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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Тесты / Контрольные работы с 8-11 класс

Контрольные работы с 8-11 класс

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11 класс

Вариант I 
Task 1: Выберите наиболее подходящее слово или фразу: 
1. In private banking, like in every business, there are … 
a) ancient trials    b)careful listeners    c) factors   d) shot cuts 
2. That man was absolutely … 
a) overstep   b) binary   c) byword   d) illiterate 
3. Loudspeakers tell … about the coming elections. 
a) residents  b) superfluous  c) undertaken  d) toward 
4. …our car broke down, we were able to fix it ourselves. 
a)Although    b)Either    c) Because   d) In spite 
5.You have to sign this … 
a) agree   b) agreeable   c)agreement   d) agreed 
6. Some diseases are carried by insects, … malaria. 
a)moreover  b) in addition to  c) beside  d) for example 
Task 2: Ответьте на вопросвыбрав правильный вариант
1. What is the opposite of the word “late”? 
a) dark     b) green   c) early   d) held up 
2. Which of the following is a synonym for “boring”? 
a) interesting   b) serious   c) dull    d) ugly 
3. Which do we eat at the end of a meal? 
a) dessert   b) desert    c) starter    d) finish 
4. What is the plural of “mouse”?  
a) mouses   b) maze    c)mice    d) moose 
5.Which of the following is a bird? 
a) snake     b) whale    c) rabbit    d) parrot 
6. Which of the following is a synonym for “just”? 
a) kind     b) fair    c) modest    d) stubborn 
Task 3: Выберите правильную временную форму глагола
1.As she … us round the city, she suddenly saw a very strange man. 
a) was showing   b) had shown   c) have shown   d) had been showing 
2. This assembly shop … a few weeks ago. 
a) built   b) was built   c) has built   d) has been built  
3. If I meet him earlier, everything … different. 
a)  will be  b) would be   c) would have been   d) is 
4. I didn’t remember where I … that film before. 
a) have seen    b) saw   c) had been seeing   d) had seen 
5. It seems to me, that you … too loudly. 
a) speak   b) are speaking    c) is speaking   d) have been speaking 
6. If you … a million dollars in “Toto”, I think you would stop working. 
a)will win   b) win   c) won   d) had won 
Task 4: Выберите правильный ответ
1. He … behave as a gentleman, because he is a gentleman.                                    
a) may     b) must    c)is able    d) ought                                                                             
2. The lesson will start … 8 o’clock.                                                                                     
a) in   b) on   c)at    d) by                                                                                                            
3.I usually smoke cigarettes or … pipe.                                                                             
a) a   b) -    c) an   d) the                                                                                                   

Total score: 24 points 
4. This car is more … than that one.                                                                             

 (22-24 points – “5” 
 a)fast    b) faster   c) modern   d) fastest                                                                    

   18-21 points – “4” 
5. … you like to go to the cinema after dinner?                                                          

 14 – 17 points – “3”          
a) Would   b)  Could    c) Have    d) Are                                                                          
13 points or less – “2”) 
6. It’s a small town in the south … England. 
a) -   b) from   c) to     d)of     


Вариант II 
Task 1: Выберите наиболее подходящее слово или фразу: 
1. Football is Britain’s national sport, … golf. 
a) for example   b) furthermore    c) in addition to  d) although 
2. As a rule, an ambassador has diplomatic … . 
a) disarmament   b) hemicycle   c) immunity   d) irregularity 
3. I don’t believe in the … of living creatures in outer space. 
a)  existence   b) exist   c) existed   d) existable 
4. The Rocky Mountain goat of North America is not true goat … a goat antelope.  
a) also   b) but  c) any   d) yet   
5. The old lady wasn’t able to step over the threshold and … in her room. 
a) go out    b) get over  c) get in   d) stayed  
6. This city is full of … 
a) loudspeakers  b) undertakers   c) bikes   d) pedestrians   
Task 2: Ответьте на вопросвыбрав правильный вариант
1.  Which of the following is used in the plural only? 
a) screws    b) scissors   c) hammers    d) nails 
2. Which of the following is an adjective-forming suffix? 
a) –ness   b) –less    c) –ence    d) –ship  
3. Which of the following takes care of our teeth? 
a) a surgeon  b) a priest   c) a dentist   d) a turner 
4. Where do you go if you want to have your clothes cleaned? 
a) baker’s    b) drycleaner’s    c) chemist’s    d) drocer’s 
5. What is another word for the legend of a map? 
a) essay   b) myth   c) key   d) story 
6. What is an antonym of “brave”? 
a) cunning    b) fearful   c) cowardly   d) awful 
Task 3: Выберите правильную временную форму глагола
1. I didn’t know who … be my travelling companion.  
a) had    b) had to   c) would have to   d) has   
2. The matter is, that I … a terrible headache.   
a)  have   b) has    c) am    d) was 
3. Today I have told him what I really … of him.   
a) think    b) thought   c) was thought    d) have thought  
4. If he asked me last week, I … him. 
a) helped   b) will help   c) help   d) would have help 
5. Next week our friends … abroad. 
a) went     b) go    c) are going    d) would be going 
6. I … like for years.  
a) don’t feel    b) am not being feel    c) haven’t felt     d) didn’t feel                                         
Task 4: Выберите правильный ответ:                                                                                          
1. You … to meet her, because her bag is very heavy.                                                    
a) are able   b) must    c) need     d) ought                                                                                                                   
3. What … interesting books!                                                                                                                    
a) a     b) an    c) the    d) –  
4. The Trans-Siberian railway is … in the world.    
a) long   b)longer   c)the longest    d) the most long                                                             
Total score: 24 points                                           
5. “I have left all my papers at home. Shall I bring them now?” – “No, you … .”         

   (22-24 points – “5”                                 
a) mustn’t    b) needn’t    c) may not   d) don’t have                                                           

 18-21 points – “4”                                             
6. Do not do many things … the same time                                                                          

 14 – 17 points – “3”                                                                                 
a) at    b)on     c)in      d) upon                                                                                                 

   13 points and less – “2”)                          


Вариант III 
Task 1: Выберите наиболее подходящее слово или фразу: 
1. He is a … singer. 
a) professionals   b) professional    c) professor    d) unprofessionally 
2. What … sights in London have you visited? 
a) another   b) other  c) else   d) others  
3. There are lots of legends about the English king William I, who is known … William the Conqueror. 
a) for    b) as    c) like    d) to 
4. I’m sorry I’m late. It’s all my … . 
a) fault   b) guilt    c) crime    d) shortcoming 
5. I’d like to buy this sweater, but I haven’t got … money. 
a) many    b) some   c) no   d) enough 
6. It was … a nice day that we decided to go up the river by boat. 
a) so    b) very    c) such     d) too  
Task 2: Ответьте на вопрос, выбрав правильный вариант: 
1. Which of these words names your relative after you have married? 
a) cousin   b) step-mother   c) grandfather    d)mother-in-law 
2. Which of the following verbs is never used in Continuous Tenses? 
a) buy   b) believe   c) increase    d) get 
3. What is the opposite of the word “legal”? 
a) illegal    b) unlegal    c) non-legal    d) not legal 
4. What is the noun form of comfortable? 
a) comfortment   b) comfortness   c) comfort    d) comfortship 
5. What do you call a foreigner? 
a) a person related to other countries  b) a native  c) a newcomer   d) a fortcomer 
6. What do you call a person who can neither hear nor speak? 
a) handicapped   b) injured   c) deaf and dumb   d) blind 
Task 3: Выберите правильную временную форму глагола
1. I would feel safer if you … more carefully. 
a) drive   b) drove   c) had driven   d) will drive 
2. Our parents made us … that they disagreed with our mode of life. 
a) realized  b) realize  c) realizing   d) have been realizing  
3. If I … your brother, I would take care of you. 
a) will be  b) am   c) were   d) had been  
4. It wasn’t necessary … the doctor. 
a) will call   b) to be call   c) have called    d) to call 
5. They said that our time-table … . 
a) changes    b) changed   c) was changed    d) had been changed  
6. Yesterday I … to make a report. 
a) tell     b) has told     c) was telling     d) was told  
Task 4: Выберите правильный ответ
1. John … have done it long ago. 
a) need     b) should    c)ought     d) has to 
2. “Couldn’t we go a little faster? I’m … a hurry.” 
a) on   b) in     c) at    d) of   
3. Give me … match, please. 
a) the   b) a    c) -   d) an 
4. His plan is … of all. 
a) the most practical  b) more practical   c) practicaler    d) the practicalest                
Total score: 24 points                                                                          
5. “Should I take my umbrella?” –“No, you … . It isn’t going to rain.”                        

    (22-24 points – “5”                                     
a) mustn’t    b) needn’t     c) have to   d) was                                                                      

   18-21 points – “4”                                
6. They will open the shop … 9 o’clock.                                                                         

         14 – 17 points – “3”                          
a) in   b) on   c) at    d) until                                                                                                

       13 points and less – “2”)              


Вариант IV 
Task 1: Выберите наиболее подходящее слово или фразу: 
1. My parents have … lived in London. 
a) always   b) usually    c)sometimes    d) ever 
2. They had their own set of house keys so that they could … themselves … after school. 
a) get, out    b) let, in   c) get, off   d) go, out 
3. Finally, the doctor … waiting for us . . .  
a) got tired of   b) came out   c) kept off    d) went away 
4. Before I could figure out that I … at the wrong station the train left. 
a) got in    b) ran away   c) went out   d) got off 
5. The fact … money orders can usually be easily cashed has made them a popular form of payment. 
a) of   b) that   c) is that   d) which is  
6. California relies heavily on income from fruit crops, and … . 
a) Florida also   b) Florida too  c) Florida is as well   d) so does Florida 
Task 2: Ответьте на вопросвыбрав правильный вариант
1. What is a honey moon? 
a) a beehive   b) a bee that brings honey  c) the full moon   d) the month after marriage 
2. What does a train do when approaching a station? 
a) accelerates   b) slows down  c) whistles  d) stops at the traffic lights 
3. How can I … to the post office? 
a) reach   b) get    c) find    d) arrive  
4. Can we … at your house and go to the party together? 
a) come  b) see  c) find    d) meet  
5. Why is it important to speak with children about their “online” events? 
a) to excite them b) to make them safe c) to make acquaintance with children  d) to bring them closer 
6. What is the plural of “tooth”? 
a)tooths   b)toothes   c)teeth   d)teeths  
Task 3: Выберите правильную временную форму глагола
1. Apparently … it in England. 
a) freeze   b) frozen   c) will be freezing    d) freezing 
2. There has not been a great response to the sale, …? 
a) does here  b) hasn’t there   c) hasn’t it     d) has there 
3. The travel agent says we … a great time in Spain. 
a) will have   b) would have   c) have   d) will have had 
4. His mother insists on his … with his studies. 
a) to go on  b) going on  c) having go on  d) be going on   
5. I usually wear skirts but today I … black trousers. 
a) wears   b) am wearing   c) wearing   d) was wearing 
6. “Have you ever been to France?” – “Yes, I … there last August”. 
a) had been   b) went    c) have been    d) were  
Task 4: Выберите правильный ответ
1. You knew he was ill yesterday. You … on him. 
a) should call  b) must call   c) had to call    d) should have called 
2. Are there any letters … me? 
a) at    b) for    c) till    d)to 
3. Which would you like … apple or … orange? 
a) a   b) an   c) -    d) the 
4. Don’t go by plane. It’s expensive.                                                                                   
Total score: 24 points                                          
a) less   b) much more   c) a little most    d) many more                                                  

(22-24 points – “5”                                     
5. We … to meet him at the station at 6 pm, but he didn’t come.                              

    18-21 points – “4”                          
a)were   b)can   c) must   d) might                                                                                       

  14 – 17 points – “3”                                     
6. You must  make … your mind.                                                                                         

  13 points and less – “2”)                           
a) to   b)behind    c) above    d) up                                                                                                          


Пояснительная записка к срезовой контрольной работе 
по английскому языку для учащихся 11-х классов, обучающихся по учебнику 
11 – го класса авторa О. Л. Гроза. 
    Данная проверочная работа предлагается учащимся 11-го класса по 
учебному материалу I, II разделов (“What’s in a language?”, “People and 
places”), который был пройден учащимися в I четверти. Работа составлена с 
учётом основных требований ЕГЭ по лексико-грамматическому материалу и 
позволяет быстро в тестовой форме проверить уровень знаний учащихся по 
    Проверочная работа составлена в 4 вариантах и включает в себя 4 задания 
по следующим темам: 
- задание №1 – лексический материал пройденных разделов, а также 
содержит информацию, усвоенную ранее;  
-задание №2 – определение лексической формы слова/ выражения; 
-задание №3 – грамматическую информацию, касающуюся временных форм 
глаголов в английском языке; 
- задание №4 – пройденный ранее грамматический материал.  
   Все задания составлены для учащихся в форме тестов. Тест оценивается в 
баллах. Максимальное количество баллов в работе – 24. 
При наличии ошибок у учащихся предлагается следующая шкала оценивания 
«5» - 22-24 баллов; 
«4» - 18-21 баллов; 
«3» - 14-17 баллов; 
 13 баллов и менее того – «2». 
Инструктаж для учащихся по выполнению  
срезовой контрольной работы по английскому языку в 11-м классе: 
1. Задания не нужно переписывать. 
2. Задания желательно выполнять в заданной последовательности, друг за 
другом от №1 до №4, но можно задания выполнять по своему выбору, лишь 
чётко и правильно определяя номер каждого выполняемого задания. 
3. Ответы к заданиям выполняются в форме теста, например: 1. с. 
4. Писать работу следует чётко и разборчиво, не допуская большого 
количества исправлений и помарок. 
5. Не забудьте перед началом работы указать Ваши имя и фамилию, а также 
класс и его литеру. 




Ключи к срезовой контрольной работе по английскому языку в 11-ом классе,     
обучающихся по учебнику 11-го класса автор 
Вариант I 
Task 1                                Task 2                              Task 3                                 Task 4 
1. d                                    1. c                                      1. a                                       1. b 
2. d                                    2. c                                      2. b                                       2. c                                            
3. a                                    3. a                                      3. b                                       3. a                 
4. a                                    4. c                                      4. d                                       4. c 
5. c                                    5. d                                      5. b                                       5. a 
6. d                                   6. b                                       6. c                                       6. d                           
Вариант II 
Task 1                                Task 2                              Task 3                                 Task 4 
1. c                                    1. b                                      1. c                                       1. d 
2. c                                    2. b                                      2. a                                       2. c                                            
3. a                                    3. c                                      3. a                                        3. d                 
4. b                                    4. b                                      4. d                                       4. c 
5. c                                    5. c                                      5. c                                        5. b 
6. d                                    6. C                                     6. c                                        6. a  
Вариант III 
Task 1                                Task 2                              Task 3                                 Task 4 
1. b                                    1. d                                      1. b                                       1.b 
2. b                                   2. b                                      2. b                                       2. b                                           
3.b                                    3. a                                       3 .c                                       3. b                 
4. a                                    4. c                                      4. d                                       4. a 
5. d                                    5. a                                      5. d                                       5. b 
6.c                                     6. C                                      6. d                                        6.c 
Вариант IV 
Task 1                                Task 2                              Task 3                                 Task 4 
1. a                                   1. d                                       1. c                                       1. d 
2. b                                    2. b                                      2.b                                       2. b                                            
3. a                                    3. b                                      3. a                                       3. b                 
4. d                                    4. d                                       4.b                                       4. b 
5. b                                    5. b                                      5. b                                       5.a 
6.d                                     6. d                                       6. c                                       6. d         
Максимальное количество баллов в работе – 24. 
От 22-24 баллов – «5» 
От 18-21 баллов – «4» 
От 14-17 баллов – «3» 

Менее 13 баллов – «2» 

Контрольная работа по английскому языку для учащихся 11(профильного) класса (вариант 2)

1. Which of the following is used in the plural only?

a) screws b)scissors c) hammers d) nails

2. What is the noun form of comfortable?

a) comfortment b) comfortness c) comfort d) comfortship

3.. I have many interesting books, but this book is…

a) the most interesting b) more interesting c) interestinger d) the interestingest

4.. The manager is … than our chief.

a) the most short b) the shortest c) shorter d) short

5.. These documents are … than those ones.

a) the biggest b) the most big c0 more bigger d) bigger.

6.. What lesson is….?

a) difficulter b) the difficultest c) the most difficult d) more difficult.

7. London and Cairo are … and Japan and Russia are ….

a) cityes, countries b) cities, countries c) citis, countris d) citys, contrys

8. He can go to the University by either of the two …, and there are a lot of … in each of them.

a) busses, persons b) buses, people c) busses, peoples d) buses, peoples

9.Both of these … have….

a) woman, babyes b) womans, babies c) women, babies d) womens, babis

10. He takes very nice…

a) photographs b) photographes c) photograves d)photografs

11. Do you like…? And what about this little white…?

a) mouse, mouce b) mices, mouse c) mouses, mice D) mice, mouse.

12. A friend of mine collects … They are kept in special….

a) watch, boxes b) watches, boxes, c)watches, bokses c) watch, boks.

13. He could open the lock ….

a) easy b) easily c) most easy d) easiest

14. I love listening to … music.

a) live b) living c) alive.

15. Who’s … the orchestra tonight?

a) conducting b) directing c) managing.

16. There’s … of paintings by Manet on in Madrid.

a) an exhibition b) a show c) a demonstration.

17. 70 per cent of the surface of the earth is covered … water.

a) in b) by c) under

18. …. is threatening the lives of animals and plants.

a) Dirty air b) Pollution c) Poisonous air.

19. Many people are interested in watching …

a) wildlife b) wilderness c) wilds

20. “Let’s take the baby outside,” she suggested. “We all need some … air”.

a) pure b) clear c) fresh.

21. There was a small …. At the end of the garden.

a) stream b) river c) waterfall.

22. Tigers … because hunters kill them in order to sell their skins.

a) run the risk b) are insecure c) are in danger.

23. Greenpeace try to prevent a lot of environmental …

a) disasters b) tragedies c) accidents

24. People say that fewer than 1,000 blue whales … in the Southern hemisphere.

a) survive b)remain alive c) cling to life.

25. You should practice speaking English…

a)most b) more c)the most

26.You can’t run as fast …

  1. as me b) than I can c) as I


Итоговая контрольная работа по английскому языку для 11 класса

  1. Напишите прилагательные в положительной, сравнительной и превосходной степенях

a) холодный

b) красивый

c) плохой

d) высокий

  1. Переведите на английский язык:

  1. День Св.Валентина празднуют 14 января

  2. Ты находишь эту пьесу интересной?

  3. В Великобритании некоторые категории людей имеют право на финансовую помощь.

  4. Факс используется, чтобы отравлять и получать срочные сообщения.

  1. Переведите предложения и укажите временную форму.

  1. A microwave oven is used to cook, defrost and reheat pre-prepared food.

  2. I’ve designed my own website.

  3. Kate’s sister considers electronic devices not reliable.

  4. This film keeps you in suspense.

  5. It teaches you to be kind and patient.

  1. Заполните пропуски артиклями, если это необходимо

1) … elderly don’t always understand … young.

2) … Volga is … longest river in … European part of … Russia.

3) I’d like to go on an excursion to … Crimea.

4) What … beautiful rose!

5) Good … luck!

6) Clinton was elected … president in 1992.

  1. Напишите синонимы к словам

wonderful, to be entitled, to forbid

6. Напишите антонимы к словам

happy, realistic, exciting,

Контрольные работы по английскому языку для 8-11 классов.

Present Simple and Present Continuous Tenses


Exercise 1. Open the brackets and put the verbs into Present Simple or Present Conti­nuous.

John: Good morning, (be) Mr Green there (1)?

Jack: No, he (not/be) here (2). He (work) at this moment (3). He usually (work) until 4 p.m. (4).

John: What about Mrs Green? Where (be) she (5)?

Jack: She (do) the shopping (6). She always (do) the shopping on Wednesday afternoons (7).

John: Where (be) the children (8)?

Jack: They (play) football (9). They always (play) football after school (10).

John: How (you/know) all this (11)? Who are you?

Jack: I (be) the burglar (12)!


Exercise 2. How often do they brush their teeth? Fill in an adverb of frequency.


1. He ... brushes 2. She ... brushes his teeth after meals, her teeth.


3. They . their teeth.

brush 4. He ... brushes his teeth.

5. She ... brushes 6. I ... brush my
her teeth. teeth.

Exercise 3. Study the table, make general questions and give negative (-) or positive (+) answers.

Listen to records

Read maga­zines

Eat vege­tables

Watch TV


Harry and Ann


+ +



+ +

Exercise 4. Make 5 questions (General, Who-questipn, 2 Special, Tag-question) to the following sentences.

  1. Sandra always gets up early in the morning.

  2. He is dancing with his girl-friend at the disco now.


Exercise 1. Complete the dialogue using the words in brackets in the correct form.

Ann: Why (you/not/finish) your home­work and come to watch TV (1)?

Bill: Because I (not/understand) it. It is too difficult (2).

Ann: Why (you/not/ask) your teacher to explain it (3)?

Bill: Because I (not/like) him (4).

Ann: And why (you/not/like) him (5)?

Bill: Well, he (always/shout) at me (6).

Ann: Why (he/shout) at you (7)?

Bill: Well, I (not/do) my homework (8).

Ann: Well, no wonder he (shout) at you (9). Give me your book now. We'll try and do it together.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with time expressions from the list:

at the moment every day always
tonight never now

1. She ... eats meat. She is a vegetarian. 2. Mother is baking a cake .... 3. They're going to a party ... . 4. She goes to the swimming pool on Saturdays. 5. He cycles to his friend .... 6. He is playing the drums ....

Exercise 3. Study the table, make general questions and give positive (+) and negative (—) answers.

Play the piano

Read English books

Eat fish

Goto the cinema


; Henry and Mary



+ +



Exercise 4. Make 5 questions (General, Who-question, 2 Special, Tag-question) to the following sentences.

1. Peter has some problems with Maths. 2. They are climbing the mountains with­out a guide.


Exercise 1. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct tense forms (Present Simple or Present Continuous).

1. This machine (not/work). 2. Hurry. The bus (come). I {not/want) to miss it. 3. The river Nile (flow) into the Mediterranean. 4. The river (flow) very fast today — much faster than usual. 5. (it/ever/snow) in China? 6. We usually (grow) cucumbers and tomatoes in our garden, but this year we (not/grow) any. 7. You can take my umbrella. I (not/ need) it at the moment. 8. I usually (enjoy) parties. But I (not/enjoy) this one very much. 9. George says he is eighty years old. But I (not/believe) him. 10. Roger is in Paris at the moment. He (stay) at the Continental Hotel. He usually (stay) at this hotel when he is in Paris.

Exercise 2. Put the words in brackets in the correct place in the sentence.

1.1 keep my room tidy, (always)

  1. Do you go on holiday in winter? (sometimes)

  2. He helps with the housework. (never)

  3. She plays cards, (rarely)

  4. Does he visit his friends? (often)

  5. His shoes are dirty, (always)

  6. They don't eat sweets, (often)

8. We eat a lot of vegetables, (usually)
9.1 am on duty on Mondays, (never)

10. You must tell lies, (never)

Exercise 3. Study the table, ask general questions and make negative (-) and positive (+) sentences.

Tell jokes

Play ,hockey

Do the shop­ping

Dance at the parties


Tim and Tom





+ +

Exercise 4. Make 5 questions (General, Who-question, 2 Special, Tag-question) to the following sentences.

1. Mike says that school is the best thing in the world. 2. I am doing well in a lot of subjects.


Past Simple and Present Perfect Tenses


Exercise 1. Open the brackets and use the verbs in Present Perfect or Past Simple.

Ann: How long (you/have) your car (1)? Bill: I (have) it since Christmas (2). I (buy) it from my uncle (3).

Ann: (you/see) that film before (4)?

Bill: Yes, I (see) it (5) when I (be) in London (6).

Ann: How long (you/be) ill (7)?

Bill: I (be) ill (8) since I (eat) that meal (9).

Ann: When (she/move) into her new house (10)?

Bill: She (move) three months ago (11). I (not/visit) her yet (12).

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with since, for, already, just, yet.

1. Jack has ... finished his work, so his books are still on the table. 2. I ha­ven't seen Sarah ... 1990. 3. Have you ... finished eating? I haven't even started ....

  1. They've lived here ... twenty years.He's ... come back from the journey and he's a bit tired.

Exercise Ask questions about Alison and yourself and answer them.

Met a famous person

Cooked a foreign meal

Had a bad dream

Visited a foreign country

Alison You



several times


Exercise 4. Write a short story about what you did yesterday, have done or haven't done today (about 10 sentences).


Exercise 1. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Present Perfect or Past Simple.

My best friend is called Alison.We (know) each other (1) since we (be) five years old (2). We (always/share) our problems and our troubles (3), but we (also/enjoy) good times together (4) and (spend) many hours laughing together (5). We (live) next door to each other (6) before Alison (move) to London (7), I (visit) her many times since then (8). She (just/buy) a new house (9) but I (not/ see) it yet (10).

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences using time adverbs and expressions from the list:

1. They got married a month .... 2. He hasn't invited us ... . 3. I have had this suit... a year. 4. Helms ... left. 5 She's typed three articles baked an apple pie.

Exercise 3. Ask questions about Sam and yourself and answer them.

Been to the theatre

Seen a new film

Baked a cake

Bought a new umbrella

Sam You

many times

several times



Exercise 4. Write a short story about what your friend did yesterday, has done and hasn't done today.


Exercise 1. Make sentences using the given words.

1. {I/drink/3 cups of tea) for break­fast yesterday. 2. {He/be/ill/twice) this year. 3. {How many times/be/you/ill) last year? 4. {I/not/drink/any coffee) so far today. 5. {He/be/late/three times) this week. 6. {How many cups of milk/ you/have) today? 7. {How many games/the team/win) last season? 8. {How many games/the team/win) so far this season?

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with time adverbs and expressions from the list:

2 hours ago this week How long ago How long since for

1. ... have you been in London? 2. The teacher came ... . 3. Mr Snowdon has been to the cinema twice ... . 4. ... did they move to a new house? 5. I've stud­ied English ... 1991. 6. Peter has been here ... 5 days.

Exercise 3. Ask questions about Paul and yourself and answer them.

ercise 2. Put the words in the correct order.

1. I/on Saturday/didn't/you/at the party/see/night. 2. Some/in the library/ we/interesting/books/found. 3.

Lived in a cottage

Spent a week at the seaside

Been to England

Made friends with a foreigner

Paul You


several times



Exercise 4. Write a short story about what your parents did yesterday, have done and haven't done today.

Revision (Tests 1, 2)


Exercise 1. Choose the correct item. 1. She (don't/doesn't) like TV. 2.1 (am always /always am) happy when I see her. 3. What are you doing? — (I'm writing/I write) a letter. 4. Have you (been ever/ever been) to Paris? 5. (/ got/ I've got) two brothers and a sister. 6. What (did you /did you do) last night? 7. I (went/have been) to Spain last April. 8. She (is visiting/visits) her aunt once a month. 9. Do you enjoy swimming? — Yes, (/ do/I enjoy). 10. Mother (likes/is liking) cooking.

Exercise 2. Put the words in the correct order.

1. He/easily/the game/won. 2. Recently /have/to the theatre/been/you? 3. To London/for a few day/am/I/going. 4. Let­ters/Ann/to her parents/every week/ writes. 5. Remembered/his name/I/a few minutes/after.

Exercise 3. Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. I have been a teacher since three years. 2. Helen isn't here. She is gone to the cinema. 3. He is drove slowly through the heavy traffic. 4. Where is the girl go? 5. He has already came home.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences with how long, since, for, already, yet.

1. My sister has been at the University ... six months. 2. ... have you known John and Susan? 3. Haven't you typed those letters ... ? 4. She's ... cleaned the house and it's only nine a.m. 5.1 haven't watched TV ... my set broke down.

Exercise 5. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense forms (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple).

1. My cousin's name (be) Pamela Simpson (1). She (live) in Philadelphia (2) and (work) in a cafe in the centre of the city (3). She (work) there for 3 years (4). At the moment her best friend from England (stay) with her (5). She (enjoy) her holiday very much (6). They (already/visit) many museums

together (7) and they (be) to the theatre three times (8).


Exercise 1. Choose the correct item. 1. We (live/have lived) in Hastings now. 2. I (got/have got) two brothers and a sister. 3. He (plays/is playing) football once a week. 4. We (are/have been) here since the shop opened. 5.1 al­ways (am drinking/drink) black coffee. 6. (Has/does) he got a camera? 7. When did you (got/get) home last night? 8. (We're/We) going to stay at home to­day. 9. We (knew/have known) them for a long time. 10. I (worked/am working) there two years ago.

Exercise 3. Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. George have gone to work in Spain. 2. Let's go for a walk. It doesn't raining any more. 3. When did Mr Edwards phoned you? 4.1 have forgetted her name. 5. The Earth is going round the Sun.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences with already, since, yet, ago, for.

1. I haven't seen Keith ... a while. 2. He's been in China ... January. 3. She has ... opened her own shop. 4. He worked for a company called KMP a year ... . 5.1 haven't seen Tom ....

Exercise 5. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense forms (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple).

Dear Sir,

My name (be) Carol Albert (1) and I (write) to you about the advertisement in today's newspaper (2). I (leave) school last year (3). And at present I (study) shorthand and typing at night school (4). I (already/ finish) courses in computer studies (5). And I (feel) that these courses (give) me a lot of experience for the post (6,7).

I (send) you a copy of my certificate (8) which I (think) may interest you (9).

Yours faithfully Carol Albert

VARIANT 3 Exercise 1. Choose the correct item.

1. What are you cooking? It ... very nice! is smelling; smells; smelt

2. John ... very hard at the moment, worked; has worked; is working

3. ... I help you to carry those bags?Yes, please. shall; will; do

4.1... a new bike last week. bought; have bought; will buy

5. They ... in England for twenty years. are living; live; have lived

6.1... "Scorpions" in 1993. have seen; saw; am seeing

7.We always ... French onion soup on Fridays. are going to eat; eat; eats

8.Why have you got this new blouse?
Because I... to the party. will go; am going; go

9. The children ... happily in the gar­den yesterday. play; played; have played

10. She ... her ticket already , is buying; bought; has bought

Exercise 2. Put the words in the correct order to make sentences.

1. Never/he/his wife's/birthday/for­gets. 2. Usually/she/wake up/early/ doesn't. 3. Always/he/has/to travel ab­road/wanted. 4. Rarely/he/at night/goes out. 5. They/always/do/can/anything/ they want.

Exercise 3. Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. We are going swimming on Satur­days. 2. I have written a book last year. 3. Look! The vase will fall down. 4. He have seen this film three times. 5. We was in Paris last year.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences with yet, already, ago, just, since.

1. It's really a year ... we last had a holiday. 2. I'm afraid I haven't finished my dinner ... . 3. Shakespeare was born over four hundred years ... . 4. Chris has ... bought one car, but he is going to buy another one. 5. Don't eat the cake, I've ... made it and it's too hot.

Exercise 5. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense forms (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Past Simple).

Peter (be) one of my best friends (1). At the moment he (stay) with my family ■, in York (2). I (know) him (3) since I (be) a j little girl (4), when we (play) together after the school (5). Now Peter (look) for a job in York (6). He (just/pass) his exams (7) and (want) to be a journalist (8). Last week he (publish) an article in a , magazine (9). And now he (write) a new \ one (10). Next week he (go) to have an interview (11).


Past Simple and Past Continuous Tenses


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

Last night I (have) a wonderful dream (1). This is what I (dream) (2). We (take) a trip to Hawaii (3). I (be) with my family and two of my friends (4). We (be) on a ship (5) and we (travel) to Hono­lulu (6). On the ship there (be) a disco (7). We (sit) on nice comfortable seats (8) and we (drink) exotic cocktails (9). Lots of people (dance) (10) and the music (play) loudly (11).

Exercise 2. Correct mistakes.

1. They were fishing when Hans was falling into the water. 2. It rained when we went out. 3. We was dancing at the disco when we saw Sandy. 4.1 broken my leg while I was skiing. 5.1 was losing my money when I bought presents.

Exercise 3. Make 5 questions (General, Who-questions, 2 Special, Tag-question) to the following sentences.

1. He was going to catch the six o'clock train. 2. He caught the six o'clock train.

Exercise 4. Match the sentences.

1.John was listening to the radio when ...

  1. Peter was swimming while ...

  2. He fell over when ...

  3. The robbers stole a car and ...

5. Helen was writing a letter when ...

  1. they drove away.

  2. the batteries ran out.

  3. his sister was sunbathing.

  4. her pen broke.

  5. he was crossing the street.


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

Last night I (have) a wonderful dream (1). My friends and I (have) a lot of fun (2)! When we (arrive) in Honolulu (3) a man (wait) to take us to our hotel (4). The hotel where we (stay) was by a beach with palm trees (5). Drums (beat) and the people on the beach (sing) and (dance) to the music (6, 7, 8). The music (get) louder and louder (9) until I (can) hear a ringing in my ears (10). It (be) my alarm-clock (11),

Exercise 2. Correct mistakes.

1. They are sitting in the garden when it started to rain. 2. He was driving to work when he was having an accident. 3. The telephone rang while I have eaten my dinner. 4. I was playing football when I hurted my nose. 5. Tony walked in the park when he was meeting Jackie.


3. Make 10 questions to the sentence.

She was going to buy a new car but he repaired her old one.

Exercise 4. Match the sentences.

  1. While he was sailing on the lake ...

  2. He fell in the water while

  3. Uncle Tom was cooking when ...

  4. The robber stole my wallet and ...

  5. Dan fell down when ...

  1. the tent caught fire. ran away. he was riding a horse. the boat sank. he was watching penguins at the Zoo.


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into Past Simple or Past Continuous.

Dear Peter,

I'm writing to tell you what (happen) to me last week (1) while I (visit) my aunt who lives by the sea (2). One after­noon I (take) her dog for a walk (3) when I (notice) a girl (4) who (climb) a tree (5). As she (hang) there (6), the branch suddenly (break) (7) and the girl (fall down) (8). I (run) up to her (9) but I (not/ know) what to do (10). A man who (pass) by (11) (help) me to save the girl (12). Her parents (thank) us by giving us large bunches of flowers (13). The story (be) in the local newspaper (14).

With love, Lucy

Exercise 2. Correct the mistakes.

1. When I was seeing my friend I said "hello". 2. While we talked a car ran into a girl on a bike. 3. When we saw the acci­dent I telephoning for an ambulance. 4. When the policeman arrives he asked us some questions. 5. The ambulance was coming while we talked to the po­liceman.

Exercise 3. Make 10 questions to the following sentence.

She was going to travel around Europe but she didn't do it because she fell ill.

Exercise 4. Match the sentences.

  1. Michael Harris was fishing in Dover Lake, when ...

  2. John Taylor was repairing his car yesterday when ...

  3. While they were diving in the sea ...

  4. The sky was cloudy and ...

  5. It was a very windy day but...

  1. it was raining.

  2. still crowds of people were stand­ing on the shore.

  3. it fell on his leg.

  4. they found a big pearl.

  5. the boat turned over.


Past Simple and Past Perfect Tenses


Exercise 1. Open the brackets and use the verbs in Past Simple or Past Perfect.

1. When I (arrive) at the station, the train (leave). 2. We (light) the candles because the lights (go off). 3. When I (come) home, I (discover) that somebody (break into) my flat. 4. The patient (die) before the ambulance (reach) the hospi­tal. 5. John (eat) all the cakes by the time the other children (arrive) at the party.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences using Past Perfect.

1. Ben could write the letters because....

2. Jane missed the train because .. .

3. He could pay the electricity bill because ... .

4. She failed her exam because ... .

5. She was sad because ....
6. His hands were dirty because ....

Exercise 3. Join the sentences using Past Simple and Past Perfect.

1. John studied French. He went to Paris, (before)

2. We arrived at the cinema. The film started, (when)

  1. Richard ate all the cakes. Fred arrived home, (before)

  2. The army commander studied the maps. He made the attack, (after)

  3. The gardener finished digging. He put in some cabbage plants, (when)

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using Past Simple and Past Perfect.

1. Когда я пришел домой, Том уже ушел. 2. Я очень нервничал (to be ner­vous), потому что никогда не летал раньше. 3. Я не был голоден, потому что только что пообедал. 4. Я не узнал миссис Джонсон, так как она очень из­менилась. 5. У Джона не было маши­ны, потому что он ее уже продал.


Exercise 1. Open the brackets and use the verbs in Past Simple and Past Perfect.

After Jim and Terry (finish) their breakfast (1), they (take) their bags (2) and (go) to the river to fish (3). They (go) there before (4) and (catch) some big fish (5). By 5 o'clock they (not/get) any fish (6), so they decided to go home. They (promise) their mother to bring fish for dinner (7), so they (look) for a shop where they could buy some (8). But the shops (already/close) (9). When they (arrive) home (10), they (tell) their mother (11) that they (catch) the biggest fish (12) they (ever/see) (13) but it (es­cape) (14).

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences using Past Perfect.

1. I couldn't answer the questions be­cause .... 2. She was hungry because ... .

  1. My mother was worried because ... .

  2. They were late because ...

5. The boy was pleased because ....

6. He arrived at John's house because ....

Exercise 3. Join the sentences using Past Simple and Past Perfect.

1. I read the letter. I threw it away. (when)

2. He passed his driving test. He bought a car. (as soon as)

  1. I took the book back to the library. I finished reading it. (when)

  2. I didn't go to bed. I did my home work, (until)

  3. I spent all my money. I went home. (when)

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences, using\ Past Simple and Past Perfect.

  1. Женщина была мне незнакома. I Я никогда ее не видел раньше. 2. Он! очень нервничал (to be nervous), потому что никогда раньше не водил машину. 3. Когда мы пришли, они только что закончили обедать. 4. В доме было очень тихо, так как все ушли спать. 5. Джон не пришел на мой день рожде­ния, так как уехал в командировку (on business).

  2. VARIANT 3

Exercise 1. Open the brackets using Past Simple and Past Perfect.

1. I (thank) her for everything she (do). 2. When I (get) to the office, I (real­ize) that I (forget) to lock the front door. 3. When they (finish) their work, they (go) home. 4. I (call) you at 8 a.m. but you (just go) home. 5. I (take) my family to Paris last year. I (be) there as a stu­dent, so I (know) my way around. 6. When I (listen) to the news, I (go) to bed.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences using Past Perfect.

1. I went to bed because ... . 2. My fa­ther caught cold because ... . 3. We went shopping because ... . 4. They were tired because ... . 5. He was late for the les­sons because ... . 6. They couldn't enter the house because ....

Exercise 3. Join the sentences using Past Simple and Past Perfect.

  1. I read the book. I saw the film. {before)

  2. Her children left home. She started writing, {after)

  3. We got to the theatre. The play started, {when)

4.1 had a bath. I went to bed. {after) 5. He recovered. He was ill. {after)

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into] English using Past Simple and Past Perfect.

  1. Он выучил английский до поездки в Англию. 2. Дом сгорел до того, как! приехали пожарные. 3. Как только Маргарет закончила уроки, она включила радио. 4. Я уже добрался до дома, когда начался дождь. 5. Ричард купил новую тетрадь, потому что старая кончилась.

  2. Revision (Tests 3, 4)

Exercise 1. Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. You are out of breath. Were you running? 2. She is already in Istanbul for a week. 3. She has studied French before she became a teacher. 4. Did you be in Helsinki? 5. She is living in this house for twenty years. 6. After she bought a new car, she sold her bicycle. 7. The manager had finished writing his report last night. 8. He was drink a cup of coffee, when the telephone rang. 9. It has been a long time since we have talked to John, isn't it? 10. Mary and her sister studied biology last year, so does Jim. 11. Peter had already saw that musical before he read the reviews.

Exercise 2. Put the words in the correct order to make the sentences.

1. She/left/suddenly/at 6 o'clock/ the room. 2. They/bought/a/two-storey/ have/lovely/in London/house. 3. He/the hill/walked/in/slowly/the rain/up. 4. He/ a/wooden/built/beautiful/has/bookcase. 5. The police/away/the burglar/arrived/ had/before/run.

Exercise 3. Open the brackets using the right tense form of the verb.

1. She {be) very tired because she {not/ sleep) for two days. 2. When I {get) to the shop, it {close). 3. She {know) him long before they {get married). 4. You (finish) all the questions when the exam (end). 5. We (arrive) late so the bus (already/go). 6. He (not/go) to the cinema with them because he (already/ see) the film. 7. Ralph (call) his friend last night and (tell) him about his] problems. 8. When I (arrive) at Jim's] house, he (already/make) a cake and (do)l washing up. 9. When I (arrive) at Jim's house, he (make) us a cup of coffee.10. When we (get) to the theatre, the] play (just/start) and all the seats (be\ taken). 11. James (have) supper then (go) to sit in his living-room. 12. He (feel) tired. It (be) an awful day.

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1. Дети уже спали, когда отец при­шел домой. 2. Мы подошли к станции, когда поезд уже ушел. 3. Он подарил сестре цветы, которые вырастил сам. 4. Том красил забор, когда его друзья подошли к нему. 5. Мы возвращались домой, когда шел дождь. 6. Мой брат делал уроки, когда я позвонил. 7. Хоб не получил письмо, которое его дядя отправил ему. 8. Джон сказал, что он был на берегу моря.


Future Simple and To Be Going to


Exercise 1. Fill in will or going to.

I... (1) spend my holidays in Crete be­cause there is a lot to see. I... (2) travel there by ferry because I enjoy boat trips. I am not going on my own, my best friend ... (3) come with me and I think my cousin ... (4) come too if I ask her. We ... (5) stay in Hania for two weeks, then we ... (6) go somewhere else. I hope we ... (7) find a hotel easily but if there's any problem, we ... (8) stay at a camp­site. We ... (9) swim every day so I ... (10) take a lot of suntan oil with me. I think we ... (11) need it. I'm looking for­ward to this holiday. I'm sure it ... (12) be the best holiday ever.

Exercise 2. Choose the correct variant.

1. — I've got a terrible headache.

Wait there and I (will/am going to) get an aspirin for you.

2. — Why are you filling that bucket with water?

I (will/am going to) wash the car.

3. — I've decided to re-paint the room.

What colour (will you/are you go­ing to) paint it?

4. — Look! There's smoke coming out of the house. It's on fire.

Oh, I (will/am going to) call the fire brigade immediately.

5. — The ceiling in this house doesn't look very safe, does it?

No. It looks as if it (will/is going to) fall down.

6. — Are you going shopping?

Yes. I (will/am going to) buy some­ thing for dinner.

Exercise 3. Write what David's plans are for next week. Then write about your plans.

Monday do shopping Tuesday correct tests

Wednesday buy a new shirt Thursday go to the swimming pool

Friday visit Helen Saturday have a party
Sunday watch a football match on TV


Exercise 1. Fill in shall, will, to be going to.

1. — What do you want for lunch?

I think I ... have chicken and some salad.

2. — John has come back from England.

I know. I... see him tonight.

3. — I haven't got any money.

I ... lend you some if you want me to.

4. — Ben and I... married in April.

My congratulations!

5. — ... we meet on Sunday?

Sorry, but I... visit my aunt. She is ill.

6. — Is David coming to the party?

Yes, but he ... probably be late.

7. — Laura is in the hospital.

Really? I... send her some flowers.

8. — Have you decided where to go on the holidays?

Yes, I... travel round Europe.

9. — The plants need watering.

I know. I... water them later.

Exercise 2. Choose the correct variant.

1. — I don't know how to use this camera.

It's easy. I (will/am going to) show you.

2. — What would you like to drink?

I (will/am going to) have tea, please.

3. — Has George decided what to do?

Oh, yes. He (will/is going to) have a holiday for a few weeks.

4. — Did you post a letter?

Oh, I'm sorry, I forgot. I (will/am going to) do it now.

5. — What shall we have for dinner?

I don't know. Maybe we (will/are going to) have some fried fish with potatoes.

6. — We need some bread for lunch.

  • Oh, I (will/am going to) go to the shop and get some. Do you want any­thing else from the shop?

  • No, thanks.

Exercise 3. Write what Dick's plans are for next week. Then write about your plans.

Monday tidy the room Tuesday repair a car






meet his friend fly to London

go sightseeing

eat out with friends

return back home


1st Conditional and Time Clauses


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.

1. If he (break) the window, he (pay) for a new one. 2. If it (not/be) cold, they (not/lit) the fire. 3. If she (study) more, she (be) a better student. 4. They (see) a lot of museums, when they (visit) Lon­don. 5. I (learn) French as soon as I (go) to France. 6. We (have) a party if Alan (pass) his driving test. 7. Those plants (not/grow) if you (not/water) them. 8.1 (buy) this bag, if you (lend) me some money.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences.

1. If there are tickets to the theatre ....

2. ... after you return from London.

  1. ... as soon as the festival begins.

  2. He'll stay for another week if ....

  3. 5. I'll bring you the book when ... .

6. They'll go on a trip if ... .

Exercise 3. Translate into English.

1. Если у вас будет время, позвоните Петру. 2. Мы пойдем в парк, если пого­да будет хорошая? 3. Если вы остане­тесь еще на три дня, вы осмотрите все достопримечательности города. 4. Ког­да вы увидите м-ра Грина, попросите его позвонить мне. 5. Давайте зайдем в кафе, после того как осмотрим досто­примечательности .


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1. If the dog (keep) barking, the neighbors (complain). 2. The boss (be) angry, if you (arrive) late for a work again. 3. If you (eat) too much, you (be) sick. 4. If the weather (be) bad on Saturday we (stay) at home. 5. You should go to the doctor if you (not feel) well. 6. If you (study) hard, you (pass) the exam. 7. They (go) for a walk before they (go) to bed. 8. (you/wait) until he (come) back?

Exercise 2. Combine the sentences using the words in brackets.

  1. I'll wait here. You'll get back. (until)

  2. Give me a ring. You'll hear some news, (when)

  3. The TV programme will end. I'll do my homework, (after)

  4. I'll go to work. I'll have a bath. (before)

  5. She'll be in Paris. She'll visit friends, (while)

  6. The lesson will end. I'll go home. (as soon as)

7.1 won't leave the house. The post­man will come, (until)

  1. I'll tell you about the holidays. I'll get back, (when)

  2. I'll study English. I'll speak it per­fectly, (until)

10. I'll find the book. I'll let you know, (if)

Exercise 3. Translate into English.

  1. Если Том встретит нас на станции, он отвезет нас в гостиницу. 2. Я напишу вам письмо, как только приеду в Лон­дон. 3. Если завтра будет хорошая пого­да, мы пойдем гулять. 4. Мы подождем Петра, если он опоздает. 5. Она даст вам книгу, когда прочитает ее.

  2. Revision (Tests 5, 6)

Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.

1. If you (eat) another cake, you (be) sick. 2. You (not/pass) your exam if you (not/study) hard. 3. What (you/do) if you (fail)? 4. Our children and grand­children (suffer) if we (not/look after) our planet. 5.1 (do) my homework as soon as this programme (finish). 6. When she (read) my letter, she (understand) my problem. 7. Where (he/stay) when he (go) to New York? 8. They (give) her the message as soon as she (arrive).

Exercise 2. Correct the mistakes.

1. We arrived in Tokyo at 3 o'clock inj the morning tomorrow.2. As soon as Sylvia and Ronald will arrive, the meet­ing can start. 3. You should doing more exercises. It's good for you. 4. When I'll go back to my country, I'll write to you. If it is too expensive, I don't buy it. I'll give it to Jack when he come.

  1. We'll must buy a new car soon. 8. If you'll go to the cinema tonight, I'll go with you.

  2. Exercise 3. Match the sentences.

  1. If I pass my driving test...

  2. You'll learn English more easily if ...

3.Will you give her these flowers when ...

  1. If they don't give him the job ...

  2. I'll marry you as soon as ...

  3. Your plants won't grow well if ...

  4. As soon as we get the tickets ...

  5. If I buy the champagne ...

  1. will you pay for the meal?

  2. we find somewhere to live.

  3. you study a little every day.

  4. you don't water them.

  5. we'll send them to you.

  6. I'll buy a car.

g) I don't know what he'll do. h) you see her?

Exercise 4. Write a letter of advice to a friend of yours who is going to London.

TEST 7 Passive


Exercise 1. Change Active into Passive.

1. The gardener has planted some trees. 2. Doctor Brown will give you some advice. 3. A famous designer will redecorate the hotel. 4. Steven Spielberg directed "E.T." 5. Someone has broken the vase. 6. You must clean the room. 7. Fleming discovered penicillin. 8. You can improve your health with more exer­cises.

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the under­lined words using Passive.

1- The boys damaged the television. 2. Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa. 3. He invited 30 people to his party. 4. They grow bananas in Africa.

Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple Passive or Past Simple Passive.

1. There is a monkey which (call) Bubble. 2. Two men (see) breaking into a house last night. 3. The car (own) by Michael Jones. 4. The police (call) and they arrived very quickly. 5. The great collection (keep) in Dr. Crane's house. 6. One man (catch) immediately.

Exercise 4. Rewrite the following text using Passive instead of Active.

Some people saw a UFO in the sky above London last night. They reported it to the police. The army sent a helicop­ter to look at it more closely. The UFO shot the helicopter down and killed both men in it. People have given photo­graphs of the UFO to the police. Experts are looking at them now.


Exercise 1. Change Active into Passive

1. The postman delivers letters. 2. They built this church in 1815. 3. The police­man has arrested the thief. 4. The Queen will open a new library. 5. He is writing a book. 6. You may open the window. 7. He must repair the car. 8. Someone is helping her with the homework.

Exercise 2. Ask questions to the under­lined words using Passive.

1. Columbus discovered America. 2. We keep money in a safe. 3. A bee stung my brother. 4. They speak Italian in Italy.

Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into Past or Present Simple Passive.

1. The pet (feed) every day by a girl. 2. The thief ran away but he (find) by the policeman. 3. She (always/dress) in funny clothes. 4. Both boys (take) home where they (ask) questions by their par­ents. 5. He (say) to be my best friend. 6. The cathedral (build) by Sir Christo­pher Wren after the Great Fire.

Exercise 4. Rewrite the following text using Passive instead of Active.

Someone broke into a local jewellery shop yesterday. The owner had just locked up the shop when a robber with a gun threatened him. The robber told him to unlock the shop and give him all the diamonds in the safe. The robber tied him up. The police have organized a search for the robber. They hope they will find him in a few days. Doctors are treating the owner of the shop for shock.


Reported Speech


Exercise 1. Give 3 forms of the following verbs:

feed, forgive, phone.

Exercise 2. Give all tense forms (in Active Voice) of the following verbs:

choose, swim.

Exercise 3. Choose the reported word and turn the following into Reported Speech.

advised wondered suggested

asked promised ordered


  1. "I think you should take more exercise", the doctor said to me.

  2. "I will not answer your questions" the actor said to him.

  1. "I really will phone this evening",he said to her.

  2. "Do you know where I've put my hat?" he said to her.

  1. "What have you bought me for Christmas?" the little boy said to his parents.

  2. "Go to your room now and do your homework", the mother said to her son.

  3. "You will be paid twice a month", her boss said.

  4. "Would you like me to drive you to town?" she said to me.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences. He asked them what time .... Mrs Smith wondered if ... . She wanted to know how much ....

Exercise 5. Translate into English.

1. Он сказал, что не помнит номер моего телефона. 2. Она поинтересова­лась, не сможет ли он пробыть в Киеве больше двух дней. 3. Он спросил, куда он собирается поехать на следующий год. 4. Она попросила меня не опазды­вать. 5. Я спросил его, когда он прине­сет книгу.

Exercise 6. Turn into Indirect Speech. Take your seats. Don't go there! Who is on duty?


Exercise 1. Give three forms of the following verbs:

leave, enjoy, buy.

Exercise 2. Give all tense forms (in Active Voice) of the following verbs:

drink, carry.

Exercise 3. Choose a reporting verb and turn the following into Reported Speech.

suggested asked advised

offered explained warned

promised begged

  1. "Let's go for a walk!" he said.

  2. "Please, let me come with you", she said to her sister.

3. "Let's play in the garden", Ted said.

  1. "The Sun is bigger than the Earth", Mary said to the children.

  2. "Don't go near the fire", she said to Ben.

  3. "Let's have steak for dinner", said Jane.

  4. "I promise I'll write to you as soon as I arrive", said John to Mary.

  5. "Please don't shoot me!" he said to the robber.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences.

1. He asked me if ... . 2. Mr Wood wondered whether ... . 3. She explained how long ....

Exercise 5. Translate into English.

1. Он спросил меня, что он может сделать. 2. Они утверждали, что нико­го не было дома. 3. Она спросила, где я оставил ключи. 4. Она сказала, что ку­пит подарок, если будет время. 5. Он попросил меня отойти в сторону.

Exercise 6. Turn into Indirect Speech.

Come in.

Don't be late.

What are you doing here?

Part II

The Article TEST 1

A or The?

1. The students are going to write .;. test. /M test consists of five tasks. 2. My son got /?. bad mark at school yesterday, but ... mark did not upset him. 3. We have .СЛ new student in the class. ... student comes from Peru. 4. They gave ... party last night. Everybody enjoyed .i. party. 5. I found V.. kitten in the street and brought it home, but my mother is against ,.C kitten. 6. He met...' girl at the disco. ... girl was a wonderful dancer. 7. My uncle built ... new house. ... house is small but quite comfortable. 8. I saw ... beautiful dress in the shop, but ... dress was too expensive for me to buy it. 9. There is ... new dictionary on sale now. ... dictionary gives 200,000 words. 10. You asked me ... question but I think you should know ... answer yourself.


A/an, The or —?

(with nouns denoting parts of a day) 1. It was ... evening. 2. It was ::'.'-warm summer evening. 3. ... evening was very pleasant. 4. Let's meet in ..evening, I'll be very busy in ;k afternoon. 5. It was ... early morning. 6. It snowed at ... night. 7. We started early in'. . morning. 8. u . night came, day broke, but there was no sign of the plane. 9. Don't worry, we'll get home before .. sunset. 10. The children were shivering though it was ... warm night.


The or —? (with nouns denoting names of seasons)

1. The Russian likes .. 1 good hard win­ter with plenty of snow and frost. 2. Na­ture is so beautiful in ... winter. 3. In this country ... spring is always wet, ... summer is unbearable hot, ... autumn is wet and muddy, ... winter is perishingly cold and snowy. 4. Do you still remem­ber .V/spring when you first told me of your love? 5. Nothing can be more beautiful than motoring across the green fields in ... early spring. 6. It was ... late autumn. 7. autumn of 1993 was very warm and sunny. 8. ... spring makes people feel young. 9. I like ... summer best. 10. What do you usually do in ... autumn?


A, The or —? (with nouns denoting meals)

1. Let's settle all business matters be­fore ... lunch. 2. I usually have a cup of tea with sandwiches for ... breakfast, a substantial meal for ... dinner, and something light for ... supper. 3. Mum, is 44^ dinner ready? 4. Something is burning! — Oh, I've forgotten about we supper again! 5. How much did you pay for ... dinner? 6. You usually have ... breakfast at 8, don't you? 7. They had .Л delicious lunch at the cafe. 8. How many people will be present? How much wine shall we have for ... supper? 9. Most people watch TV after ... supper. 10. When ... tea is ready we shall call you.


The or —? (with nouns denoting names of streets ,squares, cinemas, hotels, theatres ,airports, museums)

1. …. Tverskaya Street is the central street of Moscow. 2. ... National Gallery faces ... Trafalgar Square. 3. When did you arrive at... Heathrow airport? 4. ... Bolshoy Theatre is famous for its ballet performances. 5. What is on at ... "Odeon"? 6. Whenever the Greens come to London they stay at …. Hilton Hotel. 7. Tourists coming to London often do the shopping in ... Oxford Street. 8. ... London Zoo is situated in Regent Park of London. 9. You can find a beautiful collection of Modern Art in .1.-Tate Gallery. 10. What is ... British Museum famous for?


The or —? (with nouns denoting names of continents islands, countries, cities, mountains and water bodies)

1... Adriatic Sea, which is between the coasts of ... Italy and ... Yugoslavia, is an arm of ... Mediterranean Sea. 2. ... Swiss Alps are a good place to go to if you like skiing. 3. "My heart's in ...Highlands". 4. ... Chicago River flows south towards ... Gulf of ... Mexico. 5."… Panama Canal connects ... Atlantic and ... Pacific Oceans. 6. ... Volga flows from ... Valdai Hills to .. Caspian Sea. 7. We get tea mostly from ... China and... Ceylon. 8. ... Alaska is the biggest state in ... USA. 9. Where are .. British Isles situated? 10. The pupil showed ... Europe, ... Asia, ... North and ... South America, ... Africa on the map but he completely forgot about ... Australia.


A/an or —?

1. What ... witty man! 2. What ... good children! 3. What ... miserable weather! 4. What ... fantastic dress! 5. What … wonderful news! 6. What ... strange answer! 7. What ... valuable information! 8. What ... informative article! 9. What ... beautiful hair she has! 10. What... wonderful flowers!


A/an, The or —?

1. This trip costs ... lot of money. 2. She failed us. What … surprise! What .'.. shame! What ... shock! 3. I don't be­lieve you. I think you're telling .. lie. 4. Did you have .. lovely time at the pic­nic? 5. I was feeling sleepy so I had ...P-nap. 6. He made … mistake. 7. Could you give me ... lift to the school? 8. Have … look at the sky. It looks like rain. 9. She'll have ... shower and return in … hour and ... half. 10. I'll have to make ... speech at the reception. 11.1 as­sure you I'm telling ... truth. 12. In En­gland we drive on ... left. 13. Henry ... VIII had six wives. 14. In summer they seldom go to ... school. 15. I like to stay at... home on cold nights. 16. Christmas is on …24th of December. 17. Tom didn't go to ... work yesterday. 18. He lives in … north of Africa. 19. … advice, you gave me, helped a lot. 20.1 like to be in ... centre of everything.

Plural of Nouns


Give the plural of each of the following nouns.

  1. window

  2. bus

  3. brush

  4. photo

  5. hero

  6. Negro?

  7. French

  8. Italian

  9. Spanish

  1. Greek

  2. Japanese

  3. Swiss

  4. match»

  5. glass

  6. church^

  7. loaf

  8. leaf

  9. wife

  1. chief

  2. thief

  3. cliff

  4. roof .

  5. monkey

  6. fly

  7. fox

  8. ox*

  9. deer

  10. goose

  11. sheep

  12. postman
    .31. man-servant

  1. housemaid

  2. woman-teacher

  3. man-of-war

  1. forget-me-not

  2. merry-go-round


Change the singular nouns in brackets to plural and supply them correctly.

1. Have you ever seen any ... by Show? (play) 2. You should hide the ... from ....(knife, child) 3. Economic ... took place in different .... (crisis, country) 4. The scientists studied the ... of the biological ... and discovered some new .... (datum, analysis, phenomenon) 5. Her ... are very gentle ... . (son-in-law, person)

6. The ... weren't very polite, (passer-by) 7. The two ... were afraid of ... .
(woman, mouse) 8. These ... had problems with their ... . (gentleman, tooth)

test з

Change the nouns in brackets to plural where necessary.

1. The company bought a lot of ... for their ... . (furniture, office) 2. There were a great many ... in her .... (book, bookcase) 3. Two new ... and some ... were delivered to the club, (piano, radio) Those ... bought three ... of ... and a lot of ... . (lady, kilo, tomato, potato) He got a lot of important ... from the company, (information) 6. They give me very much good in that situation.


Supply a singular or a plural verb where necessary.

1. I know my hair .. beautiful, every­body says so. (to be) 2. New clothes ... not matter to Hob. (to do) 3. Mathematics ... among the most important subjects at schools, (to be) 4. Germany .. lost that football match, (to have) 5. The police… looking for the thief, (to be) 6. My scis­sors ... not very sharp. Can I borrow yours? (to be) 7. No news …good news. (to be) 8. "There ... money in my pock­et," I said to the porter, (to be) 9. Two hours … rather short to discuss all the problems like these, (to be) 10. 50 dol­lars enough to buy a cassette-player. (to be) 11. Three miles too far to walk on a nasty day like this, (to be)

The Pronoun


Choose the correct pronoun.

A: Excuse me, Mary.

Are these socks (your/yours)?

В: No, those are not (my/mine).

(My/Mine) socks are red.

A: I think that's (Jane/Jane's) new racket.

B: No, that's not (her/hers).

A: Is this Pat (Hill/Hill's) watch?

B: No, it's not (her/hers).

A: Betty and Jean, are these (your/ yours) bags?

B: Yes, those are (our/ours).


Circle the correct pronoun.

A: Good afternoon. Can I help you?

B: Yes. How much is (this/these) watch?

A: It's $175.

B: Oh. How much is (that/those) one?

A: (It's/They're) $220.

B: Oh, well. Thanks, anyway.

A: Excuse me. How much are (that/ those) shoes?

B: (It's/They're) on sale for $135.

A: Well, I'll think about it. Thanks.

A: Are (this/these) stereos on sale?

B: Yes, (it/they) are.

A: And how much is (this/these) So­ny?

B: (It's/They're) $350.

A: And how much are (that/these) portable stereos?

B: (It's/They're) only $99 each,

A: Oh, really? Thanks!


Some, Any or No?

1. Are there... students here from … pan? 2. There are ... students here from China but there are not ... from India. 3. Is there .., news? — Yess there are …. letters on the desk. 4. difficulties arise, let me know, 5. They have …really good friends, Have you got? 6. — Саn…of you help us?, — problem. 7. Would you like…cream, please? … more, thank you, I've had …8. I take…sugar with my tea, sugar fattens me. 9, He told us…strange story. 10. They haven't got …conveniences in their country house but they are going to get/…


Something, Anything or Nothing?

1. I'm sure ... can be done under the circumstances. 2. There is always ... I don't understand. 3. Is there ... else you would like me to explain to you? 4. Nelly has got very important news. It's ... you would like to hear. 5. I don't want ... at all. 6. I think there is ... strange about this man. 7. ... ever inter­ests him. 8. — Shall we go anywhere for the week-end? — Sorry, we can't. We all have ... to do. 9. Everybody thinks he should buy ... for the party. 10. ... seri­ous can come out of this.


Somebody, Anybody or Nobody?

1. It is so dark here! Can you see ;.. in front of us? 2. Do you know ... has bro­ken the door to the gym? 3. Do you know ... here? 4. She said she could recognize ... because of their painted faces. 5. Is ... at home? 6. I'm sure there is ... inside, just knock louder! 7. If ... comes, he will give you a call. 8. Are you waiting for ...?

9. Don't be silly! There is ... there. 10. Sally, there is ... downstairs. Who wants to speak to you?


Who or Which?

1. A non-smoker is someone ... doesn't smoke. 2. This is the pullover ... I bought in London. 3. There is a man here ... wants to sell me a brush for ten pounds! 4. A bus driver is a person ... drives a bus. 5. This is the Eiffel Tower ... is in Paris. 6. Robert Shade is catch­ing Flight BE 048, ... leaves at 14.20. 7. Lulu is the reporter ... wrote interest­ing articles about space travels. 8. Harry Smith, ... is 55, is unemployed. 9. She has already read the book ... I bought last Friday. 10. Here are the papers ... you haven't looked through yet. 11. He is the man ... will help you whenever you require help. 12. Have you written the story ... is to be completed? 13. I don't know ... is the most sensible project to follow.; 14. I don't know the people ... have just arrived. 15. Look at the old man ... is standing near the window. Do you recognize him?


What or That?

  1. He wasn't surprised at... he saw be­cause I told him ... to expect. 2.1 did ... I could. 3.1 did everything ... I had to do. 4. Show me ... you've got in your hand. 5.1 didn't know ... you promised the children to take them to the Zoo. 6. I don't want to know ... they are talking about. 7.1 didn't buy anything because I didn't see ... I wanted. 8. He told me ... he wanted to buy a new coat. 9. Don't you know ... he is leaving on Friday morning? 10.1 am sure ... ... you say is true.

  2. TEST 8

Other, the Other, Another, Others or the Others?

  1. I don't like this book. Give me ... one. 2. What... questions have you got? 3.1 bought two pens yesterday. One is here, and where is ...? 4. Some people like apples, ... prefer bananas. 5. Two of the five children studied music, ... went in for sport. 6. Mary said she had two houses, one in Spain, ... in France. 7. This bag is too small. I'd like to buy ... one. 8. What ... stories by this writer have you read? 9. There are seven stu­dents in this group. Two are from China, ... are from Vietnam. 10. This glass is broken, ... glass is broken too.

  2. TEST 9

Such or So?

1. The day was ... exciting! 2. It's ... an original idea! 3 The letter is ... infor­mative! 4. It's ... good weather today! 5. The dress is ... smart» 6. I can't afford „.. an expensive coat. 7. His health is ... poor. 8. You can't talk in ... a way. 9. Her taste is .-., good. 10. Helena has ... a good sense of humor.


Either, Too, Also?

1. Whatever you do, don't mention my name... . 2. Your room is ... very small. 3. He is sure he will finish on time .... 4.1 don't know ... what delayed the train. 5. He couldn't remember the number of his brother's car ... . 6. We are ... very much interested in the sub­ject. 7. I'm awfully sorry I haven't looked through the project.... 8. Do you ... like the book? Yes, I do. I like it. 9. Will you ... come back at the end of June? 10. She said she would like to spend her vacation in the country ....


It is or There is?

  1. ... always much snow in this coun­try in winter. 2. ... snowing hard. 3. ... too much sugar in the tea. ... too sweet, much too sweet. I can't drink it. 4. Don't buy this jacket. ... very dark and ... not becoming. 5. Let's go out! ... getting dark. 6. ... a dark street, and in that dark street... a dark gloomy house. 7. ... nothing you can do about it. 8. ... al­ready late and ... nobody in the office to solve your problem. 9. ... sunny but ... strong wind. 10. ... very kind of you.

  2. The Preposition






Look at the picture and fill in the blanks with one of the following prepositions. More than one answer may be correct.

in front of between on top of next to opposite

1. Cinema 1 is ... the restaurant and Cinema 2. 2. The man and woman are walking ... the sidewalk. 3. The lamp post is ... the magazine stand. 4. The people in the restaurant are sitting ... each other. 5. The restaurant is ... Cinehello_html_664e5464.gifma 1.6. The ticket booth is ... the the­ater signs. 7. The magazine stand is ... the lamp post. 8. The ticket seller is ... the ticket booth. 9. The man and woman are ... Cinema 2. 10. The film titles are ... the sidewalk. 11. The door to the res­taurant is ... the restaurant sign. The lamp post is ... the corner.


Complete this conversation with at, on or to.

A: Let's go(l)... a movie (2)... Friday or Saturday.

B: OK. There's a new Tom Cruise movie (3)... the Elmwood Theatre.

A: Great! Let's go (4) ... Saturday night. What time is the movie?

B: It's (5)... eight and ten. Would you like to go (6)... dinner before the movie?

A: Sure. There's a new Italian restau­rant on Vine Street.

B: All right. Let's meet (7)... the res­taurant (8)... Saturday (9)... 6 p. m.

A: OK. And then we'll (10) ... the eight o'clock show.


On or In?

1. Is he ... ? 2. Who is there ... the street? 3. He will arrive ... our city ... Monday morning. 4. He generally gets up at 7 o'clock ... the morning. 5. My birthday is ... winter, ... December ... particular, but I'm not sure where I'll be ... Christmas Day. 6.1 seem to know this woman ... the picture. 7. How long has he been ... his business trip? 8. He is coming back ... a fortnight. 9. Why are you ... such a hurry? 10. There is a sofa ...the left.


On or At?

1. My little son is good ... playing computer games. 2. You are wanted ... the phone. 3. He always lives in the country while ... holiday. 4. What's ... ... the local cinema? 5. I am very bad ...

explaining phonetic rules. 6. It all de­pends ... you. 7. He arrived ... the air­port too early. 8. She put ... her beauti­ful dress and was ready for the ball. 9. He is walking ... the lawn ... the en­trance to the building. 10. What are you looking ...?


In or At?

1. Little Nelly has been ... bed for 3 days and she is still running a high temperature. 2. Wherever he is he is not ... home. 3. Over the fields, over the seas the plane is flying ... the blue sky. 4. The note is ... the bottom of the page. 5. Turn right ... the traffic lights. 6. Nick is ... the street, just ... the end of the street. 7. — Is he ... the office? — No, he isn't. He's ... the den­tist's. 8. I'll be waiting for you ... the bus stop ... 6 sharp. 9. We met... a con­ference last Thursday. 10. Do you know the man ... this photo? 11. They arrived ... Paris late ... night. 12. What time did they arrive ... work yesterday?


In or To?

1. We are going ... St. Petersburg in a week. 2. Tom likes reading ... bed. Whenever he goes ... bed he takes a book and starts reading. 3. Sorry, when are you going ... a party, Pat? 4. Trafalgar Square is ... London. 5. It was Sunday yesterday and we didn't go ... school. Our parents didn't go ... work. 6. How long have you been living ... Italy? How long have you been ... Paris?


Up, down, on, off, away, round, back or out?

1. Put... your hat. It's cold today. 2.1 don't feel well. I'm going to lie ... for a minute. 3. I fell ... the stairs and broke my leg. 4. The children stood ... when the teacher arrived. 5. Don't throw ... that bottle. We can use it again. 6.1 would take ... my jacket if I felt hot.

7. I must remember to take the book ... to the library. 8. I'm going to take the dog ... for a walk. 91 heard someone running behind me. I turned ... and saw a girl in a track suit.

The Verb



Fill in the blanks with the following modal verbs: can, could, may, might in the positive or negative form.

1. ... you tell me the way to the post office? 2. Where ... I buy toys? 3. ... I have your pen, please? 4. You ... take my book if you like. 5. Where are you going tonight? — I don't know yet, I ... go to a restaurant. 6. — When will you see Ann again? — I'm not sure. I ... see her tonight. 7. ... I have another cup of tea? 8. ... I use your telephone? 9.... you pass me a slice of lemon, please? 10. She ... play the piano, but she ... play the guitar. 11. Take your umbrella with you. It ... rain. 12. I'm not sure, but Linda ... come to the party. She's not very well.


Fill in the blanks with the following forms of modal verbs and their equivalents: must, mustn't, needn't, should, shouldn't, have to (has to), don't have to (doesn't have to), shall.

1. You .,. take a bus to get to the mu­seum. It's far from here. 2, Pupils ... come to school in time. 3. Children ... play with matches. 4. You've been trav­elling all day, you ... be tired. 5. You ... open the window. It's very cold out­doors. 6. I ... iearn this grammar rule. I don't know it. 7. You ... give up your seat to old people. 8. People ... cross the street when the light is red. 9.1 don't go to school on Sundays. I... get up early in the morning. 10.1... clean the windows. They aren't dirty. 11. It's grown dark in the room. ... I switch on the light?Let's listen to some music, ... we? You ... read this book in English. It's
very difficult for you. 14. She can't
come to see me. She ... meet her friends
at the railway station. 15. You ... buy any bread. We've got a lot of it. 16. He ... make tea in the morning. His mother makes it for him.


Complete the following sentences using the right tense forms of the appropriate modal verbs.

1. They can't buy a car now, but they ... buy it in three months. 2. The sick man can sit up today, but he ... doit yes­terday. 3. She says I must do it at once, but yesterday I ... do it just as quickly.

  1. He must get up early this morning, but he ... get up so early tomorrow.

  2. She can hardly speak today because of her sore throat. I'm sure she ... sing to­
    night. 6. She needn't come here again this evening, but she ... yesterday.
    7. We needn't paper the walls this year, but we ... paper them next year. 8. The
    child can talk now, but two months ago he ... speak only a few words. 9. I can't
    come right now, but I ... come in an hour. 10, They ... lend me any money
    last week, but they can lend me some
    now. 11.1 can't believe such stories, but

I ... believe them when I was a child. 12.1 must answer a lot of questions, but I thought I... answer any.



In each of the boxes below, one or two of the nouns do not go with the verb in the middle. Draw a line to show which nouns can go with the verb.

£1,000 a wallet



a post office

a fish

a bus a train


a cold

a thief a car

a lie

a poem the truth


a joke

a story

a war

a competition John McEnroe



a football match


a briefcase


an umbrella

a uniform



Play (




Spell the Past tense of these verbs.

  1. add ...

  2. carry...

  3. dance ...

  4. enjoy...

  5. like ...

  6. listen ...

  7. marry.*,

  8. phone ..„

  9. stay ...

  1. try ...

  2. visit... ■

  3. work ...


Complete this postcard, using the Past tense of the verbs.

Dear Karen,

Hi, there! My vacation ... (be) great! I... (visit) my friends in Puerto Rico. I... (stay) at a nice hotel near a beautiful beach. We ... (rent) a car and ... (travel) around the island. I ... (try) to learn windsurfing, but it... (be) difficult. I... (enjoy) the food and. really ... (like) the fresh fruit. I ... (talk) to a lot of local people there, I'm really glad I... (study) Spanish in high school. See you soon!




Present Simple or Present Continuous?

1. Tom usually (play) football but today he (play) tennis. 2. What language they (speak) in Holland? What language he (speak) now? 3. The professor (speak) five foreign languages. Right now he (speak) Dutch. 4. My friend always (tell)

me truth, but I see that she (tell) a lie now. 5.1 usually (drive) to my work. Be careful! You (drive) too fast. 6. She, as a rule, (wear) smart hats. But today she (wear) a funny-looking one. 7.1 (do) a lot of work every day. Don't worry! I (know) what I (do). 8. Every Sunday he (watch) birds in the forest. Be quiet, the photographer (watch) that bird. He (want) to take a picture. 9. You (eat) fruit every day? What's the name of the fruit you (eat) with such pleasure?10. You (remember) where he (work)? 11. She (not understand) what the
(explain). 12. She (say) now she (love) him very much. 13. I (not
recognize) the man who (give) a talk. 14. You usually (drink) coffee at this
time? What is that you (drink) now? 15.1 (feel) Nick (want) to know where you (live) now.


Future Simple or Present Simple?

1. I (go) and see Venice as soon as I (reach) Italy. 2. If the sun (be) red, it is a

sign that we (have) a fine day tomorrow. 3. I (be) glad if some of these hopes (be) realized. 4. Many people believe that the time (come) when there (be) a universal parliament of the world. 5. If you (leave) school soon, you (forget) what you have learned. 6. I trust the next mail (bring) better news from home. 7. Wherever you go, you (find) the local people friendly. 8.1 think he (not know) when Jack (return). 9. He (become) a doctor when he (grow up). 10. If things get worse, I (lose) my job. 11. Please stop before you (get) into trouble. 12. — The new Head (make) any changes? — He has already made them. 13. I (stay) with Mother if you (go) and (telephone) the doctor. 14. The nurses are not sure if the patient (recover). 15. Tell me if you (finish) your article in May and when exactly you (finish) it.


Future Simple or Present Continuous?

1. Where you (go) for your next holiday? 2. I (give) you a lift to work

tomorrow if you like. 3. Do you know Ann (come) at the end of the week? 4. I'm afraid I'm not quite ready. — Never mind. I (wait). 5. Shop assistant: We have some very nice strawberries. Customer: All right. I (have) a pound. 6. — We (have) a party next Saturday night. You (come)? 7. — Why you (take) the carpets down? You (paint) the walls? — No, I (take) the carpets to the cleaner's. 8. — There are a lot of mistakes in this document. — All right. I (type) it again. 9. Leave a note for them on the table and they (see) it when they (come). 10. He (leave) for London tomorrow night. 11.— What about this camera? You (try) to take photos? It's not allowed, you know... — No, I (try) to sell the camera. 12. He says he (meet) us at the bus stop, but I'm sure he (forget) about it. 13. He (come) if you ask him. 14. — You (do) anything special to­morrow? — Yes, my nephews (come) and I (show) them round London. 15. I hear you (go) to the regatta tomorrow. You (sail) in it?


Past Simple or Past Continuous?

1. I (sit) on the bench for half an hour and then (begin) reading a book. 2, You (see) him this morning? — Yes. He (stand) in the hall laughing. 3, He (come) in and (see) Nelly who (draw) a strange picture. 4. I (not understand) what Mr Green (do). 5. Nick and Fred (drive) along the road. 6. She (set) the table at six yesterday. 7. The business­man (fly) to England yesterday. 8. I (not to hear) what he (say). I (type) at the mo­ment. 9. When it (happen)? It (happen) when you (talk) to your secretary. 10. We (walk) in silence for 5 minutes, then he (speak). 11.1 (tell) him he should not read while he (eat). 12. The mouse (hide) while the cat (watch). 13. The train (strike) an obstacle on the line, but it not (stop) because it (travel) too fast at the time. 14. I (sit) in my garden yester­day, when the servant (come) and (say) that a visitor (wait) for me in the hall. 15. He (not like) to play while others (work).


Past Simple or Present Perfect?

1. He (forget) his French since he (leave) Paris. 2. Years ago he (be) very poor, and (not know) how to live. He (be­come) very rich now. 3. I can reach my work easily now, as I (buy) a new car. 4. — The man you see there is the man to whom I (lend) the money. — When you (lend) it to him? — I (do) it yester­day. 5. I (lose) my keys and cannot re­member where I (see) them last. 6. He cannot see well as he (become) short­sighted. 7. He is a man who (live) a re­markable life. 8. What you (do) last night? 9. What you (do) since I last (see) you? 10.1 (not play) much football since I (leave) school. 11. — You (hear) from Jane lately? — Yes, I (get) a message from him last night. 12.1 (get) a fax from Bos­ton an hour ago, but I (not answer) it yet.

  1. It's the most delicious cake I ever (taste). — When and where you (buy) it?

  2. When you (get) this wonderful ring? — I don't remember. I (have) it for
    years. 15. How's Jack? When you (see) him? — Oh, I (not meet) him for ages.


Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous?

1. —You (telephone) for ages. You re­ally (not finish)? — I (not get) through yet. I'm trying to get our Paris office but the line (be) engaged all morning. 2. He (play) the piano since six o'clock in the morning. He only just (stop). 3. Why you (not bring) me the letters? You (not type) them yet? 4. — Are you going to sunbathe? — Don't be ridiculous! It (rain) all day. 5. What you (do) up to now? 6. The police (not find) the burglar yet. They (look) for him since Saturday. 7. Ann (fail) her exam three times be­cause she is so bad at doing sums. But she (practice) for a week now, I hope she will pass it in the end. 8. What (hap­pen) to the fridge? 9. I know him well. I (know) him since our childhood. 10. How long you (have) these gloves? I (have) them for years. 11. George (col­lect) matchboxes ever since he left school. Now he (collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them. 12. — Customers (ring) up all morning

complaining about getting incorrect bills. — I know. Something (go) wrong with our computer. 13. How long you (own) this house? 14. Where you (put) my keys? I can't find them. 15. Your eyes are red. You (cry)?


Present Perfect or Past Perfect?

1. My mother asked who (break) her typewriter. Look! Somebody (break) my typewriter. 2. You ever (see) a flying saucer? 3. He looked at the girl and understood he (see) her somewhere before. 4. — I think John (miss) his 7.30 train. That's why he isn't here now. — Looks like him. He never (come) home in time. 5. When the three bears came home they saw that someone (eat) Baby Bear's porridge. 6. John is hungry because he (have) nothing to eat since morning. 7, Mrs. Brown lives next door but she never (say) more than "good morning" to me. 8. They (buy) the apples in the market. 9. He just (see) his friend arrive. 10. It (stop) raining and the sun is shining. 11. She said they (walk) 3 miles. 12. They just (walk) in the park. 13.1 wondered what he (do) since we last met? 14. There (be) no post all this week. 15. Nick hoped there (be) no post since Friday.


Past Simple or Past Perfect?

1. The teacher was a stranger to me. I never (see) her before. 2. The house was very quiet when I (get) home. 3. We felt happier when they (leave). 4. She gave him the book his teacher (re­commend). 5. They (finish) the trans­lation by five o'clock. 6. She got a message saying he (pass) the exam. 7. We (go) out to ask them for a drink, but the pub (close). 8. At six o'clock he (know) they were not coming. 9. She (go on) with the story where her Mother (stop). 10. Tom wasn't at home when I (arrive). He just (go) home. 11. Margaret was late for work. Her friend (be) very surprised. She never (be) late before. 12. There was nobody in the sitting-room when I (get) home. Everybody (go) to bed. 13. I didn't recognize him. He (change) a lot. 14. By the time we (arrive), the party (finish). 15. Before we (take) Paul to the theatre, he never (see) a play on the stage before.


Future Simple or FutureVin-the-Past?

1. I hope I (get), a doll on Christmas, but my brother said he (get) a new camera. 2. Do you think it (rain) tomorrow? — I hope not. 3. Nelly promised she (send) a card from Florida. 4. I am sure we (have) a thunderstorm tonight. 5. —I (go) to the post office for you? 6. I had no idea when they (come). 7. We said we (not watch) TV all day long. 8. I doubted if they (make) it up. 9. Tell them again, perhaps they (understand). 10. They (come) if we invite them? 11. There (be) a lot of people at the conference. 12. She says she (have to) change the clock. 13. She was afraid he (feel) depressed. 14. I assure you he never (tell a lie). 15. They say this firm (publish) this book next year.


TEST 1 Choose the correct verb form.

1. How long (has Angela been living/ does Angela live) in Paris? 2. She (has been finding/has found) a good job. 3. Alan (has been/has gone) to South America. 4. Angela (has bought/bought) her flat a few months ago. 5. How long (has she known/has she been knowing) Jean-Pierre? 6. Tom (worked/has been working) as a postman for a month. 7. He (has visited/has been visiting) ten museums today. 8. He's tired because he (has travelled/has been travelling) around London all day.


Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense, Present Perfect or Past Simple. If both the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous are possible, use the Continuous.

1. How long ... you ... (learn) English?

  1. How long ... you ... (use) this book?

  2. Which book ... you ... (have) before this one?

  3. 4. How long ... you ... (know) your teacher?

5. How long ... you ... (play) tennis/football?

6. When ... you ... (start) playing?

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs


Use the correct comparison forms of adjectives and adverbs in brackets.

1. Could you speak a bit ..., please? (slowly) 2. My father drives rather ... than me. (carefully) 3. I have to get up ... this morning than yesterday, (early)

4. His younger sister is a pop-star and his ... brother is a pilot, (old)

5. Cambridge is one of ... universities in Europe, (old) 6. If you get any ...
information, please, send it to me as soon as possible, (far) 7. ... end of the
district wasn't attractive at all. (far) 8. She seemed to be ,,. interested in
our conversation, (little) 9. We've just looked through ... magazines, (late)
10. Nancy and Helen came in ... looked a bit sad. (late) 11. Uncle Albert doesn't

feel a day ... than forty, (old) 12. "I'm ... than either of you", Frieda said, (lucky)


Complete the following sentences using the comparatives of the words in brackets with the preceding adverbs of measure.

1. You looked depressed this morning but you look ... now. (a bit/happy) 2. It's ... to learn a foreign language in the country where it is spoken, (a lot/easy) 3. This flat is too small for me. I need something .... (much/big) 4. I found my visit to the museum ... I expected, (far/ interesting) 5. Can you drive ... ? (a bit/ slowly) 6. His illness was ... we at first thought, (much/ serious) 7. It's ... today ... it was yesterday, (a little/warm) 8. This armchair is ... the other one. (much/comfortable)


Use the structure ... and ... with the correct comparison forms of the adjectives in brackets.

1. Since she has been in Britain, her English has got .... (good) 2. As the

conversation went on, he become ... . (talkative) 3. It's becoming ... to enter the university, (difficult) 4. She was getting ... while she was waiting for the plane, (impatient) 5. As the day went on, the weather got.... (bad) 6. The suitcase seemed to get... as I carried it along the road.(heavy)


Use the structure the ... the ... with the correct comparison forms of adjectives and adverbs in brackets.

1. ... the hotel, ... the service, (expen­sive, good) 2. ... you practice your En­glish, ... you speak it. (much, fluently) 3. ... the quality of your shoes, ... you wear them, (high, long)


Use the superlative of adjectives in brackets and the correct tense form of the verbs as well.

1. It is one of (bad) mistakes I ever (to make). 2. Her last holiday was (enjoyable) she ever (to have). 3. He is (generous) person we ever (to speak) to.


Use the structure with no verb after than and as ... as.

1. She is more talkative than he is. 2.1 can't type as fast as she can. 3. They have more English lessons a week than we have. 4. We speak English more fluently than they do. 5. I'm as in­terested in this piece of information as you are.


Use the correct comparison forms of adjectives and adverbs in brackets.

1. The problem wasn't so ... as I first thought, (complicated) 2. Camping is much ... than staying at a hotel, (cheap) 3. Could you speak a bit ..., please. (slowly) 4. My father drives rather ... than me. (carefully) 5.1 have to get up ... this morning than yesterday, (early)

6. This girl is ... in our class, (beautiful) 7. My room is ... in our flat, (small)

8. Cambridge is one of ... universities in Europe, (old)

9. If you get any ... information, please send it to me as ... as possible, (far, soon) 10. Her mother is ... lady I've ever known, (busy) 11. She seemed to be ... interested in our conversation, (little) 12. We've just looked through ... magazines, (late) 13. Jerry is ... footballer in the team. (good) 14. After her holidays at the seaside she looked rather ... and ... . (healthy, beautiful) 15. He became much ... than he was last year, (lazy) 16. He wants ... work, ... lectures at the college, but ... pleasure, (little, few, much)


Complete the sentences with a bit or much + a comparative using the words given in brackets.

1. My house is ... your house, (a bit/ new) 2. This book is ... that one. (much/ interesting) 3. This car is ... that one. (a bit/comfortable) 4. Your pen is ... my pen. (a bit/bad) 5. This book is ... that one. (much/thin) 6. My pullover is ... yours, (a bit/big) 7. Green is ... red this year, (much/popular) 8. These shoes are ... those ones, (much/good) 9. The black coat is ... the blue one. (a bit/expensive) 10. It was ... in July ... in June, (much/ hot)


Write sentences with as ... as.

1. You got up earlier than me. I didn't... . 2. We played better than them. They didn't ... . 3. Dan's car is more expensive than Peter's. Peter's car ... . 4. Jill's composition was worse than Ann's. Ann's composition .... 5. You eat more than me. I don't ... . 6. Football is more popular than tennis. Tennis isn't....

Interrogative Sentences


Put question to the underlined words.

1. My mother runs the house perfectly. 2. Mr. Short is a nice man. 3. My stu­dents are very nice. 4. John and Dick are playing tennis. 5. They run for the bus every morning. 6. We like English tea. 7. Luisa has got a very interesting job. 8.1 have dinner at 7 o'clock in the evening. 9. Babies have five meals a day.

10. There is a round table and five chairs in the middle of the room. 11. These are my postcards. 12. Jill goes to work by bus. 13. The Normans invaded Britain in 1066. 14. Columbus discovered America in 1492. 15. She does her room every day. 16. They were at the disco last night. 17. He has just left. 18. He is cry­ing as he has cut his finger. 19. He had to spend a lot of money on education. 20. He had ironed all the linen by 5 o'clock yesterday. 21. This pair of trousers cost seven dollars. 22. The fax will be received in an hour. 23. The con­tract has been signed. 24. A new super­market is being built in our district. 25. His father wants him to become a student. 26. I'll buy a new toy-car for my son when I get the money.


Make up all possible types of questions on the basis of the given sentences a) general, b) alternative, c) disjunctive, d) special questions and e) questions to the subject.

1. The children are swimming in the river. 2. The work can be done in two

weeks. 3. You have to write letters. 4. There will be a new service-station here. 5. They lay in the sun for half an hour. 6.1 have some pets at home. 7. She did the work nicely last week. 8. You'll get a nice present for your birthday. 9. He is driving a new Ford today.10. The telegram was brought by
a stranger. 11. The lecture will be de­
livered by a visiting professor.

The Great London Fire

The old city of London had narrow, crooked streets with wooden houses. It was a dirty city. In 1665 75,000 Londoners died from Plague. On Sep­tember 2nd, 1666 a bakery in Pudding Lane near the London Bridge caught fire.

After a long summer the wooden houses were dry. A wind was blowing from the river. It blew the flames from house to house, and in the narrow streets the fire spread quickly.

The fire burned for four days. It destroyed 80% of the city. Nobody died in the fire.

The people of London built a new city. The houses were made of brick or stone, not wood. The new streets were straight and they were wider and cleaner too. Sir Christopher Wren rebuilt St Paul's Cathedral.

Exercise 1. Choose the right answer to the questions.

Why do you think the fire spread quickly?

  1. because the streets were dirty;

  2. because the wind was blowing;

  3. because the houses were made of wood;

  4. because the fire started in bakery;

  5. because the streets were narrow;

  6. because the houses were dry after a hot summer;

  7. because the streets were not straight.

Why wasn't there another fire after 1666?

  1. because the new city had wide streets;

  2. because Sir Christopher Wren built a new cathedral;

  3. because new houses were built of brick;

  4. because the streets were cleaner;

  1. because the fire destroyed 80% of the city;

  2. because the wind stopped blowing.

Exercise 2. What is wrong?

In August 1665 the old city of London caught fire. The fire started on London Bridge. The streets of old London were wide and straight, so the fire spread slowly. The wind was blowing to the river and blew the flames from house to house. The fire destroyed 80% of wooden houses. 75,000 Londoners died in the fire. Sir Charles Wren rebuilt the city and built a new St Paul's church.

Exercise 3. Think of things that can be made of:

brick plastic rubber

paper gold leather

tone wood glass

iron wool china

TEXT 2 Fast Food

Fast Food restaurants and cafes are very popular all over the world. But they aren't like ordinary restaurants.

There aren't waiters. You order your food at the counter and pay for it at the same time. You get your food in a bag or a box. There are no plates. There aren't any knives, forks and spoons. You eat with your fingers.

Drinks are all in paper or plastic cups. There are no saucers. You eat your meal. Then you throw all the bags, boxes and cups away. It's easy. It's cheap and it's fast.

Exercise 1. Find out which restaurant is that: fast food or ordinary.

1. You eat with a knife and a fork. 2, You get your hamburger in a bag or in a plastic box. 3. You get your food at the counter. 4. A waiter brings you food. 5. You drink from a paper cup. 6. You get your food on a plate. 7. You eat with your fingers. 8. You pay for your meal at the end. 9. You throw away the bags and the boxes. 10. You pay for your meal at the counter. 11. You drink from the ordinary cup. 12. You may take your food home.

Exercise 2. Write menu for the Fast Food and Ordinary restaurant. What is the difference?

TEXT 3 Three Centers of Power

There are three centers of power in London. Buckingham Palace is the centre of royal power. The Houses of Parliament are the centre of political power. Westminster Abbey is the centre of church power.

Buckingham Palace was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. King George III bought the palace in 1761. It is now the official home of Queen Elizabeth II and the British Royal Family. There are nearly six hundred rooms in the palace.

The two Houses of Parliament (the House of Lords and the House of Com­mons) are in the Westminster Palace. It was built between 1840 and 1860. It was designed by architect Sir Charles Barry. The original Palace of Westminster was the home for the Royal Family until the 16th century. Then it became the meeting place of the Parliament.

Westminster Abbey was a Norman church. The present building was started in 1245 by King Henry III. Westminster Abbey is a very important church. Nearly all the English Kings and Queens since William I were crowned in Westminster Abbey. In 1953, Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in the Abbey.

Exercise 1. Choose the correct variant.

1. Buckingham Palace was built by
King George III

Queen Elizabeth II

the Duke of Buckingham

2. Buckingham Palace is the official
home of

King George III

Queen Elizabeth II

the Duke of Buckingham

3. Sir Charles Barry designed and started to build the Houses of Parliament

in 1840

in the 16th century

in 1834

4. The Westminster home of

Sir Charles Barry the Royal Family the church


5. The building of the
Abbey was started by
King William I King Henry III Queen Elizabeth II

Exercise 2. Think and answer about your country.

Where does your president live?

Which is the most important religious building in your city?

Where does the government meet?

Is there a river in the capital city of your country? What is it called?


Who Are the British?

About 57 million people live in Britain. 94% of them are white from different European origin. The Saxons and Celts came from Southern Germany. The Normans came from Northern France. There is also a large population of Scandinavian origin. There is also Jewish community of 385,000 people. There have been non-European families living in Britain for more than 300 years. Most of non-European families came to Britain between 1950 and 1980.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

  1. Where did the Normans come from?

  2. How big is the British Jewish com­munity?

  3. Where did Celts come from?

  4. When did most non-European fami­lies come to Britain?

Exercise 2. Think and answer about your own country.

1. Is your country a multiracial com­munity?

2. Where did the different groups come from?

3. People of what nationalities live in your city?

I. Вы оказались в семье зарубежного сверстника. Расскажите о себе, о членах своей семьи, их занятиях и увлечениях.

  1. What is your full name?

  2. Where are you from?

  3. What town or city do you live in?

  4. How old are you?

  5. Where do you study?

  6. How large is your family?

  7. How old are your parents?

  8. What's your father's job?

  9. Why does he like (or dislike) his job?

  1. What does your mother do?

  2. How many brothers or sisters have you got?

  3. What are your brothers or sisters?

  4. Who does the housework in your family?

14. What kind of family feasts or tradi­tions have you got?

П. Вы заканчиваете 9 класс. Каковы ваши планы на будущее? Поделитесь ими с вашим сверстником.

  1. What kind of school have you studied in?

  2. What's the dream of your life?

  3. What did you want to be when you were a child?

  4. Why have you changed your mind?

  5. Why can't you start working in the job of your dream right now?

  6. What are you fond of?

  7. What was your favourite subject at school? Why?

  8. Where are you going to get further education?

  9. How many exams will you have to take to enter this university, college, etc.?

10. What kind of school have you chosen to get secondary education? Why?

III. У вас есть возможность совершить поездку в страну, язык которой вы изу-

чаете. Что бы вы хотели посетить в первую очередь и почему?

  1. Where is London situated?

  2. How many people live in London?

  3. How many historical parts does
    London consist of? What are their names?

  4. What part of London is called "the heart of London"? Why?

  5. What is the name of "West End" associated with?

  6. What part of London is the Port of London situated in?

  7. What do you know about West­ minster Abbey?

  8. What can you see at the Tower of London at 10 o'clock p. m.?

  9. Where can you see Big Ben?

  1. What is the most famous cathedral in London?

  2. What can you see in Trafalgar Square?

  3. What streets of London do you know?

  4. Which are the largest and the most beautiful parks of London?

  5. What is the British Museum?

  6. What art galleries would you like to visit in London? Why?

  1. Where can you find wax portraits of famous world figures?

IV. Вы принимаете зарубежного гостя (сверстника) у себя. Покажите ему свой город (поселок) и расскажите о нем.

  1. What's the name of your native town?

  2. When was it founded? Is it ancient or young?

  3. What's the name of the river that flows across your town?

  4. How many people live in your town?

  5. What is its historical centre?

  6. What historical events of Russia is your town associated with?

  7. What kinds of industry are de­veloped in your town?

  8. What scientifical and educational centres are there in your town?

  9. How many theatres and cinemas are there in your town? What are they like?

10. What are cultural traditions of your town?

  1. What are the most interesting sights of your town?

  2. What prominent people is your town famous for?

V. Вам предстоит выполнять роль гида в экскурсии по школе. Расскажите о своем классе, об учителях и друзьях, о пред­метах, которые вы изучаете.

  1. What kind of school is yours? A comprehensive or specialized one? A lyceum or a gymnasium?

  2. Does it include primary school?

  3. How many years does primary school last?

  4. What age do children start schooling?

  5. How many years of secondary school are compulsory?

  6. How many days a week do pupils go to school?

  7. What form are you in?

  8. What subjects have you been studying this school year? Have you got any favourite subjects?

  9. What are your teachers like?

10. Who is the best pupil in your class?

  1. What's your school building like?

  2. Where can we find the Head-mas­ter's office, a gym, a cloak room, a canteen?

  3. Which floor is your classroom on?

  4. Where are physical training lessons held in autumn and spring?

VI. Расскажите своему зарубежному сверстнику о том, как вы проводите сво­бодное время, чем увлекаетесь, что кол­лекционируете, делаете своими руками (рисуете, мастерите, вяжете и т. д.).

  1. How much free time have you got a day?

  2. What is your hobby?

  3. What do you like to collect? Have you got a favourite collection of things?

  4. What kind of sports are you fond of?

  5. What kind of sports games do you like best of all? Are you a good player?

  6. How much time do you spend on watching TV?

  7. What are your favourite TV programmers?

  8. How often do you go to the theatre, or the cinema, or concerts?

9. Who is your favourite theatre ac­tor, cinema star and pop-singer?

  1. How often do you go for a walk? Whom with?

  2. What can you do with your own hands?

  3. What kind of housework do you help your parents with?

VII. Современную жизнь трудно пред­ставить без телевидения. Какое место оно занимает в вашей жизни (жизни ва­шей семьи)? Какие программы и передачи вы смотрите с интересом и почему?

  1. Why is television the most popular entertainment in people's home life today?

  2. How much time do you spend on watching TV every day? And your parents? And your brothers or sisters?

  3. What is your TV set made of? And your VCR?

  4. What is the quality of the colors on your TV set?

  5. How many TV channels have you got?

  6. What TV programmers do you watch to get information about current events both national and international, and about the latest achievements in science and culture?

  1. How often are educational programmers produced on television?

  2. What kind of films, concerts or variety shows are presented by entertainment programmers?

  3. What is your favorite TV programmer? Why?

  1. Why do you like (or dislike) adver­tisements intervals during TV programmers?

  2. What kind of advantage is thereabout watching video films?

VIII. Недавно мы отметили 850-летие Москвы. Вашим зарубежным сверстникам хочется побольше узнать о нашей сто­лице, почему мы любим ее и гордимся ею.

  1. When was Moscow first mentioned in the records?

  2. What was it like then?

  3. How much is the history of Moscow connected with the history of Russia?

  4. Who headed the liberation move­ment against the Tatars in the 14thcentury?

  1. When did Moscow become the capital of Russia?

  2. What happened to Moscow in 1812?

  3. What is Moscow now?

  4. Why can you call Moscow an an­cient city as well as a modern one?

  5. What part of Moscow is its oldest historical and architectural centre?

  1. When were the white walls of the Kremlin replaced by new redbrick walls and towers?

  2. How many cathedrals are there in the Kremlin?

  3. Where were the Russian Tzars crowned?

  4. What do you know about the Tzar- Bell and the Tzar-Cannon?

  5. What can you see in the Armory Chamber?

  6. What museums and art galleries is Moscow famous for?

  7. What world-known theatres of Moscow can you name?

  8. What is the Moscow Underground like?

  9. How much is Moscow being changed nowadays?

  1. What new buildings have appeared in the centre of Moscow recently?

  2. What is your favourite sight in Moscow?

IX. Расскажите вашему зарубежному сверстнику об одном из праздников или об одной из традиций нашего народа.

  1. What are national holidays in our country?

  2. What do they commemorate and celebrate?

  3. What are holidays of religious origin?

  4. When is Christmas celebrated in your country?

  5. Why is the New Year's holiday more popular than Christmas in our country?

  6. How do the Russians decorate their homes for the New Year's Day?

  7. What is New Year connected with for adults?

  8. What do people wish and give to each other on the New Year's Eve?

  9. Who do children wait for on the New Year's Day? Why?

10. Why is the New Year's Day consid­ered to be a family holiday?

X. Что вы знаете о странах, где гово­рят на языке, который вы изучаете? Расскажите об одной из них.

  1. What are the countries where the native speakers of English live?

  2. Where are they situated?

  3. What are their capitals?

  4. Where is English one of the official languages?

  5. Why is English used as a second language in some countries?

  6. Where is the USA situated?

  7. What rivers and lakes are there on the territory of the USA?

  8. When was the USA founded?

  9. How many states does the country include?

  1. What does the national flag of the USA symbolize?

  2. What document sets the basic form of the US government?

  3. Why is the USA called "the nation of immigrants"?

13. What are the big cities of the USA?

  1. What is the capital of the USA?

  2. What sights of the US capital can you name?

XI. Вы готовитесь к участию в кон­курсе «Столицы европейских государств». Поделитесь информацией об одной из сто­лиц (Лондоне, Париже, Мадриде и др.). Что бы вы хотели еще узнать об этом городе?

  1. When and by whom was London founded?

  2. When did it become the capital of England?

  3. What happened to London in 1666?

  4. What's the name of London's main architect?

  5. What world-known cathedral was designed by this architect?

  6. What is the crowning place of the kings and queens of England?

  7. Where are the Crown Jewels kept in London?

  8. Where is the famous speaker's corner situated in London?

  9. What are Downing Street, White­ hall, Fleet Street, Oxford Street and Piccadilly Circus famous for?

  1. Where can you climb to the Whis­pering Gallery?

  2. Where can you see plays by Shakespeare?

  3. What can you see at Madame Tussaud's?

XII. Ваш зарубежный сверстник инте­ресуется русской культурой. Расскажите ему об одном из русских писателей, ху­дожников, композиторов, театральных де­ятелей.

  1. Are you fond of painting?

  2. Have you got oil-paintings or water colours in your flat? What are they?

  3. What kind of painting do you prefer: classical or modern one? Why?

  4. What types of painting are exhibited at the Tretyakov Gallery?

  1. Where can you see old icons?

  2. Whose masterpieces of painting can you see at the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum?

  3. What Russian masters of portrait do you know?

  4. What is the name of the famous Russian landscape painter? Do you know any of his works?

  1. Who of the Russian painters is famous for his sea views? What pictures of his can you name?

  2. How often do you visit art exhi­bitions?

  3. Who is your favourite Russian painter? Why?

  4. Who of Russian painters would you like to tell your foreign friend about more in detail?

You can use the example given below. Example: A Russian painter — Vassili Surikov.

  1. What Russian painters do you know?

  2. Where and when was Vassili Surikov born?

  3. How did he got to St Petersburg to join the Academy?

  4. Where did he stop during his journey?

  5. What city impressed him and deter­ mined his way of life and work?

  6. What were the subjects of his works?

  7. What is Surikov masterpiece?

  8. What does he depict in this canvas?

9. What colours does Surikov use in this canvas?

10. How were all the Russian artists of his time influenced by Surikov?

XIII. Какое место в вашей жизни (в жиз­ни вашей семьи) занимает книга? Что предпочитаете читать вы (члены вашей семьи) и почему?

  1. Are you fond of reading?

  2. What types of fiction do you prefer?

  3. Why are you interested in science fiction?

  4. When do you read detective stories?

  5. What kind of information do you get from reference books and dictio­naries?

  6. What kind of books enjoy the greatest popularity among teenagers?

  7. Who reads most of all in your family?

  8. What are your mother's and your father's favourite books?

  9. Who enjoys reading poems in your family?

  10. How often do you take books from library?

  1. How many books are there in your home library? What are they?

  2. What kind of books do you go on buying for your home library? Why?

XIV. Вашему зарубежному сверстнику интересно узнать об одном из выдающих­ся деятелей нашей страны (ученом, изобре­тателе, спортсмене, музыканте и т. д.). Расскажите о нем.

  1. Can you think a day of life without modern achievements of science and technology?

  2. What makes our lives easier and more comfortable?

  3. What are the people who design new machines and products?

  4. Why are new inventions impossible without constant development of science?

  5. What contribution did Russian scientists and inventors make to the development of world science and technology?

  6. Whose names are world-known in the field of science and technology?

  1. What is the name of M. Lomonosov associated with?

  2. Who discovered the Periodic System of Elements?

  3. Who are the greatest physiologists?

  1. What did Pavlov invent?

  2. Why is Tsiolkovsky called the father of rocket-flying?

  3. What Russian scientist or inventor can you tell your foreign friend about more in detail?

You can use the example given below. Example: Academician Korolyov.

  1. What is academician Korolyov famous for?

  2. When and where was Sergei Pavlovitch Korolyov born?

  3. What industry did he work in from 1927?

  4. When did Korolyov graduate from the Moscow Bauman Higher Technical School?

  5. How old was Korolyov when he finished a flying school?

  6. Who had Korolyov met before he got interested in cosmonautics?

  1. How did he come to found modern space-rocketry engineering?

  2. Who designed the first Earth satellite in the world?

  3. When was this first Earth satellite put into orbit?

  1. Who was the first man to fly into space?

  2. What other spaceships were made under Korolyov's guidance?

  3. What progress is made in cosmonautics after Korolyov's death?

XV. Охрана окружающей среды волнует каждого, независимо от того, в какой стране человек живет. Почему? Что вы знаете о том, как решаются проблемы выживания на нашей планете?

  1. Why is the problem of protecting the nature so vital?

  2. What are advantages of industrial development?

  3. What is man's influence on the climate, natural resources and wildlife?

  4. Why is the ecological balance of the planet disturbed nowadays?

  5. What kind of pollution do you know?

  1. Why does the automobile cause one of pollution problems in big cities?

  2. Why is strict pollution control necessary to keep land, air and water clean?

  3. What does the Environmental movement do for protection of nature in every country?

  4. What international Environmental movement is well known all over the world?

10. What do you do yourself to keep your city or town clean and tidy?

XVI. У вашего зарубежного друга есть домашние животные. А у вас? Ему инте­ресно знать, как вы относитесь к брать­ям нашим меньшим.

  1. What animal have you got at home?

  2. What is its name?

  3. What does it look like?

  4. What race is it?

  5. What can it do? What does it like to do?

  6. What kind of competition did it take part in?

  7. What kind of award did it get for it?

  8. How many times a day do you feed it?

  1. What do you feed it with? What does it like to eat most of all?

  1. Where does it sleep?

  2. How often do you walk with it (if it is a dog)?

  3. Who of your family plays with it most of all?

  4. Why aren't you angry with it if it does any harm about your things?

XVII. Б 1996 году весь мир отметил 100-летие кинематографа. Вы любите этот вид искусства? Какие фильмы вы смотрите с удовольствием и почему?

  1. How often do you go to the cinema?

  2. What can you see in the programme at the cinema apart from a feature film?

  3. Why do you prefer colour films to black-and-white ones?

  4. How old is the cinema art?

  5. Who invented the cinema?

  6. Why do you prefer watching video films to going to the cinema?

  7. What kind of pleasure do you get from a comedy or a musical?

  1. How much do you like historical films? Why?

  2. How often do you watch detective films and thrillers?

  1. What is your favourite kind of films? Why?

  2. What film directors do you like? Why?

  3. What are your favourite Russian and foreign film stars?

  4. Can you name any films with your favourite stars in them?

XVIII. Ваши зарубежные гости обрати­ли внимание на то, что в домашних биб­лиотеках и книжных магазинах России много произведений зарубежных авторов. Каких английских (американских, немец­ких, французских и испанских) писате­лей вы знаете? Какие писатели вам осо­бенно нравятся и почему? Назовите их произведения. Выскажите свое мнение об одном из них.

  1. What English and American writers do you know?

  2. What English books did you read when you were a child?

  3. Why do children like "Treasure Island" by Robert Louis Stevenson, "The Headless Horseman" by Thomas Mayne Reid, "The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe, "Red Chief" by O'Henry, novels and stories by Mark Twain and detective stories by Arthur Conan Doyle?

  1. What English and American writers are popular among teenagers?

  2. Why do you enjoy reading "Jane Eyre" by Charlotte Bronte, plays by
    William Shakespeare and Bernard Show, novels by Charles Dickens and Jack
    London and Oscar Wilde, stories by Ernest Hemingway and Somerset
    Maugham, detective stories by Agatha Christie?

  3. Which of them have you read in English?

  4. What is the advantage of reading books in the original?

  5. What are your favourite English or American writers? Why?

  6. What characters from English books are you impressed by most of all?

10. What screen versions of English books have you seen at the cinema or on TV?

  1. How many English books have you got in your library?

  2. What other foreign writers are familiar to you? What are their booksthat you like very much?

  3. Where do you get books by foreign writers?

XIX. У вас есть друг. Что вы могли бы рассказать о нем своим зарубежным сверстникам? Что вам в нем нравится? Какие у вас общие интересы? Каким, на ваш взгляд, должен быть настоящий друг?

  1. How many friends have you got?

  2. Who is your best friend?

  3. When did you make friends with him (her)?

  4. How old is he (she) now?

  5. What is he (she) now?

  6. What is he (she) going to become?

  7. What does he (she) look like?

  8. What is he (she) fond of?

  9. Which of his (her) interests are close to yours?

10. How often do you share opinion about things?

  1. What kind of manners has he (she) got?

  2. Why do you find him (her) to be good-hearted, sincere and attentive?

  3. What do you know about his (her) family?

  4. Are you happy to have such a friend?

XX. Ваш зарубежный друг любит спорт и играет в хоккей. Каким видом спорта занимаетесь вы? Какова ваша оценка ро­ли спорта в жизни молодежи?

  1. Are you fond of sports?

  2. What is your favourite sport?

  3. Why is physical training an impor­tant part of life of many people?

  4. What can you tell your foreign friend about physical training at your school?

  5. What sports are popular in Russia?

  6. What are wide-spread winter and summer sports and activities?

  7. Why are people fond of outdoor sports and activities?

  8. Where can the young get necessary training?

9, Are sports supported by the govern­ment in your country?

  1. What sports facilities can you name?

  2. What are the best sports complexes in Moscow?

  3. What national and international matches and competitions take place in these complexes?

  4. What types of international compe­titions do Russian athletes and sports­ men take part in?

  5. Are you a sports fan?

  1. Where can you watch your favourite matches and competitions?

  2. How many gold medals did Russian sportsmen win at the last Olympic Games?

  3. What famous Russian athletes and sportsmen can you name?

Shops and Shopping

  1. Where do you go shopping for food?

  2. Where do you buy bread? And what about cakes?

  3. What can you buy at a dairy?

  4. Where do you go for a piece of beef?

  1. What kinds of meat can you name?

  2. What kinds of poultry do you know?

  3. What is the seller of fish called?

  4. What can you buy at a grocer's and at a greengrocer's?

  5. What do they sell at a chemist's?

  1. Where can you buy men's and ladies' clothes, shoes and hats?

  2. Why do people prefer ready-made clothes?

  3. Where can you have a suit or a costume made to measure?

  4. What is the seller of newspapers and magazines called?

  5. Where do you go for writing-paper or pencils and pens?

  6. What can you buy at a jeweller's?

  7. Where can you have your watch repaired?

English Meals

  1. What are the usual English meals?

  2. What are the meals in simpler English homes?

  3. Where do the English prefer to have their meals?

  1. What is the difference between En­glish and continental breakfast?

  2. What does lunch consist of?

  3. Where do businessmen usually have their lunch in big cities?

  4. Why can afternoon tea hardly be called a meal?

  5. What is "high tea" among the En­glish?

  6. What do the English have for dinner and supper?

  1. What is the chief meal of the day?

  2. What are traditional English dishes?

  3. What are their favourite drinks?
    13- What do the foreigners think of English cuisine?

The British Monarchy

  1. What type of State is the United Kingdom?

  2. Who is its Head of State?

  3. What are the powers of the Queen?

  4. Who appoints all the Ministers?

  5. What is the Commonwealth?

  6. Who is the Head of Commonwealth?

  7. What is the role of British Parliament?

  1. What parts does British Parliament consist of?

  2. Which of them is elected?

  1. What are their roles in law-making?

  2. Who becomes Prime Minister?

  3. What is the Speaker?

  4. What is "Shadow Cabinet"?

  5. What are the main political parties in Great Britain?

  6. What is the role of the UK in world politics?

The UK and its Countries

  1. Where is the United Kingdom situated?

  2. What is Great Britain?

  3. What seas is the UK washed by?

  4. What is it separated by from the Continent?

  5. What are the main countries of the UK?

  6. What are the capitals of the UK main countries?

  7. How many people live in the UK?

  8. What other languages do the peoples of the UK speak apart from English?

  9. What is the flag of the UK?

  1. What are the symbols of the UK main countries?

  2. What mountains and rivers and lakes of Great Britain can you name?

  3. What can you tell about the climate in the UK?

  4. Why is the weather the favourite topic of conversation in the UK?

  5. What do you know about flora and fauna of Great Britain?

  6. What natural resources is Great Britain rich in?

  7. What are the most important industries of the UK?

  8. What are the largest cities of the UK?

Education in Great Britain

  1. Is the system of education uniform throughout Great Britain?

  2. What are free and fee-paying schools?

  3. What do you know about schools for children under 5 years of age?

  4. What age do children start schooling at?

  1. What are the three stages of educa­tion?

  2. How long does compulsory education last?

  3. What types of study groups are pu­pils divided into in the secondary school?

  4. What special subjects do they studyin each group?

  5. What general education subjects are obligatory for each group?

  1. What types of secondary schools can you name?

  2. What are comprehensive schools?

  3. What do you know about grammar schools and secondary modern schools?

  4. What is the sixth form? How long does it last?

  5. What are private schools for the privileged called?

  6. What kinds of exams do British pupils take at different types of secondary schools?

  7. What is the discipline in British schools like?

  8. Do British school children wear a school uniform?

  1. Where can the British get further education?

  2. What are the oldest and world-known British universities?

Holidays and Customs in Great Britain

  1. What are British "bank" holidays?

  2. How do public or "bank" holidays differ from other holidays?

  3. What is the most celebrated holiday among the British?

  4. What can you tell about Christmas Day?

  5. What British traditional holidays can you name?

  6. What does Halloween mean for the British?

  7. Why is Halloween connected with witches and ghosts?

  8. What do you know about "trick or treat"?

  9. When is Guy Fawkes Night celebrated?

10. Why is this tradition especially popular among children and teenagers?

  1. What can you tell about the First Footer on the New Year's Eve?

  2. How is May Day celebrated?

  3. What do you know about performing Morris dance all day long?

  4. How popular are St Valentine's Day and Mother's Day?

  5. What is the most picturesque ceremony in Wales?

The United States of America

  1. Where is the USA situated?

  2. How large is its territory? What is its population?

  3. What oceans is the USA washed by?

  4. What countries has the USA borders with?

  5. Why is America a land of physical contrasts?

  6. What are the highest mountains of the USA?

  7. What rivers of the USA can you name? Which is the longest?

  8. What state is known as the land of lakes?

  9. What provides a solid base for American industry?

  1. When and how did the USA become an independent country?

  2. How many states formed a new sovereign federative country after the War of Independence?

  3. When was the Constitution of the USA adopted?

  4. What is the Bill of Rights?

  5. Who was the first US President?

  6. Who is the US President now?

  7. How many states does the USA
    consist of today? Can you name any of them?

  8. Why is the USA called "the nation of immigrants"?

  9. What are the big cities of the USA?

  10. What is the capita! of the USA?

  11. What can you tell about the flag of the USA?

Education in the USA

  1. Do the Americans have universal access to qualify education?

  2. Is there a national administration or structure in American education?

  1. How are schools controlled and directed throughout the country?

  2. What does preschool education include?

  3. How long do elementary and second­ ary education last together?

  4. What subjects do American pupils study in the elementary school?

  5. What subjects does the curriculum of secondary schools include?

  6. What types of schools are there in the USA?

  7. Where do public schools get their support from?

  1. How are private schools run?

  2. Is higher education popular among the Americans?

  3. What is the oldest and the most famous American university?

Washington, D. C.

  1. When was the capital of the USA founded?

  2. Who was it named after?

  3. What do the letters "D. C." mean?

  4. What river does the city stand on?

  1. What do you know about the place of the city? How many sections is it divided into? What are numbered and lettered streets?

  2. What is the official home of the US President? When was it built?

  3. What building dominates the city of Washington? What is it known for?

  4. How tall is the Washington Monu­ment? Why is it called "Pencil"?

  5. What memorials can you see in the city of Washington?

  1. What is the main cathedral of the city?

  2. What museums are there in the US capital?

  3. What's the name of the main avenue of the city? What official buildings does it connect?

  4. Why is the Library of Congress worth seeing?

New York

  1. How old is New York?

  2. What river has its mouth in New York?

  1. How many boroughs does the city consist of? What are they?

  2. What boroughs are islands? What is the only borough on the mainland?

  3. What is the centre of business and commercial life of the city and of the country as well?

  4. What is Broadway? What is it known for?

  5. What kind of buildings is New York famous for?

  6. What directions do avenues and streets of the city run in?

  7. What sights of New York can you name?

  8. Why is New York called "Modern Babylon"?

US Holidays

  1. What are the main holidays observed in the USA?

  2. What holiday commemorates the discovery of America? When is it cele­brated?

  3. What holiday is celebrated on July 4th? What does it commemorate?

  4. What does Thanksgiving Day com­memorate? When is it celebrated? How is it marked by American families?

  5. What is the most important religious holiday in the USA? What can you tell about its celebration?

  6. When and how is Halloween observed by the Americans? Why does it have a special importance for children?

  7. What is the American tradition of celebrating St Valentine's Day? What kinds of symbolic presents do the Ameri­cans give to people they love?

David Hockney

DAVID HOCKNEY, one of Britain's most popular artists, was born in Brad­ford, Yorkshire, in 1937. After leaving Bradford Grammar School at the age of eighteen, he went to Bradford School of Art and after that to the famous Royal College of Art in London, where he was one of the best students of his genera­tion. Then, at the age of twenty-five, he became a lecturer at Maidstone College of Art, not far from London.

During his time at art school, he decided that he did not want to paint abstract art so he developed a more *re-presentional' style, using strong, light colours. One year after joining Maidstone Col­lege of Art, he had his first exhibition, which was a great success. During the sixties he became world-famous as a popular artist. In 1964 he moved to Cali­fornia in the USA, where he now lives permanently. One of Hockney's most famous paint­ings is 'A Bigger Splash', which he paint­ed in 1975. The theme of swimming pools appears in several of his paintings because he likes the effects of movement and sunlight on blue water.

As well as painting, Hockney is also a talented photographer. In 1985 he won a first prize for photography. He has also designed costumes and sets for opera and ballet.

Read the text about the British artist, David Hockney and complete his biographi­cal details with a date or a fact.



Went to the Royal College of Art.


Had his first exhibition.

Painted 'A Bigger Splash'.


Read the newspaper report and circle the correct answer.

Bristol's Richest Businessman Kidnapped?

Police are investigating the disappearance of Bristol's richest businessman, Mr Martin Roberts.

Mr Roberts was last seen on Friday afternoon, playing golf with business colleagues. Mr Reymat, who was on the golf course at the time, said that Mr Roberts had had an urgent phone call and had left the golf course immediately afterwards, at about five thirty. Mr Reymat also explained that Mr Roberts had looked very nervous as he drove off quickly. Mr Roberts was first reported missing when he didn't arrive in his country house in Oxfordshire late on Friday night. His distressed wife had waited for hours before she finally called the police. Police spokesman, Detective Inspector Charles Price, told reporters that they hadn't received any new information about Mr Roberts' mysterious disappearance since Friday. He also said that Mr Roberts might have been kidnapped, in spite of the fact that no kidnappers have contacted the police. A nationwide man-hunt is under way for the missing businessman.

1. Which happened first?

  1. Mr Reymat explained that Mr Rob­erts had left the golf course.

  2. The police spoke to reporters.

  3. Mr Roberts' wife called the police.

  4. A man-hunt was started.

2. Who called Mr Roberts while he was playing golf?

  1. Mr Reymat.

  2. Mr Roberts' wife.

  3. the police.

  4. we don't know.

3. Mr Roberts'wife:

  1. doesn't care where her husband is.

  2. spoke to reporters.

  3. spoke to the kidnappers.

  4. thought that she would see her hus­band on Friday night.

4. The police:

a) don't think that Mr Roberts was kidnapped.

  1. are looking for Mr Roberts.

  2. got a note to say that Mr Roberts had been kidnapped.

  3. found Mr Roberts' car at the golf course.

5. Which sentence is true?

  1. Mr Roberts contacted the police.

  2. The police don't know where Mr Roberts is.

  3. Mr Roberts' wife called the police at five thirty on Friday afternoon.

  4. Mr Roberts has definitely been kid­ napped.

Touchy Topics

In North America when people meet each other for the first time, they talk about things like family, work, school or sports. They ask questions like "Do you have any brothers or sisters?", "Where do you work?", "What school do you go to?", and "Do you like sports?" They also ask questions like "Where do you come from?" and "Where do you live?" These are polite questions. They are not personal or private.

But some things are personal or pri­vate, and questions about them are not polite. People don't ask questions about a person's salary. They don't ask how much someone paid for something. It is OK to ask children how old they are, but it is not polite to ask older people their age. It is also not polite to ask people questions about politics or religion un­less you know them very well. People don't ask unmarried people "Why are you single?", and they don't ask a mar­ried couple with no children "Why don't you have any children?"

1. Look at the following questions. Are they polite or not polite when you meet someone for the first time in North America?

  1. What does your wife do?

  2. Do you believe in God?

  3. How much money do you earn?

  4. How many children do you have?

  5. Why aren't you married?

  6. Do you like baseball?

  7. How old are you, Mr Lee?

h)Are you a Democrat or a Republi­can?

i) How much was your watch?

2. Look at the questions again. Are they polite or not polite in your country?

The Worst Place for a Meal

1. Read these statements. Do you think they are true (T) or false (F)?

  1. Standard airplane meals are high in calories and fat.

  2. Most people don't enjoy eating when they fly.

  3. Roast beef with gravy is a healthier choice for a meal than seafood.

  4. You can order special meals from airlines.

2. Read the passage and check your answers.

A typical airline breakfast is a cheese omelet, croissant and bacon. That's at least 900 calories, which is more than many people eat in a day and about twice as much as most people eat for breakfast.

Other typical meals include buttered vegetables, fried foods, and meats served with gravy. Although travellers complain about airline food, most of them eat everything that is put in front of them.

What can you do to avoid unhealthy foods on an airplane? First, ask the air­line what special meals they serve. Many serve vegetarian, kosher, and other types of special meals if you give them advance notice. Second, bring your .own snack on board! Some fruit or a bag of popcorn purchased at the airport is much lower in fat and calories than the peanuts they give you. Third, if you have a choice between meat and seafood, choose the seafood. And finally, drink milk, juice, or club soda instead of an alcoholic beverage. You'll feel much better when you get off the plane!

3. Find words in the passage that mean:

  1. a flaky, rich, buttery roll;

  2. a thick sauce;

  3. contains no meat.

Amazing Brazil

1. How much do you know about Brazil? Circle the answers below.

  1. Brazil is the (2nd, 5th, 10th) larg­est country in the world»

It is located in the (northern, east­
ern, western) part of South America. c) The capital city is (Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, Sao Paulo).

d)The official language is (Spanish, English, Portuguese).

  1. Brazil has a population of around (38, 138, 500) million.

  2. Brazil is the world's largest produc­er of (coffee, oil, cotton).

2. Read this information. Check your an­swers by underlining the correct information in the passage.

Brazil, the largest country in South America and the fifth largest country in the world, is located in the eastern half of South America. The people of Brazil are famous for their outgoing, friendly, and fun-loving nature. They love to sing, dance the samba, and sunbathe. And on the beach, both men and women wear the briefest bikinis! Brazilian wom­en are considered to be among the best dressed in the world.

Brazil is a federal republic with 23 states. The capital city is Brasilia. Por­tuguese is the official language, and it is spoken with a distinct Brazilian accent. Brazil has a population of over 138 mil-

lion, which is made up of people of many different races and ethnic groups. Peo­ple of Portuguese and African descent and of mixed blood make up the vast ma­jority. In addition, there are immigrants from Germany, Italy, Japan, and many other countries. Eighty percent of the population is Roman Catholic.

A number of industrial products are manufactured in Brazil, including cars, chemicals, ships, machines, and military weapons. Mining is also an important in­dustry, and Brazil is the world's second largest exporter of iron ore. Precious stones and metals, such as emeralds and gold, are also mined. Agriculture is an­other important industry. Many crops are exported, including coffee (Brazil is the largest grower in the world), cotton, soybeans, sugar, cocoa, rice, corn, and fruit.

Remembering the Sixties What do you know about the 1960s? Do you know the names of any famous singers or pop groups?

How were fashions different then?

1. Read this passage and choose the best heading for each paragraph.

Paragraph 1

... Youth Rules the World

... The Youngest Millionaire

Paragraph 2

... The Peace Movement

... Changes in Fashion and the Arts

There are many things to remember about the sixties. Some people remember it for mini-skirts, the Beatles, hippies, and the flower children. It was a time when young people "owned" the world and thought that anything was possible. In art, fashion and music, the big names were often in their early twenties, and some of them were already million­aires! The sixties was a time when young people used to do whatever they wanted. "Don't trust anyone over 30!" they said.

In the arts, people like Andy Warhol created "pop art". And fashions changed, too. The mini-skirt became popular, and then the "unisex" look followed. Young people started wearing blue

jeans everywhere — to school, fancy restaurants and concerts. Many of them had very long hair and wore lots of rings, beads and bracelets. In music, the most popular group was the Beatles. Their songs told the story of the sixties. They sang about love, peace and personal freedom.

2. Find the best place in each paragraph for these sentences.

Paragraph 1: Others remember it for the Civil Rights Movement and the peace marches.

Paragraph 2: He painted pictures of everyday objects like soup cans.

Getting to Sleep

Read this passage. Circle true (T) or false (F) for the statements below.

Normally, people sleep between seven and eight hours a day, although some people need less than this and some may need more. But millions of people have trouble getting to sleep every night. According to sleep expert Dr Robert Schachter, many people do not know why they have difficulty in sleeping. Most people know that tea and coffee often make it difficult to go to sleep because they contain caffeine. But some medicines, such as cold tablets, also con­tain caffeine and interfere with sleep. Sleeping pills may help you fall asleep, but when you wake the next morning you don't feel refreshed. Our living habits also affect our sleep. Busy people who are under stress during the day may not be able to calm down and fall asleep at night. Eating just be­fore going to bed may also keep you awake. Dr Schachter says that you will sleep more easily if your bedroom is used only for sleep. You shouldn't use your bed­room as a conference room, a TV room, or an exercise room. You should also es­tablish a regular sleeping schedule, but don't go to bed until you are tired. Try to go to bed at the same time every night and get up at the same time every morn­ing. And if all this does not work, try counting sheep!

  1. T F Everyone needs eight hours sleep a night.

  2. T F Caffeine helps you to fall asleep.

  3. Т F Active people might have trouble falling asleep easily.

  4. T F You should be. careful about eating just before you go to bed.

  5. T F It is a good idea to have a TV near your bed.

  6. T F You should have regular sleeping hours.

Beyond the Telephone

1. Read this passage with a dictionary. Answer the questions below.

Remember, not so long ago, when the telephone used to be a simple receiver connected by a wire to the wall? And all you used your phone for was to make a phone call? Today, new technology has changed the telephone and what people use it for. Computer-based technology has given us instant connections and clearer conver­sations over the telephone. Nowadays, people use telephones to do their banking, to rent videos, and to buy things. People use their telephones to connect their home computers to computerized information centers. People also send letters and documents through phone lines by fax. And new systems may be available shortly for sending video pic­tures over the telephone. But you don't need to be at home or at the office to use the telephone anymore. Mobile phones (also known as cellular phones) have no wires. You can carry one in your pocket or keep one in your car. A call from a mobile phone travels along radio waves to stations located in different places. From there, the radio signal is connected to the regular phone system. With a mobile phone, anyone who can drive and talk can also drive and phone. This means less wasted time: you don't have to look for a phone booth or use coins to make a call. So remember, next time you are at the beach or riding your bicycle, there might be a call for you!

a) How have computers improved tele­phone services?

  1. How many uses of the telephone can you find in the passage?

  2. How many uses of a mobile phone can you find?

  3. How does a mobile phone call reach a station?

  1. How many different things do you use the telephone for?

4.Test 1. Present Simple and Present Continuous Tenses


Ex. 1. 1. is; 2. isn't; 3. is working; 4. works; 5. is; 6. is doing; 7. does; 8. are; 9. are playing; 10. play; 11. do you know; 12. am.

Ex. 2. 1. always; 2. often; 3. usually; 4. sometimes; 5. seldom; 6. never.

Ex. 3. Does Sally listen to records? Yes, she does. Do Harry and Ann listen to records? Yes, they do. Etc.

Ex. 4. 1. Does Sandra always get up early in the morning?

Who gets up early in the morning?

When does Sandra get up early?

How often does Sandra get up early in the morning?

Sandra gets up early in the morning, doesn't she?

2. Is he dancing with his girl-friend now?

Who is dancing with the girl-friend?

Whom is he dancing with? , Where is he dancing with his girl-friend? He is dancing with his girl-friend, isn't he?


Ex. 1. 1. don't you finish; 2. don't under­stand; 3. don't you ask; 4. don't like; 5. don't you like; 6. always shouts; 7. does he shout; 8. don't do; 9. shouts.

Ex. 2. 1. never; 2. now; 3. tonight; 4. always; 5. every day; 6. at the moment.

Ex. 3. Does Chris play the piano? Yes, she does. Do Henry and Mary play the piano? No, they don't. Etc.

Ex. 4. 1. Does Peter have some problems with Maths?

Who has some problems with Maths? What does Peter have with Maths? What problems does Peter have? Peter has some problems with Maths, hasn't he?

2. Are they climbing the mountains without a guide?

Who is climbing the mountains without a guide?

Whom are they climbing the mountains with?

What are they climbing?

They are climbing the mountains, aren't they?


Ex. 1. 1. doesn't work; 2. is coming; don't want; 3. flows; 4. is flowing; 5. does it ever snow; 6. grow; aren't growing; 7. don't need; 8. enjoy; am not enjoying; 9. do not believe; 10. is staying; stays.

Ex. 2.1.1 always keep .... 2. Do you some­times go ... . 3. He never helps ... . 4. She rarely plays ... . 5. Does he often visit .... 6. His shoes are always ... . 7. They don't often eat ... . 8. We usually eat ... . 9. I am never on duty ... . 10. You must never tell....

Ex. 3. Does Bess tell jokes? No, she doesn't. Do Tim and Tom play jokes? Yes, they do. Etc.

Ex. 4. 1. Does Mike say that school is the best thing in the world?

Who says that school is the best thing in the world?

What does Mike say about school?

What is the best thing in the world?

Mike says that school is the best thing in the world, doesn't he?

2. Am I doing well in a lot of subjects?

Who is doing well in a lot of subjects?

What am I doing?

Where am I doing well?

I am doing well in a lot of subjects, aren't I?

Test 2. Past Simple and Present Perfect Tenses


Ex. 1. 1. have you had; 2. have had; 3. have i bought; 4. have you seen; 5. saw; 6. was; 1 7. have you been; 8. have been ill; 9. ate; J 10. did she move; 11. moved; 12. haven't visited.

Ex. 2. 1. just; 2. since; 3. already; yet; 4. for; 5. already.

Ex. 3.

Has Alison ever met a famous person? No, she has never met a famous person. How often has she cooked a foreign meal? She has cooked foreign meal only once. Etc.

Ex. 4. Yesterday I went shopping to buy some food for today's party. Today I have started cooking meals, but I haven't baked a cake yet...



Ex. 1. 1. have known; 2. were; 3. have always shared; 4. have also enjoyed; 5. have spent; 6. lived; 7. moved; 8. have visited; 9. has just bought; 10. haven't seen.

Ex. 2. 1. ago; 2. yet; 3. for; 4. just; 5. so far; 6. already.

Ex. 3.

How often has Sam been to the theatre? He has been to the theatre many times. Has Sam ever baked a cake? No, he never baked a cake. Etc.


Ex. 1. 1.1 drank 3 cups of tea ....

  1. He has been ill twice ....

  2. How many times were you ill...?
    4.1 haven't drunk any coffee ....

  1. He has been late three times ....

  2. How many cups of milk have you had ...?

  3. How many games did the team win ...?

  4. How many games has the team won ...?

Ex. 2. 1. How long; 2. 2 hours ago; 3. this week; 4. How long ago; 5. since; 6. for.


Has Paul ever lived in a cottage? No, he has never lived in a cottage. How many times has he been to England? He has been to England only once. Etc.

Revision (Tests 1, 2)


Ex. 1. 1. doesn't; 2. am always; 3. I'm writing; 4. ever been; 5. I've got; 6. did you do; 7. went; 8. visits; 9.1 do; 10. likes.

Ex. 2. 1. He won the game easily. 2. Have you recently been to the theatre? 3. I am go­ing to London for a few days. 4. Ann writes letters to her parents every week. 5.1 remem­bered his name after a few minutes.

Ex. 3. 1. for three years; 2. has gone; 3. is driving; 4. is the girl going; 5. has already come.

Ex. 4. 1. for; 2. How long; 3. yet; 4. already; 5. since.

Ex. 5. 1. is; 2. lives; 3. works; 4. has worked; 5. is staying; 6. is enjoying; 7. have already visited; 8. have been.


Ex. 1. 1. live; 2. have got; 3. plays; 4. have been; 5. drink; 6. has; 7. get; 8. we're; 9. have known; 10. worked.

Ex. 2. 1. I didn't see you at the party on Saturday night. 2. We found some interest­ing books in the library. 3. I have walked around the town. 4. Do you clean the house every weekend? 5. He is slowly getting bet­ter.

Ex. 3. 1. has gone; 2. isn't raining; 3. phone;

4. forgotten; 5. goes.

Ex. 4. 1. for; 2. since; 3. already; 4. ago;

5. yet.

Ex. 5. 1. is; 2. am writing; 3. left; 4. am studying; 5. have already finished; 6. feel;

7. have given; 8. have sent; 9. think.


Ex. 1. 1. smelling; 2. is working; 3. shall; 4. bought; 5. have lived; 6. have seen; 7. eat;

8. am going; 9. played; 10. has bought.

Ex. 2. 1. He never forgets his wife's birth­day. 2. She doesn't usually wake up early.

  1. He has always wanted to travel abroad.

  2. He rarely goes out at night. 5. They can
    always do anything they want.

Ex. 3. 1. We go swimming; 2. I wrote a book; 3. is falling down; 4. has seen; 5. were.

Ex. 4. 1. since; 2. yet; 3. ago; 4. already;

5. just.

Ex. 5. 1. has been; 2. is staying; 3. have known; 4. was; 5. played; 6. is looking; 7. has just passed; 8. wants; 9. published; 10. is writing; 11. is going.

T e s t 3. Past Simple and Past Continuous Tenses


Ex. 1. 1. had; 2. dreamed; 3. were taking; 4. was; 5. were; 6. were travelling; 7. was; 8. were sitting; 9. were drinking; 10. were dancing; 11. was paying.

Ex. 2. 1. fell; 2. was raining; 3. were danc­ing; 4. broke; 5. lost; 6. was buying.

Ex. 3.

1. Was he going to catch the six o'clock

Who was going to catch the six o'clock train?

What train was he going to catch?

What was he going to do?

He was going to catch the train, wasn't he?

2. Did he catch the six o'clock train?
Who caught the six o'clock train?
What train did he catch?

What did he do?

He caught the six o'clock train, didn't he?

Ex. 4. lb; 2c; 3e; 4a; 5d.


Ex. 1. 1. had; 2. were having; 3. arrived; 4. was waiting; 5. were staying; 6. were beating; 7. were singing; 8. were dancing; 9. was getting; 10. could; 11. was.

Ex. 2. 1. were sitting; 2. had; 3. was eating; 4. hurt; 5. was walking, met.

Ex. 3. 1. Was she going to buy a new car? 2. Did he repair her old one? 3. Who was going to buy a new car? 4. Who repaired her old one? 5. What was she going to buy? 6. What was she going to do? 7. What did he repair? 8. What did he do with her old car?

9. She was going to buy a new car, wasn't
she? 10. He repaired her old one, didn't he?

Ex. 4. Id; 2e; 3a; 4b; 5c.


Ex. 1. 1. happened; 2. was visiting; 3. was taking; 4. noticed; 5. was climbing; 6. was hanging; 7. broke; 8. fell down; 9. ran;

10. didn't know; 11. was passing; 12. helped;
13. thanked; 14. was.

Ex. 2. 1. saw; 2. were talking; 3. tele­phoned; 4. arrived; 5. came; were talking.

Ex. 3. 1. Was she going to travel around Europe? 2. Did she do it? 3. Who was going to travel around Europe? 4. Where was she go­ing to travel? 5. What was she going to do?

  1. Why didn't she travel around Europe?

  2. She was going to travel around Europe,
    wasn't she? 8. She didn't travel, did she?
    9. She fell ill, didn't she? 10. What didn't she

Ex. 4. le; 2c; 3d; 4a; 5b.

T e s t 4. Past Simple and Past Perfect Tenses


Ex. 1. 1. arrived; had left; 2. lighted; had gone off; 3. came; discovered; had broken

into; 4. had died; reached; 5. had eaten; arrived.

Ex. 2. Ben could write the letters because he had bought paper and envelopes. Etc.

Ex. 3. 1. John had studied French before he went to Paris. 2. When we arrived at the cinema, the film had started. 3. Richard had eaten all the cakes before Fred arrived home. 4. After the army commander had studied the maps, he made the attack. 5. When the gar­dener had finished digging, he put in some cabbage plants.

Ex, 4. 1. When I came home, Tom had gone away. 2. I was very nervous because I had never flown before. 3. I wasn't hungry, be­cause I had just had dinner. 4.1 didn't recog­nize Mrs Johnson as she had changed a lot. 5. John had no car as he had already sold it.


Ex. 1. 1. had finished; 2. took; 3. went; 4. had gone; 5. had caught; 6. hadn't got; 7. had promised; 8. looked; 9. had already closed; 10. arrived; 11. told; 12. had caught; 13. had ever seen; 14. had escaped.

Ex. 2. I couldn't answer the questions because I hadn't learnt the rules. Etc.

Ex. 3. 1. When I had read the letter, I threw it away. 2. As soon as he had passed his driving test he bought a car. 3.1 took the

book back to the library when I had finished reading it. 4. I didn't go to bed, until I had done my homework. 5. I went home when I had spent all my money.

Ex. 4. 1. The woman was unknown to me. I had never met her before. 2. He was very nervous, as he had never driven a car.

3. When we came, they had just finished
dinner. 4. The house was silent as everybody
has gone to bed. 5. John didn't come to my
birthday party as he had gone on business.


Ex. 1. 1. thanked; had done; 2. got; real­ized; had forgotten; 3. had finished; went;

4. called; had just gone; 5. took; had been;
knew; 6. had listened; went.

Ex. 2. I went to bed because I had done everything. Etc.

Ex. 3. 1. I had read the book before I saw the film. 2. She started writing after her children had left home. 3. We got to the theatre when the play had started. 4. After I had had a bath I went to bed. 5. He recovered after he had been ill.

Ex. 4. 1. He had learnt English before he went to England. 2. The house had burned before the fire brigade arrived. 3. As soon as Margaret had finished doing homework, she turned on the radio. 4. I had reached my

home when the rain began. 5. Richard bought a new copybook, as his old one had finished.

Revision (Tests 3, 4)

Ex. 1.1. Have you been running? 2. has al­ready been; 3. had studied; 4. Have you been; 5. has lived (has been living); 6. had bought; 7. finished; 8. was drinking; 9. hasn't it? 10. so did John; 11. had already seen.

Ex. 2. 1. She left the room suddenly at 6 o'clock. 2. They have bought a lovely two-storey house in London. 3. He walked slowly up the hill in the rain. 4. He has built a beautiful wooden bookcase. 5. The burglar had run away before the police arrived.

Ex. 3. 1. was; had not slept; 2. got; had closed; 3. had known; got married; 4. had finished; ended; 5. arrived; had already gone; 6. didn't go; had already seen; 7. called; told;

8. arrived; had already made; was doing;

9. arrived; made; 10. got; had just started;
were taken; 11. had; went; 12. felt; was.

Ex. 4.1. Children were sleeping when their father came home. 2. We came up to the sta­tion when the train had already left. 3. He presented his sister with flowers which he had grown up himself. 4. Tom was white­washing the fence when his friends came up to him. 5. We were going home when it was raining. 6. My brother was doing homework when I rang him up. 7. Hob didn't receive the

letter his uncle had sent him. 8. John said he had been on the sea shore.

T e s t 5. Future Simple and To Be Going to


Ex. 1.1. am going to; 2. will; 3. is going to; 4. will; 5. are going to; 6. will; 7. will; 8. will; 9. are going to; 10. am going to; 11. will; 12. will.

Ex. 2. 1. will; 2. am going to; 3. are you going to; 4. will; 5. is going to; 6. am going to.

Ex. 3. On Monday David is going to do shopping. On Monday I am going to visit Helen.


Ex. 1.1. will; 2. am going to; 3. will; 4. are going to; 5. shall; am going to; 6. will; 7. will; 8. am going to; 9. am going to.

Ex. 2. 1. I'll show; 2. I'll have; 3. He's going to have; 4. I'll do; 5. we'll have; 6. I'll go; I'm going to get.

Ex. 3. On Monday Dick is going to tidy the room. On Monday I am going to fly to London.

Test 6. 1st Conditional and Time Clauses


Ex. 1. 1. breaks, will pay; 2. isn't, won't lit; 3. studies, will be; 4. will see, visit; 5. will learn, go; 6. will have, passes; 7. will not grow, don't water; 8. will buy, lend.

Ex. 2. If there are tickets to the theatre I'll invite my friends with us. Etc.

Ex. 3. 1. If you have time, phone Peter, please. 2. Shall we go to the park if the weather is fine? 3. If you stay here for three more days, you will see some other places of interest. 4. When you see Mr Green ask him to phone me. 5. Let's go to the cafe after we go sightseeing.


Ex. 1. 1. keeps, will complain; 2. will be, arrive; 3. eat, will be; 4. is, we'll stay; 5. don't feel; 6. study, will pass; 7. will go, go; 8. will you wait, comes.

Ex. 2. 1. I'll wait here until you get back.

  1. Give me a ring when you hear some news.

  2. I'll do my homework after the TV pro­
    gramme ends. 4. I'll have a bath before I go to
    work. 5. She will visit friends while she is in
    Paris. 6. As soon as the lesson ends I'll go

home. 7. I won't leave the house until the postman comes. 8. I'll tell you about the holidays when I get back. 9. I'll study English until I speak it perfectly. 10. If I find the book I'll let you know.

Ex. 3. 1. If Tom meets us at the station, he'll take us to the hotel. 2.1 shall write you a letter as soon as I arrive in London. 3. If it is fine tomorrow, we'll go for a walk. 4. We shall wait for Peter if he is late. 5. She will give you the book when she reads it.

Revision (Tests 5, 6)

Ex. 1. 1. eat, will be; 2. won't pass, don't study; 3. will you do, fail; 4. will suffer, don't look after; 5. will do, finishes; 6. reads, will understand; 7. will he stay, goes; 8. will give, arrives.

Ex. 2. 1. shall arrive; 2. arrive; 3. should do; 4. go back; 5. won't buy; 6. comes; 7. must buy; 8. you go.

Ex. 3. If; 2c; 3h; 4g; 5b; 6d; 7e; 8a. Test 7. Passive


Ex. 1.1. Some trees have been planted by the gardener. 2. You will be given some advice by Dr Brown. 3. The hotel will be

redecorated by the famous designer. 4. "E.T." was directed by Steven Spielberg. 5. The vase has been broken. 6. The room must be cleaned. 7. Penicillin was discovered by Fleming. 8. Your health can be improved with more exercises.

Ex. 2.

  1. Whom was the television damaged by?

  2. Whom was the Mona Lisa painted by?

  3. How many people were invited to his

  4. Where are the bananas grown?

Ex. 3. 1. is called; 2. were seen; 3. is owned; 4. was called; 5. is kept; 6. was caught.

Ex. 4.

A UFO was seen in the sky above London last night. The police was reported about it. A helicopter was sent to look at it more closely. It was shot by the UFO and both men in the helicopter were killed. The photographs of the UFO have been given to the police. They are being looked at by experts.


Ex. 1. 1. Letters are delivered by the postman. 2. The church was built in 1815. 3. The thief has been arrested by the policeman. 4. A new library will be opened by

the Queen. 5. The book is being written. 6. The window may be opened. 7. The car must be repaired. 8. She is being helped with her homework.


  1. Whom was America discovered by?

  2. Where is money kept?

  3. Whom was my brother stung by?

  4. What language is spoken in Italy?

Ex. 3. 1. is fed; 2. was found; 3. is always dressed; 4. were taken; is said; was built.

Ex. 4.

Yesterday a local jewellery shop was broken into. It had been just locked when the owner was threatened by a robber with a gun. He was told to unlock the shop and give all the diamonds in the safe to the robber. The owner was tied up. A search was organized by the police. The robber will be found in a few days. The owner of the shop is being treated for shock.

T e s t 8. Reported Speech


Ex. 1.

feed — fed — fed; forgive — forgave forgiven; phone — phoned — phoned.

Ex. 4. 1. He asked me if I was ready to start. 2. Mrs Wood wondered whether they were doing homework. 3. She explained how long she had been cleaning the room.

Ex. 5. 1. He asked me what he could do. 2. They insisted that there was nobody at home. 3. She asked me where I had left the key. 4. She said that she would buy a present if she had time. 5. He asked me to step aside.

Ex. 6. 1. He asked us to come in. 2. He asked us not to be late. 3. He asked us what we were doing here.

Part II

The Article

Test 1. 1. a, the; 2. a, the; 3. a, the; 4. a, the; 5. a, the; 6. a, the; 7. a, the; 8. a, the;

9. a, the; 10. a, the.

Test 2. 1. —; 2. a; 3. The; 4. the, the; 5. —; 6. —; 7. the; 8. —, —; 9. —; 10. a.

Test 3. 1. a; 2. —; 3. —, —, —, —; 4. the; 5. —; 6. —; 7. the; 8. —; 9. —; 10. —.

M. CSX 4* X ■ —— у &t — ^ i- ■■■ ^ —— ^ jy # —— ^ U^ # DJjg у

5. the; 6. —; 7. a; 8. the; 9. —; 10. —.

Test 5. 1. —; 2. the, —; 3. —; 4. the; 5. the; 6. the; 7. —; 8. The; —; 9. the;

10. the.

Test 6. 1. The, —, —, the; 2. the; 3. the; 4. the, the, —; 5. The, the, the; 6. The, the, the; 7. —, —; 8. —, the; 9. the; 10. —, —, —,

Test 7. 1. a; 2. —; 3. —; 4. a; 5. —; 6. a;

7. —; 8. an; 9. —; 10. —.


1. a; 2. a, a, a; 3. a; 4. a; 5. a; 6. a; 7. a; 8. a; 9. a, an, a; 10. a; 11. the; 12. the; 13. the;

14. —; 15. —; 16. the; 17. —; 18. the; 19. The;
20. the.

Plural of Nouns

Test 1. 1. windows; 2. buses; 3. brushes;

4. photos; 5. heroes; 6. Negroes; 7. French;

8. Italians; 9. Spanish; 10. Greeks; 11. Japa­
nese; 12. Swiss; 13. matches; 14. glasses;

15. churches; 16. loaves; 17. leaves; 18. wives;
19. chiefs; 20. thieves; 21. cliffs; 22. roofs;
23. monkeys; 24. flies; 25. foxes; 26. oxen;
27. deer; 28. geese; 29. sheep; 30. postmen;
31. men-servants; 32. housemaids; 33. women-
teachers; 34. men-of-war; 35. forget-me-nots;
36. merry-go-rounds.

Test 2. 1. plays; 2. knives, children; 3. cri­ses, countries; 4. data, analyses, phenomena;

5. sons-in-law, people; 6. passers-by; 7. wom­
en, mice; 8. gentlemen, teeth.

Test 3.1. furniture, offices; 2. books, book­cases; 3. pianos, radios; 4. ladies, kilos, toma­toes, potatoes; 5. information; 6. advice.

Test 4. 1. is; 2. do; 3. is; 4. has; 5. are;

6. are; 7. is; 8. is; 9. is; 10. is; 11. is.

The Pronoun

Test 1. yours; mine; my. Jane's, hers. Hill's, hers, your, ours.

Test 2. this, that, it's, those, they're, these, they, this, it's, these, they're.

Test 3. 1. any; 2. some, any; 3. any, some;

4. any; 5. some, any; 6. any, no; 7. some, no,
some; 8. no; 9. some; 10. any, some.

Test 4. 1. something; 2. something; 3. any­thing; 4. something; 5. anything; 6. some­thing; 7. nothing; 8. something; 9. something; 10. nothing.

Test 5. 1. anybody; 2. somebody; 3. any­body; 4. nobody; 5. anybody; 6. somebody;

7. somebody/nobody; 8. somebody /anybody;

9. nobody; 10. somebody.

Test 6. 1. who; 2. which; 3. who; 4. who;

5. which; 6. which; 7. who; 8. who; 9. which;

10. which; 11. who; 12. which; 13. which;
14. who; 15. who.

Test 7. 1. what, what; 2. what; 3. that; 4. what; 5. that; 6. what; 7. what; 8. that; 9. that; 10. that, what.

Test 8. 1. another; 2. other; 3. the other;

4. others; 5. the others; 6. the other; 7. an­
other; 8. other; 9. the others; 10. the other.

Test 9. 1. so; 2. such; 3. so; 4. such; 5. so;

6. such; 7. so; 8. such; 9. so; 10. such.

Test 10. 1. either; 2. also; 3. too; 4. either;

5. either; 6. also; 7. either; 8. also; 9. also;
10. too.

Test 11. 1. there is; 2. it is; 3. there is, it is; 4, it is, it is; 5. it is; 6. it is, there is;

7. there is; 8. it is, there is; 9. it is, there is;
10. it is.

The Preposition

Test 1. 1. between; 2. on; 3. in front of; 4. opposite/in front of; 5. next to; 6. under; 7. behind; 8. in; 9. in front of/next to; 10. above; 11. under; 12. on; 13. between; 14.in.

Test 2.1. to; 2. on; 3. at; 4. on; 5. at; 6. to; 7. at; 8. on; 9. at; 10. to.

Test 3.1. in; 2. in/on; 3. in, on; 4. in; 5. in, in, in, on; 6. in; 7. on; 8. in; 9. in; 10. on.

Test 4. 1. at; 2. on; 3. on; 4. on; 5. at;

6. on; 7. at; 8. on; 9. on, at; 10. at.

Test 5. 1. in; 2. at; 3. in; 4. at; 5. at; 6. in, at; 7. in, at; 8. at, at; 9. at; 10. in; 11. in, at; 12. at.

Test 6.1. to; 2. in, to; 3. to; 4. in; 5. to, to; 6. in; 7. in; 8. to; 9. to, in; 10. in.

Test 7. 1. on; 2. down; 3. down; 4. up; 5. away; 6. off; 7. back; 8. out; 9. back.

The Verb

• Modal Verbs

Test 1.1. could; 2. can; 3. may/can; 4. can; 5. may/might; 6. may/might; 7. can; 8. may/ can; 9. could; 10. can, can't; 11. might; 12. may not/might not.

Test 2. 1. should; 2. must; 3. mustn't; 4. must; 5. shouldn't; 6. have to; 7. should; 8. mustn't; 9. don't have to; 10. needn't; 11. shall; 12. shall; 13. shouldn't; 14. has to; 15. needn't; 16. doesn't have to.

Test 3. 1. will be able to; 2. couldn't; 3. didn't have to; 4. won't have to; 5. won't be able to; 6. had to; 7. shall/will have to; 8. could; 9. shall/will be able to; 10. couldn't; 11. could; 12. didn't have to.

Verbs and Noun Go Together

Test Steal + £ 1,000; a wallet, earrings

- a bank; a post office

win + a competition; a war; £ 1,000; a football match

- John McEnroe

catch + a fish; a bus; a train; a cold; a thief

- a car

wear + a seat belt; earrings; a watch; a uniform

- a briefcase, an umbrella

tell + a lie, the truth, a joke; a story

- a poem

play + the piano; tennis; cards

- swimming, a competition

Verb's Tenses

Test 3.1. plays, is playing; 2. do they speak, is he speaking; 3. speaks, is speaking; 4. tells, is telling; 5. drive, are driving; 6. wears, is wearing; 7. do, know, am doing; 8. watches, is watching, wants; 9. Do you eat ...; are eating; 10. Do you remember ..., works; 11. doesn't understand, is explaining; 12. says, loves; 13. don't recognize, is giving; 14. Do you ... drink ...?, are drinking; 15. fell, wants, live/are living.

Test 4. 1. shall/will go, reach; 2. is, shall/ will have; 3. shall/will be, are; 4. will come, will be; 5. leave, will forget; 6. will bring; 7. will find; 8. doesn't know, will return; 9. will become, grows up; 10. shall/will lose; 11. get; 12. Will ... make...?; 13. shall/will stay, go, telephone; 14. will recover; 15. will finish, will finish.

Test 5. 1. are you going; 2. shall/will give; 3. is coming; 4. shall/will wait; 5. shall/will

have; 6. are having, Will you come? 7. Are you taking, Are you painting ...? (Will you paint?), am taking (shall/will take ...); 8. Shall/will type; 9. will see, come; 10. is leaving; 11. Are you trying?, am trying; 12. will meet, will forget; 13. will come; 14. Are you doing ...?, are coming, am showing; 15. are going, Will you sail...?

Test 6. 1. sat, began; 2. Did you see ...?, stood; 3. came, saw, was drawing; 4. did not understand, was doing; 5. were driving; 6. was setting; 7. flew; 8. didn't hear, was saying, was typing; 9. did it happen?, happened, were talking; 10. walked/were walking, spoke; 11. told, was eating; 12. hide/ was hiding, was watching; 13. struck, didn't stop, was travelling; 14. was sitting, came, said, was waiting; 15. didn't like, were working.

Test 7.1. has forgotten, left; 2. was, didn't know, has become; 3. have bought; 4. have lent, did you lend...?, did; 5. have lost, saw; 6. has become; 7. has lived; 8. ... did you do ...? 9.... have you done ...?, saw; 10. haven't played, left; 11. Have you heard ...?, got; 12. got, haven't answered; 13. have ever tasted, ... did you buy ...?; 14. ... did you get...?, have had; 15. ... did you see ...?, haven't met.

Test 8. 1. have been telephoning; Haven't ... finished?, haven't got, has been engaged;

2. has been playing, has just stopped; 3. ... haven't ... brought, Haven't you typed ...? 4. has been raining; 5. have you been doing;

  1. have not found, have been looking for;

  2. has failed, has been practising; 8. has
    happened; 9. have known; 10. have you had,
    have had; 11. has been collecting, has
    collected; 12. have been ringing, has gone;
    13. have you owned; 14. have you put;
    15. Have you been crying?

Test 9. 1. had broken, has broken; 2. Have you ever seen ...?; 3. had seen; 4. has missed, has never come; 5. had eaten; 6. has had;

7. has never said; 8. have bought; 9. has just
seen; 10. has stopped; 11. had walked;
12. have just walked; 13. had done; 14. has
been; 15. had been.

Test 10. 1. had never seen; 2. got; 3. left; 4. had recommend; 5. had finished; 6. had passed; 7. went, had closed (had been closed);

8. knew; 9. went on, had stopped; 10. arrived,
had just gone; 11. was, had been; 12. got, had
gone; 13. had changed; 14. arrived, had
finished; 15. took, had never seen.

Test 11. 1. shall/will, would get; 2. will rain; 3. would send; 4. will have; 5. Shall I go ...? 6. would come; 7. shouldn't/wouldn't watch; 8. would make; 9. will understand; 10. Will they come ...? 11. will be; 12. will have to; 13. would feel; 14. will never tell; 15. will publish.


Test 1. 1. has been living; 2. has found; 3. has gone; 4. bought; 5. has she known; 6. has been working; 7. has visited; 8. has been travelling.

Test 2. 1. have you been learning; 2. have you been using; 3. did you have; 4. have you known; 5. have you been playing; 6. did you start.

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

Test 1. 1. more slowly; 2. more carefully; 3. earlier; 4. elder; 5. the oldest; 6. further; 7. the further/further; 8. the least; 9. the latest; 10. the latter; 11. older; 12. luckier.

Test 2. 1. a bit happier; 2. a lot easier;

3. much bigger; 4. far more interesting than;
5. a bit more slowly; 6. much more serious
than; 7. a little warmer today than; 8. much
more comfortable than.

Test 3. 1. better and better; 2. more and more talkative; 3. more and more difficult;

4. more and more impatient; 5. worse and
worse; 6. heavier and heavier.

Test 4. 1. The more expensive the hotel, the better the service. 2. The more you practise your English, the more fluently you speak it. 3. The higher the quality of your shoes, the longer you wear them.

Test 5. 1. It is one of the worst mistakes I have ever made. 2. Her last holiday was the most enjoyable she has ever had. 3. He is the most generous person we have ever spoken to.

Test 6. 1. She is more talkative than him. 2.1 can't type as fast as her. 3. They have more English lessons a week than us. 4. We speak English more fluently than them. 5. I'm as interested in this piece of information as you.

Test 7. 1. complicated; 2. cheaper; 3. more slowly; 4. more carefully; 5. earlier; 6. the most beautiful; 7. the smallest; 8. the oldest; 9. further, soon; 10. the busiest; 11. the least; 12. the latest; 13. the best; 14. healthier and more beautiful; 15. lazier; 16. less work, fewer lectures ... but more pleasure.

Test 8. 1. a bit newer than; 2. much more interesting than; 3. a bit more comfortable than; 4. a bit worse than; 5. much thinner than; 6. a bit bigger than; 7. much more popular than; 8. much better than; 9. a bit more expensive than; 10. much hotter in July than.

Test 9. 1. I didn't get up as early as you. 2. They didn't play as well as us. 3. Peter's car isn't as expensive as Dan's. 4. Ann's composition wasn't as bad as Jill's. 5.1 don't eat as much as you. 6. Tennis isn't as popular as football.

1 тип задач: необходимо поставить слово в нужную форму.

Make adj from the nouns in capitals to fit the gaps in the sentences.

  1. My sister is really …. and wants to run her own company one day. AMBITION

  2. To get to the top in business, you have to be very …. COMPETITION

  3. I am lazy- I am just not ….enough to be a professional sportsman. ENERGY

  4. If you are ….. and like writing plays and fiction, you may like to consider a career as a screenwriter. IMAGINATION

  5. You need a …. mind if you want to be a lawyer. LOGIC

  6. You need to be quite …. If you want to teach small children. PRACTICALITY

  7. You need to be patient and …. If you want a career in nursing. CARE

Make suitable words from the words in capitals to fit the gaps in the sentences.

  1. I thought the film was really ….EXCITE

  2. Sonya is the most …. girl in the class. INTELLIGENCE

  3. Dave always looks happy and ….CHEER

  4. I never get …. with watching football. BORE

  5. My sister’s hobbies are quite ….from mine. DIFFER

  6. Astronomy is a really ….subject. INTEREST

  7. My girlfriend is very …ATTRACT

  8. I was …by the ending of the film. SURPRISE

Complete the story by supplying the correct form of the verb.

Mr. Ross couldn’t understand what …1(to happen) to her son lately. Mike …2(to lie) in bed…3(to sigh).

  • Unless you…4(to rise) now, you…5(to be late) to school,- she said.

But Mike…6(to raise) his head with difficulty and was looking at his mother with very sad eyes.

  • Oh, why not..7(to stay) home from school?

  • No, Mum, I cant do that. He pretended his stomach…8(to give) him a lot of pain.

Mike spent the whole morning in bed. He knew his class-mates…9(to examine) at the moment. The boy was happy he wasn’t there.

2 тип задач: знание времен.

The student has made 6 tense mistakes. The student has used the word “nice” 6 times. Rewrite the story replacing “nice” with a different word and correcting the tense mistakes.

A few months ago my friend James & I went for a walk. We live in a nice valley, there is a nice path up the mountains and we’ve gone up there.

We were walking a long way. It was a nice day but there were no other people on the mountain. Eventually, we sat down to have a nice drink. I put my hat on the ground but the wind blew it away. It stopped at the edge of the rocks. James went to get it when suddenly his foot slipped. He was starting to fall!!!

I ran over. “James,”- I called, “are you all right?” he was stuck on a ledge, halfway down the mountain. His ankle was broken and he couldn’t move. What can I do? There was nobody to help and it was getting dark. I couldn’t leave James alone. I’ve stayed with James for hours. It wasn’t a nice experience. Meanwhile our parents had called the police and they’ve sent a rescue helicopter to look for us. When we saw it, we felt really nice. The nightmare was over. We were safe at last.

There are 10 tense mistakes in this text. Try to find them.

When Andrew and Amy first met, they didn’t like each other at all. In fact, they were having a terrible argument.

They were in the disko when it happened. Amy sat with her friends when Andrew came up and was asking her to dance. She had refused and went on talking to the girl next to her. The chair on the other side was empty, so Andrew ahd to sat down. Unfortunately Amy was putting her sunglasses on that same chair a short time earlier. When Andrew realized what he did he was terribly embarrassed. He was apologizing, of course, but Amy was very angry. The next day Amy came out of school when she was hearing someone calling her. It was Andrew. He was standing there holding a big bunch of flowers and a new pair of sunglasses which he was buying for her earlier. Amy was really pleased. When Andrew asked her to out with him that night, she accepted immediately!

Past simple/ present perfect?

A: ….(you/see) the football match on tv yest?

B: no, who …..(win)?

A: Germany of course! They ….(be) the best team in the world.

B: Yes, they ….(win) 3 major championships now, haven’t they? Was it a good match?

A: yes, both teams …(play) really well.

A: You …..(have) a game table tennis yesterday? How long did the match last?

B: It ….(go on) for hours. We ….(be) exhausted at the end!

A: I am not surprised . I …. (never/play) table tennis in my life.

B: Really? My friends and I …(just/book) the hall for a return match. Why don’t you play too?

A: Great! What time?

3 тип задач: Vocabulary.

Fill in the gaps with an appropriate word.

  1. The person who controls a football match is called a …..

  2. There are 11 players in a football…

  3. In games like tennis the person you play against is called your …

  4. In most games is you score more points than the other player, you … the game.

  5. Most ice- hockey players …. helmets .

Fill in the gaps with one of the words from the list. Don’t use the same word twice.

  1. Beckham passed the ball…. another member of the team.

  2. He caught the ball …. his right hand.

  3. The baseball player hit the ball…his bat.

  4. Munich were playing …a local team.

  5. In football player hit the ball..the posts and …the net.


Write the appropriate introductory. Use the words given.

Agree +to + inf, offer, promise, refuse, threaten.

Advise + sb+ to+ inf, ask, beg, command, invite, order, remind, warn.

Admit+ gerund, accuse sb of, apologise for, boast of, complain, deny, insist on, prefers, suggest.

Agree+ that-+ clause, complain, explain, exclaim.

Ex: you shouldn’t go to bed. - advise.

  1. Please, don’t leave me.-

  2. Do it now.-

  3. No, I didn’t kill him.-

  4. Alright. I will do the washing-up.-

  5. Don’t forget to take the dog out.-

  6. Everybody, stand up now!-

  7. No, I wont give you’re my money.-

  8. Could I see your phone?-

  9. I am sorry I shouted at you.-

  10. I will punish you if you don’t behave.-

  11. It was me who stole the book.-

  12. It only work if you press the green button.-

  13. You are right. It was a brilliant film.-

  14. I’ve been feeling dizzy all day.-

  15. Of course I will write to you.-

  16. Lets go for a swim.-

  17. It was you who broke the tv.-

  18. If I were you, I would tell him the truth.-

Word formation. Complete the table.

Noun adj Negative adj Positive adverb



Fit xxx








Translate the following letter into English. The word ”keep” should be used 10 times.

Милая бабушка!

Пишу тебе потому, что не могу больше так жить. Все только и стараются сделать мою жизнь невыносимой. Я ничего не могу держать в секрете, потому что мой брат Андрей (а ты всегда его защищаешь) вечно подслушивает мои телефонные разговоры. Машка, твоя любимая внучка, постоянно читает мои письма, кроме того, мама все время ворчит, что я не слежу за порядком в моей комнате. А когда я о чем-нибудь прошу папу, то в ответ всегда слышу: «отстань!». А хуже всего то, что наша учительница англ.яза задала домой написать письмо, используя слово ”keep” 10 раз. Я целых 2 часа старался сделать это, но так и не смог.

С любовью,

Твой внук Вася.

Translate into English.

-Мост все еще строят?

-Да, говорят, работа будет закончена в начале следующего года.

Когда родители вернулись, они поняли, что их дочери не было дома. Мама подумала, где она может быть в такой поздний час.

Я знаю грамматику гораздо хуже, чем Катя, поэтому в моих контрольных гораздо больше ошибок, чем в ее.

Phrasal verbs

Use the following verbs and particles to make phrasal verbs which have the same meanings as the definitions in 1-8.

Verbs: take make look get

Particles: up in out up to into away with

1 trick or deceive ___

2 investigate____

3 not be punished for smth _____

4 see, hear or understand with difficulty_____

5 invent (a story)______

6 start doing_____

7 admire and respect_____

8 do things you know you shoudnt____

Phrasal verbs

Match each sentence beginning on the left with an appropriate ending on the right.

1 as soon as I gave up

2 the cooker was giving off

3 suspected of giving away

4 he listened closely as they gave out

5 she said we had to give in

6 street Aid is a charity which gives out

7 he says he cant give back

a state secrets, he has arrested and held in jail.

b the homework tomorrow morning.

c smoking, I felt a lot better.

d food to homeless people .

e a strange smell, so I got someone to look at it.

f the money I lent him until Friday.

g the winning lottery numbers on the news.

Modal verbs

Complete each of the spaces with one of the negative modal forms from the box, together with the correct form of the verb in brackets. More than 1 answer may be possible.

1 what a waste of time! I ____(revise) 16th century European history: none of it came up in the exam.

2 we____(pay) for a babysitter for Luke last night. My parents looked after him at their house.

3 the Christmas holidays are a little longer than usual this year. We ____(go) back to school until January 10th.

4 you _____(tell) anyone what I’ve just said. I’ll be very angry if you do.

5 I know I ____(have) any more cream cakes, but it is my birthday after all.

The cop and the anthem

On his bench in Madison Square Soapy moved uneasily. When wild geese honk high of nights, and when women without sealskin coats grow kind to their husbands, and when Soapy moves uneasily on his bench in the park, you may know that winter is near at hand.

A dead leaf fell in Soapy's lap. That was Jack Frost's card. Jack is kind to the regular denizens of Madison Square, and gives fair warning of his annual call. At the corners of four streets he hands his pasteboard to the North Wind, footman of the mansion of All Outdoors, so that the inhabitants thereof may make ready.

Soapy's mind became cognisant of the fact that the time had come for him to resolve himself into a singular Committee of Ways and Means to provide against the coming rigour. And therefore he moved uneasily on his bench.

The hibernatorial ambitions of Soapy were not of the highest. In them there were no considerations of Mediterranean cruises, of soporific Southern skies drifting in the Vesuvian Bay. Three months on the Island was what his soul craved. Three months of assured board and bed and congenial company, safe from Boreas and bluecoats, seemed to Soapy the essence of things desirable.

For years the hospitable Blackwell's had been his winter quarters. Just as his more fortunate fellow New Yorkers had bought their tickets to Palm Beach and the Riviera each winter, so Soapy had made his humble arrangements for his annual hegira to the Island. And now the time was come. On the previous night three Sabbath newspapers, distributed beneath his coat, about his ankles and over his lap, had failed to repulse the cold as he slept on his bench near the spurting fountain in the ancient square. So the Island loomed big and timely in Soapy's mind. He scorned the provisions made in the name of charity for the city's dependents. In Soapy's opinion the Law was more benign than Philanthropy. There was an endless round of institutions, municipal and eleemosynary, on which he might set out and receive lodging and food accordant with the simple life. But to one of Soapy's proud spirit the gifts of charity are encumbered. If not in coin you must pay in humiliation of spirit for every benefit received at the hands of philanthropy. As Caesar had his Brutus, every bed of charity must have its toll of a bath, every loaf of bread its compensation of a private and personal inquisition. Wherefore it is better to be a guest of the law, which though conducted by rules, does not meddle unduly with a gentleman's private affairs.

Soapy, having decided to go to the Island, at once set about accomplishing his desire. There were many easy ways of doing this. The pleasantest was to dine luxuriously at some expensive restaurant; and then, after declaring insolvency, be handed over quietly and without uproar to a policeman. An accommodating magistrate would do the rest.

Soapy left his bench and strolled out of the square and across the level sea of asphalt, where Broadway and Fifth Avenue flow together. Up Broadway he turned, and halted at a glittering cafe, where are gathered together nightly the choicest products of the grape, the silkworm and the protoplasm.

Soapy had confidence in himself from the lowest button of his vest upward. He was shaven, and his coat was decent and his neat black, ready-tied four-in-hand had been presented to him by a lady missionary on Thanksgiving Day. If he could reach a table in the restaurant unsuspected success would be his. The portion of him that would show above the table would raise no doubt in the waiter's mind. A roasted mallard duck, thought Soapy, would be about the thing--with a bottle of Chablis, and then Camembert, a demi-tasse and a cigar. One dollar for the cigar would be enough. The total would not be so high as to call forth any supreme manifestation of revenge from the cafe management; and yet the meat would leave him filled and happy for the journey to his winter refuge.

But as Soapy set foot inside the restaurant door the head waiter's eye fell upon his frayed trousers and decadent shoes. Strong and ready hands turned him about and conveyed him in silence and haste to the sidewalk and averted the ignoble fate of the menaced mallard.

Soapy turned off Broadway. It seemed that his route to the coveted island was not to be an epicurean one. Some other way of entering limbo must be thought of.

At a corner of Sixth Avenue electric lights and cunningly displayed wares behind plate-glass made a shop window conspicuous. Soapy took a cobblestone and dashed it through the glass. People came running around the corner, a policeman in the lead. Soapy stood still, with his hands in his pockets, and smiled at the sight of brass buttons.

"Where's the man that done that?" inquired the officer excitedly.

"Don't you figure out that I might have had something to do with it?" said Soapy, not without sarcasm, but friendly, as one greets good fortune.

The policeman's mind refused to accept Soapy even as a clue. Men who smash windows do not remain to parley with the law's minions. They take to their heels. The policeman saw a man half way down the block running to catch a car. With drawn club he joined in the pursuit. Soapy, with disgust in his heart, loafed along, twice unsuccessful.

On the opposite side of the street was a restaurant of no great pretensions. It catered to large appetites and modest purses. Its crockery and atmosphere were thick; its soup and napery thin. Into this place Soapy took his accusive shoes and telltale trousers without challenge. At a table he sat and consumed beefsteak, flapjacks, doughnuts and pie. And then to the waiter be betrayed the fact that the minutest coin and himself were strangers.

"Now, get busy and call a cop," said Soapy. "And don't keep a gentleman waiting."

"No cop for youse," said the waiter, with a voice like butter cakes and an eye like the cherry in a Manhattan cocktail. "Hey, Con!"

Neatly upon his left ear on the callous pavement two waiters pitched Soapy. He arose, joint by joint, as a carpenter's rule opens, and beat the dust from his clothes. Arrest seemed but a rosy dream. The Island seemed very far away. A policeman who stood before a drug store two doors away laughed and walked down the street.

Five blocks Soapy travelled before his courage permitted him to woo capture again. This time the opportunity presented what he fatuously termed to himself a "cinch." A young woman of a modest and pleasing guise was standing before a show window gazing with sprightly interest at its display of shaving mugs and inkstands, and two yards from the window a large policeman of severe demeanour leaned against a water plug.

It was Soapy's design to assume the role of the despicable and execrated "masher." The refined and elegant appearance of his victim and the contiguity of the conscientious cop encouraged him to believe that he would soon feel the pleasant official clutch upon his arm that would insure his winter quarters on the right little, tight little isle.

Soapy straightened the lady missionary's readymade tie, dragged his shrinking cuffs into the open, set his hat at a killing cant and sidled toward the young woman. He made eyes at her, was taken with sudden coughs and "hems," smiled, smirked and went brazenly through the impudent and contemptible litany of the "masher." With half an eye Soapy saw that the policeman was watching him fixedly. The young woman moved away a few steps, and again bestowed her absorbed attention upon the shaving mugs. Soapy followed, boldly stepping to her side, raised his hat and said:

"Ah there, Bedelia! Don't you want to come and play in my yard?"

The policeman was still looking. The persecuted young woman had but to beckon a finger and Soapy would be practically en route for his insular haven. Already he imagined he could feel the cozy warmth of the station-house. The young woman faced him and, stretching out a hand, caught Soapy's coat sleeve.

Sure, Mike," she said joyfully, "if you'll blow me to a pail of suds. I'd have spoke to you sooner, but the cop was watching." With the young woman playing the clinging ivy to his oak Soapy walked past the policeman overcome with gloom. He seemed doomed to liberty.

At the next corner he shook off his companion and ran. He halted in the district where by night are found the lightest streets, hearts, vows and librettos.

Women in furs and men in greatcoats moved gaily in the wintry air. A sudden fear seized Soapy that some dreadful enchantment had rendered him immune to arrest. The thought brought a little of panic upon it, and when he came upon another policeman lounging grandly in front of a transplendent theatre he caught at the immediate straw of "disorderly conduct."

On the sidewalk Soapy began to yell drunken gibberish at the top of his harsh voice. He danced, howled, raved and otherwise disturbed the welkin.

The policeman twirled his club, turned his back to Soapy and remarked to a citizen.

"'Tis one of them Yale lads celebratin' the goose egg they give to the Hartford College. Noisy; but no harm. We've instructions to lave them be."

Disconsolate, Soapy ceased his unavailing racket. Would never a policeman lay hands on him? In his fancy the Island seemed an unattainable Arcadia. He buttoned his thin coat against the chilling wind.

In a cigar store he saw a well-dressed man lighting a cigar at a swinging light. His silk umbrella he had set by the door on entering. Soapy stepped inside, secured the umbrella and sauntered off with it slowly. The man at the cigar light followed hastily.

"My umbrella," he said, sternly.

"Oh, is it?" sneered Soapy, adding insult to petit larceny. "Well, why don't you call a policeman? I took it. Your umbrella! Why don't you call a cop? There stands one on the corner."

The umbrella owner slowed his steps. Soapy did likewise, with a presentiment that luck would again run against him. The policeman looked at the two curiously.

"Of course," said the umbrella man--"that is--well, you know how these mistakes occur--I--if it's your umbrella I hope you'll excuse me--I picked it up this morning in a restaurant--If you recognise it as yours, why--I hope you'll--"

"Of course it's mine," said Soapy, viciously.

The ex-umbrella man retreated. The policeman hurried to assist a tall blonde in an opera cloak across the street in front of a street car that was approaching two blocks away.

Soapy walked eastward through a street damaged by improvements. He hurled the umbrella wrathfully into an excavation. He muttered against the men who wear helmets and carry clubs. Because he wanted to fall into their clutches, they seemed to regard him as a king who could do no wrong.

At length Soapy reached one of the avenues to the east where the glitter and turmoil was but faint. He set his face down this toward Madison Square, for the homing instinct survives even when the home is a park bench.

But on an unusually quiet corner Soapy came to a standstill. Here was an old church, quaint and rambling and gabled. Through one violet-stained window a soft light glowed, where, no doubt, the organist loitered over the keys, making sure of his mastery of the coming Sabbath anthem. For there drifted out to Soapy's ears sweet music that caught and held him transfixed against the convolutions of the iron fence.

The moon was above, lustrous and serene; vehicles and pedestrians were few; sparrows twittered sleepily in the eaves--for a little while the scene might have been a country churchyard. And the anthem that the organist played cemented Soapy to the iron fence, for he had known it well in the days when his life contained such things as mothers and roses and ambitions and friends and immaculate thoughts and collars.

The conjunction of Soapy's receptive state of mind and the influences about the old church wrought a sudden and wonderful change in his soul. He viewed with swift horror the pit into which he had tumbled, the degraded days, unworthy desires, dead hopes, wrecked faculties and base motives that made up his existence.

And also in a moment his heart responded thrillingly to this novel mood. An instantaneous and strong impulse moved him to battle with his desperate fate. He would pull himself out of the mire; he would make a man of himself again; he would conquer the evil that had taken possession of him. There was time; he was comparatively young yet; he would resurrect his old eager ambitions and pursue them without faltering. Those solemn but sweet organ notes had set up a revolution in him. To-morrow he would go into the roaring downtown district and find work. A fur importer had once offered him a place as driver. He would find him to-morrow and ask for the position. He would be somebody in the world. He would--

Soapy felt a hand laid on his arm. He looked quickly around into the broad face of a policeman.

"What are you doin' here?" asked the officer.

"Nothin'," said Soapy.

"Then come along," said the policeman.

"Three months on the Island," said the Magistrate in the Police Court the next morning.

O. Henry

The Cactus

The most notable thing about Time is that it is so purely relative. A large amount of reminiscence is, by common consent, conceded to the drowning man; and it is not past belief that one may review an entire courtship while removing one's gloves.

That is what Trysdale was doing, standing by a table in his bachelor apartments. On the table stood a singular-looking green plant in a red earthen jar. The plant was one of the species of cacti, and was provided with long, tentacular leaves that perpetually swayed with the slightest breeze with a peculiar beckoning motion.

Trysdale's friend, the brother of the bride, stood at a sideboard complaining at being allowed to drink alone. Both men were in evening dress. White favors like stars upon their coats shone through the gloom of the apartment.

As he slowly unbuttoned his gloves, there passed through Trysdale's mind a swift, scarifying retrospect of the last few hours. It seemed that in his nostrils was still the scent of the flowers that had been banked in odorous masses about the church, and in his ears the lowpitched hum of a thousand well-bred voices, the rustle of crisp garments, and, most insistently recurring, the drawling words of the minister irrevocably binding her to another.

From this last hopeless point of view he still strove, as if it had become a habit of his mind, to reach some conjecture as to why and how he had lost her. Shaken rudely by the uncompromising fact, he had suddenly found himself confronted by a thing he had never before faced --his own innermost, unmitigated, arid unbedecked self. He saw all the garbs of pretence and egoism that he had worn now turn to rags of folly. He shuddered at the thought that to others, before now, the garments of his soul must have appeared sorry and threadbare. Vanity and conceit? These were the joints in his armor. And how free from either she had always been--But why--

As she had slowly moved up the aisle toward the altar he had felt an unworthy, sullen exultation that had served to support him. He had told himself that her paleness was from thoughts of another than the man to whom she was about to give herself. But even that poor consolation had been wrenched from him. For, when he saw that swift, limpid, upward look that she gave the man when he took her hand, he knew himself to be forgotten. Once that same look had been raised to him, and he had gauged its meaning. Indeed, his conceit had crumbled; its last prop was gone. Why had it ended thus? There had been no quarrel between them, nothing--

For the thousandth time he remarshalled in his mind the events of those last few days before the tide had so suddenly turned.

She had always insisted upon placing him upon a pedestal, and he had accepted her homage with royal grandeur. It had been a very sweet incense that she had burned before him; so modest (he told himself); so childlike and worshipful, and (he would once have sworn) so sincere. She had invested him with an almost supernatural number of high attributes and excellencies and talents, and he had absorbed the oblation as a desert drinks the rain that can coax from it no promise of blossom or fruit.

As Trysdale grimly wrenched apart the seam of his last glove, the crowning instance of his fatuous and tardily mourned egoism came vividly back to him. The scene was the night when he had asked her to come up on his pedestal with him and share his greatness. He could not, now, for the pain of it, allow his mind to dwell upon the memory of her convincing beauty that night--the careless wave of her hair, the tenderness and virginal charm of her looks and words. But they had been enough, and they had brought him to speak. During their conversation she had said:

"And Captain Carruthers tells me that you speak the Spanish language like a native. Why have you hidden this accomplishment from me? Is there anything you do not know?"

Now, Carruthers was an idiot. No doubt he (Trysdale) had been guilty (he sometimes did such things) of airing at the club some old, canting Castilian proverb dug from the hotchpotch at the back of dictionaries. Carruthers, who was one of his incontinent admirers, was the very man to have magnified this exhibition of doubtful erudition.

But, alas! the incense of her admiration had been so sweet and flattering. He allowed the imputation to pass without denial. Without protest, he allowed her to twine about his brow this spurious bay of Spanish scholarship. He let it grace his conquering head, and, among its soft convolutions, he did not feel the prick of the thorn that was to pierce him later.

How glad, how shy, how tremulous she was! How she fluttered like a snared bird when he laid his mightiness at her feet! He could have sworn, and he could swear now, that unmistakable consent was in her eyes, but, coyly, she would give him no direct answer. "I will send you my answer to-morrow," she said; and he, the indulgent, confident victor, smilingly granted the delay. The next day he waited, impatient, in his rooms for the word. At noon her groom came to the door and left the strange cactus in the red earthen jar. There was no note, no message, merely a tag upon the plant bearing a barbarous foreign or botanical name. He waited until night, but her answer did not come. His large pride and hurt vanity kept him from seeking her. Two evenings later they met at a dinner. Their greetings were conventional, but she looked at him, breathless, wondering, eager. He was courteous, adamant, waiting her explanation. With womanly swiftness she took her cue from his manner, and turned to snow and ice. Thus, and wider from this on, they had drifted apart. Where was his fault? Who had been to blame? Humbled now, he sought the answer amid the ruins of his self-conceit. If--

The voice of the other man in the room, querulously intruding upon his thoughts, aroused him.

"I say, Trysdale, what the deuce is the matter with you? You look unhappy as if you yourself had been married instead of having acted merely as an accomplice. Look at me, another accessory, come two thousand miles on a garlicky, cockroachy banana steamer all the way from South America to connive at the sacrifice--please to observe how lightly my guilt rests upon my shoulders. Only little sister I had, too, and now she's gone. Come now! take something to ease your conscience."

"I don't drink just now, thanks," said Trysdale.

"Your brandy," resumed the other, coming over and joining him, "is abominable. Run down to see me some time at Punta Redonda, and try some of our stuff that old Garcia smuggles in. It's worth the, trip. Hallo! here's an old acquaintance. Wherever did you rake up this cactus, Trysdale?"

"A present," said Trysdale, "from a friend. Know the species?"

"Very well. It's a tropical concern. See hundreds of 'em around Punta every day. Here's the name on this tag tied to it. Know any Spanish, Trysdale?"

"No," said Trysdale, with the bitter wraith of a smile--"Is it Spanish?"

"Yes. The natives imagine the leaves are reaching out and beckoning to you. They call it by this name--Ventomarme. Name means in English, 'Come and take me.'

O. Henry

The Twelve Dancing Princesses

There was a king who had twelve beautiful daughters. They slept in twelve beds all in one room and when they went to bed, the doors were shut and locked up. However, every morning their shoes were found to be quite worn through as if they had been danced in all night. Nobody could find out how it happened, or where the princesses had been.

So the king made it known to all the land that if any person could discover the secret and find out where it was that the princesses danced in the night, he would have the one he liked best to take as his wife, and would be king after his death. But whoever tried and did not succeed, after three days and nights, they would be put to death.

A king's son soon came. He was well entertained, and in the evening was taken to the chamber next to the one where the princesses lay in their twelve beds. There he was to sit and watch where they went to dance; and, in order that nothing could happen without him hearing it, the door of his chamber was left open. But the king's son soon fell asleep; and when he awoke in the morning he found that the princesses had all been dancing, for the soles of their shoes were full of holes.

The same thing happened the second and third night and so the king ordered his head to be cut off.

After him came several others; but they all had the same luck, and all lost their lives in the same way.

Now it happened that an old soldier, who had been wounded in battle and could fight no longer, passed through the country where this king reigned, and as he was travelling through a wood, he met an old woman, who asked him where he was going.

'I hardly know where I am going, or what I had better do,' said the soldier; 'but I think I would like to find out where it is that the princesses dance, and then in time I might be a king.' 'Well,' said the old woman, 'that is not a very hard task: only take care not to drink any of the wine which one of the princesses will bring to you in the evening; and as soon as she leaves you pretend to be fast asleep.'

Then she gave him a cloak, and said, 'As soon as you put that on you will become invisible, and you will then be able to follow the princesses wherever they go.' When the soldier heard all this good advice, he was determined to try his luck, so he went to the king, and said he was willing to undertake the task.

He was as well received as the others had been, and the king ordered fine royal robes to be given him; and when the evening came he was led to the outer chamber.

Just as he was going to lie down, the eldest of the princesses brought him a cup of wine; but the soldier threw it all away secretly, taking care not to drink a drop. Then he laid himself down on his bed, and in a little while began to snore very loudly as if he was fast asleep.

When the twelve princesses heard this they laughed heartily; and the eldest said, 'This fellow too might have done a wiser thing than lose his life in this way!' Then they rose and opened their drawers and boxes, and took out all their fine clothes, and dressed themselves at the mirror, and skipped about as if they were eager to begin dancing.

But the youngest said, 'I don't know why it is, but while you are so happy I feel very uneasy; I am sure some mischance will befall us.'

'You simpleton,' said the eldest, 'you are always afraid; have you forgotten how many kings' sons have already watched in vain? And as for this soldier, even if I had not given him his sleeping draught, he would have slept soundly enough.'

When they were all ready, they went and looked at the soldier; but he snored on, and did not stir hand or foot: so they thought they were quite safe.

Then the eldest went up to her own bed and clapped her hands, and the bed sank into the floor and a trap-door flew open. The soldier saw them going down through the trap-door one after another, the eldest leading the way; and thinking he had no time to lose, he jumped up, put on the cloak which the old woman had given him, and followed them.

However, in the middle of the stairs he trod on the gown of the youngest princess, and she cried out to her sisters, 'All is not right; someone took hold of my gown.'

'You silly creature!' said the eldest, 'it is nothing but a nail in the wall.'

Down they all went, and at the bottom they found themselves in a most delightful grove of trees; and the leaves were all of silver, and glittered and sparkled beautifully. The soldier wished to take away some token of the place; so he broke off a little branch, and there came a loud noise from the tree. Then the youngest daughter said again, 'I am sure all is not right -- did not you hear that noise? That never happened before.'

But the eldest said, 'It is only our princes, who are shouting for joy at our approach.' They came to another grove of trees, where all the leaves were of gold; and afterwards to a third, where the leaves were all glittering diamonds. And the soldier broke a branch from each; and every time there was a loud noise, which made the youngest sister tremble with fear. But the eldest still said it was only the princes, who were crying for joy.

They went on till they came to a great lake; and at the side of the lake there lay twelve little boats with twelve handsome princes in them, who seemed to be waiting there for the princesses. One of the princesses went into each boat, and the soldier stepped into the same boat as the youngest. As they were rowing over the lake, the prince who was in the boat with the youngest princess and the soldier said, 'I do not know why it is, but though I am rowing with all my might we do not get on so fast as usual, and I am quite tired: the boat seems very heavy today.' 'It is only the heat of the weather,' said the princess, 'I am very warm, too.' On the other side of the lake stood a fine, illuminated castle from which came the merry music of horns and trumpets. There they all landed, and went into the castle, and each prince danced with his princess; and the soldier, who was still invisible, danced with them too. When any of the princesses had a cup of wine set by her, he drank it all up, so that when she put the cup to her mouth it was empty. At this, too, the youngest sister was terribly frightened, but the eldest always silenced her.

They danced on till three o'clock in the morning, and then all their shoes were worn out, so that they were obliged to leave. The princes rowed them back again over the lake (but this time the soldier placed himself in the boat with the eldest princess); and on the opposite shore they took leave of each other, the princesses promising to come again the next night. When they came to the stairs, the soldier ran on before the princesses, and laid himself down. And as the twelve, tired sisters slowly came up, they heard him snoring in his bed and they said, 'Now all is quite safe'. Then they undressed themselves, put away their fine clothes, pulled off their shoes, and went to bed.

In the morning the soldier said nothing about what had happened, but determined to see more of this strange adventure, and went again on the second and third nights. Everything happened just as before: the princesses danced till their shoes were worn to pieces, and then returned home. On the third night the soldier carried away one of the golden cups as a token of where he had been.

As soon as the time came when he was to declare the secret, he was taken before the king with the three branches and the golden cup; and the twelve princesses stood listening behind the door to hear what he would say.

The king asked him. 'Where do my twelve daughters dance at night?'

The soldier answered, 'With twelve princes in a castle underground.' And then he told the king all that had happened, and showed him the three branches and the golden cup which he had brought with him. The king called for the princesses, and asked them whether what the soldier said was true and when they saw that they were discovered, and that it was of no use to deny what had happened, they confessed it all.

So the king asked the soldier which of the princesses he would choose for his wife; and he answered, 'I am not very young, so I will have the eldest.' -- and they were married that very day, and the soldier was chosen to be the king's heir.

Brothers Grimm

In the High and Far-Off Times the Elephant, O Best Beloved, had no trunk. He had only a blackish, bulgy nose, as big as a boot, that he could wriggle about from side to side; but he couldn't pick up things with it. But there was one Elephant--a new Elephant--an Elephant's Child--who was full of 'satiable curtiosity, and that means he asked ever so many questions.
And he lived in Africa, and he filled all Africa with his 'satiable curtiosities. He asked his tall aunt, the Ostrich, why her tail-feathers grew just so, and his tall aunt the Ostrich spanked him with her hard, hard, claw. He asked his tall uncle, the Giraffe, what made his skin spotty, and his tall uncle, the Giraffe, spanked him with his hard, hard hoof. And still he was full of 'satiable curtiosity! He asked his broad aunt, the Hippopotamus, why her eyes were red, and his broad aunt, the Hippopotamus, spanked him with her broad, broad hoof; and he asked his hairy uncle, the Baboon, why melons tasted ! just so, and his hairy uncle, the Baboon, spanked him with his hairy, hairy paw. And still he was full of 'satiable curtiosity! He asked questions about everything that he saw, or heard, or felt, or smelt, or touched, and all his uncles and his aunts spanked him. And still he was full of 'satiable curtiosity!

One fine morning in the middle of the Precession of the Equinoxes this 'satiable Elephant's Child asked a new fine question that he had never asked before. He asked, "What does the crocodile have for dinner?" Then everybody said, "Hush!" in a loud and dretful tone, and they spanked him immediately and directly, without stopping, for a long time.

By and by, when that was finished, he came upon Kolokolo Bird sitting in the middle of a wait-a-bit thornbush, and he said, "My father has spanked me, and my mother has spanked me; all my aunts and uncles have spanked me for my 'satiable curtiosity; and
still I want to know what the Crocodile has for dinner!"

The Kolokolo Bird said, with a mournful cry, "Go to the banks of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with fever-trees, and find out."

That very next morning, when there was nothing left of the Equinoxes, because the Precession had preceded according to precedent, this 'satiable Elephant's Child took a hundred pounds of bananas (the little short red kind), and a hundred pounds of sugar-cane (the long purple kind), and seventeen melons (the greeny-crackly kind), and said to all his dear families, "Good-bye. I am going to the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with fever-trees, to find out what the Crocodile has for dinner." And they all spanked him once more for luck, though he asked them most politely to stop.

Then he went away, a little warm, but not at all astonished, eating melons, and throwing the rind about, because he could not pick it up.

He went from Graham's Town to Kimberley, and from Kimberley to Khama's Country, and from Khama's Country he went east by north, eating melons all the time, till at last he came to the banks of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with fever-trees, precisely as Kolokolo Bird had said.

Now you must know and understand, O Best Beloved, that till that very week, and day, and hour, and minute, this 'satiable Elephant's Child had never seen a Crocodile, and did not know what one was like. It was all his 'satiable curtiosity.

The first thing that he found was a Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake curled around a rock.

"'Scuse me," said the Elephant's Child most politely, "but have you seen such a thing as a Crocodile in these promiscuous parts?"

Have I seen a crocodile?" said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake, in a voice of dretful scorn. "What will you ask me next?"

"'Scuse me," said the Elephant's Child, "but could you kindly tell me what he has for dinner?"

Then the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake uncoiled himself very quickly from the rock, and spanked the Elephant's Child with his scalesome, flailsome tail.

"That is odd," said the Elephant's Child, "because my father and mother, and my uncle and my aunt, not to mention my other aunt, the Hippopotamus, and my other uncle, the Baboon, have all spanked me for my 'satiable curtiosity--and I suppose this is the same thing."

So he said good-bye very politely to the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake, and helped to coil him up on the rock again, and went on, a little warm, but not at all astonished, eating melons, and throwing the rind about, because he could not pick it up, till he trod on what he thought was a log of wood at the very edge of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with fever-trees.

But it was really the Crocodile, O Best Beloved, and the Crocodile winked one eye--like this!

"'Scuse me," said the Elephant's Child most politely, "but do you happen to have seen a Crocodile in these promiscuous parts?"

Then the Crocodile winked the other eye, and lifted half his tail out of the mud; and the Elephant's Child stepped back most politely, because he did not wish to be spanked again.

"Come hither, Little One," said the Crocodile. "Why do you ask such things?"

"'Scuse me," said the Elephant's Child most politely, "But my father has spanked me, my mother has spanked me, not to mention my tall aunt, the Ostrich, and my tall uncle, the Giraffe, who can kick ever so hard, as well as my broad aunt, the Hippopotamus, and my hairy uncle, the Baboon,
and including the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake, with the scalesome, flailsome tail, just up the bank, who spanks harder than any of them; and so, if it's quite all the same to you, I don't want to be spanked any more."

"Come hither, Little One," said the Crocodile, "for I am the Crocodile," and he wept crocodile tears to show it was quite true.

Then the Elephants' child grew all breathless, and panted, and kneeled down on the bank and said, "You are the very person I have been looking for all these long days. Will you please tell me what you have for dinner?"

"Come hither, Little One," said the Crocodile, "and I'll whisper."

Then the Elephant's Child put his head down close to the Crocodile's musky, tusky mouth, and the Crocodile caught him by his little nose, which up to that very week, day, hour, and minute, had been no bigger than a boot, though much more useful.

"I think," said the Crocodile--and he said it between his teeth, like this--"I think to-day I will begin with Elephant's Child!"

At this, O Best Beloved, the Elephant's Child was much annoyed, and he said, speaking through his nose, like this, "Led go! You are hurtig be!"

Then the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake scuffled down from the bank and said, "My young friend, if you do not now, immediately and instantly, pull as hard as ever you can, it is my opinion that your acquaintance in the large-pattern leather ulster" (and by this he meant the Crocodile) "will jerk you into yonder limpid stream before you can say Jack Robinson."

This is the way Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake always talked.

Then the Elephant's child sat back on his little haunches, and pulled, and pulled, and pulled, and his nose began to stretch. And the Crocodile floundered into the water, making it all creamy with great sweeps of his tail, and
he pulled, and pulled, and pulled.

And the Elephant's Child's nose kept on stretching; and the Elephant's child spread all his little four legs and pulled, and pulled, and pulled, and his nose kept on stretching; and the Crocodile threshed his tail like an oar, and
he pulled, and pulled, and pulled, and at each pull the Elephant's Child's nose grew longer and longer--and it hurt him hijjus!!

Then the Elephant's Child felt his legs slipping, and he said through his nose, which was now nearly five feet long, "This is to butch for be!"

Then the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake came down from the bank, and knotted himself in a double-clove-hitch round the Elephant's Child's hind legs, and said, "Rash and inexperienced traveller, we will now seriously devote ourselves to a little high tension, because if we do not, it is my impression that yonder self-propelling man-of-war with the armour-plated upper deck" (and by this, O Best Beloved, he meant the Crocodile) "will permanently vitiate your future career."

That is the way all Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snakes always talk.

So he pulled, and the Elephant's Child pulled, and the Crocodile pulled, but the Elephant's Child and the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake pulled hardest; and at last the Crocodile let go of the Elephant's Child's nose with a plop that you could hear all up and down the Limpopo.

Then the Elephant's Child sat down most hard and sudden; but first he was careful to say "Thank you" to the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake; and next he was kind to his poor pulled nose, and wrapped it all up in cool banana leaves, and hung it in the great grey-green greasy Limpopo to cool.

"What are you doing that for?" said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake.

"'Scuse me," said the Elephant's Child, "but my nose is badly out of shape, and I am waiting for it to shrink"

"Then you will have to wait a long time," said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake. "Some people do not know what is good for them."

The Elephant's Child sat there for three days waiting for his nose to shrink. But it never grew any shorter, and, besides, it made him squint. For, O Best Beloved, you will understand that the Crocodile had pulled it out into a really truly trunk, same as all Elephant's have today.

At the end of the third day a fly came and stung him on the shoulder, and before he knew what he was doing he lifted up his trunk and hit that fly dead with the end of it.

"'Vantage number one!" said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake. "You couldn't have done that with a mere-smear nose. Try and eat a little now."

Before he thought what he was doing the Elephant's Child put out his trunk and plucked a large bundle of grass, dusted it clean against his forelegs, and stuffed it into his mouth.

"'Vantage number two!" said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake. "You couldn't have done that with a mere-smear nose. Don't you think the sun is very hot here?"

"It is," said the Elephant's Child, and before he thought what he was doing he schlooped up a schloop of mud from the banks of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo, and slapped it on his head, where it made a cool schloopy-sloshy mud-cap all trickly behind his ears.

"'Vantage number three!" said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake. "You couldn't have done that with a mere-smear nose. Now how do you feel about being spanked again?"

"'Scuse me," said the Elephant's Child, "but I should not like it at all."

"How would you like to spank somebody?" said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake.

"I should like it very much indeed," said the Elephant's Child.

"Well," said the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake, "you will find that new nose of yours very useful to spank people with."

"Thank you," said the Elephant's child, "I'll remember that; and now I think I'll go home to all my dear families and try."

So the Elephant's Child went home across Africa frisking and whisking his trunk. When he wanted fruit to eat he pulled fruit down from a tree, instead of waiting for it to fall as he used to do. When he wanted grass he plucked grass up from the ground, instead of going on his knees as he used to do. When the flies bit him he broke off the branch of a tree and used it as a fly-whisk; and he made himself a new, cool slushy-squshy mud-cap whenever the sun was hot. When he felt lonely walking through Africa he sang to himself down his trunk, and the noise was louder than several brass bands. He went especially out of his way to find a broad Hippopotamus (she was no relation of his), and he spanked her very hard, to make sure that the Bi-Coloured-Python-Rock-Snake had spoken the truth about his new trunk. The rest of the time he picked up the melon rinds that he had dropped on his way to the Limpopo--for he was a Tidy Pachyderm.

One dark evening he came back to all his dear families, and he coiled up his trunk and said, "How do you do?" They were very glad to see him, and immediately said, "Come here and be spanked for your 'satiable curtiosity."

"Pooh," said the Elephant's Child. "I don't think you people's know anything about spanking; but
I do, and I'll show you."

Then he uncurled his trunk and knocked two of his dear brothers head over heels.

"O Bananas!" said they, "Where did you learn that trick, and what have you done to your nose?"

"I got a new one from the Crocodile on the banks of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River," said the Elephant's Child. "I asked him what he had for dinner, and he gave me this to keep."

"It looks very ugly," said his hairy uncle, the Baboon.

"It does," said the Elephant's Child. "But it's very useful," and he picked up his hairy uncle, the Baboon, by one hairy leg, and hove him into a hornets' nest.

Then that bad Elephant's Child spanked all his dear families for a long time, till they were very warm and greatly astonished. He pulled out his tall Ostrich aunt's tail-feathers; and he caught his tall uncle, the Giraffe, by the hind-leg, and dragged him through a thorn-bush; and he shouted at his broad aunt, the Hippopotamus, and blew bubbles into her ear when she was sleeping in the water after meals; but he never let any one touch the Kolokolo Bird.

At last things grew so exciting that his dear families went off one by one in a hurry to the banks of the great grey-green, greasy Limpopo River, all set about with fever-trees, to borrow new noses from the Crocodile. When they came back nobody spanked anybody any more; and ever since that day, O Best Beloved, all the Elephants you will ever see besides all those that you won't, have trunks precisely like the trunk of the 'satiable Elephant's Child.


The Darling

Olenka, the daughter of the retired collegiate assessor, Plemyanniakov, was sitting in her back porch, lost in thought. It was hot, the flies were persistent and teasing, and it was pleasant to reflect that it would soon be evening. Dark rainclouds were gathering from the east, and bringing from time to time a breath of moisture in the air.

Kukin, who was the manager of an open-air theatre called the Tivoli, and who lived in the lodge, was standing in the middle of the garden looking at the sky.

"Again!" he observed despairingly. "It's going to rain again! Rain every day, as though to spite me. I might as well hang myself! It's ruin! Fearful losses every day."

He flung up his hands, and went on, addressing Olenka:

"There! that's the life we lead, Olga Semyonovna. It's enough to make one cry. One works and does one's utmost, one wears oneself out, getting no sleep at night, and racks one's brain what to do for the best. And then what happens? To begin with, one's public is ignorant, boorish. I give them the very best operetta, a dainty masque, first rate music-hall artists. But do you suppose that's what they want! They don't understand anything of that sort. They want a clown; what they ask for is vulgarity. And then look at the weather! Almost every evening it rains. It started on the tenth of May, and it's kept it up all May and June. It's simply awful! The public doesn't come, but I've to pay the rent just the same, and pay the artists."

The next evening the clouds would gather again, and Kukin would say with an hysterical laugh:

"Well, rain away, then! Flood the garden, drown me! Damn my luck in this world and the next! Let the artists have me up! Send me to prison! -- to Siberia! -- the scaffold! Ha, ha, ha!"

And next day the same thing.

Olenka listened to Kukin with silent gravity, and sometimes tears came into her eyes. In the end his misfortunes touched her; she grew to love him. He was a small thin man, with a yellow face, and curls combed forward on his forehead. He spoke in a thin tenor; as he talked his mouth worked on one side, and there was always an expression of despair on his face; yet he aroused a deep and genuine affection in her. She was always fond of some one, and could not exist without loving. In earlier days she had loved her papa, who now sat in a darkened room, breathing with difficulty; she had loved her aunt who used to come every other year from Bryansk; and before that, when she was at school, she had loved her French master. She was a gentle, soft-hearted, compassionate girl, with mild, tender eyes and very good health. At the sight of her full rosy cheeks, her soft white neck with a little dark mole on it, and the kind, naive smile, which came into her face when she listened to anything pleasant, men thought, "Yes, not half bad," and smiled too, while lady visitors could not refrain from seizing her hand in the middle of a conversation, exclaiming in a gush of delight, "You darling!"

The house in which she had lived from her birth upwards, and which was left her in her father's will, was at the extreme end of the town, not far from the Tivoli. In the evenings and at night she could head the band playing, and the crackling and banging of fireworks, and it seemed to her that it was Kukin struggling with his destiny, storming the entrenchments of his chief foe, the indifferent public; there was a sweet thrill at her heart, she had no desire to sleep, and when he returned home at day-break, she tapped softly at her bedroom window, and showing him only her face and one shoulder through the curtain, she gave him a friendly smile …

He proposed to her, and they were married. And when he had a closer view of her neck and her plump, fine shoulders, he threw up his hands, and said:

"You darling!"

He was happy, but as it rained on the day and night of his wedding, his face still retained an expression of despair.

They got on very well together. She used to sit in his office, to look after things in the Tivoli, to put down the accounts and pay the wages. And her rosy cheeks, her sweet, naive, radiant smile, were to be seen now at the office window, now in the refreshment bar or behind the scenes of the theatre. And already she used to say to her acquaintances that the theatre was the chief and most important thing in life and that it was only through the drama that one could derive true enjoyment and become cultivated and humane.

"But do you suppose the public understands that?" she used to say. "What they want is a clown. Yesterday we gave 'Faust Inside Out,' and almost all the boxes were empty; but if Vanitchka and I had been producing some vulgar thing, I assure you the theatre would have been packed. Tomorrow Vanitchka and I are doing 'Orpheus in Hell.' Do come."

And what Kukin said about the theatre and the actors she repeated. Like him she despised the public for their ignorance and their indifference to art; she took part in the rehearsals, she corrected the actors, she kept an eye on the behaviour of the musicians, and when there was an unfavourable notice in the local paper, she shed tears, and then went to the editor's office to set things right.

The actors were fond of her and used to call her "Vanitchka and I," and "the darling"; she was sorry for them and used to lend them small sums of money, and if they deceived her, she used to shed a few tears in private, but did not complain to her husband.

They got on well in the winter too. They took the theatre in the town for the whole winter, and let it for short terms to a Little Russian company, or to a conjurer, or to a local dramatic society. Olenka grew stouter, and was always beaming with satisfaction, while Kukin grew thinner and yellower, and continually complained of their terrible losses, although he had not done badly all the winter. He used to cough at night, and she used to give him hot raspberry tea or lime-flower water, to rub him with eau-de-Cologne and to wrap him in her warm shawls.

"You're such a sweet pet!" she used to say with perfect sincerity, stroking his hair. "You're such a pretty dear!"

Towards Lent he went to Moscow to collect a new troupe, and without him she could not sleep, but sat all night at her window, looking at the stars, and she compared herself with the hens, who are awake all night and uneasy when the cock is not in the hen-house. Kukin was detained in Moscow, and wrote that he would be back at Easter, adding some instructions about the Tivoli. But on the Sunday before Easter, late in the evening, came a sudden ominous knock at the gate; some one was hammering on the gate as though on a barrel -- boom, boom, boom! The drowsy cook went flopping with her bare feet through the puddles, as she ran to open the gate.

"Please open," said some one outside in a thick bass. "There is a telegram for you."

Olenka had received telegrams from her husband before, but this time for some reason she felt numb with terror. With shaking hands she opened the telegram and read as follows:


That was how it was written in the telegram -- "fufuneral," and the utterly incomprehensible word "immate." It was signed by the stage manager of the operatic company.

"My darling!" sobbed Olenka. "Vanka, my precious, my darling! Why did I ever meet you! Why did I know you and love you! Your poor heart-broken Olenka is alone without you!"

Kukin's funeral took place on Tuesday in Moscow, Olenka returned home on Wednesday, and as soon as she got indoors, she threw herself on her bed and sobbed so loudly that it could be heard next door, and in the street.

"Poor darling!" the neighbours said, as they crossed themselves. "Olga Semyonovna, poor darling! How she does take on!"

Three months later Olenka was coming home from mass, melancholy and in deep mourning. It happened that one of her neighbours, Vassily Andreitch Pustovalov, returning home from church, walked back beside her. He was the manager at Babakayev's, the timber merchant's. He wore a straw hat, a white waistcoat, and a gold watch-chain, and looked more a country gentleman than a man in trade.

"Everything happens as it is ordained, Olga Semyonovna," he said gravely, with a sympathetic note in his voice; "and if any of our dear ones die, it must be because it is the will of God, so we ought have fortitude and bear it submissively."

After seeing Olenka to her gate, he said good-bye and went on. All day afterwards she heard his sedately dignified voice, and whenever she shut her eyes she saw his dark beard. She liked him very much. And apparently she had made an impression on him too, for not long afterwards an elderly lady, with whom she was only slightly acquainted, came to drink coffee with her, and as soon as she was seated at table began to talk about Pustovalov, saying that he was an excellent man whom one could thoroughly depend upon, and that any girl would be glad to marry him. Three days later Pustovalov came himself. He did not stay long, only about ten minutes, and he did not say much, but when he left, Olenka loved him -- loved him so much that she lay awake all night in a perfect fever, and in the morning she sent for the elderly lady. The match was quickly arranged, and then came the wedding.

Pustovalov and Olenka got on very well together when they were married.

Usually he sat in the office till dinner-time, then he went out on business, while Olenka took his place, and sat in the office till evening, making up accounts and booking orders.

"Timber gets dearer every year; the price rises twenty per cent," she would say to her customers and friends. "Only fancy we used to sell local timber, and now Vassitchka always has to go for wood to the Mogilev district. And the freight!" she would add, covering her cheeks with her hands in horror. "The freight!"

It seemed to her that she had been in the timber trade for ages and ages, and that the most important and necessary thing in life was timber; and there was something intimate and touching to her in the very sound of words such as "baulk," "post," "beam," "pole," "scantling," "batten," "lath," "plank," etc.

At night when she was asleep she dreamed of perfect mountains of planks and boards, and long strings of wagons, carting timber somewhere far away. She dreamed that a whole regiment of six-inch beams forty feet high, standing on end, was marching upon the timber-yard; that logs, beams, and boards knocked together with the resounding crash of dry wood, kept falling and getting up again, piling themselves on each other. Olenka cried out in her sleep, and Pustovalov said to her tenderly: "Olenka, what's the matter, darling? Cross yourself!"

Her husband's ideas were hers. If he thought the room was too hot, or that business was slack, she thought the same. Her husband did not care for entertainments, and on holidays he stayed at home. She did likewise.

"You are always at home or in the office," her friends said to her. "You should go to the theatre, darling, or to the circus."

"Vassitchka and I have no time to go to theatres," she would answer sedately. "We have no time for nonsense. What's the use of these theatres?"

On Saturdays Pustovalov and she used to go to the evening service; on holidays to early mass, and they walked side by side with softened faces as they came home from church. There was a pleasant fragrance about them both, and her silk dress rustled agreeably. At home they drank tea, with fancy bread and jams of various kinds, and afterwards they ate pie. Every day at twelve o'clock there was a savoury smell of beet-root soup and of mutton or duck in their yard, and on fast-days of fish, and no one could pass the gate without feeling hungry. In the office the samovar was always boiling, and customers were regaled with tea and cracknels. Once a week the couple went to the baths and returned side by side, both red in the face.

"Yes, we have nothing to complain of, thank God," Olenka used to say to her acquaintances. "I wish every one were as well off as Vassitchka and I."

When Pustovalov went away to buy wood in the Mogilev district, she missed him dreadfully, lay awake and cried. A young veterinary surgeon in the army, called Smirnin, to whom they had let their lodge, used sometimes to come in in the evening. He used to talk to her and play cards with her, and this entertained her in her husband's absence. She was particularly interested in what he told her of his home life. He was married and had a little boy, but was separated from his wife because she had been unfaithful to him, and now he hated her and used to send her forty roubles a month for the maintenance of their son. And hearing of all this, Olenka sighed and shook her head. She was sorry for him.

"Well, God keep you," she used to say to him at parting, as she lighted him down the stairs with a candle. "Thank you for coming to cheer me up, and may the Mother of God give you health."

And she always expressed herself with the same sedateness and dignity, the same reasonableness, in imitation of her husband. As the veterinary surgeon was disappearing behind the door below, she would say:

"You know, Vladimir Platonitch, you'd better make it up with your wife. You should forgive her for the sake of your son. You may be sure the little fellow understands."

And when Pustovalov came back, she told him in a low voice about the veterinary surgeon and his unhappy home life, and both sighed and shook their heads and talked about the boy, who, no doubt, missed his father, and by some strange connection of ideas, they went up to the holy ikons, bowed to the ground before them and prayed that God would give them children.

And so the Pustovalovs lived for six years quietly and peaceably in love and complete harmony.

But behold! one winter day after drinking hot tea in the office, Vassily Andreitch went out into the yard without his cap on to see about sending off some timber, caught cold and was taken ill. He had the best doctors, but he grew worse and died after four months' illness. And Olenka was a widow once more.

"I've nobody, now you've left me, my darling," she sobbed, after her husband's funeral. "How can I live without you, in wretchedness and misery! Pity me, good people, all alone in the world!"

She went about dressed in black with long "weepers," and gave up wearing hat and gloves for good. She hardly ever went out, except to church, or to her husband's grave, and led the life of a nun. It was not till six months later that she took off the weepers and opened the shutters of the windows. She was sometimes seen in the mornings, going with her cook to market for provisions, but what went on in her house and how she lived now could only be surmised. People guessed, from seeing her drinking tea in her garden with the veterinary surgeon, who read the newspaper aloud to her, and from the fact that, meeting a lady she knew at the post-office, she said to her:

"There is no proper veterinary inspection in our town, and that's the cause of all sorts of epidemics. One is always hearing of people's getting infection from the milk supply, or catching diseases from horses and cows. The health of domestic animals ought to be as well cared for as the health of human beings."

She repeated the veterinary surgeon's words, and was of the same opinion as he about everything. It was evident that she could not live a year without some attachment, and had found new happiness in the lodge. In any one else this would have been censured, but no one could think ill of Olenka; everything she did was so natural. Neither she nor the veterinary surgeon said anything to other people of the change in their relations, and tried, indeed, to conceal it, but without success, for Olenka could not keep a secret. When he had visitors, men serving in his regiment, and she poured out tea or served the supper, she would begin talking of the cattle plague, of the foot and mouth disease, and of the municipal slaughterhouses. He was dreadfully embarrassed, and when the guests had gone, he would seize her by the hand and hiss angrily:

"I've asked you before not to talk about what you don't understand. When we veterinary surgeons are talking among ourselves, please don't put your word in. It's really annoying."

And she would look at him with astonishment and dismay, and ask him in alarm: "But, Voloditchka, what am I to talk about?"

And with tears in her eyes she would embrace him, begging him not to be angry, and they were both happy.

But this happiness did not last long. The veterinary surgeon departed, departed for ever with his regiment, when it was transferred to a distant place -- to Siberia, it may be. And Olenka was left alone.

Now she was absolutely alone. Her father had long been dead, and his armchair lay in the attic, covered with dust and lame of one leg. She got thinner and plainer, and when people met her in the street they did not look at her as they used to, and did not smile to her; evidently her best years were over and left behind, and now a new sort of life had begun for her, which did not bear thinking about. In the evening Olenka sat in the porch, and heard the band playing and the fireworks popping in the Tivoli, but now the sound stirred no response. She looked into her yard without interest, thought of nothing, wished for nothing, and afterwards, when night came on she went to bed and dreamed of her empty yard. She ate and drank as it were unwillingly.

And what was worst of all, she had no opinions of any sort. She saw the objects about her and understood what she saw, but could not form any opinion about them, and did not know what to talk about. And how awful it is not to have any opinions! One sees a bottle, for instance, or the rain, or a peasant driving in his cart, but what the bottle is for, or the rain, or the peasant, and what is the meaning of it, one can't say, and could not even for a thousand roubles. When she had Kukin, or Pustovalov, or the veterinary surgeon, Olenka could explain everything, and give her opinion about anything you like, but now there was the same emptiness in her brain and in her heart as there was in her yard outside. And it was as harsh and as bitter as wormwood in the mouth.

Little by little the town grew in all directions. The road became a street, and where the Tivoli and the timber-yard had been, there were new turnings and houses. How rapidly time passes! Olenka's house grew dingy, the roof got rusty, the shed sank on one side, and the whole yard was overgrown with docks and stinging-nettles. Olenka herself had grown plain and elderly; in summer she sat in the porch, and her soul, as before, was empty and dreary and full of bitterness. In winter she sat at her window and looked at the snow. When she caught the scent of spring, or heard the chime of the church bells, a sudden rush of memories from the past came over her, there was a tender ache in her heart, and her eyes brimmed over with tears; but this was only for a minute, and then came emptiness again and the sense of the futility of life. The black kitten, Briska, rubbed against her and purred softly, but Olenka was not touched by these feline caresses. That was not what she needed. She wanted a love that would absorb her whole being, her whole soul and reason -- that would give her ideas and an object in life, and would warm her old blood. And she would shake the kitten off her skirt and say with vexation:

"Get along; I don't want you!"

And so it was, day after day and year after year, and no joy, and no opinions. Whatever Mavra, the cook, said she accepted.

One hot July day, towards evening, just as the cattle were being driven away, and the whole yard was full of dust, some one suddenly knocked at the gate. Olenka went to open it herself and was dumbfounded when she looked out: she saw Smirnin, the veterinary surgeon, grey-headed, and dressed as a civilian. She suddenly remembered everything. She could not help crying and letting her head fall on his breast without uttering a word, and in the violence of her feeling she did not notice how they both walked into the house and sat down to tea.

"My dear Vladimir Platonitch! What fate has brought you?" she muttered, trembling with joy.

"I want to settle here for good, Olga Semyonovna," he told her. "I have resigned my post, and have come to settle down and try my luck on my own account. Besides, it's time for my boy to go to school. He's a big boy. I am reconciled with my wife, you know."

"Where is she?' asked Olenka.

"She's at the hotel with the boy, and I'm looking for lodgings."

"Good gracious, my dear soul! Lodgings? Why not have my house? Why shouldn't that suit you? Why, my goodness, I wouldn't take any rent!" cried Olenka in a flutter, beginning to cry again. "You live here, and the lodge will do nicely for me. Oh dear! how glad I am!"

Next day the roof was painted and the walls were whitewashed, and Olenka, with her arms akimbo walked about the yard giving directions. Her face was beaming with her old smile, and she was brisk and alert as though she had waked from a long sleep. The veterinary's wife arrived -- a thin, plain lady, with short hair and a peevish expression. With her was her little Sasha, a boy of ten, small for his age, blue-eyed, chubby, with dimples in his cheeks. And scarcely had the boy walked into the yard when he ran after the cat, and at once there was the sound of his gay, joyous laugh.

"Is that your puss, auntie?" he asked Olenka. "When she has little ones, do give us a kitten. Mamma is awfully afraid of mice."

Olenka talked to him, and gave him tea. Her heart warmed and there was a sweet ache in her bosom, as though the boy had been her own child. And when he sat at the table in the evening, going over his lessons, she looked at him with deep tenderness and pity as she murmured to herself:

"You pretty pet! ... my precious! ... Such a fair little thing, and so clever."

" 'An island is a piece of land which is entirely surrounded by water,' " he read aloud.

"An island is a piece of land," she repeated, and this was the first opinion to which she gave utterance with positive conviction after so many years of silence and dearth of ideas.

Now she had opinions of her own, and at supper she talked to Sasha's parents, saying how difficult the lessons were at the high schools, but that yet the high school was better than a commercial one, since with a high-school education all careers were open to one, such as being a doctor or an engineer.

Sasha began going to the high school. His mother departed to Harkov to her sister's and did not return; his father used to go off every day to inspect cattle, and would often be away from home for three days together, and it seemed to Olenka as though Sasha was entirely abandoned, that he was not wanted at home, that he was being starved, and she carried him off to her lodge and gave him a little room there.

And for six months Sasha had lived in the lodge with her. Every morning Olenka came into his bedroom and found him fast asleep, sleeping noiselessly with his hand under his cheek. She was sorry to wake him.

"Sashenka," she would say mournfully, "get up, darling. It's time for school."

He would get up, dress and say his prayers, and then sit down to breakfast, drink three glasses of tea, and eat two large cracknels and a half a buttered roll. All this time he was hardly awake and a little ill-humoured in consequence.

"You don't quite know your fable, Sashenka," Olenka would say, looking at him as though he were about to set off on a long journey. "What a lot of trouble I have with you! You must work and do your best, darling, and obey your teachers."

"Oh, do leave me alone!" Sasha would say.

Then he would go down the street to school, a little figure, wearing a big cap and carrying a satchel on his shoulder. Olenka would follow him noiselessly.

"Sashenka!" she would call after him, and she would pop into his hand a date or a caramel. When he reached the street where the school was, he would feel ashamed of being followed by a tall, stout woman, he would turn round and say:

"You'd better go home, auntie. I can go the rest of the way alone."

She would stand still and look after him fixedly till he had disappeared at the school-gate.

Ah, how she loved him! Of her former attachments not one had been so deep; never had her soul surrendered to any feeling so spontaneously, so disinterestedly, and so joyously as now that her maternal instincts were aroused. For this little boy with the dimple in his cheek and the big school cap, she would have given her whole life, she would have given it with joy and tears of tenderness. Why? Who can tell why?

When she had seen the last of Sasha, she returned home, contented and serene, brimming over with love; her face, which had grown younger during the last six months, smiled and beamed; people meeting her looked at her with pleasure.

"Good-morning, Olga Semyonovna, darling. How are you, darling?"

"The lessons at the high school are very difficult now," she would relate at the market. "It's too much; in the first class yesterday they gave him a fable to learn by heart, and a Latin translation and a problem. You know it's too much for a little chap."

And she would begin talking about the teachers, the lessons, and the school books, saying just what Sasha said.

At three o'clock they had dinner together: in the evening they learned their lessons together and cried. When she put him to bed, she would stay a long time making the Cross over him and murmuring a prayer; then she would go to bed and dream of that far-away misty future when Sasha would finish his studies and become a doctor or an engineer, would have a big house of his own with horses and a carriage, would get married and have children ... She would fall asleep still thinking of the same thing, and tears would run down her cheeks from her closed eyes, while the black cat lay purring beside her: "Mrr, mrr, mrr."

Suddenly there would come a loud knock at the gate.

Olenka would wake up breathless with alarm, her heart throbbing. Half a minute later would come another knock.

"It must be a telegram from Harkov," she would think, beginning to tremble from head to foot. "Sasha's mother is sending for him from Harkov ... Oh, mercy on us!"

She was in despair. Her head, her hands, and her feet would turn chill, and she would feel that she was the most unhappy woman in the world. But another minute would pass, voices would be heard: it would turn out to be the veterinary surgeon coming home from the club.

"Well, thank God!" she would think.

And gradually the load in her heart would pass off, and she would feel at ease. She would go back to bed thinking of Sasha, who lay sound asleep in the next room, sometimes crying out in his sleep:

"I'll give it you!
Get away! Shut up!"

by Anton Pavlovich Chekhov

A Telephone Call

PLEASE, God, let him telephone me now. Dear God, let him call me now. I won't ask anything else of You, truly I won't. It isn't very much to ask. It would be so little to You, God, such a little, little thing. Only let him telephone now. Please, God. Please, please, please.

If I didn't think about it, maybe the telephone might ring. Sometimes it does that. If I could think of something else. If I could think of something else. Knobby if I counted five hundred by fives, it might ring by that time. I'll count slowly. I won't cheat. And if it rings when I get to three hundred, I won't stop; I won't answer it until I get to five hundred. Five, ten, fifteen, twenty, twenty-five, thirty, thirty-five, forty, forty-five, fifty.... Oh, please ring. Please.

This is the last time I'll look at the clock. I will not look at it again. It's ten minutes past seven. He said he would telephone at five o'clock. "I'll call you at five, darling." I think that's where he said "darling." I'm almost sure he said it there. I know he called me "darling" twice, and the other time was when he said good-by. "Good-by, darling." He was busy, and he can't say much in the office, but he called me "darling" twice. He couldn't have minded my calling him up. I know you shouldn't keep telephoning them--I know they don't like that. When you do that they know you are thinking about them and wanting them, and that makes them hate you. But I hadn't talked to him in three days-not in three days. And all I did was ask him how he was; it was just the way anybody might have called him up. He couldn't have minded that. He couldn't have thought I was bothering him. "No, of course you're not," he said. And he said he'd telephone me. He didn't have to say that. I didn't ask him to, truly I didn't. I'm sure I didn't. I don't think he would say he'd telephone me, and then just never do it. Please don't let him do that, God. Please don't.

"I'll call you at five, darling." "Good-by, darling.,' He was busy, and he was in a hurry, and there were people around him, but he called me "darling" twice. That's mine, that's mine. I have that, even if I never see him again. Oh, but that's so little. That isn't enough. Nothing's enough, if I never see him again. Please let me see him again, God. Please, I want him so much. I want him so much. I'll be good, God. I will try to be better, I will, If you will let me see him again. If You will let him telephone me. Oh, let him telephone me now.

Ah, don't let my prayer seem too little to You, God. You sit up there, so white and old, with all the angels about You and the stars slipping by. And I come to You with a prayer about a telephone call. Ah, don't laugh, God. You see, You don't know how it feels. You're so safe, there on Your throne, with the blue swirling under You. Nothing can touch You; no one can twist Your heart in his hands. This is suffering, God, this is bad, bad suffering. Won't You help me? For Your Son's sake, help me. You said You would do whatever was asked of You in His name. Oh, God, in the name of Thine only beloved Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord, let him telephone me now.

I must stop this. I mustn't be this way. Look. Suppose a young man says he'll call a girl up, and then something happens, and he doesn't. That isn't so terrible, is it? Why, it's gong on all over the world, right this minute. Oh, what do I care what's going on all over the world? Why can't that telephone ring? Why can't it, why can't it? Couldn't you ring? Ah, please, couldn't you? You damned, ugly, shiny thing. It would hurt you to ring, wouldn't it? Oh, that would hurt you. Damn you, I'll pull your filthy roots out of the wall, I'll smash your smug black face in little bits. Damn you to hell.

No, no, no. I must stop. I must think about something else. This is what I'll do. I'll put the clock in the other room. Then I can't look at it. If I do have to look at it, then I'll have to walk into the bedroom, and that will be something to do. Maybe, before I look at it again, he will call me. I'll be so sweet to him, if he calls me. If he says he can't see me tonight, I'll say, "Why, that's all right, dear. Why, of course it's all right." I'll be the way I was when I first met him. Then maybe he'll like me again. I was always sweet, at first. Oh, it's so easy to be sweet to people before you love them.

I think he must still like me a little. He couldn't have called me "darling" twice today, if he didn't still like me a little. It isn't all gone, if he still likes me a little; even if it's only a little, little bit. You see, God, if You would just let him telephone me, I wouldn't have to ask You anything more. I would be sweet to him, I would be gay, I would be just the way I used to be, and then he would love me again. And then I would never have to ask You for anything more. Don't You see, God? So won't You please let him telephone me? Won't You please, please, please?

Are You punishing me, God, because I've been bad? Are You angry with me because I did that? Oh, but, God, there are so many bad people --You could not be hard only to me. And it wasn't very bad; it couldn't have been bad. We didn't hurt anybody, God. Things are only bad when they hurt people. We didn't hurt one single soul; You know that. You know it wasn't bad, don't You, God? So won't You let him telephone me now?

If he doesn't telephone me, I'll know God is angry with me. I'll count five hundred by fives, and if he hasn't called me then, I will know God isn't going to help me, ever again. That will be the sign. Five, ten, fifteen, twenty, twenty-five, thirty, thirty-five, forty, forty-five, fifty, fifty-five. . . It was bad. I knew it was bad. All right, God, send me to hell. You think You're frightening me with Your hell, don't You? You think. Your hell is worse than mine.

I mustn't. I mustn't do this. Suppose he's a little late calling me up --that's nothing to get hysterical about. Maybe he isn't going to call--maybe he's coming straight up here without telephoning. He'll be cross if he sees I have been crying. They don't like you to cry. He doesn't cry. I wish to God I could make him cry. I wish I could make him cry and tread the floor and feel his heart heavy and big and festering in him. I wish I could hurt him like hell.

He doesn't wish that about me. I don't think he even knows how he makes me feel. I wish he could know, without my telling him. They don't like you to tell them they've made you cry. They don't like you to tell them you're unhappy because of them. If you do, they think you're possessive and exacting. And then they hate you. They hate you whenever you say anything you really think. You always have to keep playing little games. Oh, I thought we didn't have to; I thought this was so big I could say whatever I meant. I guess you can't, ever. I guess there isn't ever anything big enough for that. Oh, if he would just telephone, I wouldn't tell him I had been sad about him. They hate sad people. I would be so sweet and so gay, he couldn't help but like me. If he would only telephone. If he would only telephone.

Maybe that's what he is doing. Maybe he is coming on here without calling me up. Maybe he's on his way now. Something might have happened to him. No, nothing could ever happen to him. I can't picture anything happening to him. I never picture him run over. I never see him lying still and long and dead. I wish he were dead. That's a terrible wish. That's a lovely wish. If he were dead, he would be mine. If he were dead, I would never think of now and the last few weeks. I would remember only the lovely times. It would be all beautiful. I wish he were dead. I wish he were dead, dead, dead.

This is silly. It's silly to go wishing people were dead just because they don't call you up the very minute they said they would. Maybe the clock's fast; I don't know whether it's right. Maybe he's hardly late at all. Anything could have made him a little late. Maybe he had to stay at his office. Maybe he went home, to call me up from there, and somebody came in. He doesn't like to telephone me in front of people. Maybe he's worried, just alittle, little bit, about keeping me waiting. He might even hope that I would call him up. I could do that. I could telephone him.

I mustn't. I mustn't, I mustn't. Oh, God, please don't let me telephone him. Please keep me from doing that. I know, God, just as well as You do, that if he were worried about me, he'd telephone no matter where he was or how many people there were around him. Please make me know that, God. I don't ask YOU to make it easy for me--You can't do that, for all that You could make a world. Only let me know it, God. Don't let me go on hoping. Don't let me say comforting things to myself. Please don't let me hope, dear God. Please don't.

I won't telephone him. I'll never telephone him again as long as I live. He'll rot in hell, before I'll call him up. You don't have to give me strength, God; I have it myself. If he wanted me, he could get me. He knows where I ram. He knows I'm waiting here. He's so sure of me, so sure. I wonder why they hate you, as soon as they are sure of you. I should think it would be so sweet to be sure.

It would be so easy to telephone him. Then I'd know. Maybe it wouldn't be a foolish thing to do. Maybe he wouldn't mind. Maybe he'd like it. Maybe he has been trying to get me. Sometimes people try and try to get you on the telephone, and they say the number doesn't answer. I'm not just saying that to help myself; that really happens. You know that really happens, God. Oh, God, keep me away from that telephone. Kcep me away. Let me still have just a little bit of pride. I think I'm going to need it, God. I think it will be all I'll have.

Oh, what does pride matter, when I can't stand it if I don't talk to him? Pride like that is such a silly, shabby little thing. The real pride, the big pride, is in having no pride. I'm not saying that just because I want to call him. I am not. That's true, I know that's true. I will be big. I will be beyond little prides.

Please, God, keep me from, telephoning him. Please, God.

I don't see what pride has to do with it. This is such a little thing, for me to be bringing in pride, for me to be making such a fuss about. I may have misunderstood him. Maybe he said for me to call him up, at five. "Call me at five, darling." He could have said that, perfectly well. It's so possible that I didn't hear him right. "Call me at five, darling." I'm almost sure that's what he said. God, don't let me talk this way to myself. Make me know, please make me know.

I'll think about something else. I'll just sit quietly. If I could sit still. If I could sit still. Maybe I could read. Oh, all the books are about people who love each other, truly and sweetly. What do they want to write about that for? Don't they know it isn't tree? Don't they know it's a lie, it's a God damned lie? What do they have to tell about that for, when they know how it hurts? Damn them, damn them, damn them.

I won't. I'll be quiet. This is nothing to get excited about. Look. Suppose he were someone I didn't know very well. Suppose he were another girl. Then I d just telephone and say, "Well, for goodness' sake, what happened to you?" That's what I'd do, and I'd never even think about it. Why can't I be casual and natural, just because I love him? I can be. Honestly, I can be. I'll call him up, and be so easy and pleasant. You see if I won't, God. Oh, don't let me call him. Don't, don't, don't.

God, aren't You really going to let him call me? Are You sure, God? Couldn't You please relent? Couldn't You? I don't even ask You to let him telephone me this minute, God; only let him do it in a little while. I'll count five hundred by fives. I'll do it so slowly and so fairly. If he hasn't telephoned then, I'll call him. I will. Oh, please, dear God, dear kind God, my blessed Father in Heaven, let him call before then. Please, God. Please.

Five, ten, fifteen, twenty, twentyfive, thirty, thirty-five....

by Dorothy Parker

The Inn

Resembling in appearance all the wooden hostelries of the High Alps situated at the foot of glaciers in the barren rocky gorges that intersect the summits of the mountains, the Inn of Schwarenbach serves as a resting place for travellers crossing the Gemini Pass.

It remains open for six months in the year and is inhabited by the family of Jean Hauser; then, as soon as the snow begins to fall and to fill the valley so as to make the road down to Loeche impassable, the father and his three sons go away and leave the house in charge of the old guide, Gaspard Hari, with the young guide, Ulrich Kunsi, and Sam, the great mountain dog.

The two men and the dog remain till the spring in their snowy prison, with nothing before their eyes except the immense white slopes of the Balmhorn, surrounded by light, glistening summits, and are shut in, blocked up and buried by the snow which rises around them and which envelops, binds and crushes the little house, which lies piled on the roof, covering the windows and blocking up the door.

It was the day on which the Hauser family were going to return to Loeche, as winter was approaching, and the descent was becoming dangerous. Three mules started first, laden with baggage and led by the three sons. Then the mother, Jeanne Hauser, and her daughter Louise mounted a fourth mule and set off in their turn and the father followed them, accompanied by the two men in charge, who were to escort the family as far as the brow of the descent. First of all they passed round the small lake, which was now frozen over, at the bottom of the mass of rocks which stretched in front of the inn, and then they followed the valley, which was dominated on all sides by the snow-covered summits.

A ray of sunlight fell into that little white, glistening, frozen desert and illuminated it with a cold and dazzling flame. No living thing appeared among this ocean of mountains. There was no motion in this immeasurable solitude and no noise disturbed the profound silence.

By degrees the young guide, Ulrich Kunsi, a tall, long-legged Swiss, left old man Hauser and old Gaspard behind, in order to catch up the mule which bore the two women. The younger one looked at him as he approached and appeared to be calling him with her sad eyes. She was a young, fairhaired little peasant girl, whose milk-white cheeks and pale hair looked as if they had lost their color by their long abode amid the ice. When he had got up to the animal she was riding he put his hand on the crupper and relaxed his speed. Mother Hauser began to talk to him, enumerating with the minutest details all that he would have to attend to during the winter. It was the first time that he was going to stay up there, while old Hari had already spent fourteen winters amid the snow, at the inn of Schwarenbach.

Ulrich Kunsi listened, without appearing to understand and looked incessantly at the girl. From time to time he replied: "Yes, Madame Hauser," but his thoughts seemed far away and his calm features remained unmoved.

They reached Lake Daube, whose broad, frozen surface extended to the end of the valley. On the right one saw the black, pointed, rocky summits of the Daubenhorn beside the enormous moraines of the Lommern glacier, above which rose the Wildstrubel. As they approached the Gemmi pass, where the descent of Loeche begins, they suddenly beheld the immense horizon of the Alps of the Valais, from which the broad, deep valley of the Rhone separated them.

In the distance there was a group of white, unequal, flat, or pointed mountain summits, which glistened in the sun; the Mischabel with its two peaks, the huge group of the Weisshorn, the heavy Brunegghorn, the lofty and formidable pyramid of Mount Cervin, that slayer of men, and the Dent- Blanche, that monstrous coquette.

Then beneath them, in a tremendous hole, at the bottom of a terrific abyss, they perceived Loeche, where houses looked as grains of sand which had been thrown into that enormous crevice that is ended and closed by the Gemmi and which opens, down below, on the Rhone.

The mule stopped at the edge of the path, which winds and turns continually, doubling backward, then, fantastically and strangely, along the side of the mountain as far as the almost invisible little village at its feet. The women jumped into the snow and the two old men joined them. "Well," father Hauser said, "good-by, and keep up your spirits till next year, my friends," and old Hari replied: "Till next year."

They embraced each other and then Madame Hauser in her turn offered her cheek, and the girl did the same.

When Ulrich Kunsi's turn came, he whispered in Louise's ear, "Do not forget those up yonder," and she replied, "No," in such a low voice that he guessed what she had said without hearing it. "Well, adieu," Jean Hauser repeated, "and don't fall ill." And going before the two women, he commenced the descent, and soon all three disappeared at the first turn in the road, while the two men returned to the inn at Schwarenbach.

They walked slowly, side by side, without speaking. It was over, and they would be alone together for four or five months. Then Gaspard Hari began to relate his life last winter. He had remained with Michael Canol, who was too old now to stand it, for an accident might happen during that long solitude. They had not been dull, however; the only thing was to make up one's mind to it from the first, and in the end one would find plenty of distraction, games and other means of whiling away the time.

Ulrich Kunsi listened to him with his eyes on the ground, for in his thoughts he was following those who were descending to the village. They soon came in sight of the inn, which was, however, scarcely visible, so small did it look, a black speck at the foot of that enormous billow of snow, and when they opened the door Sam, the great curly dog, began to romp round them.

"Come, my boy," old Gaspard said, "we have no women now, so we must get our own dinner ready. Go and peel the potatoes." And they both sat down on wooden stools and began to prepare the soup.

The next morning seemed very long to Kunsi. Old Hari smoked and spat on the hearth, while the young man looked out of the window at the snow- covered mountain opposite the house.

In the afternoon he went out, and going over yesterday's ground again, he looked for the traces of the mule that had carried the two women. Then when he had reached the Gemmi Pass, he laid himself down on his stomach and looked at Loeche.

The village, in its rocky pit, was not yet buried under the snow, from which it was sheltered by the pine woods which protected it on all sides. Its low houses looked like paving stones in a large meadow from above. Hauser's little daughter was there now in one of those gray-colored houses. In which? Ulrich Kunsi was too far away to be able to make them out separately. How he would have liked to go down while he was yet able!

But the sun had disappeared behind the lofty crest of the Wildstrubel and the young man returned to the chalet. Daddy Hari was smoking, and when he saw his mate come in he proposed a game of cards to him, and they sat down opposite each other, on either side of the table. They played for a long time a simple game called brisque and then they had supper and went to bed.

The following days were like the first, bright and cold, without any fresh snow. Old Gaspard spent his afternoons in watching the eagles and other rare birds which ventured on those frozen heights, while Ulrich returned regularly to the Gemmi Pass to look at the village. Then they played cards, dice or dominoes and lost and won a trifle, just to create an interest in the game.

One morning Hari, who was up first, called his companion. A moving, deep and light cloud of white spray was falling on them noiselessly and was by degrees burying them under a thick, heavy coverlet of foam. That lasted four days and four nights. It was necessary to free the door and the windows, to dig out a passage and to cut steps to get over this frozen powder, which a twelve hours' frost had made as hard as the granite of the moraines.

They lived like prisoners and did not venture outside their abode. They had divided their duties, which they performed regularly. Ulrich Kunsi undertook the scouring, washing and everything that belonged to cleanliness. He also chopped up the wood while Gaspard Hari did the cooking and attended to the fire. Their regular and monotonous work was interrupted by long games at cards or dice, and they never quarrelled, but were always calm and placid. They were never seen impatient or ill- humored, nor did they ever use hard words, for they had laid in a stock of patience for their wintering on the top of the mountain.

Sometimes old Gaspard took his rifle and went after chamois, and occasionally he killed one. Then there was a feast in the inn at Schwarenbach and they revelled in fresh meat. One morning he went out as usual. The thermometer outside marked eighteen degrees of frost, and as the sun had not yet risen, the hunter hoped to surprise the animals at the approaches to the Wildstrubel, and Ulrich, being alone, remained in bed until ten o'clock. He was of a sleepy nature, but he would not have dared to give way like that to his inclination in the presence of the old guide, who was ever an early riser. He breakfasted leisurely with Sam, who also spent his days and nights in sleeping in front of the fire; then he felt low-spirited and even frightened at the solitude, and was-seized by a longing for his daily game of cards, as one is by the craving of a confirmed habit, and so he went out to meet his companion, who was to return at four o'clock.

The snow had levelled the whole deep valley, filled up the crevasses, obliterated all signs of the two lakes and covered the rocks, so that between the high summits there was nothing but an immense, white, regular, dazzling and frozen surface. For three weeks Ulrich had not been to the edge of the precipice from which he had looked down on the village, and he wanted to go there before climbing the slopes which led to Wildstrubel. Loeche was now also covered by the snow and the houses could scarcely be distinguished, covered as they were by that white cloak.

Then, turning to the right, he reached the Loemmern glacier. He went along with a mountaineer's long strides, striking the snow, which was as hard as a rock, with his ironpointed stick, and with his piercing eyes he looked for the little black, moving speck in the distance, on that enormous, white expanse.

When he reached the end of the glacier he stopped and asked himself whether the old man had taken that road, and then he began to walk along the moraines with rapid and uneasy steps. The day was declining, the snow was assuming a rosy tint, and a dry, frozen wind blew in rough gusts over its crystal surface. Ulrich uttered a long, shrill, vibrating call. His voice sped through the deathlike silence in which the mountains were sleeping; it reached the distance, across profound and motionless waves of glacial foam, like the cry of a bird across the waves of the sea. Then it died away and nothing answered him.

He began to walk again. The sun had sunk yonder behind the mountain tops, which were still purple with the reflection from the sky, but the depths of the valley were becoming gray, and suddenly the young man felt frightened. It seemed to him as if the silence, the cold, the solitude, the winter death of these mountains were taking possession of him, were going to stop and to freeze his blood, to make his limbs grow stiff and to turn him into a motionless and frozen object, and he set off running, fleeing toward his dwelling. The old man, he thought, would have returned during his absence. He had taken another road; he would, no doubt, be sitting before the fire, with a dead chamois at his feet. He soon came in sight of the inn, but no smoke rose from it. Ulrich walked faster and opened the door. Sam ran up to him to greet him, but Gaspard Hari had not returned. Kunsi, in his alarm, turned round suddenly, as if he had expected to find his comrade hidden in a corner. Then he relighted the fire and made the soup, hoping every moment to see the old man come in. From time to time he went out to see if he were not coming. It was quite night now, that wan, livid night of the mountains, lighted by a thin, yellow crescent moon, just disappearing behind the mountain tops.

Then the young man went in and sat down to warm his hands and feet, while he pictured to himself every possible accident. Gaspard might have broken a leg, have fallen into a crevasse, taken a false step and dislocated his ankle. And, perhaps, he was lying on the snow, overcome and stiff with the cold, in agony of mind, lost and, perhaps, shouting for help, calling with all his might in the silence of the night.. But where? The mountain was so vast, so rugged, so dangerous in places, especially at that time of the year, that it would have required ten or twenty guides to walk for a week in all directions to find a man in that immense space. Ulrich Kunsi, however, made up his mind to set out with Sam if Gaspard did not return by one in the morning, and he made his preparations.

He put provisions for two days into a bag, took his steel climbing iron, tied a long, thin, strong rope round his waist, and looked to see that his ironshod stick and his axe, which served to cut steps in the ice, were in order. Then he waited. The fire was burning on the hearth, the great dog was snoring in front of it, and the clock was ticking, as regularly as a heart beating, in its resounding wooden case. He waited, with his ears on the alert for distant sounds, and he shivered when the wind blew against the roof and the walls. It struck twelve and he trembled: Then, frightened and shivering, he put some water on the fire, so that he might have some hot coffee before starting, and when the clock struck one he got up, woke Sam, opened the door and went off in the direction of the Wildstrubel. For five hours he mounted, scaling the rocks by means of his climbing irons, cutting into the ice, advancing continually, and occasionally hauling up the dog, who remained below at the foot of some slope that was too steep for him, by means of the rope. It was about six o'clock when he reached one of the summits to which old Gaspard often came after chamois, and he waited till it should be daylight.

The sky was growing pale overhead, and a strange light, springing nobody could tell whence, suddenly illuminated the immense ocean of pale mountain summits, which extended for a hundred leagues around him. One might have said that this vague brightness arose from the snow itself and spread abroad in space. By degrees the highest distant summits assumed a delicate, pink flesh color, and the red sun appeared behind the ponderous giants of the Bernese Alps.

Ulrich Kunsi set off again, walking like a hunter, bent over, looking for tracks, and saying to his dog: "Seek, old fellow, seek!"

He was descending the mountain now, scanning the depths closely, and from time to time shouting, uttering aloud, prolonged cry, which soon died away in that silent vastness. Then he put his ear to the ground to listen. He thought he could distinguish a voice, and he began to run and shouted again, but he heard nothing more and sat down, exhausted and in despair. Toward midday he breakfasted and gave Sam, who was as tired as himself, something to eat also, and then he recommenced his search.

When evening came he was still walking, and he had walked more than thirty miles over the mountains. As he was too far away to return home and too tired to drag himself along any further, he dug a hole in the snow and crouched in it with his dog under a blanket which he had brought with him. And the man and the dog lay side by side, trying to keep warm, but frozen to the marrow nevertheless. Ulrich scarcely slept, his mind haunted by visions and his limbs shaking with cold.

Day was breaking when he got up. His legs were as stiff as iron bars and his spirits so low that he was ready to cry with anguish, while his heart was beating so that he almost fell over with agitation, when he thought he heard a noise.

Suddenly he imagined that he also was going to die of cold in the midst of this vast solitude, and the terror of such a death roused his energies and gave him renewed vigor. He was descending toward the inn, falling down and getting up again, and followed at a distance by Sam, who was limping on three legs, and they did not reach Schwarenbach until four o'clock in the afternoon. The house was empty and the young man made a fire, had something to eat and went to sleep, so worn out that he did not think of anything more.

He slept for a long time, for a very long time, an irresistible sleep. But suddenly a voice, a cry, a name, "Ulrich!" aroused him from his profound torpor and made him sit up in bed. Had he been dreaming? Was it one of those strange appeals which cross the dreams of disquieted minds? No, he heard it still, that reverberating cry-which had entered his ears and remained in his flesh-to the tips of his sinewy fingers. Certainly somebody had cried out and called "Ulrich!" There was somebody there near the house, there could be no doubt of that, and he opened the door and shouted, "Is it you, Gaspard?" with all the strength of his lungs. But there was no reply, no murmur, no groan, nothing. It was quite dark and the snow looked wan.

The wind had risen, that icy wind that cracks the rocks and leaves nothing alive on those deserted heights, and it came in sudden gusts, which were more parching and more deadly than the burning wind of the desert, and again Ulrich shouted: "Gaspard! Gaspard! Gaspard." And then he waited again. Everything was silent on the mountain.

Then he shook with terror and with a bound he was inside the inn, when he shut and bolted the door, and then he fell into a chair trembling all over, for he felt certain that his comrade had called him at the moment he was expiring.

He was sure of that, as sure as one is of being alive or of eating a piece of bread. Old Gaspard Hari had been dying for two days and three nights somewhere, in some hole, in one of those deep, untrodden ravines whose whiteness is more sinister than subterranean darkness. He had been dying for two days and three nights and be had just then died, thinking of his comrade. His soul, almost before it was released, had taken its flight to the inn where Ulrich was sleeping, and it had called him by that terrible and mysterious power which the spirits of the dead have to haunt the living. That voiceless soul had cried to the worn-out soul of the sleeper; it had uttered its last farewell, or its reproach, or its curse on the man who had not searched carefully enough.

And Ulrich felt that it was there, quite close to him, behind the wall, behind the door which be had just fastened. It was wandering about, like a night bird which lightly touches a lighted window with his wings, and the terrified young man was ready to scream with horror. He wanted to run away, but did not dare to go out; he did not dare, and he should never dare to do it in the future, for that phantom would remain there day and night, round the inn, as long as the old man's body was not recovered and had not been deposited in the consecrated earth of a churchyard.

When it was daylight Kunsi recovered some of his courage at the return of the bright sun. He prepared his meal, gave his dog some food and then remained motionless on a chair, tortured at heart as he thought of the old man lying on the snow, and then, as soon as night once more covered the mountains, new terrors assailed him. He now walked up and down the dark kitchen, which was scarcely lighted by the flame of one candle, and he walked from one end of it to the other with great strides, listening, listening whether the terrible cry of the other night would again break the dreary silence outside. He felt himself alone, unhappy man, as no man had ever been alone before! He was alone in this immense desert of Snow, alone five thousand feet above the inhabited earth, above human habitation, above that stirring, noisy, palpitating life, alone under an icy sky! A mad longing impelled him to run away, no matter where, to get down to Loeche by flinging himself over the precipice; but he did not even dare to open the door, as he felt sure that the other, the dead man, would bar his road, so that he might not be obliged to remain up there alone:

Toward midnight, tired with walking, worn out by grief and fear, he at last fell into a doze in his chair, for he was afraid of his bed as one is of a haunted spot. But suddenly the strident cry of the other evening pierced his ears, and it was so shrill that Ulrich stretched out his arms to repulse the ghost, and he fell backward with his chair.

Sam, who was awakened by the noise, began to howl as frightened dogs do howl, and he walked all about the house trying to find out where the danger came from. When he got to the door, he sniffed beneath it, smelling vigorously, with his coat bristling and his tail stiff, while he growled angrily. Kunsi, who was terrified, jumped up, and, holding his chair by one leg, he cried: "Don't come in, don't come in, or I shall kill you." And the dog, excited by this threat, barked angrily at that invisible enemy who defied his master's voice. By degrees, however, he quieted down and came back and stretched himself in front of the fire, but he was uneasy and kept his head up and growled between his teeth.

Ulrich, in turn, recovered his senses, but as he felt faint with terror, he went and got a bottle of brandy out of the sideboard, and he drank off several glasses, one after anther, at a gulp. His ideas became vague, his courage revived and a feverish glow ran through his veins.

He ate scarcely anything the next day and limited himself to alcohol, and so he lived for several days, like a drunken brute. As soon as he thought of Gaspard Hari, he began to drink again, and went on drinking until he fell to the ground, overcome by intoxication. And there he remained lying on his face, dead drunk, his limbs benumbed, and snoring loudly. But scarcely had he digested the maddening and burning liquor than the same cry, "Ulrich!" woke him like a bullet piercing his brain, and he got up, still staggering, stretching out his hands to save himself from falling, and calling to Sam to help him. And the dog, who appeared to be going mad like his master, rushed to the door, scratched it with his claws and gnawed it with his long white teeth, while the young man, with his head thrown back drank the brandy in draughts, as if it had been cold water, so that it might by and by send his thoughts, his frantic terror, and his memory to sleep again.

In three weeks he had consumed all his stock of ardent spirits. But his continual drunkenness only lulled his terror, which awoke more furiously than ever as soon as it was impossible for him to calm it. His fixed idea then, which had been intensified by a month of drunkenness, and which was continually increasing in his absolute solitude, penetrated him like a gimlet. He now walked about the house like a wild beast in its cage, putting his ear to the door to listen if the other were there and defying him through the wall. Then, as soon as he dozed, overcome by fatigue, he heard the voice which made him leap to his feet.

At last one night, as cowards do when driven to extremities, he sprang to the door and opened it, to see who was calling him and to force him to keep quiet, but such a gust of cold wind blew into his face that it chilled him to the bone, and he closed and bolted the door again immediately, without noticing that Sam had rushed out. Then, as he was shivering with cold, he threw some wood on the fire and sat down in front of it to warm himself, but suddenly he started, for somebody was scratching at the wall and crying. In desperation he called out: "Go away!" but was answered by another long, sorrowful wail.

Then all his remaining senses forsook him from sheer fright. He repeated: "Go away!" and turned round to try to find some corner in which to hide, while the other person went round the house still crying and rubbing against the wall. Ulrich went to the oak sideboard, which was full of plates and dishes and of provisions, and lifting it up with superhuman strength, he dragged it to the door, so as to form a barricade. Then piling up all the rest of the furniture, the mattresses, palliasses and chairs, he stopped up the windows as one does when assailed by an enemy.

But the person outside now uttered long, plaintive, mournful groans, to which the young man replied by similar groans, and thus days and nights passed without their ceasing to howl at each other. The one was continually walking round the house and scraped the walls with his nails so vigorously that it seemed as if he wished to destroy them, while the other, inside, followed all his movements, stooping down and holding his ear to the walls and replying to all his appeals with terrible cries. One evening, however, Ulrich heard nothing more, and he sat down, so overcome by fatigue, that he went to sleep immediately and awoke in the morning without a thought, without any recollection of what had happened, just as if his head had been emptied during his heavy sleep, but he felt hungry, and he ate.

The winter was over and the Gemmi Pass was practicable again, so the Hauser family started off to return to their inn. As soon as they had reached the top of the ascent the women mounted their mule and spoke about the two men whom they would meet again shortly. They were, indeed, rather surprised that neither of them had come down a few days before, as soon as the road was open, in order to tell them all about their long winter sojourn. At last, however, they saw the inn, still covered with snow, like a quilt. The door and the window were closed, but a little smoke was coming out of the chimney, which reassured old Hauser. On going up to the door, however, he saw the skeleton of an animal which had been torn to pieces by the eagles, a large skeleton lying on its side.

They all looked close at it and the mother said:

"That must be Sam," and then she shouted: "Hi, Gaspard!" A cry from the interior of the house answered her and a sharp cry that one might have thought some animal had uttered it. Old Hauser repeated, "Hi, Gaspard!" and they heard another cry similar to the first.

Then the three men, the father and the two sons, tried to open the door, but it resisted their efforts. From the empty cow-stall they took a beam to serve as a battering-ram and hurled it against the door with all their might. The wood gave way and the boards flew into splinters. Then the house was shaken by a loud voice, and inside, behind the side board which was overturned, they saw a man standing upright, with his hair falling on his shoulders and a beard descending to his breast, with shining eyes, and nothing but rags to cover him. They did not recognize him, but Louise Hauser exclaimed:

"It is Ulrich, mother." And her mother declared that it was Ulrich, although his hair was white.

He allowed them to go up to him and to touch him, but he did not reply to any of their questions, and they were obliged to take him to Loeche, where the doctors found that he was mad, and nobody ever found out what had become of his companion.

Little Louise Hauser nearly died that summer of decline, which the physicians attributed to the cold air of the mountains.
Guy de Maupassant)

A Haunted House

Whatever hour you woke there was a door shutting. From room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there, making sure--a ghostly couple.

"Here we left it," she said. And he added, "Oh, but here tool" "It's upstairs," she murmured. "And in the garden," he whispered. "Quietly," they said, "or we shall wake them."

But it wasn't that you woke us. Oh, no. "They're looking for it; they're drawing the curtain," one might say, and so read on a page or two. "Now they've found it,' one would be certain, stopping the pencil on the ">(Virginia Woolf)


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