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Конспект урока по английскому языку на тему " Мастер -класс на тему : «Формирование и развитие интеллектуальных умений при обучении чтению на уроках иностранного языка»

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Мастер – класс для преподавателей английского языка

Тема: «Формирование и развитие интеллектуальных умений при обучении

чтению на уроках иностранного языка»



Текст является основной учебно-методической единицей обучения, так как на основе текста возможно обучение всем видам речевой деятельности. Задания на понимание текста встречаются во всех типах экзаменов: традиционном, ЕГЭ, FCE, вступительных экзаменах в вуз.

Наиболее важную роль работа с текстом играет при обучении чтению. В зависимости от целевой установки различают следующие виды чтения:

*Просмотровое;

*Ознакомительное;

*Изучающее;

*Поисковое.

Просмотровое предполагает получение общего представления о читаемом материале. Его целью является получение самого общего представления о теме и круге вопросов, рассматриваемых в тексте. Учебные задания должны быть направлены на формирование навыков и умений ориентироваться в логико-смысловой структуре текста, умений извлекать и использовать материал текста в соответствии с конкретным коммуникативным заданием. (Приложение 1).

Ознакомительное - чтение, при котором предметом внимания читающего становится всё речевое произведение (книга, статья, рассказ) без предварительной специальной установки на конкретное использование или воспроизведение полученной информации. Основная задача – извлечь из текста основную информацию, то есть выяснить, какие вопросы и каким образом решаются в тексте, что именно говорится в нём по данным вопросам.

Изучающее чтение предполагает максимально полное и точное понимание всей содержащейся в тексте информации и критическое её осмысление. Это вдумчивое и неспешное чтение, предполагающее целенаправленный анализ содержания читаемого с опорой на языковые и лексические связи текста.

Поисковое чтение – это чтение газет и литературы по специальности. Цель – быстрое нахождение в тексте (текстах) вполне определённых данных.

Одной из целей работы с текстом является формирование у обучаемых навыков и умений полного понимания содержания. Овладение технологией чтения осуществляется в результате выполнения предтекстовых, текстовых и послетекстовых заданий.

Предтекстовый этап.

Чтобы снять трудности в понимании содержания текста, преподаватель сообщает сведения об авторе или произведении. Для снятия языковых трудностей можно предложить упражнения, в которых формируется языковая догадка, навыки словообразования. Предтекстовые вопросы стимулируют интерес учащихся.

Текстовый этап.

На этом этапе задания должны нацеливать учащихся не только на общее понимание текста, но и на его интерпретацию, в зависимости от задачи.

Таким образом, обучаемые выполняют упражнения, направленные на извлечение основной и второстепенной информации из текста посредством нахождения смысла текста, лексико – семантической основы объединения смысловых отрезков в единое целое. Необходимо вооружить учащихся различными приёмами работы с текстом, так как можно и нужно использовать разные стратегии при выполнении разных заданий по тексту.

Послетекстовый этап.

На этом этапе осуществляется контроль понимания содержания и даётся его интерпретация.

В средних и особенно старших классах основная задача учителя – вооружить учащихся приёмами работы при чтении про себя, так как оно даёт возможность учащимся сосредоточиться на смысловой стороне текста.

Использование этих приёмов позволяет, с одной стороны, формировать языковую компетенцию учащихся, а с другой – способствует их интеллектуальному развитию. При этом развивается:

*Логическое мышление (анализ структуры текста, средств связи).

*Высокая концентрация внимания.

*Способность к прогнозированию. (Включает в себя воображение, интуицию, способность к глубокому анализу.)

*Способность к оценке. (Это производная от критического мышления. Оценка как собственных действий, так и действий и мыслей других людей.)

*Продуктивность – способность генерировать большое количество идей.

*Гибкость мышления.(Способность быстро и легко находить новые стратегии решения, устанавливать ассоциативные связи и переходить от явлений одного класса к другим, часто далёким по содержанию). (Инертность – противоположное качество.)

Гибкость связана с богатством и разнообразием прошлого опыта ребёнка (объём знаний, умений и навыков), но главное не сам опыт, а методы его освоения.

Проверка понимания текста может осуществляться с помощью тестов. Нужно познакомить учащихся с форматом таких тестов и вооружить эффективными стратегиями их выполнения.

Рассмотрим основные виды таких тестов и способы активизации познавательной деятельности учащихся при их выполнении.

1.Multiple Matching: Headings.

Проверяется способность выделять главное в тексте (заголовок или основная идея) на уровне параграфа. Развивается способность к прогнозированию, продуктивность мышления.

Может быть предложено два типа заданий:

*Сопоставить заголовки с параграфами текста.

*Сопоставить предложения, выражающие главную мысль, с параграфами

текста.

Заголовки или предложения напечатаны до основного текста для того, чтобы учащиеся получили общее представление о главных идеях, прежде чем начать читать текст. Некоторым удобнее сначала просмотреть текст, а потом прочитать предложения. Нужно предложить учащимся попробовать оба подхода и выбрать наиболее эффективный для них.

Участники семинара в парах выполняют тест по тексту «Do Men Have a Future(Приложение 2), пользуясь инструкцией:

1. Read the text.

2. Read the headings.

3. Cross out the example heading.

4. Look for the keywords or phrases in the text which are relevant to the headings. Underline them.

5. Decide on extra heading.

6. Delete headings used.

7. Do not spend too much time on any one choice. Come back and check it later.

2. Multiple choice.

Это задание на полное понимание текста. Нужно внимательно прочитать текст и задания к нему, чтобы суметь отличить кажущиеся похожими ответы, причину и следствие. (Развитие концентрации внимания, логического мышления, способности к оценке.) Необходимо научить учащихся сопоставлять ответы с текстом, избегать wordspotting, используя парафраз. Главное – значение!

Вопросы даются в том же порядке, что и информация в тексте. Могут быть задания на значение отдельных слов или фраз в тексте, вопросы на определение темы всего текста, на определение отношения или мнения автора.

Участники семинара в парах выполняют тест по тексту «Living by the Sword» (Приложение 3), пользуясь инструкцией:

1. Read the questions first. What kind of text is it?

2. Skim – read the text.

3. Read over the questions and then scan the text to find where the answers can be found. (E.g. What information in the text explains the parents’ attitude? Which of the four choices offers information not mentioned in the text?)

4. While reading the text, underline the parts which justify your answers.

5. Answer the questions.

6. Do not spend too much time on any one choice. Come back and check it later.

3. Gapped text.

Эти задания направлены на проверку понимания структуры текста и логики развития событий. Учащиеся должны вставить извлечённые из текста предложения или абзацы. Возможен только один правильный ответ. (Развитие логического мышления, способности к прогнозированию.)

Нужно сначала прочитать весь текст с пропусками, чтобы понять, о чём он, понять структуру текста и как развивается действие. Важно обратить внимание на информацию как до пропуска, так и после него, а так же на их соответствие логике всего текста. Сначала нужно изучить пример, чтобы понять принцип.

Учащиеся должны знать стилистические средства, которые показывают, как могут быть связаны отдельные части: показатели времени, причины и следствия, контраста, повтора; уметь правильно употреблять местоимения, времена английского глагола. Важно избегать word-spotting.

Участники в парах выполняют тест по тексту The Bodyguard business (Приложение 4), пользуясь инструкцией:

1. Skim-read the text.

2. Decide on the structure. (Is it chronological, cause and effect etc.?)

3. Read the example paragraph and the corresponding sentence, cross it out.

4. List the part of the text just before and after the first gap. What kind of information is missing?

5. Continue like this. Which sentence best fills the gap, refers to the same period of the time, events, etc.?

6. Underline in the text words that relate to each other (e.g. both… and…).

7. Make sure you mark each answer in the correct box.

4. Multiple Matching.

Такие задания проверяют способность выделить специальную информацию в ряде текстов (развивают гибкость мышления). В некоторых заданиях можно делать несколько выборов.

Важно проанализировать, почему определённая часть текста подходит именно к этому отрывку.

Участники в парах выполняют тест по тексту What Job Would You Apply For…? (Приложение 5), пользуясь инструкцией:

1. Skim-read the questions. What are they about?

2. Skim-read the text.

3. Scan the text. In each paragraph A-F underline the answers to the following questions: a) Representatives of what professions is the company looking for? b) What qualities are required?

4. Underline the part of the text that is referred to each question.

5. Answer all the questions even if you think you are guessing.

Работа с текстом очень важна также при обучении лексико-грамматической стороне речи (Use of English).

Проверка понимания осуществляется с помощью следующих тестов:

Multiple Choice Cloze (Приложение 6).

Open Cloze (Приложение 7).

Error Correction (Приложение 8).

Word Formation (Приложение 9).

Участники выполняют задания по цепочке.

Участникам предлагается составить тест Multiple Choice на основе текста Jobs For Life, Jobs For Love. Так как текст небольшой, можно изъять не более 5 предложений (частей предложений). При этом очень важно, чтобы чётко прослеживать их связь с предыдущими и последующими предложениями. Затем добавляется одно лишнее предложение.

Участники работают в группах. Образец составленного теста в Приложении 10.

Для того чтобы подготовить учащихся к выполнению такого вида тестов, можно предложить следующие задания:

*Ответьте на вопросы (без вариантов ответа).

*Разбейте текст на параграфы.

*Подчеркните предложение (часть предложения или ключевое слово), чтобы сформулировать главную идею текста (параграфа).

*Сформулируйте главную идею текста в одном предложении.

*Определите отношение автора (одобряет - не одобряет).

*Считает ли автор, что … Найдите в тексте предложения, которые доказывают это.

*Найдите в тексте определённую информацию, представьте её в виде таблицы, схемы (Приложение 11).

Итак, работа с текстом стимулирует интеллектуальную активность учащихся. Однако необходимо подбирать тексты с учётом возрастных интересов учащихся, уровня сформированности их языковых умений и навыков, ориентируясь при этом не только на зону актуального, но и на зону ближайшего развития.





Приложение 1

1.Here are some advertisements:

1.

Filing clerk/person Friday

A well - known film of accountants require a filling clerk/person Friday to help in a large office. If you’re intelligent, qualifications are not important.

Send detail to Helen Pym, 75 Parson Green Lane

London SW64Ja

2.

Secretary

*Can you use a word processor?

*Are you polite?

*Have you got a good telephone manner?

A small friendly office needs an efficient secretary. Experience is not important if you can use a word processor.

*Good pay and good working conditions.

*Good promotion prospects.

Ring 07827245564 or write to: Nigel Moon,

15, North Road, Warwick, lanes ZD10PK

3.

Lawn – mower

Lawn –mower wanted to work for Weald & Downland Open Air Museum.

Some skills in woodwork are desirable.

Write to Michael Ricks, West dean, Chichester, Sussex PO13ZD

2. Here are three young school – leavers speaking about themselves:

A. Joan Berwick

I’m still at school but I finish next month. So I’m looking for a job. I’ve got my own PC and I can use a word processor. I can use a switchboard because my sister is a receptionist and she showed me what to do, but I haven’t got any experience. I’m going to take a secretarial course. I want an office job but I don’t want to work for a large firm.

B. Alan McGee

I left school two months ago. I haven’t got any work experience. I haven’t done any examinations and I haven’t got any qualifications. I don’t like sitting at a desk and doing paper work. I spent my childhood at my grandfather’s farm and I like to be in the open air. I used to help my grandfather with his work. So I know something of gardening and I can operate simple farm machinery.

C. Hamish Griffiths

I’m going to leave school in two months’ time. I’d like to find some job right off. My teacher says I’m a good student and accurate in my work. I can type but I don’t know anything about word processors. I like my schoolmates and often help them with their homework. I like to be with people and learn from them.



3. Now decide which job each of them can apply for and get. Explain why.

1

2

3




















Приложение 2

Read the article about men and unemployment. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A – I for each part (1-7) of article. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning. (0)

A

University of women

B

Women will make the choice

C

More jobs for young people

D

Men’s jobs disappearing

E

New jobs – wrong skills

F

Schoolgirls racing ahead

G

The increasing importance of learning

H

Part – timers on the increase

I

Changing pay and increasing power



Do Men Have A Future?

0

D

Male full time employment in Britain reached its highest level in 1990. Since then the figure has fallen by about ten per cent. Among women, on the other hand, employment figures have remained more or less steady. This means that men are bearing the brunt of the 1990s recession, since traditionally “male” jobs – especially in areas such as mining and production – have been the hardest hit.

1


Meanwhile, the majority of new jobs created are part – time ones, which traditionally go to women in a ratio of over five to one. Although more men than ever before are being forced to look for part – time work, as there is no other choice, the majority of part – time posts still go to women.

2


In Britain as in other developed countries, the workplace is changing. Jobs in production industries have fallen by more than a million in the last six years alone. The coal industry, the worst hit area, has seen employment fall by as much as three quarters. And for these out – of – work miners there is not much to suit their skills in the new industries: hotel and catering, retail distribution, banking and insurance, cleaning, medical and health services, education and welfare.

3


It is clear that better – paid jobs of the future will require specialized knowledge and experience, which only training and higher standards of literacy and numeracy can bring about. Education is truly the future of the country and here the news is not so good for men.

4


Ten years ago the best exam results in schools were achieved by male pupils. Now the situation has turned around. In all subjects except maths, girls are doing better than boys by the age of seven. After that the gap becomes wider.

5


As s results, changes are taking place at the top end of the educational ladder. In 1984, three out of five university students were male. This year, for the first time, girls made up the majority of the new students. Soon most new graduates will be female. So why do women still earn less and have far fewer top jobs?

6


In Britain, woman’s salaries in equivalent jobs are as much as a fifth lower than men’s and most bosses are still men. But today’s distribution of jobs (particularly top jobs) is a result of the educational situation of the 1950s and 1960s, when three quarters of university graduates were men. The situation may change by the year 2020 or 2030, when the idea of “jobs for the boys” could well change to “jobs for the girls.”

7




By that time, life could be getting very unpleasant for under - skilled, under – educated males. Without suitable training, they will have little hope of finding employment. Of course it is difficult to predict the future and it is always possible that men will continue to hold the top position in public life. However, if men do manage to keep the top jobs, it could be only because women – who by then will have most of the university degrees and jobs – decid





Приложение 3





Read the text and answer the multiple choice questions:



LIVING BY THE SWORD

When Cristina Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to become a bull fighter instead of a hairdresser, they weren’t too pleased. But when she was eighteen her parents realized that she was serious and sent her to a bullfighting school in Madrid, where she trained with professionals. Since last July, Sanchez has been the most successful novice in Spain and is very popular with the crowds. After brilliant performances in Latin America and Spain earlier this year, Sanchez has decided that she is ready to take the best to become a matador de toros. Out of the ring, Sanchez does not look like a matador. She is casually elegant, very feminine and wears her long blond hair loose. She seems to move much like a dancer than an athlete, but in the ring she is all power.

When she was fourteen, Sanchez’s father warned her that the world of bullfighting was hard enough for a man and even harder for a woman. It seems he is right. “It really is a tough world for a woman”, says Sanchez. “You start with the door shut in your face. A man has to prove himself only once, whereas I have had to do it ten times just to get my foot in the door.”

In perhaps the world’s most masculine profession, it would seem strange if Sanchez had not met problems. But even thought Spanish woman won the legal right to fight bulls on equal terms with men in1974, there are still matadors like Jesulin de Ubrique who refuses to fight in the same ring as her. Sanchez lives with her family in Parla, south of Madrid. Her family is everything to her and is the main support in her life. “My sisters don’t like bullfighting, they don’t even watch it on TV and my mother would be the happiest person in the world if I gave it up. But we get on well. Mum’s like my best friend.” When Sanchez is not fighting she has a tough fitness routine – running, working out in the gym and practicing with her father in the afternoon. By nine she is home for supper and by eleven she is in bed. She doesn’t drink, smoke or socialize. “You have to give up a lot,” says Sanchez. “It’s difficult to meet people but it doesn’t worry me – love does not arrive because you look for it.”

Sanchez spends most of her year travelling: in summer to Spanish and French bullfights and in winter to Latin America. Her mother dislikes watching Sanchez fight but goes to the ring she can. If not, she waits at home next to the telephone. Her husband has had to ring three times to say that their daughter had been injured, twice lightly in the leg and once seriously in the stomach. After she has been wounded, the only thing Sanchez thinks about is how quickly she can get back to the ring. “It damages your confidence,” she says, “but it also makes you mature. It’s just unprofessional to be injured. You cannot let it happen.” Sanchez is managed by Simon Casas, who says, “At the moment there is no limit to where she can go. She has a champion’s mentality, as well as courage and technique.”

1.When Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to be a bullfighter the….

A. felt a little pleased.

B. thought she was too young.

C. thought she had a good sense of humour.

D. were initially opposed to the idea.

2. Sanchez thinks that….

A. living in today’s world is difficult for a woman.

B. bullfighting is a difficult career for women.

C. it is almost impossible to succeed as a female bullfighter.

D. women have to demonstrate their skills as much as male bullfighters do.

3. Sanchez’s mother….

A. is everything to her family.

B. prefers to watch her daughter on TV.

C. supports her more than the rest of the family.

D. would prefer Sanchez to leave the ring.

4. What does “it” in line 32 refer to?

A. the fitness routine.

B. not socializing.

C.giving up.

D. smoking.

5. Sanchez doesn’t socialize often because….

A. she doesn’t like cigarettes and alcohol.

B. her work takes up most of her time.

C. she is worried about meeting people.

D. it’s too difficult to look for friends.

6. What does Sanchez think about after being injured?

A. her next chance to fight bulls.

B. her abilities.

C. her development.

D. her skills.

































Приложение 4

You are going to read a newspaper article about bodyguards. Seven paragraphs have been removed from the article. Choose from the paragraphs (A-H) the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is an example at the beginning (0).

THE BODYGUARD BUSINESS

At 5.30 in the morning a couple were sitting in a car having an innocent talk about tomato plants. Suddenly, two men jumped in front of the car, pointing guns at them.

0

G

No, this wasn’t the kidnapping of a famous film star or politician. It was the first morning of a week – long training course to learn how to become a bodyguard. Nowadays, becoming a bodyguard is big business. This is not because of a sudden rise in violent crime, but because having a bodyguard is the ultimate decoration for the rich and famous. Just as you or I would use jewellery, clothes or shoes to be fashionable, these people use bodyguards or – “minders” – to make themselves look good. Moreover, bodyguards trained in England are thought to be the most fashionable to have, rather like having an English butler. It is easy to imagine that bodyguards are always huge men built like Mr. Universe but according to the founder of the training company, this is not the case.

1


Many important men who want protection for their wives don’t want a handsome young man around and important women often feel more at ease with a bodyguard who is a woman as well. There are some stars who prefer a large bodyguard but it has been suggested that they are chosen to match the celebrity’s huge ago rather than a result of the bodyguard’s ability to do the job.

2


Not many people would see a pretty woman with a famous rock star as a threat. Not would anyone take any notice if she reached into her handbag for a lipstick – that is, until she pulled out a gun instead. Sharon Stone’s female bodyguard knocked four people to the ground in the space of one month after they had threatened her employer. It is hardly a job for someone who is not properly trained. But in England less than one per cent of bodyguard trainees are women.



3


One of the reasons is that the first weapon of a bodyguard is the brain and the trainers often find that women are more willing to accept this message than men. The trainers try to stop would – be Rambos from becoming bodyguards as their idea of the job seems to be based on the Kevin Costner film, The Bodyguard.



4




But the reality of the job is far more boring. Hours can be spent waiting outside hotel rooms or standing outdoors in the cold and rain. If the Rambo types applying for training expect sessions of karate or kick – boxing, they will be disappointed. They will find themselves being taught about being neat and tidy, how to speak to a diplomat and so on.



5


Those that do, however, can look forward to a career which can earn them between $300 and $1000 per day, depending on who the client is of course. Many of trainees admit that it was the money which made them want to become bodyguards.

6


Information can include the personality and life – style of the person. For example, who is likely to threaten their lives or just bother them? The business of being a bodyguard in this day and age has gone beyond the abilities of the Rambo types. It now takes brains as well as muscle to succeed.





A

In Scandinavia, however, the number of female students is five per cent and rising. This is a trend which those in the business find promising and are trying to encourage.

B

It is only after these basic lessons have been taught that they are allowed some Costner action. Many of them don’t last the course, though.

C

Lurking terrorists turned out to be trees turned out to be another team pretending to be terrorists. It was all very confusing.

D

After the release of this box office hit, the number of people applying to be trained soared at least fifty per cent. Glossy magazines and TV shows started giving the job a glamorous image.

E

Size and muscle are not important. Surprisingly women are now in demand from many companies to train as bodyguards and their clients often demand women as well.”

F

But their money is not just earned by standing around looking after a film star. Hours are spent preparing files on the people they are guarding.

G

The doors were pulled open and the couple were dragged from the car. They lay with their faces in pools of rainwater, wondering if their choice of career had been wise.

H

One job of the properly trained bodyguard is to been or noticed as little as possible. This is where women have the advantage over men in the business of being a bodyguard.

























Приложение 5.



Read the texts and match the numbers and the letters.



What job would you apply for if you …



1….are a qualified scientist?

2….are looking for a teaching post?

3….are experienced in cooking Italian food?

4….want to manage a group of people?

5….have worked with teenagers and children?



A.MCU CORP is looking for a Lead Mechanical Engineer for a large project. Responsibilities will include management of mechanical team. Good communication skills are essential. Must be experienced with fixed and rotating equipment, compressors, pumps and piping. Need twelve or more years’ experience as a Lead Mechanical Engineer.

Send resume to MCU&mechanichs.com.



B. Sherton Pharmaceuticals Company seeks lab technician for research department. Candidate must have at least five years experience in the pharmaceutical sector and in depth knowledge of all up-to – date laboratory equipment. Must have a BSc in Biochemistry. Great salary and full benefits offered.

Fax resume to: 814-251-9865.





C.NEWIS Language School seeks English teachers for full and part time positions. The teaching posts available are for the upper – intermediate and proficiency levels. All applicants must have a Bachelor of Education degree. Native speakers preferred.

Call 623-854-7415 to arrange an interview.

D. Antonio’s Restaurant seeks certified Italian chef with at least five years’ experience in Italian cuisine specializing in pastas and pizzas. Only a full time position is offered. Excellent working environment. Competitive salary and benefits package.

Call Antonio on: 680-422-1653.

E.PSY private practice seeks licensed psychologist. Experience with children and adolescents preferred. Cognitive – behavior and problem – focused orientation desirable. Therapy and evaluations. No managed care. Supervision provided.

Fax resume to: 908-526-3139.

F. Housekeeper wanted for family with two children in Lincoln area. Five days a week, four hours per day shift. The housekeeper’s responsibilities are: cleaning-up after children, cleaning kitchen/washing dishes, vacuuming, laundry, ironing, grocery, shopping, cooking two meals a week and occasional babysitting.

Call Mrs. Smith on: 617-439-8140.



















Приложение 6

For questions 1-15, read the test below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each gap. The first has been done as an example.

When Brad Rollins left school, he wanted to become an airline (0) A but since he had poor vision, he (1)… to entroll at the School of Air Control in Chicago instead.

Today, Brad is one of the thousands of people around the world who monitor the skies twenty four hours a day. Aircrafts are (2)… by radar and appear on screens in front of the controllers as little white dots. Brad and his (3)… watch where the aircrafts are flying, while making sure that they maintain safe (4)… between one another. This not only helps to (5)… air crashes in the sky but also (6)… the number of delays at airports. Another task of an air – traffic controller is to (7)… pilots if their own navigational systems fail.

Brad finds his job exciting but tough because of the huge (8)… of stress involved. This is understandable as things can go wrong very quickly (9)… the air.

A very important requirement made of air traffic controllers is the ability to stay perfectly (10)… in emergencies when they have to (11)… quickly so that they can prevent disasters.

Brad enjoys talking about the excitement of his (12)… and thrill he gets from it, (13)… admits that the odd hours do affect his (14)… life. When he finds time to relax, though, he does to his local pub for a (15)… of darts.

0

A pilot

B driver

C rider

D steward

1

A announced

B decided

C considered

D suggested

2

A observed

B noticed

C looked

D searched

3

A friends

B classmates

C partners

D colleagues

4

A places

B distances

C gaps

D blanks

5

A prevent

B hold

C block

D pause

6

A narrows

B drops

C reduces

D falls

7

A suggest

B guide

C show

D accompany

8

A number

B sum

C amount

D size

9

A on

B in

C at

D through

10

A still

B silent

C quiet

D calm

11

A go

B answer

C act

D practice

12

A employment

B shift

C activity

D job

13

A because

B also

C but

D despite

14

A social

B public

C local

D human

15

A play

B game

C part

D set



Приложение 7



Read the text and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).



A JOB WELL DONE

Getting (0) to work can be (1)… a very expensive and tiring business. Around 40 per cent of the total miles travelled in the United Kingdom are covered just (2)… going backwards and forwards to work. If only 15 per cent of the British workforce took (3)… telecommuting – connecting to the office from home through the telephone and the Internet – as (4)… as 2 billion pounds (5)… be saved in full costs. What is more, telecommuting could (6)… help reduce air pollution as cars wouldn’t be (7)… as much.



Telecommuting means that you no (8)… need to live near your place of work or even leave the comfort of your home. For (9)…, your office could be based in London but you might live (10)… a Scottish island. Telecommuting also provides a convenient way to work for people (11)…after young children and for people with disabilities. Moreover, it would also help cut (12)… on the stress, time and money needed for commuting to work.



Telecommuting is (13)… the start of a process that will see many people doing their job (14)… ever actually leaving their homes and (15)… to work.











Приложение 8

Read the text below and look carefully at every line. Some of the lines are correct and some have a word that shouldn’t be there. If the line is correct put a tick (V) by the number on the separate answer sheet. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word on the separate answer sheet. There are two examples at the beginning.

BEING AN AIR - HOSTESS

O. Ever since I was at school, I’ve wanted to be V

OO. an air – hostess. It sounded so many glamorous and many

1. exciting, flying all over in the world to exotic places

2. and meeting the interesting people from different

3. countries. At school I studied French and Italian in order

4. that to achieve my ambition. Finally, when I was 18, I

5. have had an interview with Air – France, who accepted me.

6. I had to attend a three – month training course, which it

7. included waitressing, swimming and first – aid. We also

8. had to learn how to put on a make – up and do our hair

9. so that as to be smart at all times. Learning mouth – to – mouth

10. resuscitation it was the most difficult thing – we

11. practiced on plastic dolls and then on each other one.

12. Eventually the day I had been looking forward to for

13. so much long arrived. Before the plane look off I showed

14. the whole passengers the emergency exits. One hour later

15. than we landed in Paris. A perfect start to my dream job!





Приложение 9



Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold.



Astronauts have to be physically and mentally ready for the stress and strain of a space mission. To prepare them astronauts are given (1)_____(intense) training, which includes years of classroom study on (2)______(vary) technical subjects and working in a model spaceship where they can practice(3)______(complicate) flight operations and become used to all the (4)_________(equip) on board.

Apart from high (5) _______ (intelligent), good qualifications and an excellent level of fitness, astronauts must have a strong character. They also have to be very (6) ________ (courage) in order to accept the high risks involved.

Astronauts also have to face other, more ordinary problems in space. When can be very (7)________(annoy) is the limited variety of food but the greatest challenge is getting along with other members of their team as they often come from different countries with different backgrounds and habits. Therefore they must be very (8) ___________ (patience) with each other since the lack of privacy can become (9) ________ (irritate).

All in all, it seems that being an astronaut is one of the most (10) ___________ (challenge) jobs in the world.









Приложение 10



Read the text. Think what parts can be derived to make a test.



JOB FOR LIFE AND JOB FOR LOVE



From early age children like to dream about their future profession. Boys often want to be soldiers or car race drivers, girls – to ballet dancers or singers… But growing older they learn more about other professions, begin to understand the role of money in life.

Some people don’t think of this problem much. They choose security – a job that brings money. They work for the rest of their lives in a sphere which is boring and irritating to them. They don’t get any satisfaction out of their work, they only spend time there.

On the other hand, a person can’t be satisfied if he got an interesting job which brings him money only for buying cheap food and second – hand clothes, paying rent for the flat (if he has one) and nothing more.

We know many examples from life and literature when professionals get what they deserve (remember Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes or Maugham’s Julia Lambert from “Theatre” etc.)

However, we know other examples when people live just on bread and water, live in a small, uncomfortable attic and work “for love”. They don’t even notice their lives are hard (a great number of scientists, men of art; from literature we can remember Maugham’s Charles Strickland from The Moon and Sixpence).

It all depends on one’s personality.

At least if the person hasn’t got any satisfaction from his work, he can get a hobby (collecting something or going in for sport). At the same time, if you are unable to earn enough money for life, you can always find another additional job or another way out.

Believe in yourself and everything will be OK!





A. Sometimes these people have problems with their health and family relationships.

B. There are over 2000 different professions in the world.

C. A difficult question appears: how to find a job that is interesting and the same time profitable.

D. Looking for a job, for life and love you should only have a desire for it.

E. I think one could find something attractive in every job.

F. Sometimes people’s interests and profit coincide.

G. Many of them sacrifice their family life and the joys of ordinary people for their work.























Приложение 11

Read the text and fill in the chart below. Find out what career plans the young people have. What character traits and skills do they have to realize their career plans?

THE GATE WAY TO GROWN - UP LIFE

(abridged from “The Copper Beech” by Maeve Binchy)

By the school house stands a copper beech. The names and dreams of the pupils who have grown up under its branches are written on its bark. This tree is the gate – way to their grown – up life. Seven children once carved their names on the trunk of that tree…

No one had asked Maura what she wanted to do when she left school. She wouldn’t be going to the convent in the town like Leo Murphy and Nessa Rayan.

There were no plans for her to go into technical school. She wasn’t smart enough to be taken on as a trainee in one of the shops or the hairdressing salon. Maura was going to work as a maid. She would like a job in a lovely big house.

Eileen was going to University if she got a lot of honours in her Leaving Certificate. She would be an architect. The nuns said she had all the brains in the world.

And Sheila wanted to do nursing so she was already sending out applications to the better training hospitals in Dublin.

It was understood that her brother Declan would do medicine. He would be coming back to help his father in practice and take over. But he decided against it. Declan would like to join an auctioneering firm. It was the kind of thing that appealed to Declan – looking at places, showing them to customers. He was good at talking to people.

Niall Hayes was going to Dublin setting up his plans to study law. Niall seemed to be enjoying University and studying hard. Foxy Dunne was in England on the building site.

There was no question of University for Nessa Rayan, no plan for a career, nothing, except the usual refuge of those who could not think what to do – the secretarial course in the town. Nessa began her course in shorthand and typing.

When she finished her course at the college she would work full – time for her mother and father at the hotel. From time to time Nessa served behind the bar to know what the customers wanted.

Since his childhood Eddie was good at pressing flowers. Nessa had always thought they were so nice that he could do it for a living. He was dreaming of setting up a craft centre with small shops to sell everyone’s there.

Name

Career plan

Character traits

Skills

Maura




Sheila




Dencan




Eileen




Niall Hayes




Foxy Dunne




Nessa Rayan




Eddie






Notes:

1. Bark/trunk – ствол.

2. Carve – вырезать.

3.Convent – монастырь (женский); go to convent(здесь) идти в школу при монастыре.

4. Nun – монахиня.

5. Had all the brains – was very clever.

6.Auctioneering firm – фирма, продающая недвижимость.

7. Customer – посетитель, покупатель.

8. Refuge – прибежище, убежище.

9. Press flowers – засушивать цветы.



ИНСТРУКЦИЯ К ЗАДАНИЯМ ДЛЯ УЧАЩИХСЯ



Multiple Matching

*Read the text.

*Read the questions.

*Underline key words or phrases.

*Find which area each statement refers to.

*Answer all questions.

*Divide time sensibly.

*Check answers.



Multiple choice

*Read the text.

*Read the questions.

*Underline key words.

*Answer all questions.

*Divide time sensibly.

*Check answers.



Gapped text

*Read the text.

*Read the list of sentences.

*Decide on the structure.

*Cross out example.

*Underline key words.

*Read the text before the gap.

*Read the text after the gap.

*Fill in all answers.

* Decide on the extra sentence.

*Divide time sensibly.

*Check answers.



Multiple Choice Cloze

*Read the text.

*Decide which distracter is correct.

*Answer all questions.

*Divide time sensibly.

*Read the completed text.



Open Cloze

*Read the text.

*Guess the part of speech missing.

*Use only one word.

*Answer all questions.

*Divide time sensibly.

*Read the whole text.





Error correction



*Read the text.

*Identify extra words.

*Identify lines without errors.

*Mark all the answers on the answer sheet.

*Read the text without the extra words.



Word formation



*Read the text.

*Decide part of speech needed.

*Check the new word has the same root.

*Answer all the questions.

*Divide time sensibly.

*Check the spelling of the new word.

















Keys:



Приложение 1.

1

2

3

С

А

В





Приложение 2.

1-H 2-E 3-G 4-F 5-A 6-I 7-B



Приложение 3.

1-D 2-B 3-D 4-B 5-B 6-A



Приложение 4.

1-E 2-H 3-A 4-D 5-B 6-F



Приложение 5

1

2

3

4

5

B

C

D

A

E



Приложение 6

1

B

4

B

7

B

10

D

13

C

2

A

5

A

8

C

11

C

14

A

3

D

6

C

9

B

12

D

15

B





Приложение 7

1

both

6

also

11

looking

2

by

7

used

12

down

3

up

8

longer

13

just

4

much

9

example

14

without

5

would

10

on

15

going/travelling



Приложение 8

1

in

4

that

7

V

10

it

13

much

2

the

5

have

8

a

11

one

14

whole

3

V

6

it

9

that

12

V

15

than



Приложение 9

1.intensive 3. complicated 5. intelligence 7.annoying 9. irritating

2. various 4. equipment 6. courageous 8.patient 10. challenging

Приложение 10

1

2

3

4

5

6

С

A

F

G

E

D

Приложение 11

Name

Career plan

Character traits

Skills

Maura

To work as a maid in a big house

Not smart, patient, neat

No special skills

Sheila














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ПЕРЕЙТИ В КАТАЛОГ КУРСОВ

Краткое описание документа:

Мастер – класс для преподавателей английского языка

Тема: «Формирование и развитие интеллектуальных умений при обучении

чтению на уроках иностранного языка»

 

    Текст является основной учебно-методической единицей обучения, так как на основе текста возможно обучение всем видам речевой деятельности. Задания на понимание текста встречаются во всех типах экзаменов: традиционном, ЕГЭ, FCE, вступительных экзаменах в вуз.

    Наиболее важную роль работа с текстом играет при обучении чтению. В зависимости от целевой установки различают следующие виды чтения:

                                             *Просмотровое;

*Ознакомительное;

*Изучающее;

*Поисковое.

    Просмотровоепредполагает получение общего представления о читаемом материале. Его целью является получение самого общего представления о теме и круге вопросов, рассматриваемых в тексте. Учебные задания должны быть направлены на формирование навыков и умений ориентироваться в логико-смысловой структуре текста, умений извлекать и использовать материал текста в соответствии с конкретным коммуникативным заданием. (Приложение 1).

    Ознакомительное - чтение, при котором предметом внимания читающего становится всё речевое произведение (книга, статья, рассказ) без предварительной специальной установки на конкретное использование или воспроизведение полученной информации. Основная задача – извлечь из текста основную информацию, то есть выяснить, какие вопросы и каким образом решаются в тексте, что именно говорится в нём по данным вопросам.

      Изучающее чтение предполагает максимально полное и точное понимание всей содержащейся в тексте информации и критическое её осмысление. Это вдумчивое и неспешное чтение, предполагающее целенаправленный анализ содержания читаемого с опорой на языковые и лексические связи текста.

    Поисковое чтение – это чтение газет и литературы по специальности. Цель – быстрое нахождение в тексте (текстах) вполне определённых данных.

    Одной из целей работы с текстом является формирование у обучаемых навыков и умений полного понимания содержания. Овладение технологией чтения осуществляется в результате выполнения предтекстовых, текстовых и послетекстовых заданий.

    

       Предтекстовый этап.

      Чтобы снять трудности в понимании содержания текста, преподаватель сообщает сведения об авторе или произведении. Для снятия языковых трудностей можно предложить упражнения, в которых формируется языковая догадка, навыки словообразования. Предтекстовые вопросы стимулируют интерес учащихся.

      Текстовый этап.

      На этом этапе задания должны нацеливать учащихся не только на общее понимание текста, но и на его интерпретацию, в зависимости от задачи.

      Таким образом, обучаемые выполняют упражнения, направленные на извлечение основной и второстепенной информации из текста посредством нахождения смысла текста, лексико – семантической основы объединения смысловых отрезков в единое целое. Необходимо вооружить учащихся различными приёмами работы с текстом, так как можно и нужно использовать разные стратегии при выполнении разных заданий по тексту.

         Послетекстовый этап.

       На этом этапе осуществляется контроль понимания содержания и даётся его интерпретация.

       В средних и особенно старших классах основная задача учителя – вооружить учащихся приёмами работы при чтении про себя, так как оно даёт возможность учащимся сосредоточиться на смысловой стороне текста.

       Использование этих приёмов позволяет, с одной стороны, формировать языковую компетенцию учащихся, а с другой – способствует их интеллектуальному развитию. При этом развивается:

           *Логическое мышление (анализ структуры текста, средств связи).

           *Высокая концентрация внимания.

           *Способность к прогнозированию. (Включает в себя воображение, интуицию, способность к глубокому анализу.)

           *Способность к оценке. (Это производная от критического мышления. Оценка как собственных действий, так и действий и мыслей других людей.)

           *Продуктивность – способность генерировать большое количество идей.

           *Гибкость мышления.(Способность быстро и легко находить новые стратегии решения, устанавливать ассоциативные связи и переходить от явлений одного класса к другим, часто далёким по содержанию). (Инертность – противоположное качество.)

           Гибкость связана с богатством и разнообразием прошлого опыта ребёнка (объём знаний, умений и навыков), но главное не сам опыт, а методы его освоения.

           Проверка понимания текста может осуществляться с помощью тестов. Нужно познакомить учащихся с форматом таких тестов и вооружить эффективными стратегиями их выполнения.

           Рассмотрим основные виды таких тестов и способы активизации познавательной деятельности учащихся при их выполнении.

         

            1.MultipleMatching: Headings.

            Проверяется способность выделять главное в тексте (заголовок или основная идея) на уровне параграфа. Развивается способность к прогнозированию, продуктивность мышления.

          

          Может быть предложено два типа заданий:

       *Сопоставить заголовки с параграфами текста.

       *Сопоставить предложения, выражающие главную мысль, с параграфами

текста.

        Заголовки или предложения напечатаны до основного текста для того, чтобы учащиеся получили общее представление о главных идеях, прежде чем начать читать текст. Некоторым удобнее сначала просмотреть текст, а потом прочитать предложения. Нужно предложить учащимся попробовать оба подхода и выбрать наиболее эффективный для них.

        Участники семинара в парах выполняют тест по тексту «DoMenHaveaFuture(Приложение 2), пользуясьинструкцией:

         1. Read the text.

         2. Read the headings.

         3. Cross out the example heading.

         4. Look for the keywords or phrases in the text which are relevant to the headings. Underline them.

         5. Decide on extra heading.

         6. Delete headings used.

         7. Do not spend too much time on any one choice. Come back and check it later.

         2. Multiplechoice.

         Это задание на полное понимание текста. Нужно внимательно прочитать текст и задания к нему, чтобы суметь отличить кажущиеся похожими ответы, причину и следствие. (Развитие концентрации внимания, логического мышления, способности к оценке.) Необходимо научить учащихся сопоставлять ответы с текстом, избегать wordspotting, используя парафраз. Главное – значение!

          Вопросы даются в том же порядке, что и информация в тексте. Могут быть задания на значение отдельных слов или фраз в тексте, вопросы на определение темы всего текста, на определение отношения или мнения автора.

          Участники семинара в парах выполняют тест по тексту «LivingbytheSword» (Приложение 3), пользуясь инструкцией:

         1. Read the questions first. What kind of text is it?

         2. Skim – read the text.

         3. Read over the questions and then scan the text to find where the answers can be found. (E.g. What information in the text explains the parents’ attitude? Which of the four choices offers information not mentioned in the text?)

         4. While reading the text, underline the parts which justify your answers.

         5. Answer the questions.

         6. Do not spend too much time on any one choice. Come back and check it later.   

          

         3. Gappedtext.

         Эти задания направлены на проверку понимания структуры текста и логики развития событий. Учащиеся должны вставить извлечённые из текста предложения или абзацы. Возможен только один правильный ответ. (Развитие логического мышления, способности к прогнозированию.)

         Нужно сначала прочитать весь текст с пропусками, чтобы понять, о чём он, понять структуру текста и как развивается действие. Важно обратить внимание на информацию как до пропуска, так и после него, а так же на их соответствие логике всего текста. Сначала нужно изучить пример, чтобы понять принцип.

          Учащиеся должны знать стилистические средства, которые показывают, как могут быть связаны отдельные части: показатели времени, причины и следствия, контраста, повтора; уметь правильно употреблять местоимения, времена английского глагола. Важно избегать word-spotting.

         Участники в парах выполняют тест по тексту TheBodyguardbusiness(Приложение 4), пользуясь инструкцией:

         1. Skim-read the text.

         2. Decide on the structure. (Is it chronological, cause and effect etc.?)

         3. Read the example paragraph and the corresponding sentence, cross it out.

          4. List the part of the text just before and after the first gap. What kind of information is missing?

          5. Continue like this. Which sentence best fills the gap, refers to the same period of the time, events, etc.?

          6. Underline in the text words that relate to each other (e.g. both… and…).

          7. Make sure you mark each answer in the correct box.

        

          4. MultipleMatching.

          Такие задания проверяют способность выделить специальную информацию в ряде текстов (развивают гибкость мышления). В некоторых заданиях можно делать несколько выборов.

          Важно проанализировать, почему определённая часть текста подходит именно к этому отрывку.

          Участники в парах выполняют тест по тексту WhatJobWouldYouApplyFor…?(Приложение 5), пользуясьинструкцией:

          1. Skim-read the questions. What are they about?

          2. Skim-read the text.

          3. Scan the text. In each paragraph A-F underline the answers to the following questions: a) Representatives of what professions is the company looking for? b) What qualities are required?

          4. Underline the part of the text that is referred to each question.

          5. Answer all the questions even if you think you are guessing.

          Работа с текстом очень важна также при обучении лексико-грамматической стороне речи (UseofEnglish).

         Проверка понимания осуществляется с помощью следующих тестов:

         Multiple Choice Cloze (Приложение 6).

         Open Cloze (Приложение 7).

         Error Correction (Приложение 8).

         Word Formation (Приложение 9).

           Участники выполняют задания по цепочке.

           Участникам предлагается составить тест MultipleChoice на основе текста JobsForLife, JobsForLove. Так как текст небольшой, можно изъять не более 5 предложений (частей предложений). При этом очень важно, чтобы чётко прослеживать их связь с предыдущими и последующими предложениями. Затем добавляется одно лишнее предложение.

            Участники работают в группах. Образец составленного теста в Приложении 10.

            Для того чтобы подготовить учащихся к выполнению такого вида тестов, можно предложить следующие задания:

            *Ответьте на вопросы (без вариантов ответа).

            *Разбейте текст на параграфы.

            *Подчеркните предложение (часть предложения или ключевое слово), чтобы сформулировать главную идею текста (параграфа).

            *Сформулируйте главную идею текста в одном предложении.

            *Определите отношение автора (одобряет - не одобряет).

            *Считает ли автор, что … Найдите в тексте предложения, которые доказывают это.

            *Найдите в тексте определённую информацию, представьте её в виде таблицы, схемы (Приложение 11).

            Итак, работа с текстом стимулирует интеллектуальную активность учащихся. Однако необходимо подбирать тексты с учётом возрастных интересов учащихся, уровня сформированности их языковых умений и навыков, ориентируясь при этом не только на зону актуального, но и на зону ближайшего развития.

 

 

Приложение 1

1.Here are some advertisements:

1.

Filing clerk/person Friday

A well - known film of accountants require a filling clerk/person Friday to help in a large office. If you’re intelligent, qualifications are not important.

                                                             Send detail to Helen Pym, 75 Parson Green Lane

                                                                                                                       London SW64Ja  

2.

Secretary

*Can you use a word processor?

*Are you polite?

*Have you got a good telephone manner?

A small friendly office needs an efficient secretary. Experience is not important if you can use a word processor.

     *Good pay and good working conditions.

     *Good promotion prospects.

Ring 07827245564 or write to: Nigel Moon,

15, North Road, Warwick, lanes ZD10PK

3.

Lawn – mower

Lawn –mower wanted to work for Weald & Downland Open Air Museum.

Some skills in woodwork are desirable.

Write to Michael Ricks, West dean, Chichester, Sussex PO13ZD

2. Here are three young school – leavers speaking about themselves:

A. Joan Berwick

       I’m still at school but I finish next month. So I’m looking for a job. I’ve got my own PC and I can use a word processor. I can use a switchboard because my sister is a receptionist and she showed me what to do, but I haven’t got any experience. I’m going to take a secretarial course. I want an office job but I don’t want to work for a large firm.

B. Alan McGee

       I left school two months ago. I haven’t got any work experience. I haven’t done any examinations and I haven’t got any qualifications. I don’t like sitting at a desk and doing paper work. I spent my childhood at my grandfather’s farm and I like to be in the open air. I used to help my grandfather with his work. So I know something of gardening and I can operate simple farm machinery.

C. Hamish Griffiths

        I’m going to leave school in two months’ time. I’d like to find some job right off. My teacher says I’m a good student and accurate in my work. I can type but I don’t know anything about word processors. I like my schoolmates and often help them with their homework. I like to be with people and learn from them.

 

3. Now decide which job each of them can apply for and get. Explain why.

1

2

3

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Приложение 2

    Read the article about men and unemployment. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A – I for each part (1-7) of article. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning. (0)

A

University of women

B

Women will make the choice

C

More jobs for young people

D

Men’s jobs disappearing

E

New jobs – wrong skills

F

Schoolgirls racing ahead

G

The increasing importance of learning

H

Part – timers on the increase

I

Changing pay and increasing power

 

Do Men Have A Future?

0

D

      Male full time employment in Britain reached its highest level in 1990. Since then the figure has fallen by about ten per cent. Among women, on the other hand, employment figures have remained more or less steady. This means that men are bearing the brunt of the 1990s recession, since traditionally “male” jobs – especially in areas such as mining and production – have been the hardest hit.

1

 

      Meanwhile, the majority of new jobs created are part – time ones, which traditionally go to women in a ratio of over five to one. Although more men than ever before are being forced to look for part – time work, as there is no other choice, the majority of part – time posts still go to women.

2

 

      In Britain as in other developed countries, the workplace is changing. Jobs in production industries have fallen by more than a million in the last six years alone. The coal industry, the worst hit area, has seen employment fall by as much as three quarters. And for these out – of – work miners there is not much to suit their skills in the new industries: hotel and catering, retail distribution, banking and insurance, cleaning, medical and health services, education and welfare.

3

 

       It is clear that better – paid jobs of the future will require specialized knowledge and experience, which only training and higher standards of literacy and numeracy can bring about. Education is truly the future of the country and here the news is not so good for men.

4

 

       Ten years ago the best exam results in schools were achieved by male pupils. Now the situation has turned around. In all subjects except maths, girls are doing  better than boys by the age of seven. After that the gap becomes wider.

5

 

        As s results, changes are taking place at the top end of the educational ladder. In 1984, three out of five university students were male. This year, for the first time, girls made up the majority of the new students. Soon most new graduates will be female. So why do women still earn less and have far fewer top jobs?

6

 

       

         In Britain, woman’s salaries in equivalent jobs are as much as a fifth lower than men’s and most bosses are still men. But today’s distribution of jobs (particularly top jobs) is a result of the educational situation of the 1950s and 1960s, when three quarters of university graduates were men. The situation may change by the year 2020 or 2030, when the idea of “jobs for the boys” could well change to “jobs for the girls.”

7

 

 

         By that time, life could be getting very unpleasant for under - skilled, under – educated males. Without suitable training, they will have little hope of finding employment. Of course it is difficult to predict the future and it is always possible that men will continue to hold the top position in public life. However, if men do manage to keep the top jobs, it could be only because women – who by then will have most of the university degrees and jobs – decid

 

 

Приложение 3

 

 

Read the text and answer the multiple choice questions:

 

LIVING BY THE SWORD

       When Cristina Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to become a bull fighter instead of a hairdresser, they weren’t too pleased. But when she was eighteen her parents realized that she was serious and sent her to a bullfighting school in Madrid, where she trained with professionals. Since last July, Sanchez has been the most successful novice in Spain and is very popular with the crowds. After brilliant performances in Latin America and Spain earlier this year, Sanchez has decided that she is ready to take the best to become a matador de toros. Out of the ring, Sanchez does not look like a matador. She is casually elegant, very feminine and wears her long blond hair loose. She seems to move much like a dancer than an athlete, but in the ring she is all power.

         When she was fourteen, Sanchez’s father warned her that the world of bullfighting was hard enough for a man and even harder for a woman. It seems he is right. “It really is a tough world for a woman”, says Sanchez. “You start with the door shut in your face. A man has to prove himself only once, whereas I have had to do it ten times just to get my foot in the door.”

         In perhaps the world’s most masculine profession, it would seem strange if Sanchez had not met problems. But even thought Spanish woman won the legal right to fight bulls on equal terms with men in1974, there are still matadors like Jesulin de Ubrique who refuses to fight in the same ring as her. Sanchez lives with her family in Parla, south of Madrid. Her family is everything to her and is the main support in her life. “My sisters don’t like bullfighting, they don’t even watch it on TV and my mother would be the happiest person in the world if I gave it up. But we get on well. Mum’s like my best friend.” When Sanchez is not fighting she has a tough fitness routine – running, working out in the gym and practicing with her father in the afternoon. By nine she is home for supper and by eleven she is in bed. She doesn’t drink, smoke or socialize. “You have to give up a lot,” says Sanchez. “It’s difficult to meet people but it doesn’t worry me – love does not arrive because you look for it.”

          Sanchez spends most of her year travelling: in summer to Spanish and French bullfights and in winter to Latin America. Her mother dislikes watching Sanchez fight but goes to the ring she can. If not, she waits at home next to the telephone. Her husband has had to ring three times to say that their daughter had been injured, twice lightly in the leg and once seriously in the stomach. After she has been wounded, the only thing Sanchez thinks about is how quickly she can get back to the ring. “It damages your confidence,” she says, “but it also makes you mature. It’s just unprofessional to be injured. You cannot let it happen.&rdqu

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