Do you agree that “the European Union is not a federal state like the United States of America, nor it is a purely intergovernmental organization like the United Nations”?
Why did the idea of uniting Europe revive after World War II? Name the six founding states of the new organization?
What are the main historic steps of the EU? What treaties is the EU founded upon?
How are decisions in the EU taken? What bodies is the institutional triangle made up of? Whose interests does each institution represent?
The future of the EU: great opportunities and major challenges.
The EU-Russia relations: strengthened and harmonious or strained and worsening?
What kind of organization is the Unites Nations? What are the UN main purposes?
Name the principal organs of the United Nations. What are their functions?
Why has the UN attracted much criticism? Is it crucial for the organization to be restructured? Why?
What kind of organization is NATO? What is NATO’s mission?
When and where was the North Atlantic Treaty signed? Name the founding members of the alliance. What Treaty is considered the precursor to the NATO agreement?
NATO’s military actions in Yugoslavia. NATO-ISAF aims in Afghanistan.
The European Union
History: to put an end to international hatred and rivalry in Europe, to create conditions for lasting peace; to create structures in western Europe, based on shared interests and founded upon treaties; to propose establishing the European Coal and steel Community, to pool the production of coal and steel under a common High Authority, to turn the raw materials of war into instruments reconciliation and peace.
The decision-making triangle: the Council of Ministers of the EU, the European parliament, the European Commission.
Functions: to represent the member states/ the people/ the common interest of the EU, to uphold the collective European interest; to share legislative/budgetary power with smb, to adopt the EU budget, to share equal responsibility, to be the main executive body, to have the right to propose legislation, to hold the Council Presidency for a six-month period, to attend a meeting, a topic [foreign affairs/agriculture/industry/transport] on the agenda, to conclude international agreements, to take decisions by a simple majority vote/unanimously, to settle difficult issues, to agree unanimously on important questions, to amend the Treaties, to launch a new common policy, to allow a new country to join the Union; to be chaired by the president/prime minister; to exercise political supervision, to be directly elected (about members of the European Parliament), to hold plenary sessions in Strasbourg/additional sessions in Brussels.
Expressions with resolution: to propose/put forward/table a resolution, to approve/pass/vote a resolution, to adopt/implement a resolution:
The resolution tabled by the EU was backed by 54 members of the IAEA. The European Parliament will debate an emergency resolution from the Fisheries Committee. Bush claimed that Saddam had failed to implement several UN resolutions.
UN (United Nations):
The main bodies: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the International Court of Justice, the Secretariat;
To be forerunner of the UN (about the League of Nations), to be established under the Treaty of Versailles, to cease [it’s] activities after failing to prevent the Second World War, to be coined by (about the name “United Nations”);
Functions: to work on a broad range of fundamental issues [sustainable development, environmental and refugees protection, disaster relief, counter terrorism, disarmament, non-proliferation, clearing landmines]; to be the key deliberative organ of the UN; to be the principal judicial organ, to settle legal disputes between states; to have primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, to deploy peacekeeping troops, to be a permanent/non-permanent member of the Security Council.
Expressions with veto (plural vetoes): to veto (vetoes, vetoing, vetoed), to exercise/use/wield veto on smth, to have the right/power of veto over [any agreement], to surrender (=give up) a veto, to override a veto (=not accept smb’s refusal):
Russia has threatened to veto the resolution if it comes to a vote. In 1961, President De Gaulle’s vetoed Britain’s entry into the Common Market. […] de Gaulle’s veto on the British application to join the EEC. The government refused to surrender its veto on border control issues. The head teacher has the right of veto over management-board decisions. The Senate has a sufficient majority to override the presidential veto.
Expressions with sanctions: severe/strict/touch sanctions, international/multilateral/unilateral sanctions, a resolution to impose trade/economic sanctions on smb, to apply/implement/impose/introduce sanctions, to end/lift/suspend sanctions, to strengthen/tighten sanctions against smb, to break/violate sanctions:
The UN Security Council may impose economic sanctions. Any talk about lifting sanctions is premature. When the West tightens sanctions against Iraq, the people suffer.
NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization): to sign the Treaty of Brussels/the North Atlantic Treaty, to be the precursor of/to the NATO agreement, to be based on security guarantees and mutual commitments, to be a political and military alliance, to develop a common defense system, to have military capacity to undertake crises management operations, to wage an 11-week bombing campaign, to wage war [on], to take command of ISAF (the International Security Assistance Force); a “friendly-fire” incident, to enforce a no-fly zone, to attack rebel positions.
Краткое описание документа:
Конспект поможет досконально прояснить знания о 3-х международных организациях на английском языке. (Европейский Союз, ООН и НАТО). Выбрана распространенная лексика, поэтому понять и прочитать не составит труда. Так же текст очень прост в запоминании и им можно пользоваться и при подготовке к зачету.
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