the sorrow of friends or relatives.
Where is this tradition from?
It takes the origin from pagan rites, more exactly, from funeral feasts.
One of the first funeral feasts was organized by Olga, Grand Duchess, which she archly used to revenge for her husband. Later Russian Grand Dukes gave feasts in honor of military victories, consecration of a new church, religious events etc.
After the adoption of Christianity feasts were given in a democratic way: people of all classes gathered to render homage to the host. Grand Dukes treated all guests, ate and drank together with peasants and poor people. The feasts in the Rus, by abundance and wealth, surpassed famous Roman orgies.
All boyar feasts began with zharkoye - fried swans. If they were not on the table for some reasons, it was considered as insufficient respect to guests.
In the 17th century the appetizers - studen (meat in aspic), caviar, cold meat cuts, pickles, and sausages- opened the festival. The dishes from fish have been always valued, especially the fish from the river Volga, it was much more expensive than wild game. They supposed, that the more and the bigger fish is on the table, the higher respect is held to guests. Russian cooks attained such perfection that they could turn fish to roosters, geese, ducks, not only putting into shape of poultry, but also giving its piquancy. In Russian cuisine such dishes were called "fake hare", "fake goose", "fake rooster".
In rich houses 50-100 dishes were served during the dinner. Servants put one dish at a time on the table, following the order of presentation. The meal was placed on silver and golden plates and dishes.
What was the "scenery" of the feast?
All quests were invited in advance. Depending on the importance of the guest, the host visited him personally or sent servants. They chose the most beautiful and spacious room for the repast. The floor was covered with carpets, the table - with elegant table-clothes, the benches - with expensive coverings. The table had a traditional place under the icons, hanging in the corner. The place of the host was the most honorable - he satin this corner. Women usually sat at a separate table.
All coming guests gathered in the room and waited for the hostess. Dressed in the most beautiful clothes, she appeared and greeted the comers with a low bow and they kowtowed to her.
Then came the time for kissing procedure: the host, bowing to guests, asked then to honor his wife with a kiss. At first he kissed the hostess and then all the guests did it taking turns. They came to the hostess, holding hands behind, kissed her, then stepped back and made a kowtow again - the hostess answered with a bow. On completion of kissing procedure, the hostess offered a glass of wine to every guest, having tasted it previously. The guest took it, drank wine and gave the glass to the hostess with a bow. After that the hostess took a place at a women's table. That was the sign to take places at the main table.
The host cut the bread and gave a slice with salt to every guest, showing the hospitality and high respect to all visitors by that.
The number of dishes depended on the income of the house. But at any case pies, ukha (fish soup), pickles were served in abundance. To refuse meal or beverages meant to offend the host. Quick intoxication was indecent, but the decencies demanded to be slightly drunk at the end of the repast or at least to pretend to be drunk.
By the way, Russian people lead an abstinent life. In the 16th century it was forbidden to drink beer and honey beverages, except four days a year. Many things have changed since that time. Such repasts with ancient beautiful traditions became a thing of the past, but people still love to gather at a holiday table with close friends and share the pleasure of lively talk and delicious meal.
Russian bread is everything head
Bread has always been considered as the wealth of the Rus. Give us this day our daily bread…
Slavic people mainly grew wheat, barley, oats, and millet. Rye bread became Russia's real "daily bread", even though it had come to Russia from outside.
How did the first bread taste? Sour bread from leaven dough was particularly loved by Russians. They used beer or kvas base, yeast or a part of old dough as leaven that gave sourness. "A working man," wrote18th-century historian Ivan Boltin, "can eat at one go up to two pounds of black bread together with schi. While in France one person eats on an average a pound of wheat bread a day, a Russian, not only a working man but also an idle person, cannot be satisfied with this amount."
The role of bread in the life of Russian people was so great that famine began in the country in bad harvest years despite the fact that in Russian woods there was plenty of game and the rivers teemed with fish. But as numerous sources recorded, meat could not replace bread for the Russians.
Neither could white wheat bread substitute black leavened bread. When Russian troops, who entered the boundaries of the Khanate of the Crimea in 1736, got isolated from the rye flour carts and bread had to be made from wheat flour, diseases set in among the troops.
In time, bread making in Russia was improved, the range of baked bread varieties extended, and their quality bettered. This was furthered by high flour milling skills.
During the 17th century, 25 varieties of wheat and 30 kinds of rye flour were produced. Russian flour makers and bakers were so skilled that foreign ambassadors often sent Russian bread as a delicacy to European courts.
As to wheaten bread, it was considered over long centuries as a luxurious and dainty food. In monastery bakeries bread was usually made from wheat flour.
As you should know, bread is extremely valuable foodstuff. Scientists insist that it contains more than 200 useful substances among which are 5-8% protein and 40-50% carbohydrate. So, the people, who eat bread, cover all organism needs in energy. Bread is rich in rough fibre that contains vitamins and mineral substances.
Bread exterior also plays a vital part - it must look attractive, "pleasant to eye" and its aromatic bouquet has more than 200 different smells. Sometimes coriander, caraway-seeds, vanilla and other things to diversify the taste and the smell of bread are added to the dough.
Mimosa salad recipe
For years, Mimosa salad is considered as one of the musts on the table when there is a big family event or a New Year celebration. Even though the salad is made with mayonnaise, the taste is very tender and light. You can try with different canned fish in oil.
For this salad, it is better to use a deep glass bowl. Put canned fish on the bottom without any liquid and mash with a fork. Spread mayonnaise on it. Then top with finely grated egg whites and again mayonnaise. After that goes grated boiled carrot, mayonnaise, finely chopped onion, mayonnaise, grated boiled potatoes, mayonnaise. The top is decorated with grated yolks
Borsch is most popular soup in Russia, Ukraine and other ex-republics of Soviet Union. Its slightly sour and filling taste is great in winter to get warm and in summer to get refreshed. There are so many variations of borscht recipes and you can try different ones to find your favourite one.
1 lb beef (with or without bones)
1 lb red beets ( 3 average ones)
1/2 lb shredded cabbage
4 small potatoes
1 ea onion
3 tbsp tomato paste
1 tsp vinegar
salt and pepper on your taste
parsley, dill and spring onions
measures conversion [+]
Preparing meat broth: Put beef into a large saucepan and cover with 3 l cold water. Bring to a boil; reduce heat. Remove the grease and froth from the broth surface with a spoon. Add one onion. Cook at low heat for 1-2 hours. Simmering red beets: Melt 1 tablespoon margarine in a saucepan. Cut red beets into thin sticks and add them into the cooking pot. Add tomato paste or sliced tomatoes. Simmer at low heat for 1 hour. If there is not enough liquid, add some broth. Add vinegar. Pan-frying vegetables: Melt 1 tablespoon margarine in a frying pan. Add chopped onions and carrots cut into thin sticks. Heat broth to boiling. Add chopped cabbage and potatoes cut into bars. Cook for 5 minutes. Add salt and cook another 10 minutes. Add simmered red beets. Cook another 5 minutes. Add salt, black pepper. If you like garlic, you can add about 5 g grated garlic, it is supposed to be in borsch. I don't like it and never add it here. Borsch is served with sour cream.
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