Причастие настоящего времени (Participle I)
Причастие I (причастие настоящего времени), образованное при помощи окончания -ing, имеет активную и страдательную формы:
having been asked
Причастие I употребляется я функции:
The man sitting at the table is our teacher. Человек, сидящий за столом — наш учитель.
The houses being built in our town are not very high. Дома, строящиеся в нашем городе, невысоки.
Going home I met an old friend. Идя домой, я встретил старого друга.
Having finished work I went home. Закончив работу, я пошел домой.
Причастие прошедшего времени Причастие II (Participle II)
Причастие II (причастие прошедшего времени) всегда пассивно. Образуется оно прибавлением суффикса -ed к основе правильного глагола или путем чередования звуков в корне неправильного глагола. Причастие II употребляется в функции:
The book translated from English is very interesting. Книга, переведенная с английского языка, интересная.
2. Обстоятельства (причины и времени):
Given the task he began to work. Когда ему дали задание, он начал работать.
If mailed, a bank transfer is known as a mail transfer. Если банковский перевод отправляется почтой, он известен как почтовый перевод.
Если перед причастием прошедшего времени в функции обстоятельства стоят союзы if, when, то оно переводится на русский язык обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.
Если причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени стоят перед определяемыми существительными, то они, утрачивая в значительной степени свое отглагольное значение, выражают качество и приближаются по значению к обычному прилагательному: a collecting bank — инкассирующий банк sold goods — проданный товар
Если причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени стоят после определяемого существительного, то они не выражают качества, а имеют лишь глагольное значение. Такие причастия могут быть заменены определительным придаточным предложением:
all parties concerned — все заинтересованные стороны (все стороны, которых это касается)
instructions received — полученные инструкции (инструкции, которые были получены).
1. Переведите причастия.
Образец: receiving получающий — received полученный
stating — stated
drawing — drawn
accompanying — accompanied
notifying — notified
signing — signed
2. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I, Participle II:
a) A letter sent from St. Petersburg today will be in Moscow tomorrow.
b) He saw some people in the post office sending telegrams.
c) When sending the telegram she forgot to write her name.
a) Some of the questions put to the lecturer yesterday were very important.
b) The girl putting the book on the shelf is the new librarian.
c) While putting the eggs into the basket she broke one of them.
a) A fish taken out of the water cannot live.
b) A person taking a sunbath must be very careful.
c) Taking a dictionary, he began translating the text.
a) A line seen through this crystal looks double.
b) A teacher seeing a mistake in a student’s dictation always corrects it.
c) Seeing clouds of smoke over the house, the girl cried: “Fire! Fire!”
a) The word said by the student was not correct.
b) The man standing at the door of the train carriage and saying good-bye to his friends is a well-known musician.
3. Дополните предложения.
Model: FASCINATE — a) The story was fascinating
b) We were fascinated by the story.
1.DISGUST a) I was ___ by the way he treated those women. b) It was…….waste of public money. 2. ANNOY a) What's really….. is that we made the same mistake last time. b) I was really ……….. that I hadn't been invited. 3. AMUSE a) I don't find that type of humour………………… at ill. b) A government spokesman said the Prime Minister was not ……….. by the incident. 4. TIRE a) Kids can suddenly get very …… after playng for a time. b) Teaching small children is very ……... 5. EXHAUST a) The …….skiers are looking forward to a good night's sleep. b) I had long ……..day at work. 6. SHOCK a) The movie abounded in scenes of ………….. violence, b) We were deeply …………to hear of his sudden death. 7. INVOLVE a) We were …………… in the negotiations up until the last minute. b) It is………and satisfying work. 8. CONFUSE a) Some of the questions he asked were very……... b) Polly stared at him, totally……….. . 9. CONVINCE a) I am not completely…………. he understood the gravity of the situation. b) He will demand ………. evidence before he adopts a new theory. 10. SATISFY a) She finds writing poetry deeply ………... b) The President declared himself……….. with the progress of the talks.
4. Перефразируйте предложения, используя Причастие II.
Model: I read a story which was written by S. King. — I read a story written by S. King.
1. He produced sewing machines, which were made of wood. 2. He used the idea which had been developed by his partner. 3. Mr. Smith patented a machine, which had been devised by his father. 4. St. Paul's Cathedral is a magnificent building, which was created by Sir Christopher Wren. 5. It is an important law, which was discovered by Copernicus. 6. Electronic equipment, which is produced in Japan, is very reliable. 7. This church has an icon which was painted by St. Luke. 8. I found a puppy which had been thrown out into the street. 9. All the books which are recommended to the students can be taken from the University Library. 10. All items which were bought during the sale cannot be exchanged.
5. Соедините предложения используя причастие.
Model: He was working on the problem. He made an important discovery. — Working on this problem he made an important discovery.
1. James was doing his experiments. He broke the equipment. 2. The scientist was looking at the sky through his telescope. He discovered a new planet. 3. The inventor was perfecting his design. He created a principally new machine. 4. Stephen was thinking about his childhood. He made up a new character for his book. 5. Brian was switching on the light. He got an electric shock. 6. Mr. Clark was working with his microscope. He saw a strange phenenon. 7. The farmer was counting his sheep. He discovered that one of them had been stolen. 8. The engineer was making his calculations. He made a stake. 9. Michael was experimenting with chemicals. He burned his hands. 10. The manager was analyzing this situation. He faced a serious problem.
6. Перефразируйте предложения.
Model: It takes him three hours to do his homework. — He spends three hours doing his homework.
1. It takes Jane two hours to tidy up her apartment. 2. It usually takes me 30 minutes to cook dinner. 3. It took him a lot of money to modernize the house. 4. It took Peter a whole afternoon to repair his car. 5. It takes two hours to commute to work every day. 6. It took Ann three years to learn Italian. 7. It took us $ 5,000 to refurbish the apartment. 8. It took us 3 hours to get to the airport. 9. It took Karen an hour to do her hair. 10. It takes her two hours every day to groom her dog.