Инфоурок Другое Другие методич. материалыКонтрольная работа по английскому языку на тему "Научно-технический прогресс" (2 курс, СПО)

Контрольная работа по английскому языку на тему "Научно-технический прогресс" (2 курс, СПО)

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Examination on the topic «Scientific and technological progress»

Variant № 1

1.      Read the text below and fill in the 15 missing words and phrases

The Soviet Union

equator

main parts

destroy

solar

space junk

speed

connection

artificial

geostationary orbit

Satellites

Sputnik I

rotation

meteors

Earth

 

__________________ circle our planet in regular orbits. When objects such as _____________ draw close to Earth, they become trapped by the planet’s gravity and burn up in the atmosphere. Satellites, however, are launched at precisely calculated speeds—fast enough to maintain a balance between a satellite’s velocity and Earth’s gravitational pull. If a satellite is traveling at the predicted speed, it will repeatedly “fall” toward Earth, but Earth’s curvature and the satellite’s speed result in it falling in orbit around the planet—instead of crashing down. The exact ________________ needed to keep a satellite in orbit depends on the height of the orbit—the higher it travels, the less speed required for the satellite to overcome gravity and avoid burning up.

There are several accepted zones of satellite orbits around ________________. One is called low Earth orbit (LEO), extend from 100 to 1,250 miles (161–2,011 km) above Earth’s surface. This is the zone where the ISS orbits and where the U.S. space shuttle orbited previously. Most satellites also work in LEO. Most communications satellites occupy a different zone, however, designed to keep them in ______________________. This is a zone above Earth’s ___________ at an altitude of 22,236 miles (35,785 km). In this zone, the rate of “fall” around Earth is the same as the speed of Earth’s ___________. Thus, from the ground, the satellite appears to be fixed in the sky.

This allows the satellite to keep a stable _________________ with stationary ground antennas. Fixed satellites can receive and send hundreds of billions of voice, data, and video transmissions.

Regardless of its purpose, every operating satellite has three ________________: a power system, usually nuclear or ____________; an antenna to transmit data and to receive radio wave instructions from Earth; and a payload, such as a camera or particle detector, to collect information.

Satellites were the stuff of science fiction as recently as 58 years ago, when __________________ launched the first real operating Earth satellite, ____________, on October 4, 1957. Sputnik’s success triggered the “space race” between the United States and the USSR. The United States launched its first ____________satellite, Explorer 1, on January 31, 1958. Today, besides Russia and the United States, more than 40 other countries have launched their own satellites. A sky so full of satellites faces a new problem—________________. So many dead satellites, spent rockets, and pieces of space hardware now circle the planet that they pose a hazard to operating satellites. More than 21,000 pieces of space trash larger than 4 inches (10 cm), plus half a million bits between ¼ and 4 inches (0.64–1o cm), are now estimated to orbit around Earth. Even tiny pieces of junk, when moving at high speed, can ____________ an operating satellite.

2.      Answer the questions

-          Give the name to the text

-          What is about this text? The main idea of the text is …

-          Did the appearance of the satellite influence to the scientific and technical progress? How?

-          Give pluses and minuses of the appearance of satellite

Examination on the topic «Scientific and technological progress»

Variant № 2

1.      Read the text below and fill in the 12 missing words

fiber optic technology

calculation

software

hardware

mouse

computers

IBM

the application

was powered

digital computers

the Science Museum

Charles Babbage

was designed

inputs

an operating system

 

The first modern __________________ were cumbersome machines designed to solve complicated mathematical questions. Today’s computers do much more than math, but the language they speak is still one of ____________, storing each piece of information as a number.

English inventor, scientist, and mathematician __________________ is credited with conceiving of the first computer, which he called the “Difference Engine,” in the early 1830s. It ____________ to solve mathematical computations. In 1991, _______________________ in London built Babbage’s computer and discovered that the visionary inventor’s machine worked.

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was one of the first ______________. Built in 1954, it weighed 30 tons (27,215.5 kg) and __________________ by thousands of vacuum tubes, capacitors, relays, and electrical equipment. ENIAC lacked ___________________, but its legacy can be found in the personal computers of today.

Although in 1943 ___________ president Tom Watson famously said, “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers,” advances in electronics (transistors), ________________ of semiconductors, and the integrated circuit enabled reductions in size and increases in power that paved the way for a much more robust prognosis.

 

Today, a computer is a programmable machine that responds to a specific set of defined instructions. It consists of ____________ (the machinery and housing for its electronics) and ______________ (the programs that contain the data used by the computer). The hardware includes a central processing unit (CPU) that controls an operating system, which directs your _________ (keyboard, ________, or microphone), outputs (LCD display or printer), memory, and storage. Computers are now everywhere, and there’s more to come: Computers that learn on their own, brain–computer interfacing, and quantum computers that utilize _________________ are all on the horizon.

2.      Answer the questions

-          Give the name to the text

-          What is about this text? The main idea of the text is …

-          Did the appearance of the computer influence to the scientific and technical progress? How?

-          Give pluses and minuses of the appearance of computer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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