Лекция о религиозной культуре в США, Великобритании, России.
Religious Culture in the USA,
( A FRAGMENT OF THE LECTURE)
Мыльникова Г. Х.
МБОУ СОШ №8
Nobody can deny that Spiritual Values are a part of the National Property of any country.
There is one thing in our world that has always been with people in spite of their nationality, gender, age and colour of skin.
It is religion.
«Religion» means «to be back, tie fast, tie up» to get in contact with God.
It is a system of faith in a worship of a God or Gods or a system of denial of any God.
Religion is difficult to define. Many attempts have been made, however. Religion is the tie that binds a community together through various forms of belief and practice.
People give their Gods different names, people imagine them in different ways, but it is their belief ,that unites people different, makes them alike - kinder and more balanced.
The essence of being a Christian is not to know about Christ, but to be another Christ.
There are three main faiths in America-Protestant, Catholic and Jewish, but other world religions- Islamic, Buddhism and other increasing their numbers and influence in the USA. Most Americans are proud of Americans religious variety, they live together under common laws and common goals.
They consider it a natural result of religious freedom. On public occasions they stress the ideas most religious people share-belief in God and the importance of living a good life.
British religion used to be closely connected with kings, queens and politics. England was a Roman Catholic country until 1534, when Parliament named Henry the head of the Church of England.
This was the beginning of the Anglican Church.
The Church of England is still the established Church in England nowadays.
While religion in Russia today is becoming more multifaceted, the largest religion remains Orthodox Christianity.
Russia also contains a growing number of Muslims, Shi`a a Sunni and unaffiliated.
The Masterpieces of Architecture.
There are many cathedrals, churches and synagogues
in American cities.
The Neogothic cathedral of St.Patrick in New York is
the largest in the world. It was designed by James Renwick,
completed in 1878.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is famous throughout the world for its cathedrals and churches too. Visitors from across the world flock to see St. Paul s cathedral – one of the largest protestant church in England and one of the most beautiful landmarks of Britain’ s capital London, Sir Christopher Wren’s masterpiece. This dome houses the famous whispering Gallery and is decorated with paintings depicting the life of St. Paul.
In Westminster Abbey (west-means “western”, minster-“monastery”) most British monarchs have been crowned. Westminster Cathedral is the principal Roman Catholic church in England.
To the North of it stands St. Margaret’s fashionable
church for weddings.
One can see more than a hundred different kinds of marble and mosaics from across the world , that were used to decorate the interior of this Cathedral.
The heart and the centre of Russian Christianity is Moscow patriarchate with the patriarch Kiril at the head. The most magnificent and the monumental Cathedrals are inside the Kremlin-on the Cathedral Square.
The Cathedral of the Assumption which is the oldest, largest, and most
important of the Kremlin’s many churches. It stands on the site of a small cathedral erected by Ivan I around 1330 to mark Moscow’s new status as the seat of Russian Orthodoxy, where the Russian Tsars and Emperors were crowned;
the Arkhangel Cathedral – their burial place ;
the Cathedral of the Annunciation- famous for the icons painted by Andrey Rublev ;
and the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles constructed by the Patriarch Nikon in the 1650s now serve as museums.
Everybody admires the fantastic beauty of the Cathedral of Saint Basil, built by the great Russian architects Barma and Postnik. It was built over the grave of St. Basil, was worshiped by Muscovites as “God, s fool.”Ivan the terrible was so impressed by the beauty of the cathedral that he ordered to blind Russian architects to forget their names for more than three centuries.
The masterpieces of Russian architecture and the symbols of Russian Christianity are Monasteries, Cathedrals and Churches of St. Petersburg.
St. Alexander Nevsky Lavra (was founded by Peter the Great to commemorate the victory of Russian troops in the Neva battle of 1240).
The largest Orthodox Church in St. Petersburg- the Cathedral of St. Isaak. Festive services are held on the Easter and Christmas there. It’s facades are decorated with 112 monolithic columns of Karelian granite and 24 monumental bronze figures of angels.
The Cathedral of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God is situated in Nevsky Prospect. It was built between 1801 and 1811 after the design of the architect Andrey Voronikhin.
The Cathedral of Apostles Sts. Peter and Paul- the first Orthodox church in St. Petersburg build in 1712-1733 on Zayachy Island, and others.
There are a lot of others Russian monasteries, cathedrals and churches- the masterpieces of architecture, known not only in our county but abroad too.
The Monastery of Troitsko – Sergieva Lavra in the town of
Sergiyev Posad (formerly Zagorsk) begun by Sergiy Radoneshskiy;
-the Monastery on the island Valaam, the spiritual centre of Russian Orthodoxy for thousands of years.
The Russian Orthodox Church is quite different from the English and American Churches.
In the Russian Church there are many beautiful icons. And people don, t sit down during the service, there are no seats.
Some of us believed to be closer to the divine than others.
In Catholicism and Orthodoxy these special people are called “saints” and they can be called upon to intercede and / or create on our behalf.
The process of being named a saint is canonization, a long and complicated process by which the Church recognizes that a person has become a saint.
In the USA the most referenced saints are:
-Virgin Mary – patroness of the USA;
-Saint Agnes, patron saint of girls;
-Saint George, patron of half of Europe.
Saint George is regarded as prominent military;
-Saint Christopher, patron saint of travelers;
-Saint Nicholas, a.k.a. Santa Claus, patron saint of children;
-Saint Peter, portrayed as standing at the Pearly Gates of heaven and acting as God’s bouncer, as it were.
Patron Saints of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are:
-St. George is the patron saint of England.
His cross forms the national flag of England, and features within the Union Flag of the United Kingdom, and other national flag containing the Union Flag, such as those of Australia and New Zealand;
-St. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland, Greece and Russia. St.Andrew’s Day is celebrated on the 30th of November as an official bank holiday.
-Saint Patrick was a 5th century Romano – British missionary and a bishop in Ireland.
Known as the “Apostle of Ireland”, he is the primary patron saint of the island along with Saints Brigit and Columbia.
Russia’s Patron Saints.
The list of Russian saints includes the saints canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church:
- Veberable Sergius of Radonezh - one of the most revered saints of Russia, the patron saint who played a significant role in uniting Russian territories and deducted his life to constant spiritual labour;
-Saint Nikolaos – defender of Orthodoxy, called the Wondeworker because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession;
-Saint Pantaleimon – counted as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers and Holy Unmercenary Healers;
-Matrona Dmitrievna Nikonova, the Blessed Eldress of Moscow, also referred to as Matrona of Moscow.
Matrona was a canonized saint of the Russian Orthodox Church, which claims that, from early childhood, she had the gift of prophecy, spiritual vision and healing;
-Saint Blessed Xenia of St. Petersburg (Petrova Xenia Grigoryevna) is a patron saint of St.Petersburg, who according to tradition, gave all her possessions to the poor after her husband died.
The most popular holiday in Great Britain and America is Christmas. They celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. Most families decorate their houses with a Christmas tree, buy gifts for the family and friends and write Christmas cards.
Easter is a time when certain traditions are observed.
It is celebrated either as the start of spring or a religious festival. In England presents traditionally take the form of an Easter egg.
Easter eggs are usually made of chocolate.
Nowadays Easter eggs are often artificial.
This religious holiday is celebrated twelve days after Christmas and commemorates the manifestation of Jesus as the Son of God.
Epiphany is the beginning of the carnival season proceeding lent, and the evening is known as Twelfth Night.
Pentecost – this day commemorates the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles 50 days after the Resurrection.
Ascension Day took place in the presence of His apostles 40 days after the Resurrection of Jesus.
The Russian Christmas is celebrated on the 7th of January.
The holiday is connected with the wonderful birth of Jesus Christ as it is described in the Holy Bible.
Easter is a very popular holiday in Russia .It is celebrated in commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus.
Easter is held on the first Sunday after the date of the first full moon that occurs on or after March 21.
People nowadays greet each other on the Easter day by the worlds
«Christ has risen! ». And the expected answer is « He has risen indeed!».
People also paint eggs and give them to one another as a symbol of eternal life.
Palm Sunday it is observed the Sunday before Easter to commemorate the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem.
Religious holidays, as a part of Spiritual Values, unite our countries, make them closer and more friendly.
London. Thomas Benacci.
Cambridge English. Andrew Littlejohn, Diana Hicks. 1998
The British Council. Paul Radley, Alan Sharley. 1996
English for everybody. C. E. Eckersley. 1995
Краткое описание документа:
Никто не может отрицать, что духовные ценности являются частью национального достояния любой страны.Есть одна вещь в нашем мире, которая всегда была с людьми, несмотря на их национальность, пол, возраст и цвет кожи.
Это - Религия.
Религия — система представления мира, основанная на том, что человек ощущает связь с неким бытием, высшим существованием, имеющим системность и организованность. Религиозная система представления мира (мировоззрение) опирается на религиозную веру и связана с отношением человека к надчеловеческому духовному миру, некой сверхчеловеческой реальности, о которой человек кое-что знает, и на которую он должен некоторым образом ориентировать свою жизнь.
Особую важность для религии представляют такие понятия, как добро и зло, нравственность, цель и смысл жизни и т. д.
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