Выбранный для просмотра документ African elephants are the largest land animals on Earth.docx
African elephants are the largest land animals on Earth. They are slightly larger than their Asian cousins and can be identified by their larger ears that look somewhat like the continent of Africa. (Asian elephants have smaller, rounded ears.)
Trunks and Tusks
Elephant ears radiate heat to help keep these large animals cool, but sometimes the African heat is too much. Elephants are fond of water and enjoy showering by sucking water into their trunks and spraying it all over themselves. Afterwards, they often spray their skin with a protective coating of dust.
An elephant's trunk is actually a long nose used for smelling, breathing, trumpeting, drinking, and also for grabbing things—especially a potential meal. The trunk alone contains about 100,000 different muscles. African elephants have two fingerlike features on the end of their trunk that they can use to grab small items. (Asian elephants have one.)
Both male and female African elephants have tusks they use to dig for food and water and strip bark from trees. Males use the tusks to battle one another, but the ivory has also attracted violence of a far more dangerous sort.
Because ivory is so valuable to some humans, many elephants have been killed for their tusks. This trade is illegal today, but it has not been completely eliminated, and some African elephant populations remain endangered.
Elephants eat roots, grasses, fruit, and bark, and they eat a lot of these things. An adult elephant can consume up to 300 pounds (136 kilograms) of food in a single day.
These hungry animals do not sleep much, and they roam over great distances while foraging for the large quantities of food that they require to sustain their massive bodies.
Female elephants (cows) live in family herds with their young, but adult males (bulls) tend to roam on their own.
Having a baby elephant is a serious commitment. Elephants have a longer pregnancy than any other mammal—almost 22 months. Cows usually give birth to one calf every two to four years. At birth, elephants already weigh some 200 pounds (91 kilograms) and stand about 3 feet (1 meter) tall.
African elephants, unlike their Asian relatives, are not easily domesticated. They range throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the rain forests of central and West Africa. The continent’s northernmost elephants are found in Mali’s Sahel desert. The small, nomadic herd of Mali elephants migrates in a circular route through the desert in search of water.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Giant Panda.docx
Native to the mountain forests of southwest China, the giant panda is one of the most beloved animals in the world.
Giant pandas are identified by their distinctive black and white coloring. Their ears, muzzle, eyes, shoulders and legs are black while the rest of their body is white. Their thick hair keeps them warm in the cool, wet mountain zones. When on all fours, giant pandas average between 60-100 cm (2-3 ft.) tall at the shoulder and between 1-2 m (4-6 ft.) long. They can weigh between 100-115 kg (220-250 lb.), with males being larger than females.
One of the interesting evolutionary traits of the panda is their protruding wrist bone that acts like a thumb. This helps the pandas hold bamboo while they munch on it with their strong molar teeth. Bamboo makes up nearly the entire diet of the panda. Due to the low nutritional value of bamboo, pandas need to eat 10-20 kg (20-40 lb.) a day. Occasionally pandas will eat other available food, including small rodents, eggs, fish and other flora. Bamboo provides a good amount of water, but pandas need to supplement this with fresh water daily.
When pandas are between 4-8 years of age, they reach maturity and can reproduce. However, female pandas are only able to become pregnant for 2-3 days each spring! In this small window of time, male and female pandas find each other through scents and calls similar to that of goats or sheep. They do not roar like other bears.
Between 95 and 160 days of becoming pregnant, the female panda will give birth. The newborn cub is blind, hairless, and tiny, weighing only 85-140 g (3-5 oz.). Completely helpless, the cub cannot move much on its own for nearly 3 months. In turn, the mother is very protective and careful in tending to her cub during this time.
With only around 2060 pandas living in the wild, the giant panda is considered vulnerable of extinction by the IUCN. Due to the fact that pandas reproduce so infrequently, it is very difficult for their population to recover from such a low point.
One the main reasons that panda populations have declined is habitat destruction. As the human population in China continues to grow, pandas’ habitat gets taken over by development, pushing them into smaller and less livable areas. Habitat destruction also leads to food shortages. Pandas feed on several varieties of bamboo that bloom at different times of the year. If one type of bamboo is destroyed by development, it can leave the pandas with nothing to eat during the time it normally blooms, increasing the risk of starvation.
To combat this issue, the Chinese government has actively worked to restore and protect bamboo habitat, and these measures have shown positive results. State Forestry Administration surveys have concluded that the panda population has increased since the Chinese government’s actions, and in 2016, the IUCN upgraded the giant panda’s status from Endangered to Vulnerable.
While an increasing panda population is good news for now, it is predicted that climate change will eliminate over 35% of the panda’s bamboo habitat in the next 80 years.
Wildlife reserves have been set up in parts of China to make sure the pandas have a home, and care is taken to make sure they survive in the wild. Researchers continue to study how pandas breed in an effort to increase the population. You can help by donating or adopting a panda through the World Wildlife Fund
Выбранный для просмотра документ Siberian Tiger.docx
The Siberian tiger is the largest cat in the world. It averages about 3.3 m (11 ft.) in length, with a tail measuring 1 m (3 ft.). Adult male Siberian tigers can weigh up to 320 kg (700 lb.), while females are significantly smaller, weighing up to 180 kg (400 lb.).
Siberian tigers are distinguishable by their striped fur. Similar to people’s unique fingerprints, no two tigers have the same striped pattern. Siberian tigers differ from other tigers because they have fewer, paler stripes, and they also have manes. The mane, in addition to their thick fur, helps keep them warm.
Also known as the Amur tiger, the Siberian tiger resides in a small region in the southeast region Russia. They are also located in small numbers in China and North Korea.
Siberian tigers are solitary animals, marking their scent on trees to keep other tigers away. They roam many miles and hunt often. They stalk their prey, which include elk, boar, bears, and deer, until they are close enough to pounce. When successful, they drag their kill to a secluded area before devouring the meat. Tigers also hunt smaller animals like rabbits, pikas, and fish.
Because tigers are not always successful on their hunts, they need to hunt often. They can eat up to 27 kg (60 lb.) if they are very hungry, but generally they eat about 9 kg (20 lb.) of meat in one sitting.
The gestation period in Siberian tigers is 3-3.5 months. Female tigers give birth once every two years at any point during the year.
A litter consists of two to six cubs. The mother tiger will care for the cubs by herself, at times, leaving the babies alone while she hunts. Often she cannot catch enough food for the cubs, and some will die.
At 3 months, the babies will be able to leave the den; they may even go on hunts with their mother. At 18 months old, they are able to hunt on their own, but will not leave their mother’s den. When they reach 2-3 years old, they will leave the den and begin life on their own.
Siberian tigers are considered endangered by IUCN’s Red List. One cause of their dwindling population is loss of habitat due to deforestation. In addition, Siberian tigers are poached, or illegally hunted, for their fur and for body parts that are used for traditional medicines.
Efforts have been made to curb poaching of tigers and to protect tiger habitats. Many countries, including the United States, have created laws that outlaw the importation and selling of tiger parts. There are also breeding programs to help sustain the tiger population.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Урок по теме.docx
Тип урока: комплексное применение ЗУН
Цель: развитие навыков монологической речи по теме урока
1) активизировать лексику по теме урока
2) прочитать и понять предлагаемый текст
3) выполнить задания по тексту в группе
4) по плану рассказать, презентовать материал
1) Предметные: уметь строить монологическое высказывание по теме урока
2) Личностные: уметь сотрудничать в команде при выполнении заданий, приобщить к экологической культуре, уметь сопереживать
3) Метапредметные: развить умение общаться по теме
- Good morning, pupils.
- Good morning.
- Nice to see you!
- Nice to see you, too.
- How are you today?
- Fine, thanks. And you?
- I’m OK, thank you.
Look at the blackboard, please. What can you see there?
A tiger, an elephant and a panda.
Good. Now let’s watch a video.
What is it about?
About animals in danger.
That’s right. Today we’re going to speak about the animals in danger.
Do you know why they are in danger? Do you want to know about them? Do you think other people know about them?
Let’s find the information about them and present it for others to know.
Подготовка к активной учебной деятельности каждого ученика на основном этапе урока
Why do animals suffer nowadays?
(дети называют причины, учитель записывает на доску: the greenhouse effect, climatic changes, deforestation, polluted air and water…)
Where do tigers, pandas and elephants live? What do they look like? Why are they in danger? What do they eat? (учитель также записывает на доску ответы детей, если они не знают ставит знаки вопроса)
Сообщение нового материала
Now we’re going to read the information and find out if we are right. Let’s divide into 3 groups. The first group we’ll read about pandas, the second one – about elephants and the last group we’ll read about tigers. (детей поделить можно заранее, раздав в начале урока бумажки разного цвета). While reading pay attention to the following: the size and the colour, the habitat of each animal, some interesting facts about them, some eating habits and reasons for their disappearing. Underline the following information in the texts. You have 10 minutes to do this task.
Закрепление изученного материала
Now in your groups compare the information about the animals.(дети проверяют внутри группы, затем показывают учителю)
Now I want you to share the information with other groups.(дети формируют новые группы и делятся информацией друг с другом)
Now let’s listen to the pupils who are ready to share the information with me. Be very attentive and be ready to add.
Do we work hard today? Let’s put marks to each other. Have you leant anything interesting today? What can we do to stop killing these animals?
Your homework will be to write a short article about these animals using the information given for everyone to know about them. (дети могут сделать коллаж и выставить его в школе, напимер)
Thank you for the lesson. Bye.
Номер материала: ДБ-248446
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