Task 1. Determine the meaning of the verb can in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.
We can discuss it now, clause by clause.
Could you tell us what took place there?
The dress can’t be so shockingly expensive.
He could write rhymed verses with extraordinary rapidity.
Mr. Blake can't have been working at the bank for fifteen years.
Could he have been at reception? I didn’t see him.
But the next day she was not well. She couldn’t leave her cabin.
The dog can’t have bitten her without a reason.
The teacher said they could all go home.
Martin can’t have misunderstood you.
You can’t speak loudly; the child is asleep.
Can he have told a lie?
I can memorize many words at once.
Can I drive Susan’s car while she is out of town next week?
Anyone can become rich and famous if they know the right people.
Despite yesterday’s snowfalls, we ___ drive home in less than an hour.
I only lived a mile from the office and ___ drive to work in less than an hour.
When she was the manager of the company she ___ take holidays when she wanted to.
I was very busy at work, but I ___ take a short holiday over Christmas.
In the 16th century, fishermen ___ smuggle wine into the country without fear of being caught by the authorities.
Bennett ___ smuggle the knife on board the plane without being detected by the security system.
She ___ sing like an angel.
He doesn’t smoke any longer because I ___ persuade him to give up smoking.
When her arm is better, she ___ play the piano again.
In his childhood he ___ climb high trees.
Happily John ___ swim across the river, otherwise he would have drowned.
He was a terrific liar: he ___ make anybody believe him.
After six hour’s climbing they ___ reach the top of the mountain.
My friend ___ speak five languages.
He ___ speak French fluently when he returns from Paris.
I talked for a long time and in the end I ___ make her believe me.
My son was very good at figures. He ___ do sums better than anyone.
I’m too busy to have a holiday this year, but I hope I ___ have a long holiday next year.
He has always been good at Maths; but even he ___ solve this difficult problem.
We ___ borrow umbrellas, so we didn’t get wet.
Elizabeth I ___ speak a number of language when she was six years old.
After enormous difficulties, Columbus ___ reach America.
In 1909 a Frenchman, Louis Bleriot, ___ fly across the English Channel.
In the Middle Ages, English archers ___ shoot arrows faster than anyone else and they ___ beat the French at Agincourt in 1415.
Watch this, Mum; I ___ stand on one leg.
Mozart ___ play the piano expertly when he was only five.
In the First World War, people in England ___ sometimes hear the guns firing many miles away across the Channel in France.
In 1953 Edmund Hilary and Shepra Tensing ___ climb Mount Everest.
In 1979 Billie Jean King ___ win her 20th Wimbledon tennis title – a record.
In the Great Fire of London in 1666, people ___ feel the heat from miles away.
Jesse Owens ___ run and jump better than anyone else in the 1930s and in 1935 he ___ break four world records in one hour.
Task 4. Change the following sentences to express improbability using the modal verb can and the proper form of the infinitive. Comment on the event described in the sentence using the expressions in brackets.
Model: I’m sure it isn’t true. (to be too silly) → It can’t (couldn’t) be true. It’s too silly.
I’m sure Mary doesn’t believe these lies. (to be a clever girl)
I’m sure Professor Brown isn’t in his office now. (to leave an hour ago)
I’m sure Michael isn’t playing chess. (to be too busy)
I’m sure the boys don’t like such stories. (to be too sentimental)
I’m sure Nora isn’t working at her graduation paper now. (to take one’s exams)
I’m sure Mr. Carter doesn’t remember such trifles. (to be a busy man)
I’m sure Mrs. Davis isn’t making a cake now. (to go to the shop five minutes ago)
I’m sure Jack doesn’t like horror films. (to watch comedies)
I’m sure Roger hasn’t spent so much money on his clothes. (to like only books)
I’m sure the student’s haven’t been writing the test for an hour. (to be only nine o’clock)
I’m sure the Jacksons haven’t come back from their trip. (not to answer the telephone)
I’m sure Stan didn’t go to the football match yesterday. (to see him at the Browns’ at that time )
I’m sure Ann didn’t get married last month. (not to tell anybody about it)
I’m sure Susan didn’t pass her exam. (not to work hard during the term)
I’m sure the Blakes haven’t been living in our town for ten years. (to live in Boston five years ago)
8. I’m sure she hasn’t translated the article yet. (to be too difficult)
Task 5. Express uncertainty about the following statements using the modal verb can and the proper form of the infinitive. Add a sentence of your own.
Model: She is about sixty. - Can (could) she really be so old? She looks as if she were forty.
It’s twenty degrees below zero.
They say she married Tom last week.
Bob is playing football in the yard.
Sam failed his history exam.
He paid three hundred dollars for his coat.
Don’t take your coat. It’s 25 in the shade.
Mary told him lies about his friend.
He gave us the wrong telephone number.
Jane is very unhappy in her marriage.
Jack was rude to his sister.
Pamela is so conceited.
Sally is speaking on the phone.
He missed his classes at the University yesterday.
She has been working in the reading room for three hours.
Task 6. Express improbability or uncertainty using the appropriate form of the infinitive.
Can it (be) so late now?
Can he (tell) the truth then?
But she can’t (say) it. I’m sure she didn’t mean it.
I’ll try to do it myself. It can’t (be) so difficult after all.
I can’t (sleep) for two hours. I still feel tired.
Who told you about it? You can’t (know) about it before.
It seems strange. Can somebody (work) against us?
You can’t (see) him at the meeting. He was ill then.
He can’t (forget) your address; he has visited you several times.
Could they (win) the game? They are just an amateur team.
He can’t (be) her father. He’s too young.
Can he still (sleep)? It seems to me they don’t want us to see him.
Task 7. Translate the following sentences into English.
Не может быть, чтобы она опоздала на урок, она никогда не опаздывала.
Не может быть, чтобы он был в парке сейчас. Уже поздно.
Неужели он хороший бегун?
Неужели они проиграли?
Не может быть, чтобы она это написала. Я уверен, что это написал кто-то другой.
Неужели она ещё спит?
Не мог он этого сказать.
Неужели сейчас так холодно?
Task 8. Express improbability or uncertainty about these negative statements.
Model: He didn’t notice us.
Can (could) he have failed to notice us? – Неужели он нас не заметил?
He can’t (couldn’t) have failed to notice us. – Не может быть, чтобы он нас не заметил.
You didn’t understand us.
She didn’t like the play.
They don’t trust us.
They didn’t notice the mistake.
I don’t trust him.
They didn’t receive the telegram on time.
He doesn’t know about it.
They don’t believe us.
She didn’t see you.
She doesn’t like it.
Task 9. Use the verb can in the correct form followed by the appropriate infinitive.
Have you a friend whom you ___ (to trust)?
What ___ Freddy (to do) all this time? He has been gone for twenty minutes.
He ___ (not to see) me. I came when he had gone.
I’m not a person who ___ (to tell) a lie.
How ___ you (to make) such a mistake as to suppose that I was younger than you?
Surely you ___ (to do) it before. What have you been doing all the morning?
Say what you like, but the work ___ (not to do) in two days.
Mr. Fenwill’s house was built on the top of the hill and ___ (to see) from afar.
I ___ (not to sleep) two hours, I still feel tired.
He ___ (not to be) her father: he is too young.
They ___ (not to hear) us. Knock again.
If you had asked me for money I ___ (to lend) you some.
Why didn’t you ask me? I ___ (to do) it for you.
He ___ (to tell) me the answer but he refused to.
___ he still (to sleep)? It seems to me they simply don’t want us to see him.
He ___ (not to forget) your address; he has visited you several times.
I ___ (not to swim) – I wish I ___.
She has a university education and ___ (to make) a career for herself she hadn’t married.
You ___ (not to forget). I don’t believe you.
I don’t believe her. She ___ (to fail) to recognize me.
Task 10. Translate the following sentences into English.
Не может быть, чтобы он опоздал. Он всегда такой пунктуальный.
Неужели он произвел на вас впечатление рассеянного человека,
Не может быть, чтобы я неправильно вас понял.
Он не мог прочитать эту книгу так быстро; она для него слишком трудна.
Не может быть, чтобы она не нашла вашего дома.
Вряд ли она забыла об этом; я только вчера напоминал ей об этом.
Могу я видеть управляющего? – К сожалению нет. Он будет сегодня только после 16.00.
Неужели вы не помните, что я возвратил вам эту книгу?
Разве мог кто-нибудь подумать, что ей удастся занять первое место?
Если бы не хорошая погода, экспедиция не смогла бы подняться на вершину горы.
Можно было видеть, что он был взволнован, хотя и старался выглядеть беззаботным.
Не мог он этого сказать. Он не такой глупый, как ты думаешь.
Неужели вам так и не удалось найти эту книгу?
Можно тебя на пару слов? – Ну, в чем дело?
Вряд ли это так. Во всяком случае, мы не можем этого доказать.
Не может быть, чтобы они были брат и сестра. Они совсем не похожи друг на друга.
Он не умел читать по латыни и не мог понять, что ему прописал врач.
Нельзя судить о человеке по внешности. Внешность обманчива.
Он надеется, что можно избежать операции.
Не может быть, чтобы он солгал. Это на него не похоже.
Task 1. Determine the meaning of the modal verb may. Translate the sentences into Russian.
May I ask you what you intend to do?
He looked embarrassed, and it occurred to me that he might have been listening at the door.
If he drives from the station, he may be here any moment.
You might be more considerate to your parents who always think of your well-being.
You may not go boating, it’s too windy.
The old man may be seen walking in the garden every morning.
I’m sure the film will be dull – we might just as well stay at home.
He asked if he might bring his younger brother to the party.
Charles may have been at the club all this time.
You might have warned us that the dog was dangerous.
I’m certain she didn’t want to snub you; she may not have seen you in the crowd.
You may call me Dolly if you like, but you mustn’t call me child.
I might have broken the cup.
Don’t worry; the telegram may come tomorrow.
You might have told me earlier about it.
The boys may have been playing tennis since lunch time.
Task 2. Change the following sentences to express supposition using the modal verb may and the proper form of the infinitive. Follow the example.
Model: Perhaps (may be) he is having dinner. – He may (might) be having dinner.
Perhaps Bess is making tea in the kitchen.
Perhaps she is right.
May be they are still having a holiday.
May be the doctor is examining the patient now.
Perhaps the manager isn’t busy.
Perhaps they are trying to persuade Jim to join the expedition.
May be Nancy is waiting for you in the hall.
Perhaps Sam is telling his friends about his adventures in the North.
Perhaps the film will have a happy end.
May be he will not tell you the truth.
Perhaps Jane will forgive him.
Perhaps the weather will be better next Sunday.
Perhaps the Palmers will stay at home on Saturday.
Perhaps they will call on you in the evening.
Perhaps your neighbours have left the town.
May be Sam hasn’t made an appointment with the dentist.
Perhaps everybody has agreed to the plan.
Perhaps the situation has changed.
Perhaps they have bought a new coat for the boy.
Perhaps the old man has lost his way.
Perhaps she was rude to him.
May be the students haven’t been studying French long.
May be they have been staying at the hotel for more than a week.
Perhaps Jack has been collecting stamps for several years.
Perhaps they have been watching TV all evening.
Task 3. Answer the following questions using the modal verb may.
Model: Why does he look so pale? (to be ill) → He may (might) be ill.
Why are there so many people on the platform? (to wait for the next train)
Why is John so busy? (to read for his exam)
Why is he so tired? (to work in the garden)
Why doesn’t Oscar want to see the film? (not to like detective stories)
Why doesn’t Monica want to eat ice-cream? (to keep to a diet)
Why has the boy raised his hand? (to want to ask a question)
Why has she made so many spelling mistakes in the last dictation (not to learn the rules)
Why is the child crying? (to hurt himself)
Why doesn’t the girl want to bathe in the river? (to feel unwell)
Why hasn’t the Parkers arrived yet? (not to find a taxi)
Why does Mary want to buy a new watch? ( to lose her old one)
Why hasn’t Charles phoned us? (not to get our telegram)
Task 4. Respond to the following, use might + Perfect Infinitive to denote reproach.
You seldom played with your son when he was young. (to give more attention)
Kate had to keep to her room. (to go to see)
Nobody knew that the flight to Moscow was delayed. (to announce it)
Mary felt so lonely in our town. ( to be friendly)
She left them in tears. (to treat better)
Peter got married a week ago. (to invite to the wedding)
They are living next Wednesday. ( to tell about)
He went to visit his parents for a day. ( to stay longer)
Task 5. Reproach your friend using the modal verb might.
For being late for the performance.
For not helping his old parents.
For not being in accordance with his words.
For complaining too much.
For not checking up on all the details first.
For not being attentive at the lesson.
For not making a decision at once.
Task 6. Which sentence (a, b) is most likely to follow the one given?1.
Don’t throw the pictures away, give it to Tony.
He might have liked it.
He might like it.
When she went out this morning she left her briefcase here.
She might have meant to leave it behind.
She might mean to leave it behind.
Nobody knows where the jewels have gone.
They might have been stolen.
They might be stolen.
Don’t throw away the rest of the meat.
We might have wanted it for dinner.
We might want it for dinner.
Don’t wait for me.
I might have been a few minutes late.
I might be a few minutes late.
Task 7. Paraphrase the following sentences using may as well to denote suggestion.
I’d prefer to buy an orange pullover, but they’ve only got red ones.
I prefer the expensive flat to the cheap one, but someone has taken the expensive one.
She likes the short skirt better than the long one but the short one is too dirty to wear.
They wanted to leave on Saturday but the planes are full until Sunday.
I prefer planes to trains but I can’t afford to take a plane.
Mary won’t go to the dance with John but Julie will.
The television has finished now and it is just about our bedtime.
Task 8. Use may in the correct form followed by the appropriate infinitive.
___ I (to ask) you to explain the rule once more?
She asked me if she ___ (to switch off) the radio.
I’m afraid it ___ (not to stop) raining by the evening.
We wish your journey ___ (to be) successful.
My neighbour lent me her opera-glasses that I ___ (to enjoy) the ballet.
No matter how bad the weather ___ (to be) she never missed her everyday stroll after dinner.
Don’t be angry with her. She ___ (to do) it by mistake.
If nothing prevents them, they ___ (to arrive) ahead of time.
It ___ (to take) for a joke if his face had not been so serious.
You shouldn’t feel offended; they ___ (not to notice) you.
Tell him that he ___ (to warn) me and (not to put) me in such an awkward position.
He ___ (to have) to walk a long distance, he looks tired.
There is no regular ferry there. You ___ (to have) to hire a boat.
Malcolm isn’t in his office. He ___ (to work) at home today.
The plan ____ easily (to go) wrong, but in fact it was a great success.
Task 9. Determine the meanings of the modals can and may.
May I ask you what you are going to do?
I can memorize many words at once.
You might have warned us that the dog was dangerous.
Fools may sometimes speak to the purpose.
Mary couldn’t be one who stole the money.
Can Robert have told a lie?
Charles may have been at the club all this time.
Can I go and fetch my bag?
Don’t worry; the telegram may come tomorrow.
I might be a little late but not much.
Anyone can become rich and famous if they know the right people.
She can’t have got an excellent mark in maths. Her knowledge is very poor.
He asked whether he might bring his younger brother to the party.
He looked embarrassed, and it occurred to me that he might have been listening at the door.
It can’t cost more than a dollar or two.
You may not go boating – it’s too windy.
You might be more considerate to your parents who always think of your well-being.
I could imagine how happily they looked that day.
Task 10. Use either can/could or may/might or them both in the sentences below.
The butterfly ___ be recognized by the orange streaks on its wings.
“She’s probably on holiday.” “Yes, you ___ be right.”
If Jerry hadn’t grabbed my arm, I ___ have fallen off the bridge.
Peter ___ have a big screwdriver. I’ll go and ask him.
Infections ___ sometimes actually be made worse by taking antibiotics.
“Do you know where Mark left the car keys?” “He ___ have left them on the table”.
Moving to a new job ___ be a very stressful experience.
I think Michael ___ enjoy himself if he joins the football club.
This 17th century chair ___ be of interest to you.
The seeds from this plant ___ be up to 20 centimetres long.
They ___ have chosen anyone for the job, but they picked me.
I ___ have stayed overnight with Don and Mary, but I thought I should get home as soon as possible.
With the factory closing next week, he ___ lose his job.
By the end of the day I ___ have finished painting the walls. Tomorrow I’ll start on the ceiling.
Around this time of the year, eagles ___ sometimes be seen in the mountains.
At factories in the 19th century, a worker ___ be dismissed for being ill.
I ___ have cleaned the house by the time you get home.
It ___ be possible one day to detect disease simply by looking at people’s eyes.
Task 11. Where necessary, suggest a correction for these sentences.
I think I saw her go out, so she mightn’t be at home.
It mightn’t be true. There must be some mistake.
It’s snowing heavily in Scotland so it can take Hugh a long time to get here.
If we don’t get to the market soon they can’t have any flowers left. They will all have been sold.
If you’re free at the moment, we may have a job for you.
May you be given the job permanently?
I thought they were on holiday – but I can be wrong, of course.
I might go out later if the weather improves.
Children may enter only when accompanied by an adult.
“I’ve had this birthday card, but it doesn’t say who sent it.” “May it be Ron?”
Task 12. Choose the sentence (a, b) which means the same as the sentence given above.1. It’s possible that they don’t live any longer.
a) They mightn’t live here any longer.
b) They can’t live here any longer.
2. It isn’t possible that they are twins.
a) They mightn’t be twins.
b) They can’t be twins.
3. It could be that they are not married.
a) They mightn’t be married.
b) They can’t be married.
Task 13. Translate the following sentences into English. Define the meanings of the modals you use.
Не расстраивайся, могло бы быть и хуже.
Возможно, Майкл не понял, что она обиделась.
Может быть, он уже ждет Вас давно.
Неужели идет дождь? А я не взяла с собой зонтик.
Вы могли бы посмотреть новые слова в словаре. У вас было много времени.
«Можно нам прийти на час позже?» «К сожалению, нельзя».
Не может быть, чтобы я сделал здесь ошибку.
То, что написано пером – не вырубишь топором.
Возможно, они проведут лето в горах.
В тихом омуте черти водятся.
И на старуху бывает проруха.
Ему удалось успешно пройти через все испытания и поступить в университет.
С таким же успехом я могу сказать, что Билл Гейтс – мой родной дядя.
Нельзя объять необъятное.
Мне ничего другого не оставалось, как выгнать его из дома.
Видна птица по полету.
В темноте нельзя было различить ничего.
Горбатого могила исправит.
Он сказал, что можно купить точно такой же телевизор, но гораздо дешевле в магазине через дорогу.
Я не могла удержаться о того, чтобы не дать ему пощечину.
Task 1. Determine the meaning of the modal verb must. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Let’s go straight to the hotel. You must be pretty well done up and your aunt and sister are half dead.
I tried to feel my heart. It had stopped beating. It must have been there all the time but I couldn’t feel it.
“You mustn’t speak to the gentleman like this, girl,” said Mrs. Pierce.
The story was boring. She must have told it to him at least six times.
Though he must have been thirty-four or thirty-five he looked much younger.
You must see her in that play. Absolutely marvelous!
“We must turn out early in the morning,” said Edward.
“Must I make a clean breast of everything?” “No, I don’t think so. With her quick intelligence she will understand”.
He must have failed to make good and was afraid to tell it to her frankly.
You must have been misunderstood. Everybody knows that you have gained a great deal of value experience.
It’s eleven – they must have been in conference for more than two hours!
When we arrived, the guests must have been discussing the latest sensation.
Lady Bradly said her husband must be waiting for me in the conservatory.
Oh, Jack, you must come away at once, before it is too late.
Judging by his face he must be furious with the old man.
Task 2. Change the following sentences using the verb must to express probability and the appropriate form of the infinitive.
Model: Evidently he is at home → He must be at home.
Evidently he is absent-minded.
Surely she is working at his lecture now.
Probably the subject is too difficult for him.
Evidently he is teaching at that college.
Certainly it was a funny experience.
Probably John called on them last week.
Evidently they have been playing bridge all evening.
Of course, Mr. Hunter has made good progress in French.
Probably he has proposed to Margaret.
No doubt they are trying to persuade her.
Certainly she is enjoying herself.
It is probable that Jacob is feeling better.
Probably Nancy likes sweets.
Evidently Mary has been shopping all morning.
Surely David had his final examinations last spring.
Task 3. Make the following sentences negative by using the verb to fail.
Model: Roger must have understood the truth. → Roger must have failed to understand the truth.
They must have caught the last train.
He must have written the test well.
They must have ordered tickets by phone.
George must have persuaded them to come.
Dick must have got there on time.
He must have found out the truth.
Jack must have unlocked the door with the key.
The boy must have delivered the telegramme.
She must have explained her behaviour convincingly.
Robert must have pulled himself together.
Task 4. Combine the verb must with the proper form of the infinitive in brackets.
Look! People are hurrying along the street with collars and umbrellas up. It must (to rain) hard.
You must (to follow) my advice. There is no other way out for you.
I saw an old man sleeping soundly in the park. A shower was falling all the time, he must (to be) drenched to the skin.
She must (to be) angry with you. She never looked in your direction.
Mary must (to be) ill, otherwise she would have come.
Mary must (to fall) ill. She looked so pale and tired last night.
Her English is rather good. She must (to study) hard.
You must always (to think) twice before you say anything.
She must (to think) of what I have said.
She must (to study) at that moment, that was why she didn’t answer our phone call.
Mary must (to put) her new dress. I don’t see it in the wardrobe.
They must (to have) a holiday for a week now.
The four o’clock bus must (to fail) to arrive on time.
“People must (to know) things. I consider it my duty to tell them,” said Jimmy.
You must (not to speak) to the old like that.
Task 5. Translate the following sentences into English.
«Нужно ли нам сдавать работу сегодня?» - «Нет, не нужно. Вы можете сдать ее завтра».
Мне нужно подстричься и купить себе что-нибудь на ужин.
«Не уходите. Я должна угостить вас яблочным пирогом», - сказала миссис Браун.
Он, должно быть, слышал, как в дверь позвонили.
Вы, вероятно, спали, когда это произошло.
Сегодня я должен идти к стоматологу. Мне нужно запломбировать зуб.
Мы должны договориться о месте и времени нашей встречи.
Он, должно быть, болен. Посмотрите, какой он бледный.
Мальчишки, должно быть, играют в футбол с утра.
Очевидно, они вас ждут у входа.
Вероятно, он удивился, встретив ее у Паркеров.
Очевидно, Пол готовится к вступительным экзаменам.
Она, вероятно, не увидела его в толпе и поэтому не ответила на его приветствие.
Вы просто должны посмотреть этот фильм.
Вы должны взять себя в руки и ответить на вопрос.
Task 6. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
You must have seen him in the street.
Mary can speak a little Japanese.
It can’t be true.
Where’s Peter? – I think he may be working in the garden now.
Where’s Peter? – He must be working in the garden now.
Where’s Peter? He can’t be working in the garden now.
Why is Ann absent? Is she ill? – I don’t think so, she must be late.
It may rain at night, I think.
She can’t be playing the piano now, she has fallen ill, they say.
Are you able to climb up that tree?
Can you read this book for two hours?
How did you manage to read this book for two hours?
Could you ride a bike when you were five?
Are you sure that you will be able to solve this problem?
Task 7. Put in either must or can’t.
You’ve been traveling all day. You ___ be very tired.
That restaurant ___ be very good. It’s always full of people.
That restaurant ___ be very good. It’s always empty.
You’re going on holiday next week. You ___ be looking forward to it.
It rained every day during their holiday, so they ___ have had a very nice time.
Congratulations on passing your exams. You ___ be very pleased.
You’ve got here very quickly. You ___ have walked very fast.
Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they ___ be short of money.
Task 8. Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form.
I’ve lost one of my gloves. I must ___ it somewhere.
They haven’t lived here for long. They can’t ___ many people.
Ted isn’t at work today. He must ___ ill.
Ted wasn’t at work last week. He must ___ ill.
(The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. It can’t ___ Mary. She’s still at work at this time.
Carol knows a lot about films. She must ___ to the cinema a lot.
Look. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. He must ___ out.
I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it isn’t there any more. Somebody must ___ it.
Ann was in a very difficult situation. It can’t ___ easy for her.
There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. He must ___ us.
Task 9. Read the situations and continue them using either must have or can’t have.
Model: The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. → The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. I must have been asleep.
The jacket you bought is very good quality.
Jane walked past me without speaking.
I haven’t seen the people next door for ages.
I can’t find my umbrella.
Don passed the exam without studying for it.
She knew everything about our plans.
Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do.
When I woke up this morning, the light was on.
The lights were red but the car didn’t stop.
I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door.
Task 10. Read the descriptions of strange situations below. Make guesses about what happened using must have happened, might have happened, can’t have happened.
Dave is sitting at the bottom of a ladder covered in paint and holding a cat. He is sneezing.
Brian is sitting outside his house wearing only a pair of shorts and holding a broom. He can’t get back into the house.
Karen is in the kitchen. There is water all over the floor, the room is full of smoke, and she is talking on the phone and smiling happily.
Steve is in a supermarket with broken eggs on the floor all around him. He’s holding a dog’s lead – but the dog has vanished!
Sue is pointing to the door and screaming, and Tim is shaking his head and laughing.
Peter’s priceless Chinese vase is lying on the floor. The window is open. Peter is looking at the broken vase in amazement.
Barry is at the airport. He has one led in plaster, an arm in a sling, and a policeman is about to take him to the police station.
Shirley is standing by the road, trying to hitch-hike. She is carrying a bicycle wheel and a bunch of flowers.
Helen and Bruce are in a restaurant. Bruce is standing on the table looking terrified, and Helen is laughing.
Task 11. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
I’m sure she lost the race.
have She _____________________ the race.
I don’t think the Rogers have been living here long.
been The Rogers __________________ here long.
I’m sure James won’t be seeing the boss tomorrow.
be James _____________________ the boss tomorrow.
Perhaps she will phone us sometime today.
may She _________________________ sometime today.
I’m sure he has spent all his money.
have He _______________________ all his money.
Perhaps he is feeling ill.
be He ______________________ ill.
I’m sure Alan wasn’t driving carelessly.
been Alan _________________________ carelessly.
Perhaps he had left before you called.
have He __________________________ before you called.
I’m sure she is considering your offer.
be She __________________________ your offer.
Perhaps they rented the flat.
may They _________________________ the flat.
Task 12. Translate the following sentences into English.
А где же Ник? – Я думаю, что он наверно опять смотрит какой-нибудь фильм.
Как тебе удается так хорошо выглядеть?
Должно быть ночью шел дождь – воздух сырой.
Не может быть, чтобы Аня уже вернулась!
Как ты думаешь, я смогу переплыть это озеро?
Завтра должно быть будет тепло – закат красный.
В семь лет Катя умела хорошо плавать и смогла занять первое место на соревнованиях.
Хочу тебе сказать, что я умею играть в шахматы.
Ты, должно быть, любишь сладкое. – Откуда ты знаешь?
Возможно, что он сейчас опять читает какую-нибудь книгу.
Не может быть, чтобы Алекс был болен – он очень хорошо выглядит.
Я даже и не знаю, смогу ли я купить новый автомобиль в этом году. Он очень дорогой.
Вероятно, Мэри еще спит. Она не отвечает на звонки.
Он, должно быть, богат, раз смог купить такой дорогой автомобиль.
Ваши часы, должно быть, спешат. Не может быть, чтобы сейчас было десять.
Должно быть, ей удалось убедить его отказаться от этого плана.
«Я должен перевести весь текст?» «Нет, не нужно; переведите только подчеркнутые предложения».
«Можно мне воспользоваться вашим словарем?» «Пожалуйста».
«Нам можно пользоваться словарями?» «Нет, нельзя».
Да неужели она это сказала?
Я не могла удержаться от смеха, глядя на то, как этот малыш пытался научить кошку разговаривать.
Пожалуй, будет лучше, если сегодня вечером я останусь дома.
Не переживай ты так сильно по поводу этой аварии. Могло бы быть и хуже. В конце концов, вам всем удалось остаться в живых.
Вы обязательно должны попробовать это блюдо. Оно очень вкусное и, более того, полезное для организма.
Извините, что не могу помочь вам разобраться в этом деле, но уже 5 часов и я должен идти.
Должен вам сказать, что я хорошо разбираюсь в подобных вещах.
Неужели она действительно собирается замуж? Мне ничего другого не остается, как спросить об этом ее саму.
У него был такой жалкий вид, что я просто не мог ему отказать.
Она, вероятно, узнает об этом завтра. Что мы можем сделать, чтобы помешать им сообщить это?
Не может быть, чтобы она лгала.
Почему я такая сердитая? Знаешь, ты мог бы и промолчать. Зачем ты рассказал всем мой секрет?
Его, возможно, нет дома. Я не уверен, но мне кажется, что он хотел поехать за город.
Вы можете взять эту книгу у меня.
Я думаю, что смогу поехать с вами в Крым.
Должно быть, она нас не узнала.
Task 13. Make up a dialogue using the following sentences in any order you like.
You must be joking?! Stop pulling my leg!
(Name) can’t have done that.
How do you know? Who could tell you that?
It can’t be true!
You may have misunderstood (name).
I can imagine how happy you were to learn about that.
Fools may sometimes speak to the purpose.
We are to take five exams this term.
The exercise is to be found on page 10.
You are to get in touch with him as soon as possible.
We were to dine together and then go to the theatre.
She was to become a doctor to follow the family tradition.
He was often to be seen working in the laboratory.
Who is to speak at the meeting?
You are not to leave the room without my permission.
She reminded him that they were to meet at 8 that evening.
What is to be done in such circumstances?
The expedition is to start in a month.
After 10 o’clock he told me that I was to go back to London.
The plane was to have taken off at night but the weather was too bad.
He was to become my friend and instructor during the years spent in Oxford.
The party was to take place on Sunday.
1. The plane was not to take off at night, as the weather was too bad.
2. The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad.
1. There was to be an interesting concert last night, but I didn’t feel well and had to stay at home.
2. There was to have been an interesting concert last night, but the singer fell ill and the concert had to be postponed.
1. The order came that we were not to leave the village before dawn.
2. We were not to have left the village before dawn, but by the time the order came we were two miles away from it.
Task 3. Change the following sentences. Show that the action wasn’t carried out by using the perfect infinitive instead of the simple infinitive.
Model: He was to come in the evening. (not to feel well)
He was to have come in the evening, but he didn’t feel well.
They were to go on a picnic on Saturday. (to rain)
Nancy was to go to the dentist that day. (to be detained at the office)
They were to ask Roger for dinner. (to leave the town)
I was to take part in the competition. (to sprain my ankle)
They were to go to the country by car. (to break)
They were to get to Detroit by the evening. (to have little petrol left)
Professor Brandol was to give us a lecture on French literature yesterday. (to be busy at the University)
The tourists were to visit the picture gallery last Thursday. (to be closed)
We were to spend the summer at the seaside. (not to be able to book the tickets)
He was to see me at 6. (to have an important meeting)
I stood at the window, looking at them, disappear, and my heart kept repeating “Good-bye, good-bye!” I was not (to see) them for nearly five years.
Nobody came to meet me. I was (to arrive) by the ten o’clock train, but I couldn’t get a ticket for it.
Remember that we are (to be) at his place not later than eight.
I got a letter from him saying that we were (to meet) at 16.00.
There was a violent storm that night and the Albatros which was (to arrive) at the port in the morning had to drop anchor near an island a hundred miles off the port.
I was (to meet) my brother at the station.
The concert was (to begin) at five, but it was cancelled as the singer had fallen ill.
I’m afraid, I’ll have to send him away.
And you have to go there twice a week, don’t you?
How long did you have to stay there?
But was it worth while going to bed when he had to be up again at five?
I had to try on several dresses before I chose this one.
I suppose I’ll have to go back to London, shall I?
Was the fire already laid or did you have to lay it?
I had to call a porter to take my luggage to the waiting-room.
Task 2. Recast the sentences using the verb have to.
Peter has a toothache. It will be necessary for him to go to the dentist’s.
How many exercises must we do?
I have lost my pen. It will be necessary for me to buy a new pen.
I’ve broken our sugar-basin. It’ll be necessary for me to buy a new one.
Jack was ill and missed many lessons, so it’ll be necessary for him to work hard in order to catch up with the group.
My granny is shortsighted. It’s necessary for her to wear eyeglasses.
We have missed the last tram. It’ll be necessary for us to walk home.
It was necessary for him to go to the country though it was raining heavily.
My friend was in trouble. It was necessary for me to do everything in my power to help him.
My watch is slow. It will be necessary for me to take it to the watchmaker.
I wondered what ___ to happen to us.
It looks like raining. You ___ to take your raincoat.
We agreed that the one who came first ___ to reserve seats for the rest of us.
Nobody met me at the airport as I ___ to have arrived a day later and couldn’t warn any of my friends of the change.
He always puts off doing what he ___ to do until it ___ to be done.
The meeting ___ to begin at 5.
They ___ to light a fire to cook their supper.
He set off for the school where he ___ to write examinations for his entry to the University.
We ___ to have left on Monday, but because of a two day’s delay with the visas we ___ to book tickets for Wednesday.
You ___ not to tell him about it if you don’t want to.
You ___ not to tell him anything about it before you get further instructions.
He fell ill and for the next few days he ___ to stay in bed.
Who ___ to meet them at the airport?
Uncle Nick’s things ___ to be moved out of the room so that it could be re-let.
The Finnish woman who ___ to work for Finch hadn’t arrived yet.
Task 4. Insert either must or have to.
1. I ___ be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably ___ take a taxi if I want to be on time.
2. You ___ submit the application if it has not been completely filled out. Check that the name, address, and background information are correct. If the form is not accurate and complete, you will be rejected and you will ___ reapply at a later date.
3. A: Look at these flowers – they’re beautiful! But, there’s no card. Who could have sent them?
B: It ___ have been David. He’s the only one who would send you flowers.
4. You ___ forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying on time.
5. You ___ be so rude! Why don’t you try saying “please” once in a while.
6. If you are over 18 in California, you ___ take a driver training course to get a driver’s license. You can have a friend or a family member teach you instead. But remember, you ___ still get your permit before you start practicing.
7. You ___ be rich to be a success. Some of the most successful people I know haven’t got a penny to their name.
8. A: My car broke down in Death Valley last week. I ___ have it towed more than a hundred miles to the nearest mechanic.
B: That ___ have cost a fortune!
9. While hiking in Alaska, you ___ keep an eye out for bears. If you see one, you ___ approach it. They are beautiful animals; however, they are wild and unpredictable in nature. You ___ be afraid of them, but educating yourself about the dangers can help keep you safe.
10. I ___ go to work tomorrow because it is Memorial Day. The best thing about a day off from work is that I ___ get up at 6:00; I can sleep in till noon if I want to.
11. Yesterday, I ___ cram all day for my French final. I didn’t get to sleep until after midnight.
12. A: Oh no! I completely forgot we were supposed to pick Jenny up at the airport?
B: She ___ still be sitting there waiting for us.
13. Ingrid received a scholarship to Yale University which will cover 100% of the tuition. She ___ worry at all about the increasing cost of education.
14. When I was a child my grandmother was continually correcting our manners. She always used to say, “One ___ eat with one's mouth open.” Or, she would correct us by saying, “One ___ rest one’s elbows on the table.” And every time I wanted to leave the table, she would say, “One ___ ask to be excused.”
15. I’ve redone this math problem at least twenty times, but my answer is wrong according to the answer key. The answer in the book ___ be wrong!
Task 5. Comment on the use of must, have to, be to and translate the sentences into Russian.
I want you to obey her. You must do exactly as she says and make no noise.
“Well, what am I to do about dinner?” said Mrs. Handforth. “Spoil it by over-cooking or let it get cold?”
Randal was excited. He thought he must telephone her at once, he must see her, somehow, that very day.
Emma must have been very beautiful when she was young. She has a fine face.
“We are not to be trifled with,” returned the policeman in a threatening voice.
You must come and have dinner with me some time.
He lost all his money at the races and I had to lend him five pounds.
I hope I won’t upset or annoy you by speaking frankly. I must have your advice.
Wake up, do you hear! You are to wake up at once.
So Frank has come? – Oh, yes; quite unexpectedly. He was to have stayed a week longer.
You are not to stay so late. You may leave after dinner.
The story was still clear in his mind. He knew what had to be done. He took his pen and wrote in his neat, steady hand the title of his new novel.
Task 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
Вы должны приготовить эту работу к четвергу.
Мне пришлось приготовить эту работу к четвергу.
Я должен был приготовить эту работу в четвергу.
Выбора не было, и он должен был согласиться.
Начальник попросил меня сделать подробный доклад по этому вопросу, и для этого я должен был просмотреть много литературы.
Я должен был ходить в библиотеку каждый день: через несколько дней я должен был сдавать экзамен.
Это серьезно. Вы не должны с этим шутить.
На этой неделе нам предстоит выполнить очень трудное задание.
Мальчик, наверно, читает что-то смешное – он постоянно улыбается.
Я не знаю, что мне делать.
Посидите здесь, пока он занят. Я думаю, что вам не придется долго ждать.
Ему приходится готовить эту работу сегодня, так как эти дни он был занят.
Task 1. Explain the meaning of need in the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
“You needn’t go to the hotel,” said the landlady. “We can put you up for the night here.”
It’s not easy to hold responsibility. I needn’t tell you that.
Angela opened the door and walked in. Her daughter was still up. “You needn’t have stayed up, waiting for me,” said Angela.
If you don’t like the cocktail, you needn't drink it.
Need we insist upon the date?
You needn’t worry.
Need you bring your girlfriend with you?
She said that if he didn’t like to come to her parties he needn’t come at all.
I was rather afraid that he might act as though we were intimate friends, which would have been embarrassing. But I needn’t have worried.
Does he need to study at home?
Task 2. Answer the following questions expressing absence of necessity. Add a sentence of your own.
Model: Must I do it at once? – You needn’t do it at once. You can do it tomorrow.
Must she stay with the child till father comes?
Must we boil the mushrooms first?
Must we meet Fred at the station?
Must I myself get in touch with him?
Must we take the 5.45 train to town?
Must I take the first step to make up with him?
Must I hand in my report today?
Must I do the whole exercise again?
Must I put on my coat?
Must I get up early?
Task 3. Answer the following questions in the negative.
Model: Must we wait for you? – No, you needn’t.
May I see you later? – No, (I’m afraid) you can’t.
Must I change my clothes?
May I do it later?
Must I be present?
May we take the cups away?
Must he show it to her?
May I borrow your pen?
Must she give it back to you?
May she switch off the light?
Must we take a tent with us?
May I see the manager?
Must I prepare sandwiches for the picnic?
May I bring a friend with me?
Task 4. Answer the following questions expressing obligation.
Model: Need I get up so soon? – Yes, (I’m afraid) you must.
Need I leave the dog here?
Need you bring the baby with you?
Need we change our clothes for the party?
Need we take sandwiches with us?
Need we keep the door shut?
Need she go to the doctor?
Need he go there after all?
Need they trouble you again?
You needn’t (to send) a car for us. We could have walked.
Nick needn’t (to read) the novel if he doesn't like it.
She needn’t (to wash) up all the plates herself. They have a dishwasher.
Why do you want to press the skirt? It is not creased at all. You needn’t (to press) it at all.
You needn’t (to go) into so many details. The report is too long.
We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t (to hurry).
You needn’t (to go) with her. She knows the way perfectly well.
I can manage the shopping alone. You needn’t (to go) with me.
You needn’t (to learn) this poem by heart.
He needn’t (to take) an umbrella, as it didn't rain.
You needn’t (to help) them, they could have done this task themselves.
You needn’t (to walk) to the station. Harry will give you a lift.
They ___ wear uniform. It isn’t obligatory.
You ___ clean the windows today. You can do it tomorrow.
Visitors ___ enter the laboratory without permission.
Surely we ___ leave yet. It’s too early.
I don’t want ___ anyone to know about it. You ___ tell anybody what I said.
You ___ go and see him. He is well and will come to the office soon.
He ___ go to the library. He has all the necessary books at home.
I ___ get up early as I live not far from my office.
The baby is asleep. You ___ shout.
I can hear you well. You ___ shout.
You ___ interrupt while people are talking.
Oh dear! You ___ take him to the vet.
“Shall I collect the kids from the party?” “No, you ___ . Mrs Shaw is giving them a lift home”.
You ___ be late for your job interview.
You ____ wait me after work. I can walk home by myself.
You ___ (to bring) the book. Didn’t you know I had it?
I ___ (to go) to the library yesterday because my friend promised to give me the necessary book.
We ___ (to explain) it to him. He understood what had happened at once.
You ___ (to explain) it to me, but since you did, I shall try to calm him down.
I ___ (hurry), since I had plenty of time before the departure.
You ___ (hurry). Now you will have to sit long waiting for the train to come.
As it was a fine day when I woke up, I ___ (to take) my umbrella to work.
I ___ (to take) my umbrella, as it isn’t going to rain.
She ___ (to rewrite) the test, as she made no mistakes in it.
You ___ (to come) so early to the University, you knew that the lecture was to begin at 10 sharp.
I ___ (to ring) the bell because the door opened before I got to it.
She ___ (to send) him money. He earns his own salary.
You ___ (to invite) him to the party, you knew he couldn’t behave properly in company.
I ___ (to buy) a ticket for this show, as my friend had an extra one.
I ran all the way to work, but I ___ (to hurry) because I was the first person to arrive.
I went to college today, but I ___ (to go) as all the lectures were cancelled.
I ___ (to pack) my shorts, as it rained all week.
We ___ (to pack) many things, as we would only be away for one night.
I ___ (to buy) any food, so I didn’t go to the supermarket.
I ___ (to buy) any food after all, because we had plenty at home.
You needn’t get up very early tomorrow because …
We needn’t wait for him, he …
You needn’t tell me about that book …
Tom needn’t buy this novel, he …
You needn’t have waited for me, I …
You needn’t have worried so much, Jennie …
You needn’t meet him unless …
We needn’t have told her a lie if …
You needn’t have come so early …
He said that I needn’t have gone there as …
«Рассказать тебе, как всё это случилось?» – «Не стоит. Я всё знаю».
У него сейчас каникулы. Ему не надо работать до осени.
Скажи моему сыну, что ему не надо работать до осени. Ему нужно хорошо отдохнуть дома.
Мне не надо было ничего покупать в тот день, так как мой муж не обедал дома.
Можете не переписывать сочинение.
Нам не нужно было торопиться. У нас было много времени в запасе.
Можно не торопиться. У нас ещё много времени в запасе
Он зря пришёл. Всё уже было сделано.
Нам не нужно было стоять в очереди за билетами перед сеансом: мы купили билеты заранее.
Можете не учить это стихотворение.
Недалеко от нашего дома построили станцию метро, и теперь нам не приходится ездить на работу на автобусе.
Текст был настолько лёгким, что нам не нужно было пользоваться словарём.
Напрасно вы купили так много хлеба, у нас есть хлеб.
Напрасно вы взяли зонтик, я уверен, что дождя не будет.
Он жил у родственников, и ему не нужно было платить за квартиру.
Вам не обязательно идти самому, можете прислать кого-нибудь.
Ему не пришлось ничего рассказывать о себе, все его хорошо знали.
Вам незачем было объяснять студентам это правило, они его знают.
Task 1. Comment on the meaning of shall. Translate the given sentences into Russian.
Where shall we put this vase?
You shall not search my rooms. You have no right to do it. I forbid you!
I’ll begin and you shan’t stop me this time!
They shall not pass!
“Shall I order a taxi?” he asked.
You shall have all the news I can send you.
All right; if she wants to be opened up, she shall be.
He shall never come here again!
He hasn’t seen you and he shan’t.
That shall be put an end to now and for ever!
Task 2. Change the following sentences using the modal verb shall.
Let us show you the house.
Let me help you with the homework.
Let me drive the car today.
Let us repair the TV set.
Let me sharpen the knife.
Let us go to Brighton in summer.
Let us have a light breakfast today.
Let us stay indoors today.
Let us go out and do some shopping.
Let me phone and tell your secretary you are not coming today.
Task 3. Agree or give reluctant refusals to the following suggestions.
Model: Shall we go for a swim? – Yes, let’s. / No I’d rather not.
Shall I shut the door?
Shall I talk to your mother about the matter?
Shall I switch off the light?
Shall I invite them to the lunch?
Shall we go and see the film?
Shall we have coffee together?
Alice is in the kitchen. Shall I call her?
It’s a lovely day/ shall we go for a drive?
Shall we talk about something different now?
Shall I make you a pipe again?
Task 4. Translate the following sentences into English.
Закрыть окно? Я боюсь, что вы простудитесь.
Вы получите ваш заказ завтра.
Немедленно перестань болтать всякую ерунду!
Давай сходим сегодня в театр. Я давно там не была.
Скажите ей, что она получит билеты завтра.
Нам ждать вас внизу?
Зажечь свет? В комнате становится темно.
Помочь вам укладывать вещи? Я вижу, что вы торопитесь.
Ты себя плохо ведешь и поэтому будешь наказан.
Как вы советуете, поехать мне туда?
Я покажу тебе, как кидаться в меня помидорами!
Не ешь мороженое – заболеешь!
Мне подождать вас или не стоит?
Закрыть дверь? В комнате будет не так слышен шум с улицы.
Он пожалеет об этом.
Task 1. Analyse the meaning of the modal verb should and translate the sentences into Russian.
A wife should obey her husband.
You should have done it long ago.
They should be taught a lesson.
But why should he take the scandal on himself? It wasn’t fair.
I confess I didn’t foresee this turn of events. But I should have foreseen it.
“You should come here more often,” he said to Shelton.
You ought to finish your work before going out. – I know you should.
It’s very strange that he should have told you the truth!
He shouldn’t have said it the moment the words crossed his lips he knew it was not the right thing to say.
How about Pinfold? Shouldn’t he be here?
They want only independence, and why shouldn’t they have it?
They hadn’t seen – no one should see her distress, not even her grandfather.
Why should you be different from other men?
My family are of opinion that he should quit London and exert his talents in the country.
“Do you see much of Randall?” “He practically lives here. But you knew?” “No,” said Hugh. He was surprised and annoyed. “Why ever should I know?”
Task 2. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitive.
He should not (to give) the choice – he should (to go) with you.
He should (to pass) the letter to her, as the letter was addressed to her.
You should (to phone) them at once. Now it’s late.
She shouldn’t (to wear) the coat. It’s warm today.
I shouldn’t (to say) that. I’m sure.
You should (to think) over this offer once more, before rejecting it.
This question should (to settle) long ago.
He should (to reject) the invitation. He was busy.
You should (to denote) much time to your studies. They are very important.
This sofa should (to take) away from here. It’s too large for this room.
His offer should (to accept).
This work should (to praise). It’s valuable.
The agreement should (to sign).
He should (to be) more careful about his health.
The question should (to settle) without delay.
Task 3. Open the brackets. Complete the sentences to justify your choice.
You (should/shouldn’t) take part in …
He (should/shouldn’t) have put up with her …
You (should/shouldn’t) believe it so far …
They (should/shouldn’t) have given it up …
We (should/shouldn’t) do her a favour …
She (should/shouldn’t) have expected her friend to do well at the exams …
They (should/shouldn’t) read more English books …
You (should/shouldn’t) have believed that he’d let himself in for …
The girl (should/shouldn’t) make such a fuss about it …
He (should/shouldn’t) have appeared out of the blue …
They (should/shouldn’t) have misunderstood this fact …
I (should/shouldn’t) have got into an unpleasant situation …
Task 4. Recast the following sentences so as to use the verb should.
It’s a pity you were beside yourself with anger.
I think you must keep an eye on her to know more about her.
I’m sorry you didn’t get on with your friends. You weren’t right.
It’s a pity you work in fits and starts.
I have advised her to have the figures at her finger-tips.
I don’t think it was clever of them to argue with him. They weren’t right.
I don’t advise you to insist on their putting up with it. It won’t improve the situation.
I think you’d better take the rough with the smooth.
It’s a pity you didn’t call on your friend long ago. He’s in a predicament.
I don’t advise you to keep late hours.
I advise you not to stare at people. It’s impolite.
I’d like you to do me a favour.
Task 5. Recast the following sentences so as to use the verb should to express surprise, indignation, disappointment, joy, etc. Translate your sentences into Russian.
They put the meeting till Monday.
The child is in floods of tears.
Jack is so shy and awkward with you.
Someone is asking for you downstairs.
He is so stubborn.
That stranger is casting curious glances at you.
He wears glasses though his eyesight is perfect.
She lets her children go to the forest alone.
He keeps away from us.
He likes to laugh at other people’s expense in an unpleasant manner.
Jane always blushes at the sight of this man.
You blame him, but it was not his fault.
He refuses to go to the cinema with us today.
He intends to buy this hat, but it doesn’t match his suit.
They are planning to go to the country on Sunday, though the weather is awful.
Task 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
Вам не следовало поднимать шум по пустякам без серьезной причины.
Эндрю должен был отказаться от приглашения Фрэнка. В глубине души он чувствовал, что изменяет своим принципам.
Этот вопрос следовало решить уже давно.
Ну и с какой стати я должен верить твоим словам?
Вам бы следовало уделять больше времени своему ребенку во время болезни.
Магазин уже закрыт. Тебе следовало сделать покупки по пути домой.
Вам нужно взять зонт. Дождь льет как из ведра.
Вам бы лучше выбрать другую тему для разговора.
Почему я должна хвалить вашу работу? Я не высокого мнения о ней.
Вы не должны так расстраиваться по пустякам. Надо держать себя в руках.
Task 7. In which sentences can you put must or should and in which you can put only must? Where both are possible consider the difference between must and should.
A timetable ___ be set for withdrawing the army.
Jeannette did very badly on he exam. She ___ have studied harder.
Les isn’t at home yet. He ____ have been held up at work.
“I wonder how old Mike is?” “Well, he went to school with my mother, so he ___ be well over 50.”
Henry was deported for having an expired visa. He ___ have had his visa renewed.
If you smell gas, you ___ phone the emergency immediately.
You ___ try to visit Nepal – it’s a beautiful country.
“I only live a couple of minutes from the town centre.” “It ___ be handy having shops nearby.”
You’ll catch cold if you go out like that. I think you ___ take a hat.
Carmencita did very well on the exam. She ___ have studied very hard.
“You ___ follow a healthy diet,” the doctor said to me.
Alexis failed the exam. He ___ not have studied enough.
Task 8. Fill in the blanks with must, should or need. Comment upon their meanings.
I’m suggesting that you ___ marry me, Marge.
She ___ picking cherries in the orchard, tell her to come into the house.
“Well,” said Emily with calm, “you ___ not get into such fusses when we tell you things.”
Is it necessary, do you think, that the police ___ know about it?
You ___ not be afraid of him. He’s a kind old man.
I propose that the prize ___ be divided.
Oh, I don’t know. It’s really rather odd that he ___ ever have been taking her to the Ball.
You ___ have seen that film when it was here last week.
It is strange that you ___ remember the place.
Why ___ not I talk to Lizzie about our plans?
Go upstairs at once. You ___ change your et clothes.
You ___ not answer all my questions if you don’t want to.
Henry suggested to Dora that they ___ go and look at the kitchen garden.
He ordered that the gate ___ be locked.
I think I’ll come on time, but if I ___ be late, please keep a seat for me.
Task 9. Insert the missing modal verbs (should, can, have to, must or may).
1. Ted’s flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He ___ be exhausted after such a long flight. He ___ prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.
2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you ___ walk downtown and explore the waterfront.
3. Hiking the trail to the peak ___ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You ___ research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.
4. When you have a small child in the house, you ___ leave small objects lying around. Such objects ___ be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.
5. A: ___ you hold your breath for more than a minute?
B: No, I can’t.
6. Jenny’s engagement ring is enormous! It ___ have cost a fortune.
7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don’t get enough water, they ___ die.
8. I ___ speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I ___ just say a few things in the language.
9. The book is optional. My professor said we ___ read it if we needed extra credit. But we ___ read it if we don’t want to.
10. A: Where is the spatula? It ___ be in this drawer but it’s not here.
B: I just did a load of dishes last night and they’re still in the dish washer. It ___ be in there. That's the only other place it ___ be.
11. You ___ take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the news said there's a storm north of here and it ___ rain later on this afternoon.
12. ___ we pull over at the next rest stop? I really ___ use the bathroom and I don’t know if I ___ hold it until we get to Chicago.
13. Oh no! Frank’s wallet is lying on the coffee table. He ___ have left it here last night.
14. A: ___ I borrow your lighter for a minute?
B: Sure, no problem. Actually, you ___ keep it if you want to. I’ve given up smoking.
15. I ___ believe she said that to Megan! She ___ insult her cooking in front of everyone at the party last night. She ___ have just said she was full or had some salad if she didn't like the meal.
16. Do you ___ chew with your mouth open like that? Geez, it’s making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza.
17. Mrs. Scarlett’s body was found in the lounge just moments ago, and it’s still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening, so the killer ___ be someone in this room. It ___ be any one of us!!!
18. A: I don’t know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding.
B: It ___ have been what you said about her brother. Or, perhaps she is just nervous. After all, the big day is tomorrow.
19. ___ you always say the first thing that pops into your head? ___ you think once in awhile before you speak?
20. I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I never took it out of this room. It ___ be lying around here somewhere. Where ___ it be?
Task 1. Comment on the meaning of the verb ought to. Translate the sentences into Russian.
I think for your wife and children’s sake you ought to have a try.
There are people who think they ought to be reformed.
We all know that things are not always what they ought to be.
You ought to do something, you know; it’ll be fatal for you to have nothing to do.
Have I said anything I oughtn’t?
“I ought to have told Soames that I think him comic,” he thought.
I suppose she is right. I oughtn’t to have tried to speak to her!
By the end of the evening I almost felt that I ought to call him “Uncle Jack.”
It’ll be lovely round there today. – Yes, it ought to be quite nice.
It’s the last of the Madeira I had from Mr. Jolyon when we came in here; it ought to be in prime condition still.
Task 2. Paraphrase the given sentences so as to use ought (oughtn’t) to followed by a correct form of the infinitive.
Model: I felt it would be only proper to follow his advice → I felt I ought to follow his advice.
I knew it would be improper if I opened the letter.
I recommended you to finish your work before going out.
I advise you not to eat between meals; it’ll make you fat.
I disapprove of your smoking so much; you are wasting your money and doing harm to your health.
It’s a pity I didn’t take those books back to the library last week.
It was wrong of you not to tell our guide that you wanted to go sightseeing all by yourself.
You didn’t wait till the lights were green before crossing the road, and it was wrong, you know.
It was unreasonable of you to have crossed the road when the lights were red.
I wish you had been there. The performance was wonderful.
If he starts at eight he will probably be there by one o’clock.
Task 3. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitive.
It’s six o’clock. They ought (to leave) already.
You are a big girl and you ought (to tidy up) your room yourself.
It was he who ought (to arrange) their trip. But he failed to do it.
They ought (to warn) their mother that they would return home late.
You ought (to apologize) for having been so rude to her.
You may be sure that he will do what he ought (to do).
You ought (to show) respect for old people.
She ought (to write) to her parents as soon as she arrived in Chicago.
You ought (to write) to your mother at least once a week so that she shouldn’t worry.
You ought (to find) time to finish the experiment.
Task 4. Translate the following sentences into English.
Вам следует сейчас же извиниться перед этой дамой.
Вам не следовало торопиться давать обещание. Надо было хорошенько подумать.
Ему не следовало говорить с ней подобным тоном. Она очень обидчива.
Вам следовало погладить эти вещи до того, как они высохли.
Мне следовало ожидать, что они опоздают. Они ведь и раньше опаздывали.
Вам следовало подождать еще минут десять, и вы бы встретили их.
Уже семь часов. Он, вероятно, скоро вернется.
Раз вы не застали ее дома, вам надо было оставить ей записку.
Вам следует все сделать так, как сказал Марк.
Какая сегодня чудесная погода! Мы, наверно, хорошо проведем день за городом.
Task 5. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitive. Comment on the meanings of ought to and should.
You ought (to put) it out of your mind. It has nothing to do with you.
Even if you disliked her at first sight, you should (to be) polite.
I hate the idea, but the publishers think I ought (to photograph) for the new edition.
You should (to buy) the evening newspaper at the station; they don’t sell them here.
The doctor told him that he ought (to have) long walks and (to go) to bed early.
I don’t know what he is doing now. I think he should (to sleep), as it is already eleven o’clock.
The risk was very small, but whatever it was I think you should (to take) it.
Judging by the silence the children ought (to play) some absorbing game.
You should not (to try) to influence him. Let him do as he chooses.
She ought not (to show) her surprise. It embarrassed them dreadfully.
Where is the car? You should not (leave) it unattended.
He couldn’t see anything. He thought he ought (to bring) a torch.
You should (to see) him yesterday on horseback.
The doctor said it was appendicitis and she ought (to operate) on.
You should (to take) my advice and (to go) back home. With your abilities you will find a better job there.
Task 6. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences choosing between ought to and should.
He looked more than ever out of place; he ___ have stayed at home.
I don’t think people ___ gossip like that about other people.
“Strange,” said the boy, “how, when people are either very old or very young, they are always wanting to do something they ___ (not) do.”
“It is very wicked of you,” she said. “You ___ be ashamed of yourself.”
She is a clever girl and her French ___ be perfect.
She ___ have been more tactful.
___ I talk to Maurice? He ___ (not) behave like this.
I don’t know why he ___ want to see George.
“I’m not very fit. I’m having trouble with my leg.” – “I see. Well, I think you ___ go and see a doctor.”
I realize now I ___ (not) have said anything.
I think you ___ let your parents know we are here.
It’s late. You ___ go to bed.
Task 7. Translate the following sentences into English using ought to and should where possible.
Я прошу прощения. Мне не нужно было этого говорить.
Я думаю, вам следует проявлять больше уважения к старшим.
Не стоит задавать таких вопросов.
Мне не надо было с ним спорить, но я не знал, что он такой обидчивый.
Не стоит быть столь критичным в твоём возрасте, Фрэнк.
«Энн – моя сестра». – «Мне следовало бы догадаться. Вы похожи на неё».
Ей надо было раньше об этом вспомнить.
Вам следовало выйти на предыдущей остановке. Теперь вам придётся вернуться обратно.
Не нужно обращать внимание на то, что она говорит – просто она устала и поэтому в плохом настроении.
Спросите об этом Нору. Она должна знать.
Вы выглядите усталым. Вам не следовало работать над докладом допоздна.
Почему бы вам его не пригласить?
Вы должны помогать своим престарелым родителям.
Вам не следовало выходить на улицу в такую погоду. Вы ещё не вполне здоровы.
Постучите, он должен быть у себя в кабинете.
Вам следует взять с собой тёплую одежду. Лето может быть холодным.
Как странно, что он ничего об этом не сказал.
Думаю, ему следует согласиться на этот план. Это самый лучший выход из положения.
Task 8. Fill in the blanks with ought to, have to, be to.
Don’t contradict her, you ___ to respect her age.
She is not a bad sort, if somewhat capricious; so you sometimes ___ to put up with her whims.
The situation grew awkward. He felt that something ___ to be done, or else the party would break up; so he ___ to say a few conciliating words to put the guests at their ease.
He was boiling with rage, but he ___ to control his feelings not to give himself away.
I thought I ___ to do something to return their hospitability.
Not a living thing ___ to be seen.
Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the business much longer, you ___ to know better.
You are a father, you ___ not to neglect your duties to your children.
According to the rules of the game a football player ___ not to touch the ball with his hands.
He ___ to have taken the floor and spoken in favour of the proposal.
Task 9. Fill in the blanks with ought to, have to, be to or need followed by the appropriate infinitive.
Mother always tells me that I ___ (to be) more careful.
You ___ (not to tell) him my phone number, he knows it.
You ___ (not to say) that! See how distressed she is.
I don’t want to do it, but I ___.
All the same, I think you ___ (to see) a doctor. There must be something the with you.
Don’t forget that you ___ (to get up) at seven!
But there was no other way out. I ___ (to communicate) with him.
Such things ___ (not to allow).
You ___ (not to write) such a long composition. The teacher only asked for 200 words, and you have written 400.
“Perhaps I ___ (not to trouble) you”. He closed his lips tight. He was offended.
Task 10. Translate the following sentences into English using oughtn’t to, shouldn’t or needn’t followed by a perfect infinitive
Тебе не надо было приводить приятеля сегодня. Я плохо себя чувствую.
Мне не следовало говорить им этого.
Ты зря заказал номер в гостинице. У нас есть свободная комната.
Тебе не следовало жениться так рано.
Ты зря написал ему об этом. Теперь он будет беспокоиться.
Ты зря приехал в Лондон. Его здесь нет.
Ты зря был так груб с ней. Теперь она плачет.
Ты зря приехал на машине. Здесь нет моста через реку.
Task 1. Comment on the meanings of will and would in the following sentences.
Old Lady Bland argued with him, but he would not listen to reason.
Each time we went out together he would show me something new, something interesting.
I will say it again and again.
I asked him to lend me his pen because mine wouldn’t write.
Bring him back if he’ll come.
All that I would tell them was that Uncle Nick was ill.
She was the sort of girl any man might be glad to bring to a dance if she would come.
Will you come round tomorrow?
The tap in the bathroom won’t stop running.
When he returned, I repeated my offer of food, but he would take nothing.
“What time is it?” “Half past twelve.” “Well, the last bus will have left.”
Often, after dinner, he will settle down in an armchair to read the paper.
Would you really do it for me?
He would smoke a pipe before going to bed.
“He talked of his new car the whole evening.” “He would.”
Task 2. Paraphrase the following sentences using will or would in the negative form.
Model: The boy doesn’t/didn’t go to bed. → The boy won’t/wouldn’t go to bed.
The child doesn’t drink milk.
She didn’t do what I asked her.
The man doesn’t talk to anybody.
The girl didn’t tell why she was crying.
Eliza didn’t tell the truth.
She doesn’t want to be operated on.
Charles didn’t send them a letter.
The boy doesn’t do his homework.
The bag doesn’t close.
The radio set didn’t work.
The girl didn’t tell us why she was crying.
The car doesn’t start.
The doll didn’t close its eyes.
The man doesn’t talk with anybody.
Tom didn’t eat tomato soup.
Task 3. Translate the following sentences into English.
Не стану я на вас работать.
Так как портфель не открывался, нам пришлось сломать замок.
Дождь не перестает. Придется остаться дома.
По вечерам он рассказывал нам интересные истории о путешествиях и пиратах.
Уже семь часов, а Ник все не просыпается.
Он упорно продолжал молчать, не желая разговаривать с нами.
Я не буду извиняться, т.к. я не сделал ничего плохого.
В детстве я любил кататься на велосипеде.
Открыть окно? Здесь очень душно.
Мы ждали уже полчаса, но гроза все никак не прекращалась.
Это, по всей вероятности, и есть тот дом, где живет наш племянник.
Мы все пытаемся ей помочь, но она никого не слушает.
Она часами сидела на берегу и смотрела, как волны набегали на берег.
Это, по-видимому, стадион.
Вы не против, если я закурю?
Я не допущу того, чтобы они оскорбляли членов моей семьи.
Можете смеяться, если хотите, но я стану клоуном и буду работать в цирке.
Я полагаю, что вы уже слышали новость: приехал профессор Тилфорд.
«Вы не угостите меня чашечкой кофе?» – спросил он Лизу вдруг.
«Узнав, что Мэг была виновницей происшествия, Ричард разразился бранью». «Ну, этого и следовало ожидать».
Task 4. Fill in the blanks with shall or will in the correct form.
“No harm ___ be done to your child. I ___ see to it,” the doctor tried to soothe the mother.
If you ___ not take any steps you ___ never get rid of the malady.
May I go on with the work or ___ I wait for further instructions?
He __ sit for hours reading, playing no attention to what was going on around him.
___ help you with the work or will you manage it yourself?
Don’t worry, everything __ be arranged as you want, I promise you.
We tried to persuade him, but he ___ listen to our arguments.
We waited for two hours, but the rain ___ not stop.
But remember this: what I can’t have, no one else ___. Do you understand? No one else!
He ___ always say something which makes us laugh.
Task 5. Translate the following sentences using shall, will, should or would.
Вы этого не сделаете. Запомните это!
Я сделаю эту работу к сроку, хотя бы мне и пришлось не спать двое суток.
Магазин, должно быть, еще открыт. Если вы поторопитесь, то еще успеете купить то, что вам надо.
Он сказал, что ему придется уехать через несколько дней, но они и слушать его не хотели.
Бесполезно доказывать ему, что вы правы. Его никогда нельзя убедить. Он очень упрямый.
Но это ни в коей мере тебя не касается. Незачем тебе было вмешиваться в их дела. Они сами во всем разберутся.
Сейчас, должно быть, довольно поздно.
Вы ответите за все ваши действия.
Вам придется еще раз сдавать экзамен.
Вам бы следовало дать нам знать, что вы не придете. Мы бы вас не ждали.
«Мне бы хотелось, чтобы ты не спорила с отцом», - сказала мама.
Я лег и попытался заснуть, но сон не шел.
Вы прекрасно знали, что это бесполезно, и все же вы это сделали.
Напрасно вы не прочли этот роман, прежде чем идти в театр. Вы бы получили двойное удовольствие от спектакля.
Вы бы только видели ее лицо, когда она услышала эту новость.
Task 6. Insert the modals would, could, should or might.1.
Donna: If I won the ten million dollar lottery jackpot, I ___ afford to quit my job and travel the world.
Sam: Where ___ you go if you had that much money?
Donna: I don’t know, I ___ choose to spend a year in Paris - or perhaps I ___ go to Kenya.
Sam: How often do you buy lottery tickets?
Donna: Never... I guess if I want to win the lottery, I ___ try buying some tickets.
Sam: That ___ help.
Waitress: Hi, my name is Sandy – I’ll be your waitress tonight. What can I get for you?
Tony: I haven’t decided yet. Is there anything you ___ recommend? Is there anything you think I ___ try?
Waitress: You ___ try the Cajun catfish - or perhaps the Gumbo. They’re both delicious.
Tony: That sounds wonderful, but that ___ be a little too spicy for me. Actually, the prawns sound good. ___ I have the barbecued prawns?
Waitress: Sure, ___ you like a salad with that?
Jan: What ___ we look for in a candidate when we vote in a presidential election?
Peter: I think citizens ___ vote for a President who has the ability to improve the quality of life in the United States.
Jan: What ___ you do if you were President of the United States?
Peter: I ___ focus on environmental pollution.
Jan: Every candidate always says he’s going to do that, but it’s a really complicated problem – it’s not one which is easily solved. What makes you think you ___ actually stop pollution?
Task 1. Explain the meaning of dare in the following sentences.
He felt he dared not reply.
Her face bore an expression of such ferocity that no one dared come near to speak with her.
I dare say you’re a little tired after your walk, dear.
He dared not look into her face.
I didn’t dare to ask him to call off the trip.
She was aware that they were too intent upon their business to think that anyone was watching them, but she dared not move.
Who dares to jump over the stream?
She didn’t dare to leave the house in case he telephoned.
How dare you to read my diary?
Task 2. Paraphrase the following sentences using dare or dared.
I’m not brave enough to speak to him about his daughter.
The boys didn’t have the courage to wake the father.
How can you be venture to refuse to take part in our work?
How can you be so impudent as to go out by yourself after the orders I gave you?
I haven’t the courage to reproach her for it.
How could he venture to strike me when I was down?
How can you be so impudent as to ask her for help after all you’ve done to her?
I wanted to ask for some time off but I had no courage.
I challenge you to tell him the truth.
You are impudent enough to speak with your mother so rudely.
Task 3. Complete the following sentences.
I dare not speak at the meeting because …
How dare you say that. You …
He dared not speak to her as …
Harry dared not go to school that day after …
How dare you neglect your duties, you …
I dare say …
She hasn’t mastered the language yet, but I dare say …
They dared not to look at each other because …
Task 4. Translate the following sentences into English.
Как ты смеешь разговаривать со взрослыми в подобном тоне?!
У меня не хватает смелости поговорить с ней на эту тему.
И у тебя хватает наглости жаловаться на его плохое к тебе отношение? На его месте я бы с тобой построже.
Как ты смеешь вмешиваться не в свое дело?
Дженни поступила необдуманно, но я считаю, что ее не надо судить слишком строго.
Как ты смеешь так плохо о нем говорить? Ты ведь его совсем не знаешь.
Осмелюсь сказать, что она настолько запуталась во лжи, что теперь ей самой трудно отличить, когда она говорит правду, а когда лжет.
У него не хватило смелости прийти к вам и рассказать обо всем. Но я уверен, что он ни в чем не виноват.
Have another cup of tea before you go, Mrs. Jones.
I should be off really. I want to catch the ten o’clock bus into town and it’s nearly quarter to already.
You may as well have another cup and catch the 10.30. You’d have to run to catch the 10 o’clock now and you might miss it even then.
All right, then, thank you. And can I have another of those chocolate biscuits?
Of course you can. Here you are …
Did you read about that awful business at the new comprehensive school last week?
Yes, I did. A boy assaulted a teacher with a knife. Whatever next?
He ought to be given a good beating. They’re too soft on children these days. The children can do what they like, and the teachers can’t do anything to punish them … May I have another biscuit?
Of course – help yourself. I don’t know why they abolished corporal punishment. Things like that didn’t happen when we were at school because the teachers kept these hooligans under control by using a cane.
That’s true … Ah, well, I must go now … Oh dear! Is your clock right? It can’t be twenty past ten already.
I’m afraid it is. You’ve missed the 10.30 now. You may as well stay here for a chat and go into town after lunch.
Yes, I might as well. But Mrs. Brown is expecting me. I really ought to ring her and tell her that I won’t be turning up. Could I use your phone?
I’m getting chilled to the bone. What can Freddy be doing al this time? He’s been gone twenty minutes.
Not so long. But he ought to have got us a cab by this.
He won’t get no cab, not until half past eleven, missus, when they come back after dropping their theatre fares.
But we must have a cab. We can’t stand here until half past eleven. It’s too bad.
Well, it ain’t my fault, missus.
If Freddy had a bit of gumption, he would have got one at the theatre door.
What could he have done, poor boy?
Other people got cabs. Why couldn’t he?
[Freddy rushes in out of the rain]
Well, haven’t you got a cab?
There’s not one to be had for love or money.
Oh, Freddy, there must be one. You can’t have tried.
It’s too tiresome. Do you expect us to go and get one ourselves?
I tell you they’re all engaged. The rain was so sudden: nobody was prepared; and everybody had to take a cab. I’ve been to Charing Cross one way and nearly to Ludgate Circus the other; and they were all engaged …
You really are very helpless, Freddy. Go again and don’t come back until you have found a cab, Freddy.
I shall simply get soaked for nothing.
And what about us? Are we to stay here all night in this draught, with next to nothing on? You selfish pig.
C. had better
2. The book is optional. My professor said we could read it if we needed extra credit. But we __________ read it if we don’t want to.
B. must not
C. don’t have to
3. Susan _________ hear the speaker because the crowd was cheering so loudly.
C. might not
4. The lecture _________ begin at 2 o’clock.
A. has to
C. is to
5. You __________ go to the post office. I’ll go later.
6. You __________ be rich to be a success. Some of the most successful people I know haven’t got a penny to their name.
B. don’t have to
7. You __________ worry so much. It doesn’t do you any good. Either you get the job, or you don’t. If you don’t, just apply for another one. Eventually, you will find work.
B. don’t have to
8. You _________ leave the table once you have finished your meal and politely excused yourself.
9. Jenny’s engagement ring is enormous! It _________ a fortune.
A. must cost
B. must be costing
C. must have cost
10. _________ we move into the living room? It’s more comfortable in there and there’s a beautiful view of the lake.
11. We _______ phone Mary. It’s her birthday today.
B. ought to
C. has to
12. I’m not really sure where Beverly is. She __________ in the living room, or perhaps she's in the backyard.
A. can’t be sitting
B. may be sitting
C. must be sitting
13. You ___________ forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying on time.
B. don’t have to
14. Yesterday, I ___________ cram all day for my French final. I didn’t get to sleep until after midnight.
A. had to
15. We _________ no longer suffer the injustice of oppression! Freedom shall be ours!
16. If I had gone with my friends to Jamaica, I _________ scuba diving lessons.
A. might be taken
B. ought to be taking
C. could have taken
17. I went to college today but I ___________ as all the lectures were cancelled.
A. didn’t have to
B. needn’t have gone
18. “Was your suitcase very heavy?” “Yes, but I _________ it by myself.”
Task 3. Insert the missing modal verbs and the infinitives following them in the correct form.
You will ____ (to speak) Spanish in another few months.
I’d like ___ (to skate).
Guests ___ (to leave) their valuables in the hotel safe if they wish.
It was lucky we ___ (to change) any money as all the banks were shut.
We ___ (to rush) after all. The plane was over an hour late taking off.
You ___ (to have) a special licence to drive lorries weighting over two tons.
Sorry to interrupt, Professor Gripwell, ___ I ___ (to ask) a quick question?
In the future, European citizens ____ (to travel) from one country to another inside Europe without going through customs.
We really ____ (to have) the car washed. It’s absolutely filthy!
I’ve no idea where the inn is. So when we get to the village we ___ (to ask) for directions.
Unlike many other countries, young men in Britain ___ (to do) compulsory military service as it was abolished in 1957.
You ___(to keep) the receipt. They won’t talk it back without one now.
I hope we ___ (to build) an extension on the back of our house next year.
At my last job, we ___ (to make) any personal phone calls from the office. We ___ (to use) the public call box in the street.
“Liz seems to be avoiding you”. “I ____ (to tell) you for certain. She ___ (to hurt) by my words about her friend”.
Task 4. Paraphrase the following sentences using the words in bold.
1. I’m sure he is working in the reading room.
must He ________________ in the reading room.
2. Let’s have lunch in half an hour.
can We _________________ in half an hour.
3. It isn’t necessary for you to work on Saturday.
have You _________________ on Saturday.
4. I advise you to open a bank account.
should You _________________ a bank account.
5. It is possible that she has forgotten to call.
may She __________________ to call.
6. It wasn’t necessary for him to buy a gift, but he did.
have He ___________________ a gift.
7. I’m sure Sylvia didn’t mean what she said.
can’t Sylvia ________________ what she said.
8. It’s forbidden to take your bag into the building.
must You __________________ into the building.
9. I’m sure she understood what I was saying.
have She _________________ what I was saying.
10. Perhaps he took the train to work this morning.
may He ___________________ this morning.
11. He was about to fall.
might He ____________________ have fallen.
12. He got used to jogging every morning.
would He ______________________ every morning.
Perhaps the car needs a new engine.
need The car _____________________ a new engine.
Why don’t you go to Canada?
could You _______________________ for a holiday.
Shall I get you a cup of tea?
me Would _____________________ you a cup of tea?
Sue will probably go to see her aunt.
is Sue ____________________ to see her aunt.
It wasn’t necessary for them to buy such a big car as they did.
have They __________________________ such a big car.
It’s forbidden to smoke in this building.
not You ______________________ in this building.
It would be a good idea to change your hairstyle.
better You ____________________ your hairstyle.
Why didn’t anybody warn me about the bus strike?
have You _____________________ about the bus strike.
It isn’t necessary for you to attend the meeting.
need You ____________________ the meeting.
I’m sure he is seeing Ruth.
be He _______________ Ruth.
I’m sure he didn’t send you this letter.
sent He ___________________ this letter.
It’s forbidden to talk to the driver while he is driving.
must You _____________________ the driver while he is driving.
It wasn’t necessary for him to give me the money back soon.
given He _____________________ the money back soon.
I’d better start studying for my exams soon.
ought I ________________________ for my exams soon.
Running in the corridors is forbidden.
allowed You _____________________ in the corridors.
I advise you to have your car serviced.
should You ______________________ car serviced.
I’m sure Sylvia didn’t mean what she said.
can’t Sylvia ___________________ what she said.
It wasn’t necessary for him to buy a gift, but he did.
have He ______________________ a gift.
“Could you help me lift this box?” “Of course, I could.”
I won’t be in the country when you two are tying the knot.
Need I to book a table in advance?
Shall I look OK if I wear this?
May these flowers be from your fiancé?
Although she was exhausted, she could finish the race.
I think a weekend away would be a good idea.
Must I do it today? – No, you mustn’t.
You shall have to put two first-class stamps on this envelop.
Mick was being able to change the faulty fuse on his own.
Would they mind if my bringing a friend along?
You should to brush your teeth twice a day.
I must have my car serviced yesterday.
According to statistics, smokers shouldn’t live as long as non-smokers.
This restaurant must be good. It is always empty.
Task 6. Supply the necessary modal verbs or their equivalents for the following sentences, noticing carefully the Russian equivalents given in brackets.
He ___ not and ___ not believe her.(не мог, не хотел)
He came out of water, smiling. “You ___ have come earlier,” he said. “We ___ have swum together. The water is great.” (зря не пришел, могли бы)
He knows he ___ read classics. He ___ change to something else.(не нужно, мог бы)
He ___ have been unable to give them our message and they ___ be waiting for us.(должно быть, возможно)
You ___ take your raincoat. It ___ rain. (следует, может)
You ___ have come. We ___ have finished it without you. (зря пришел, могли бы)
The ground is wet. It ___ have been raining here. (должно быть)
“Monday will be my last day in London,” Hudson said. “I ___ ___ stay down here fairly late.” (может быть, придется)
Jessie Owens ___ run and jump better than anyone else in the 1930s and in 1935 he ___ to break four world records in one hour. (мог, смог)
___ Robert have told a lie? (неужели)
Who ___ have met mother? (должен был)
You ___ come tomorrow. I’ll be busy. (не нужно)
“Uncle Edwin,” the boy cried, “you promised to help me with my toy train. It ___ run.” (не работает)
He ___ do it as I say. (сделает именно так)
You ___ control your temper. I ___ not have you behave like that in my house.
I ___ not tell you what I know about him. (предпочел бы)
I’m sorry but I ___ be off. I ___ met Betty at the cinema. Oh, it’s a quarter to seven. She ___ be waiting for me. I’ll ___ take a taxi. (должен, должен, должно быть, придется)
I ___ see him on Tuesday night. (должен)
I don’t think people ___ gossip like that about other people. (должны)
It ___ have been worse. (могло бы быть)
Task 7. Finish each of the following sentences in two different ways so that they are as similar in meaning as possible to the sentences printed before them.
Model: If I were you, I’d have the lobster.
I think you ought to have the lobster.
You really should have the lobster.
Why ever did you go to such much trouble with the refreshments?
You really needn’t …
It really …
There is to be no talking whatsoever during the examination.
Candidates will not …
Silence is to …
I really must be going now.
I’ve absolutely …
I really mustn’t …
She should take some form of identification with her, shouldn’t she?
It might be …
It may be possible for you to go there without a visa after all.
It may not …
You might not …
Don’t you think it’s time we made our excuses and left?
Task 8. Find Russian equivalents to the given proverbs. Make up short dialogues to illustrate one of these proverbs.
Don’t put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
Gold may be easily told.
Man shall not live by bread alone.
What is to be, will be.
Leopard cannot change his spots.
A bird may be known by its song.
Fools may sometimes speak to the purpose.
If you dance, you must pay the fiddler.
One cannot square the circle.
A foul mourn may sometimes turn to a fair day.
What is done cannot be undone.
One must howl with the wolves.
Come what may.
It could happen even to a bishop!
A fair face may hide a foul heart.
He who would eat the nut must first crack the shell.
Task 9. Translate the given sentences into English.
Может быть, она потеряла сумку.
Не могли бы вы сказать, который час?
Сколько ей, по-вашему, лет?
Здесь курить не разрешается.
Мне приходится вставать очень рано.
Вы могли бы предложить свою помощь, когда он попал в беду.
Мы должны подчиняться законам.
Ты за это заплатишь.
Я с большим удовольствием остался бы дома.
Не хотите этого делать – не нужно.
Как ты смеешь говорить такие вещи?
Вряд ли вы его знаете.
Вам следовало бы знать это.
Это вам должно подойти.
Мне подождать вас?
Напрасно вы купили так много хлеба, у нас есть хлеб.
Ему не пришлось ничего о себе рассказывать. Все его хорошо знали.
Ей надо было позвонить домой, ее мать будет волноваться, что ее так долго нет.
Подумать, до чего дело дошло! Кошки стали лучшими друзьями собак.
Незачем было задавать им так много вопросов, все и так ясно.
Он, должно быть, допустил ошибку.
Вам следовало выйти на предыдущей остановке. Теперь вам придется вернуться обратно.
Куда же мне податься?
Откуда мне знать? Я не специалист в этом вопросе.
Я должен вам сказать, что собираюсь поехать на месяц в Швейцарию.
Ему никак не может быть больше сорока.
Может быть, он и сделал это, никто не знает.
Он, должно быть, заблудился.
Напрасно вы рассказали ей об этом несчастном случае.
Я никому не позволю впредь обращаться со мной подобным образом.
Не может быть, чтобы Уильям сказал вам это. Он ничего об этом не знает.
С какой стати я должен принимать твои слова на веру?
Пойдем в кино? Мне хочется посмотреть новую комедию.
Собака не позволяла нам погладить ее, хотя мы кормили ее уже несколько дней.
Тебе должно быть стыдно за свое поведение!
Здесь ничего нельзя было сделать.
Вам придется объяснить ей, почему вы не хотите прийти на ее вечеринку.
Вы должны сообщить нам о своем решении не позднее среды.
Мы уже начинали волноваться. Сьюзан должна была вернуться в пять, а на часах уже было восемь вечера.
Строительство дома должно быть закончено к ноябрю.
Он готов был заплакать от стыда.
Нам так и не удалось отдохнуть этим летом.
Женщина в синем костюме кажется мне знакомой. Должно быть, я где-то ее видел раньше.
Вы никогда о нем не слышали? Ну, так еще услышите!
Ты непременно должен навестить своих дедушку и бабушку. Они так по тебе скучают.
Вам не придется ничего придумывать. Вам скажут, что делать.
Могу я предложить вам чашку чая, доктор?
Нельзя без конца говорить об одном и том же!
Спасибо за обед. Все было очень вкусно, но, к сожалению, мне пора уходить.
Без труда не выловишь и рыбку из пруда.
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