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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Лексические и грамматические темы для изучения на 1-м курсе СПО

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  • Иностранные языки

Документы в архиве:

171.18 КБ 24_typical_sports_english_speaking_countries.pdf
235.28 КБ EASTER IN RUSSIA.docx
34.95 КБ Easter in Great Britain.docx
10.93 КБ Global Internet.docx
12.52 КБ Internet Facts.docx
17.17 КБ Internet and Modern Life.docx
14.96 КБ My Daily Program.docx
15.01 КБ My School.docx
35.56 КБ Shopping.docx
62.13 КБ The Seasons of the Year.docx
41 КБ Thumbs.db
12.41 КБ Cities.docx
15.3 КБ Moscow is my native city.docx
11.51 КБ My village.docx
42.07 КБ American Food.docx
38.15 КБ English Cookery and Meal.docx
17.17 КБ Ordering Food in a Restaurant.docx
18.64 КБ диалоги.docx
235.28 КБ EASTER IN RUSSIA.docx
34.95 КБ Easter in Great Britain.docx
12.13 КБ How do the British people celebrate Easter.docx
82.5 КБ Thumbs.db
823.58 КБ Australian Holidays and Festivities.docx
3.27 МБ Holidays in Australia.pptx
20 КБ Thumbs.db
3.4 МБ holidays in america.ppt
1.57 МБ holidays in canada.ppt
4.77 МБ holidays_in_great_britain.ppt
1.8 МБ holidays_in_russia.pptx
7.72 МБ russian holidays.ppt
211.34 КБ Тема holidays in russia.docx
11.71 КБ British Press.docx
53.94 КБ Mass Media.docx
13.66 КБ Internet Facts.docx
17.17 КБ Internet and Modern Life.docx
10.96 КБ Magazine is one of the major mass media.docx
11.98 КБ Newspapers.docx
11.78 КБ Radio.docx
11.88 КБ Television.docx
16.16 КБ My College.docx
21.5 КБ Thumbs.db
5.12 МБ my college скитневский.ppt
13.08 КБ мой колледж.docx
17.59 КБ КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2.docx
17.48 КБ КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №1.docx
26.91 КБ Возвратные местоимения в английском языке.docx
17.67 КБ Возвратные местоимения упражнения.docx
14.87 КБ Неопределенные местоимения упражнения.docx
158.06 КБ неопределенные местоимения.docx
476.79 КБ Bathroom.docx
354.67 КБ Bedroom.docx
600.65 КБ Dining Room.docx
518.01 КБ Kitchen.docx
538.67 КБ Living Room.docx
233 КБ Вещи в доме на английском.docx
19.25 КБ Оборот there +be.docx
45 КБ Thumbs.db
130.14 КБ предлоги.jpg
82.09 КБ предлоги1.jpg
103.95 КБ предлоги2.jpg
27.1 КБ темы по английскому языку 1 курс.docx

Название документа EASTER IN RUSSIA.docx

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Easter.hello_html_m3b90699d.jpg

Easter is one of the most important holidays of the year. Easter is the day when Jesus Christ resurrected. Usually this holiday is celebrated on one of Sundays in spring. Easter eggs and Easter cakes (or paskhas) are the traditional symbols of the religious holiday. Paskha is a traditional dessert served in Russia as well as other Eastern European countries. The name of the dish comes from “Pascha“, the eastern orthodox celebration of Easter.

On that day the religious people go to church and listen to the ceremony. Usually they bring with them Easter eggs, salt, Easter cakes, butter, cheese and ham. Some people prefer to bake Easter cakes themselves and others buy paskhas at bakery.

The priest in the church consecrates all the food: many people believe that Easter eggs possesses magic power and can protect from evil, thunder or fire and have healing powers.

In the morning after the end of the ceremony, everyone greet each other with the words “Khrystos voskres!” (Christ is risen!). The proper response is “Voyistino voskres,” (Indeed he is risen). Once the ceremony is over, every family goes home for breakfast, to partake of the blessed food.

Easter Sunday is a day of singing and eating. Many people visit their friends and relatives and exchange Easter eggs. All people celebrate Easter as the beginning of spring, too. This tradition is connected with much older pre-Christian rite. On that day, people celebrated the return of springtime and the sun.

Дополнительные выражения

  • Jesus Christ – Иисус Христос

  • to resurrect – воскрешать

  • Easter egg – пасхальное яйцо

  • Easter cake – (пасхальный) кулич

  • paskha – паска (блюдо)

  • ceremony – церемония, служба

  • healing power – лечебное свойство

  • to partake – съесть, отведать

  • blessed food – освященная пища (еда)

  • pre-Christian rite – дохристианский обряд



Название документа Easter in Great Britain.docx

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Easter in Great Britain

For Christians Easter Sunday is the high point of the year. They celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
hello_html_m375a8826.jpgAs in many other European and New World countries, eggs and rabbits (signs of fertility and new life) are traditional symbols of Easter in the British Isles. Chocolate bunnies and Easter eggs, often adorned in colorful foil wrappers, are given to children as presents or are hidden for the Easter morning "egg hunt."

hello_html_402c0427.jpgThe tradition of decorating real eggs for Easter dates back to the Middle Ages. In 1290 the English king, Edward I, ordered 450 eggs to be covered in gold leaf to be given as Easter presents. It is thought that the bright hues used to decorate Easter eggs were meant to mirror the colors of the reawakening spring growth.

hello_html_m4aec40ac.jpgAnother British Easter custom is egg rolling or the egg race, when competitors try to be the first to roll their egg across a course or down a hill… without breaking it!

hello_html_m79141070.jpgAside from eggs, the best-known English Easter food is probably the hot cross bun. Dating back to medieval times, the buns were traditionally eaten on Good Friday, but they are now popular all around the Easter season. These sweet treats, fragrant with fruit and spices, are marked with a cross, either slashed into the dough before baking, or drizzled on in icing afterwards. The history of hot cross buns dates far back to the pre-Christian era. It is thought that they are descendants of the small cakes offered to Eostre, the goddess of spring. They may have been marked with a cross even in ancient times, to represent the four quarters of the moon. In later centuries the church, unable to stamp out ancient pagan traditions, decided instead to "Christianize" the buns by associating the cross with that of Jesus.

hello_html_6b81ebf6.jpgEaster Sunday in the British Isles is traditionally marked by church services, often held at dawn so that worshippers can view the sunrise, a symbol of Christ's resurrection. Afterwards Easter eggs are exchanged and eaten.

hello_html_m30a4746d.jpgEaster parades were also once an important tradition, during which people would wear their new clothes - the ladies in particular would show off their new "Easter bonnets" - as another sign of spring's renewal. Later the family would gather for Easter lunch or dinner, which in England traditionally consisted of roast spring lamb with mint sauce, potatoes and green peas. There was time to rest from the celebrations the next day, since Easter Monday is traditionally a holiday in Britain.



Название документа Global Internet.docx

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Global Internet

As well as being a global network of networks, the Internet is a global network of people, ideas and information. The Net is as interesting and exciting as the people, organisations, companies, governments that are connected to it.

There is another thing that's exciting about the Internet. Like love and life, the Net is what you make it. If you don't like what's happening on one part of the network, you can build yourself a whole new cybercity, appoint yourself as mayor and run it exactly as you want.

The Internet enables you to do a lot of things simultaneously. You can read the latest copy of your favourite newspaper while planning your night's TV viewing and ordering some cheap CDs from an American discount disc store.

You can send e-mail to someone you've never met before ... Some people have "met" over the Internet and got married.

The first web browsers only supported simple texts and images, but now a multitude of multimedia plug-ins enables webpages to sing and dance.

From PC banking to online shopping and chats with celebrities, the Internet is already changing our lives. The arrival of digital TV promises even more exciting things.

 

Название документа Internet Facts.docx

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Internet Facts 

The prototype for the Internet was created in the sixties by the US Defense Department. To ensure that communication could be kept open in the event of a nuclear attack, it created a computer network known as Arpanet — the Advanced Research Project Agency Network.

The first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another was made by researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Institute on 20 October 1969.

The first people to coin the term 'internet' were two scientists, Vinton Cerf (known as 'father of the Internet') and his collaborator Bob Kahn, who in 1974 devised a means by which data could be transmitted across a global-network of computers.

An Oxford graduate, Tim Berners-Lee, set up the first 'www server' (a Server receives and sends messages) to store the archive of the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland.

The first e-mail ever sent was in 1972 between computers in two American universities. The most frequently used search word on the net is "sex", typed in 1,550,000 times every month.

The most mentioned male on the Internet is President Bill Clinton, whose name is linked to 1,542,790 sites.

The most mentioned female on the Internet is the actress Pamela Anderson, whose name is linked to 1,542,282 sites.

 

 

Questions:

1. Who was the prototype for the Internet created by?
2. Why was the prototype for the Internet created?
3. Who was the first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another made by?
4. Who is known as father of the Internet'?
5. Why was the first 'www server'set up?
6. What is the most frequently used search word?
7. Do you think 'The Internet' will have an important influence on our daily lives?


Vocabulary:

Defense Department — Министерство обороны
ensure —
обеспечивать
network —
сеть
coin —
придумывать
collaborator —
сотрудник
devise —
изобретать
means —
средство
store —
сохранить
net —
сеть
link —
соединять, связывать



Название документа Internet and Modern Life.docx

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Internet and Modern Life


The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundred of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.

The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundred of millions of users and their number is growing.

Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.

In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.

However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Notwith-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.

Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the^Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream.

 






Интернет и современная жизнь

Интернет уже вошел в нашу повседневную жизнь. Каждый знает, что Интернет — это глобальная компьютерная сеть, которая связывает сотни миллионов пользователей по всему миру и помогает нам общаться друг с другом.

История Интернета началась в Соединенных Штатах в 1969 году. Это был военный эксперимент, разработанный, чтобы помочь выжить в ядерной войне, когда все вокруг может быть заражено радиацией и будет опасно выйти наружу, чтобы доставить какую-либо информацию. Информация же, посланная по Интернету, идет от одного компьютера к другому по самым коротким и безопасным маршрутам, имеющимся в наличии. Благодаря этому два компьютера в сети могут поддерживать связь друг с другом до тех пор, пока существует хотя бы один маршрут между ними. Эта технология была названа пакетным переключением.

Изобретение модемов, специальных устройств, позволяющих вашему компьютеру посылать информацию через телефонную линию, открыло двери в Интернет для миллионов людей.

Большинство основных сетевых серверов находятся в Соединенных Штатах Америки. Ясно, что точное число пользователей трудно подсчитать, никто точно не знает, сколько людей пользуются Интернетом сегодня, так как пользователей насчитывается сотни миллионов и их число постоянно растет.

В наше время самой популярной службой Интернета является электронная почта. Многие люди используют Интернет только для того, чтобы послать или получить электронную почту. Они могут это сделать или когда находятся дома, или в интернет-клубе, или на работе. Другие службы Интернета также доступны в сети. Это чтение новостей, которые доступны на некоторых специально предназначенных для этого серверах, Интернет-телефония, ФТП-серверы и т. д.

В большинстве стран Интернет может предоставить бизнесмену свою собственную надежную систему коммуникаций, альтернативную другим дорогостоящим и ненадежным телекоммуникационным системам. Пользователи, экономя свои средства, могут использовать Интернет для общения со всем миром, тратя при этом небольшие деньги. Когда они отправляют электронную почту, им нужно оплатить только телефонный звонок к местному провайдеру, а не международный звонок, когда необходимо заплатить кругленькую сумму.

Экономия средств — это только первый и далеко не последний шаг. Сеть используют и в коммерческих целях, и это направление развивается быстрыми темпами. Вы можете работать через Интернет, играть в Интернете в азартные или обычные игры.

Однако есть и проблемы. Самой важной проблемой является проблема безопасности. Когда вы отправляете электронное сообщение, ваше сообщение путешествует через разные сети и компьютеры. Данные направляются к месту назначения специальными компьютерами, которые называются маршрутизаторами. Из-за этого в любой из компьютеров на данном маршруте можно проникнуть, перехватить и даже изменить данные, пересылаемые через Интернет. Но существует и много кодирующих программ. Тем не менее, эти программы не совершенны и могут быть легко взломаны.

Другой большой и серьезной проблемой сети является контроль. Да, в Интернете нет эффективного контроля, так как в Интернете циркулирует огромнейшее количество информации. Это огромнейшая библиотека и рынок в одно и тоже время. В будущем ситуация может измениться, но сейчас мы имеем то, что имеем. Это можно выразить двумя словами — мечта анархиста.

 

Questions:

1. What is the Internet?
2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?
3. Why was the Internet designed?
4. What is modem?
5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?
6. What is the accurate number of internet users?
7. What is the most popular Internet service today?
8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?
9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?
10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?
11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?


Vocabulary:

network — сеть
to embrace — охватывать, окружать
user — юзер, пользователь
to design — задумывать, придумывать, разрабатывать
to survive — выжить
nuclear war — ядерная война
to pollute — загрязнять
dangerous — опасный
path — путь, маршрут
available — доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный
the net — интернет, сеть
packet switching — пакетное переключение
invention — изобретение
accurate — точный
to count — считать, сосчитать
approximately— приблизительно, примерно
to receive — получать
message — послание
to provide — снабжать, доставлять, обеспечивать
reliable — надежный
alternative — альтернативный
provider — провайдер, поставщик
security — безопасность
router — маршрутизатор
to intercept — перехватить (сигнал и т. д.)
to encode — кодировать, шифровать
notwithstanding — тем не менее, однако, все же
to crack — взломать
huge — большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
to circulate — передвигаться/двигаться в пределах чего-то
tremendous —разг. огромный, гигантский, громадный; потрясающий

Название документа My Daily Program.docx

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My Daily Program

I get up at 7 o'clock in the morning. I do my morning exercises, wash myself and dress. Then I have breakfast. At 8 o'clock I leave home and go to the Institute. As a rule I come to the Institute at a quarter to 9. The lessons begin at 9 sharp. Today we have two lectures, a seminar and an English lesson. At our English lessons we read texts, ask and answer questions and do all sorts of exercises. We do not write many exercises. We usually write exercises at home. We speak English at the lessons. We speak English a little now, but we want to speak English well.

At about 1 o'clock I generally have dinner in the canteen. I come home at about 6 o'clock. I have supper and do my homework. I always do my homework in the evening, but I never work late in the evening. At 11 o'clock I go to bed.

My Working Day

On week days I usually get up nearly seven o'clock. I do not like to get up early, but I have to, because I have a lot of work to do during the day. I do my morning exercises, make my bed, wash, dress and go to the kitchen to have breakfast. My mother usually prepares breakfast for me, but sometimes I do it myself. I do not like big breakfasts, I prefer a cup of coffee and a sandwich. Then I go to school (to work). It is rather far (not far) from my house and I go there by bus (on foot). I have classes (I work) till ... o'clock. Then I come home and have dinner. After it I do my homework and do some work about the house. I sweep the floor, dust the furniture and clean the carpets with the vacuum-cleaner. Sometimes my mot-her asks me to go shopping or to help her in the kitchen. After it I have free time. I go for a walk with my friend, or watch TV, or read books, or play computer games. Then I have supper with my family. I like evenings very much because all of us get together after work and study and have the opportunity to talk and to discuss our family affairs. I usually go to bed at about eleven o'clock.

My Daily Programme     

1). My every day activities are quite routine. 2). On weekdays the alarm clock wakes me up and my working day begins. 3). I usually get up at 7 o'clock. 4). If it is spring or summer I jump out of bed, run to the window and open it wide to let the fresh morning air in. 5). I do my physical jerks, wash, clean my teeth and comb my hair. 6). Then I have breakfast. 7). For breakfast I usually have toasted bread, bacon and eggs, tea or coffee and some jam. 8). While I am having breakfast, I switch on the radio and listen to the news.

9). It takes me 10 minutes to get to school. 10). School starts at 8 sharp and I have lessons till half past 12. 11). I usually have six or seven lessons a day. 12). I return home at 2 o'clock and take a short rest and I have lunch at 3.

13). After doing my homework I go for a walk with my friends. 14). I often play chess with them. 15). I am a member of a chess club. 16). Sometimes we go to the pictures or the theatre but not very often. 17). In summer I like to get out more, so in the evenings I go to the tennis court for a few sets of tennis, or take out my bike for a run in the country.

18). My parents usually return home at 19 o'clock. 19). We have dinner at 19.30. 20). As usual dinner consists of soup, fish or roast chicken, potatoes, vegetables and dessert. 21). After dinner we go to the sitting room. 22). There we read books, newspapers and magazines, watch TV, chat with the friends on the phone.

23). On Monday, Wednesday and Friday I attend preparatory courses at the University. 24). I leave home at 4.30 afternoon and come back at 8.30.

25). At 10 o'clock I take a shower, brush my teeth and go to bed. 26). I fall asleep fast and have no dreams.

 

Мой распорядок дня 

1). Мой распорядок дня - обычный. 2). В будние дни я просыпаюсь по звонку будильника, и мой рабочий день начинается. 3). Обычно я встаю в 7 часов. 4). Весной и летом я встаю, бегу к окну, широко его открываю, чтобы дышать свежим утренним воздухом. 5). Я делаю утреннюю зарядку, умываюсь, чищу зубы и причёсываюсь. 6). Затем я завтракаю. 7). На завтрак я обычно ем ветчину с яйцами, гренки, чай или кофе и джем. 8). Я включаю радио, слушаю новости и завтракаю.

9). Мне требуется 10 минут, чтобы добраться до школы. 10). Занятия начинаются ровно в 8, уроки длятся до 12.30. 11). У меня обычно 6, 7 уроков в день. 12). Я возвращаюсь домой в 14-00, отдыхаю немного и ем.

13). После подготовки домашнего задания я гуляю с друзьями. 14). Я часто играю в шахматы с ними. 15). Я - член шахматного клуба. 16). Иногда мы ходим в кино или театр, но не очень часто. 17). Летом я люблю быть на воздухе чаще, поэтому вечерами я играю в теннис на теннисном корте или беру велосипед и еду покататься за город.

18). Мои родители обычно приходят домой в 19 часов. 19). Мы ужинаем все вместе в 19.30. 20). Обычно на ужин у нас суп, рыба или жареный цыплёнок, картофель, овощи и десерт. 21). После ужина мы собираемся в гостиной. 22). Мы читаем книги, газеты, журналы, смотрим телевизор, разговариваем по телефону с друзьями.

23). По понедельникам, средам и пятницам я посещаю подготовительные курсы в университете. 24). Я ухожу из дома в 4.30 дня и возвращаюсь в 8.30.

25). В 10 часов вечера я принимаю душ, чищу зубы и ложусь спать. 26). Я засыпаю быстро и никогда не вижу снов.

 





Название документа My School.docx

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My School (1)

As you become older you realize that there are several essential things and places you always long to come back to. They are your birthplace, your home and the school you went to.

My school was a three-storeyed building situated in one of the residential districts of our city (town, settlement). All the children from the neighbourhood went there because it was a walking distance from their homes. There was a sports ground behind the school-building and a green lawn with flower-beds in front of it.

The school was built a few years ago. That's why its classrooms were light and spacious. There were three large windows in each classroom with flower pots on the windowsills. It was pupils' (especially girls') responsibility to water the flowers. And they did it with utmost care. There were maps and portraits, tables and charts on the walls of the classrooms.

Our classroom was on the second floor. Its windows faced the school-yard. Our form was the only one at school who had a form-master, but not a form-mistress. He appeared to be a very kind and knowledgeable teacher who spared no time to take us to different places of interest and exhibitions. He taught us Russian and Russian literature.

We respected him very much. Our lessons began at eight o'clock in the morning and lasted till one thirty in the afternoon. We had six lessons a day. Every pupil had a day-book where the teachers wrote down the mark each pupil had earned for his answers. The teacher also wrote down the mark in the class register. When the teacher asked a question, the pupils who could answer it raised their hands, and the teacher called out one of them to answer the question.

The pupils were often called to the blackboard to do some exercises or to write some sentences. When they made mistakes, other pupils .were called out to correct those mistakes or the teacher corrected them herself. After every lesson the teachers gave us some home assignments both written and oral. At the next lesson the teachers checked them up.

The teachers often took our exercise-books home to check them up. If there were any mistakes they corrected them and gave us marks. At the end of each quarter we got our report cards which our parents signed. At the end of the study year we were promoted, to the next form.
 

Моя школа (1)

Когда человек взрослеет, он понимает, что есть некоторые необходимые вещи и места, к которым всегда хочется возвращаться. Это такие вещи как родина, родной дом и школа, в которую ты ходил.

Моя школа — трехэтажное здание, расположенное в жилых кварталах нашего города. Туда ходили все дети, живущие по соседству, потому что туда можно дойти пешком. За зданием школы была спортплощадка. Перед школой была зеленая лужайка с клумбами.

Школу построили несколько лет назад, поэтому классные комнаты были светлыми и просторными. В каждой классной комнате было три окна, а на подоконниках стояли цветы в горшках. Ученики (в основном девочки) отвечали за поливку цветов и делали это с особой любовью. На стенах класса висели карты, портреты, таблицы и схемы.

Наш класс был на втором этаже, окна выходили на школьный двор. В одном только нашем классе был классный руководитель, а не классная руководительница. Он оказался очень добрым и знающим учителем, который не жалел времени, чтобы водить нас в интересные места и на выставки. Он учил нас русскому языку и русской литературе.

Мы его очень уважали. Наши уроки начинались в восемь часов утра и длились до половины второго. У нас было по шесть уроков в день. У каждого ученика был дневник, куда учителя ставили оценки за ответы. Учитель также выставлял оценки в классный журнал. Когда учитель задавал вопрос, ученики, которые могли на него ответить, поднимали руки, и учитель вызывал одного из них отвечать на вопрос.

Учеников часто вызывали к доске выполнять упражнения или писать предложения. Когда они делали ошибки, то вызывали других учеников, чтобы их исправить, или учитель сам исправлял ошибки. В конце каждого занятия нам задавали домашние задания, как письменные, так и устные. На следующем уроке учителя их проверяли.

Они часто собирали наши тетради, чтобы проверить их дома. Если были ошибки, они исправляли их и ставили оценки. В конце каждой четверти мы получали табеля, которые подписывали наши родители. В конце учебного года нас переводили в следующий класс.



My School (4)

Our school is a fine four-storeyed building. There are many classrooms and specialized rooms for studying different subjects in it.

The pupils study Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Russian, English, History, Geography and Biology in specialized rooms.

Chemistry, Physics and Biology are taught in well-equipped science rooms. There is equipment for laboratory experiments there. At the lessons we often carry out different experiments.

Mathematics is taught in the science rooms on the third floor. There is a special room equipped with computers.

There is the Assembly Hall on the first floor of our school. We usually gather there to mark holidays.

On the first floor there is a gym. We like our gym, and we like to spend breaks there. During the breaks we usually played there basketball or volley-ball.

The dining-room and the canteen are on the ground floor. On the ground floor there is a workshop too. There we are taught to use tools and machines.

 

Моя школа (4)

Наша школа — красивое четырехэтажное здание. В ней много классов и специализированных кабинетов для изучения разных предметов.

Школьники изучают математику, физику, химию, русский язык, английский язык, историю, географию и биологию в специализированных кабинетах.

Химия, физика и биология преподаются в хорошо оборудованных лабораториях. Там есть приборы для проведения лабораторных экспериментов. На уроках мы часто проводим разные опыты.

Математика преподается в кабинетах на третьем этаже. Также есть и компьютерный класс.

На втором этаже нашей школы актовый зал. Мы обычно собираемся там, чтобы отмечать праздники.

На втором этаже еще есть и спортивный зал. Нам нравится наш зал, мы проводим там перемены. На переменках мы обычно играем в баскетбол или волейбол.

Столовая и буфет — на первом этаже. На первом этаже также есть мастерская. Там нас учат пользоваться инструментами и станками.

 

 



Название документа Shopping.docx

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"Shopping - Покупки "

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When we want to buy something, we go to a shop. There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, but most of them have a food supermarket, a department store, men's and women's clothing stores, grocery, a bakery and a butchery.


I like to do my shopping at big department stores and supermarkets. They sell various goods under one roof and this is very convenient. A department store, for example, true to its name, is composed of many departments:
readymade clothes, fabrics, shoes, sports goods, toys, china and glass, electric appliances, cosmetics, linen, curtains, cameras, records, etc. You can buy everything you like there.

There are also escalators in big stores which take customers to different floors. The things for sale are on the counters so that they can be easily seen. In the women's clothing department you can find dresses, costumes, blouses, skirts, coats, beautiful underwear and many other things. In the men's clothing department you can choose suits, trousers, overcoats, ties, etc.

In the knitwear department one can buy sweaters, cardigans, short-sleeved and long-sleeved pullovers, woollen jackets. In the perfumery they sell face cream and powder, lipstick, lotions and shampoos.

In a food supermarket we can also buy many different things at once: sausages, fish, sugar, macaroni, flour, cereals, tea. At the butcher's there is a wide choice of meat and poultry. At the bakery you buy brown and white bread, rolls, biscuits.

Another shop we frequently go to is the greengrocery which is stocked by cabbage, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, carrots, beetroots, green peas and what not. Everything is sold here ready-weighed and packed. If you call round at a dairy you can buy milk, cream, cheese, butter and many other products.

The methods of shopping may vary. It may be a selfservice shop where the customer goes from counter to counter selecting and putting into a basket what he wishes to buy. Then he takes the basket to the check-out counter, where the prices of the purchases are added up. If it is not a self-service shop, and most small shops are not, the shop-assistant helps the customer in finding what he wants. You pay money to the cashier and he gives you back the change.

Название документа The Seasons of the Year.docx

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"The Seasons of the Year. My Favourite Season - Времена года. Мое любимое время года."

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It's a universal truth that every season is beautiful in its own way. Isn't it wonderful to tramp down the country lanes on a frosty winter day. Everything is white with snow and it crunches under your feet. The rime sparkles on the branches and the icicles like precious diamonds hang from the roofs of the houses.


It's a merry time for both children and grownups. They can go skating and skiing, sledging and having a fight with snowballs or making a snowman. I suppose, it is very pleasant while the frost lasts, an unpleasant time comes when the thaw begins.

Cars and buses go along streets splashing the mud an slush on the passers-by. Everyone is grumbling and scolding the weather. But soon a warm wind blows up heavy grey clouds and the sun shines brightly in the cloudless azure sky. In a few months summer will come.

Summer is the most suitable season for holidays and vacations. People enjoy bright summer days if they are in the country or at the seaside. They go bathing and swimming, and fishing and boating. But it's unbearable to stay in town on such hot and glaring days. Everybody droops and shambles and tries to hide in the shade.

Then after a good rest autumn and harvest time comes. The corn has turned golden and the farmer will reap it and put it in his barn. The air is fresh and full of the autumn fragrance of ripe apples, plums and peaches and of course, coloured asters, chrysanthemums.

But the weather is so changeable in autumn, people have to wear raincoats and umbrellas if they don't want to get wet through. The dead leaves cover the ground like a thick motley carpet, the roads are slippery and wet, there are lots of puddles in the streets and again everyone is looking forward to frosty winter days and much snow out-of-doors.

It's rather difficult to say what season is the best one, however dull and nasty or charming and marvellous the weather may be.

As to me, I always look forward to summer. I am never tired of its long sunny days, warm rains with thunderstorms and hail, the buzz of mosquitoes and midges. I like to spend my summer holidays at the seaside.

In my childhood I used to enjoy playing on the beach, making castles and forts in the sands. When one becomes older one begins to notice the murmur of the sea and it's so beautiful to look at the moon's way on the water in the darkness. The air is fresh and it's easy to breathe.

I like to lie in the sun getting as brown, paddle in the water or get splashed by the waves. But it's not every year that you can go to the seaside. Sometimes I spend my holidays in the country. Most of my time I spend in the woods gathering strawberries and flowers or at the river bathing and swimming in it.

Very often, I help my granny in the vegetable garden weeding it or gathering tomatoes, cucumbers or radish. I like to walk in the rain or just sit indoors watching the raindrops falling down from the green leaves and blades of the grass onto the ground.

When summer is over, I always feel sorry, because it was too short and was too quick to pass.





Название документа Cities.docx

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Cities. Towns. Villages.

Houses are buildings. Schools and clubs are buildings, too. A shop is a building or a part of a building.
When there are many houses and other buildings together, they make a town. A city is a very big town.
When there are few houses and other buildings together, they make a village.
Cities, towns and villages have names.
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, London, Cambridge, Oxford, etc. are the names of cities.
Cities, towns and villages have streets between their buildings, that is, the buildings are on each side of a street. On each side of the street, in front of the buildings there is a pavement. Between the pavements there is the road. People walk on the pavements, buses and cars drive on the roads.
We can get from one place to another by different means of communication. We can go by train, by airplane (or plane), by ship, by bus, by car, etc.
How can we get from Moscow to Vladivostok? We can get there either by train or by airplane. If we go by train it takes us about seven days. If we go by airplane it takes us about 12 hours only.
How can we get to the nearest town? We can get there either by bus or by train.
How can we get from one village to another? We usually use a bicycle, a motor-cycle or a bus to get from one village to another.

My Native Town - Мой родной город

There are many beautiful cities and towns in the world. I would like to visit some of them, to see with my own eyes what I have read or heard about. But there is no place like home. I love my native city. I was born here and live with my parents. It's not the capital, but it is a wonderful place to live.

My city is old and modern at the same time. It is old because it was founded in the 11th century. At that time its streets were narrow, dark and dirty. Now my city looks modern because of its architecture. Almost all the buildings were built after the war. The streets and avenues are wide and clean.

I live in the main street. It is the widest street in the city. A lot of cars, buses and trolley-buses run fast along it. If you want to see the places of interest in our city, you can walk along the main street. It leads to the main square. It will be a short trip, but you can see a lot: a cinema and a concert hall, an art gallery and museums, a stadium, a zoo and a large park.

Our art gallery is next to the main post office. Opposite the post office there is a modern hotel. If you turn to the left, you can see a theatre. And in front of the theatre there is a museum of history and culture. Walk two blocks and you'll come to a monument to our famous writer and a fountain in the park. If you want to visit our zoo, take a bus and get off on the third bus stop. Not far from the traffic lights you will see the entrance to the zoo. Near it there is a circus. Children and tourists can't but visit it. They admire funny clowns, tamed animals, miracles and magic. There are only some churches in our city. Every evening we can hear the sound of the bells.

Our city stands on the river. Parks, lanes, bridges across the river, small water falls and man-made islands add much to the beauty of the city.

Just come and see everything with your own eyes. It is better to see than to hear.

Название документа Moscow is my native city.docx

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Moscow is my native city


I live in Russia. My country is my big and fine house. My native city is the city of Moscow. Russian annals mention Moscow in 1147 year. Moscow settles down on hills. The city is modern beautiful with parkways and squares with very beautiful areas and museums now. The capital’s main square is Red. Red means "beautiful". It is very beautiful. I felt excitement standing on Red Square. This is not only the center of Moscow – this is the heart of the whole country. The Kremlin is the oldest part of Moscow. This is the main historic and art complex of capital. The Kremlin is very large. The length of its walls is more than 2 km. On the Kremlin wall it is possible to walk. The width of a fighting course reaches to 4 m. The walls of the Kremlin are more than 500 years old. Walls have never been taken by storm. 20 towers decorate the walls of the Moscow Kremlin today. Towers are very beautiful. Cathedral square is in the center of the Kremlin. This square is one of the oldest in Moscow. It is formed by three very beautiful cathedrals. People come to look from all Russia there at the beauty of the Kremlin. Nobody will pass by Ivan Velikiy bell tower, the Tsar - canon and the Tsar - bell. A lot of beautiful and old Streets are located round the Kremlin. They make the center of my city. My city is not only famous for its historical places. The eternity fire burns in the Aleksandrov garden. This is the memorial to heroes who gave their lives for the native land. Their names are given to Moscow streets. I live in Izmajlovo. Long ago it was the Village of Izmajlovo. It is known since the 14th century. A thick forest surrounded it. Izmailovo village exists no longer. We are reminded of it by the names of the streets: Izmailovsky Avenue, Izmailovskiy Park. A forest is within the city with meadows and birch woods. Moscow has a very beautiful underground. And not a single station is repeated. Moscow underground has a museum. It is located at the station Sportivnaya. I love very much the city.




My name is Ekaterina and I’m thirteen years old. I live in Moscow. It is the capital of Russia and the biggest city of the country. My city is very beautiful. All tourists of our city always want to visit Red Square. The main sight of this square is the Kremlin Palace and mausoleum named after V. Lenin. Also you can see the Spasskaya Tower and visit the Armoury and diamond fund. There are a lot of museums in Moscow. I like to go to the State Tretyakov Gallery and watch the paintings. My city is rich in cultural places. There are a lot of theatres, showrooms and concert halls in Moscow. I visited Bolshoi Theatre with my parents. The performance was very exciting and I was full of unforgettable impressions. Many people think that Moscow is noisy city but there are a lot of quiet parks and public gardens in it. I love my city very much because it is fine and majestic. I’m proud of my city and I’m glad that I live here.

Меня зовут Екатерина, мне 13 лет. Я живу в самом большом городе России и её столице – городе Москве. Мой город очень красивый. Все туристы нашего города всегда спешат побывать на Красной площади. Главной достопримечательностью площади является Кремлёвский дворец и мавзолей имени В.И.Ленина. Также там можно посмотреть Спасскую башню, посетить Оружейную палату и алмазный фонд. В Москве много музеев. Мне очень нравиться ходить в Третьяковскую галерею и смотреть картины. Мой город очень богат культурными заведениями. В Москве много театров, концертных и выставочных залов. С родителями я посещала Государственный Академический Большой театр. Спектакль был очень захватывающим, и у меня остались незабываемые впечатления. Многие считают Москву очень шумным городом, но у нас много тихих парков и скверов. Я очень люблю свой город за его красоту и величие, и горжусь, что живу в таком замечательном городе!!



Название документа My village.docx

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My village



A village is a quiet, peaceful place outside the city, which is a perfect place for rest. My native

village is situated in Azovsky District and it’s called Alexandrovka. At the moment my

grandparents live there and we often visit them. I grew up in this village, as my parents were

most of the time at work. So, my grandmother raised me and I feel there at home. Each weekend

or holiday season I spend in Alexandrovka. My favourite time of the year is summer. It’s the

time when I can live there for three months. Our house is comparatively small, but it’s not a

problem for us. It’s a one-storey house with a basement and an attic. There are three bedrooms in

the house, a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet. The house is surrounded by enormous land. This is

where my grandparents grow fruit and vegetables. Every summer we have our own harvest of

potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages, various herbs, apples, plums, apricots. There is a small flower bed

as well. This is where my grandma grows the tulips and the daffodils. We also have a summer

bath in the backyard. It is a very convenient invention. It saves lots of water and energy. Other

houses in the village are similar to ours. By the way I have many friends in the village, so there

is no time to be bored. We swim in the nearest lake, we play hide-and-seek and we simply run

around during the summer days. Thus, summer in my village flies quickly. On the 1st of

September I have to be in the city, as the school starts. However, I look forward to new

weekends and holidays to go to the village. Being there is a real pleasure for me

Название документа American Food.docx

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American Foodhello_html_2ee240d1.jpg

What is “American” food?

The answer is that it is part Italian, part British, part German, part Mexican, part Chinese… When people from other countries came to live in the US, they brought different cooking traditions. Some of them opened restaurants. Today Americans enjoy food from all over the world.

Over the years some foreign dishes changed a little. Doughnuts were originally from Holland. In 1847 a young American boy told his mother that her doughnuts were never cooked in the middle. He cut out the centre and his mother cooked them — and they were very tasty!

Maybe the US is most famous for “fast foods”. The first fast food restaurants served hamburgers, but now they serve other kinds of food too. Inside there is often a “salad bar”, where you can help yourself to as much salad as you want.

Americans eat a lot, and when they go to a restaurant, they don’t expect to be hungry afterwards. Most restaurants will put a lot of food on your plate — sometimes it can be too much. But if you can’t finish it all, don’t worry: they will give you a “doggy bag” and you can take it home.

Most Americans now have a light breakfast instead of the traditional eggs, bacon, toast, orange juice and coffee. But on weekends there is more time, and a large late breakfast or early lunch is often eaten with family or friends.



Название документа English Cookery and Meal.docx

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With the exception of breakfast meals in England are much the same as in other countries.

The usual meals in Great Britain are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. The English are very fastidious about their meals and keep to their meal times strictly.

Breakfast time is between 7 and 9 a. m. Many people like to begin it with porridge. English people eat porridge with milk or cream and sugar, but the Scots — and Scotland is the home of porridge — never put sugar in it. Then comes bacon and eggs, marmalade with toast and tea or coffee. For a change you can have a boiled egg, cold ham or perhaps fish.

The two substantial meals of the day, lunch and dinner, are more or less the same. Lunch is usually taken at one o’clock. Many people, who go out to work, find it difficult  to come home for lunch and go to a café or a restaurant, but they never miss a meal. Lunch is a big meal — meat or fish, potatoes and salad, puddings or fruit are quite usual for it.

In the afternoon, about four o’clock, the English have a cup of tea and a cake, or a slice or two of bread and butter.

Tea is very popular with the English; it may be called their national drink. The English like it strong and fresh made. Tea must be brewed as follows: one teaspoon for each person and one for the pot. They drink it with or without sugar, but almost always with milk. It is important to pour tea into milk, and not vice versa. Their “high tea” at 5 o’clock is very famous. Tea is accompanied by ham, tomatoes and salad, bread and butter, fruit and cakes.

Dinnertime is generally about half past seven or later. In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. They begin with soup, followed by fish, roast chicken, potatoes and vegetables, fruit and coffee. But in great many English homes the midday meal is the chief one of the day, and in the evening they only have light meal, for example, bread and cheese and a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruit.

The most important meal of the week is the Sunday dinner, which is usually eaten at 1 p.m. The traditional Sunday dish used to be roast beef, but nowadays pork, chicken or lamb are more common.

On Sunday evenings people have supper or high tea. The famous British afternoon tea is becoming rare, except at weekends.



Название документа Ordering Food in a Restaurant.docx

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Ordering Food in a Restaurant

One of the most important tasks in English is ordering food when you go to a restaurant. There are basic forms and questions, as well food vocabulary that you can use in places where people speak English. In general, use the form "I'd like ..." when ordering food in a restaurant. A common question for someone taking an order is "What would you like for ...". Here's a short example:

Wait person: What would you like to drink?
Customer: I'd like a cup of coffee.

Take a look at this Menu

Read this dialogue

Waiter: Hello, Can I help you?
Kim: Yes, I'd like to have some lunch.
Waiter: Would you like a starter?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a bowl of chicken soup, please.
Waiter: And what would you like for a main course?
Kim: I'd like a grilled cheese sandwich.
Waiter: Would you like anything to drink?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a glass of Coke, please.
Waiter... After Kim has her lunch.: Can I bring you anything else?
Kim: No thank you. Just the bill.
Waiter: Certainly.
Kim: I don't have my glasses. How much is the lunch?
Waiter: That's $6.75.
Kim: Here you are. Thank you very much.
Waiter: You're welcome. Have a good day.
Kim: Thank you, the same to you.

Look at the menu above and practice ordering food and taking orders with a partner as in the dialogue.

Notice how the waiter asks: What would you like? and Kim responds: I'd like ...

"Would like" is the polite form used when asking and requesting.

Начало формы

Fill in the gaps.

Waiter: Hello, Can I________Конец формы you?
Kim: Yes, ______to have some lunch.
Waiter: _________a starter?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a bowl of _______ soup,_______ .
Waiter: And what for a main course?
Kim: I'd like _________.
Waiter: Would you like to drink?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a glass of __________ , please.
Waiter... After Kim has her lunch.: Can I bring you anything else?
Kim: No thank you. Just the ________ .
Waiter: Certainly.
Kim:I don't have my glasses. ________ is the lunch?
Waiter: That's $_______.
Kim: . Thank you very much.
Waiter: You're _________. Have a good day.
Kim: Thank you, the_____________





Начало формы

Конец формы

Конец формы



Название документа диалоги.docx

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Wayne:

What are we going to eat for dinner?



Lilia:

I'm going to fix some pork chops.



Wayne:

I'm afraid the meat is rotten.



Lilia:

That's strange!  I just bought it the day before yesterday.



Wayne:

Well, I forgot to put it in the refrigerator.



Lilia:

Good for you!  Now what should we eat?



Wayne:

Why don't we eat out?



Lilia:

Again?  Weren't you just complaining that it's too expensive to eat out?



Wayne:

Not when you're hungry.













Cindy:

John, where are the cookies?  Don't tell me you ate them all!  Again!



John:

Yes, I did.  I couldn't help it.  They were so good.



Cindy:

I thought you didn't like cookies.



John:

Well, I don't like cookies flavored with chocolate at all. But vanilla is different.  I love them to death. 



Cindy:

Huh, I didn't know that.



John:

Well, tell you what, vanilla cookies taste even better with a glass of cold milk.








Waitress:

Are you ready to order now?



Maria:

Yes.  I'll have some salad, roast beef, and mashed potatoes.



Waitress:

How do you want the beef?  Rare, medium, or well-done?



Maria:

Well-done.  And easy on the salt, please.



Waitress:

Sure.  Anything to drink? 



Maria:

Do you have coffee or tea?  I'd like decaf.



Waitress:

Yes, we have both.  Which one would you like, coffee or tea?








  • Hi Jim! How are you?

  • Hello! I am fine, thanks. How are things?


  • Just fine, thank you.
    Where are Hubert and Margaret?
    They must come in.
    Look! There is a vacant table in the corner.Let’s sit down at the table.
    What would you like to order?
    I prefer the cake “Tiramisu”, some coffee with a bit  whipped cream. And you?
    I rather want  some banana strawberry pie, a cup of cappuccino with some ice-cream.Oh, nice to meet you Hubert and Margaret! How have you been?
    I have been doing okay recently.Thanks.
    Good, thank you.Have you already ordered  some meal?
    Yes, we have. Sit down, please.What would you like to take?
    I  will  some cheesecake with a bit porous chocolate and a cup of Latte with vanilla.And you, Hubert?
    I want a glass of milk bilberry shake and a slice of fruit dessert.
    The order will be ready in a few minutes.I see, you’ve already eaten your portion.
    Yes.It was delicious.But I am stiil hungry.
    You needed to order something more substantial.
    Yeah, I will order sandwiches right now.
    What sandwiches have you decided to take?
    Cheeseburger with some slices of ham, cucumber pickles and lettuce.
    I think I will order some sandwiches as well.
    Will you eat some cheeseburgers too?
    No, I want sandwiches with salmon and  mayonnaise sauce.
    Oh, look, our orders are ready. Take them from the cash desk, please.
    This meal tastes good.I like it.











Название документа EASTER IN RUSSIA.docx

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Easter.hello_html_m3b90699d.jpg

Easter is one of the most important holidays of the year. Easter is the day when Jesus Christ resurrected. Usually this holiday is celebrated on one of Sundays in spring. Easter eggs and Easter cakes (or paskhas) are the traditional symbols of the religious holiday. Paskha is a traditional dessert served in Russia as well as other Eastern European countries. The name of the dish comes from “Pascha“, the eastern orthodox celebration of Easter.

On that day the religious people go to church and listen to the ceremony. Usually they bring with them Easter eggs, salt, Easter cakes, butter, cheese and ham. Some people prefer to bake Easter cakes themselves and others buy paskhas at bakery.

The priest in the church consecrates all the food: many people believe that Easter eggs possesses magic power and can protect from evil, thunder or fire and have healing powers.

In the morning after the end of the ceremony, everyone greet each other with the words “Khrystos voskres!” (Christ is risen!). The proper response is “Voyistino voskres,” (Indeed he is risen). Once the ceremony is over, every family goes home for breakfast, to partake of the blessed food.

Easter Sunday is a day of singing and eating. Many people visit their friends and relatives and exchange Easter eggs. All people celebrate Easter as the beginning of spring, too. This tradition is connected with much older pre-Christian rite. On that day, people celebrated the return of springtime and the sun.

Дополнительные выражения

  • Jesus Christ – Иисус Христос

  • to resurrect – воскрешать

  • Easter egg – пасхальное яйцо

  • Easter cake – (пасхальный) кулич

  • paskha – паска (блюдо)

  • ceremony – церемония, служба

  • healing power – лечебное свойство

  • to partake – съесть, отведать

  • blessed food – освященная пища (еда)

  • pre-Christian rite – дохристианский обряд



Название документа Easter in Great Britain.docx

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Easter in Great Britain

For Christians Easter Sunday is the high point of the year. They celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
hello_html_m375a8826.jpgAs in many other European and New World countries, eggs and rabbits (signs of fertility and new life) are traditional symbols of Easter in the British Isles. Chocolate bunnies and Easter eggs, often adorned in colorful foil wrappers, are given to children as presents or are hidden for the Easter morning "egg hunt."

hello_html_402c0427.jpgThe tradition of decorating real eggs for Easter dates back to the Middle Ages. In 1290 the English king, Edward I, ordered 450 eggs to be covered in gold leaf to be given as Easter presents. It is thought that the bright hues used to decorate Easter eggs were meant to mirror the colors of the reawakening spring growth.

hello_html_m4aec40ac.jpgAnother British Easter custom is egg rolling or the egg race, when competitors try to be the first to roll their egg across a course or down a hill… without breaking it!

hello_html_m79141070.jpgAside from eggs, the best-known English Easter food is probably the hot cross bun. Dating back to medieval times, the buns were traditionally eaten on Good Friday, but they are now popular all around the Easter season. These sweet treats, fragrant with fruit and spices, are marked with a cross, either slashed into the dough before baking, or drizzled on in icing afterwards. The history of hot cross buns dates far back to the pre-Christian era. It is thought that they are descendants of the small cakes offered to Eostre, the goddess of spring. They may have been marked with a cross even in ancient times, to represent the four quarters of the moon. In later centuries the church, unable to stamp out ancient pagan traditions, decided instead to "Christianize" the buns by associating the cross with that of Jesus.

hello_html_6b81ebf6.jpgEaster Sunday in the British Isles is traditionally marked by church services, often held at dawn so that worshippers can view the sunrise, a symbol of Christ's resurrection. Afterwards Easter eggs are exchanged and eaten.

hello_html_m30a4746d.jpgEaster parades were also once an important tradition, during which people would wear their new clothes - the ladies in particular would show off their new "Easter bonnets" - as another sign of spring's renewal. Later the family would gather for Easter lunch or dinner, which in England traditionally consisted of roast spring lamb with mint sauce, potatoes and green peas. There was time to rest from the celebrations the next day, since Easter Monday is traditionally a holiday in Britain.



Название документа How do the British people celebrate Easter.docx

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How do the British people celebrate Easter?

  1. How old is Sarah?

  2. What holiday are they going to celebrate?

  3. What has Sarah bought as Easter presents?

  4. Were these presents for members of her family or for her classmates?

  5. What can you say about Good Friday?

  6. What do the British usually do on Good Friday?

  7. What are children eating hot with a lot of butter?

  8. What are favourite Sarah’s colours?

  9. When do people usually go to church at Easter?

  10. What is an Easter egg hunt?

  11. How many eggs has Tom found?

  12. What present have children got from their grandparents?

  13. Do people go to work on Easter Monday?

  14. What game do people sometimes play on Easter Monday?

  15. Who was the winner in egg-rolling?









How do the British people celebrate Easter?

  1. How old is Sarah?

  2. What holiday are they going to celebrate?

  3. What has Sarah bought as Easter presents?

  4. Were these presents for members of her family or for her classmates?

  5. What can you say about Good Friday?

  6. What do the British usually do on Good Friday?

  7. What are children eating hot with a lot of butter?

  8. What are favourite Sarah’s colours?

  9. When do people usually go to church at Easter?

  10. What is an Easter egg hunt?

  11. How many eggs has Tom found?

  12. What present have children got from their grandparents?

  13. Do people go to work on Easter Monday?

  14. What game do people sometimes play on Easter Monday?

  15. Who was the winner in egg-rolling?



Название документа Australian Holidays and Festivities.docx

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Australian Holidays and Festivities

As many other people around the world, Australians celebrate a lot of holidays common to Europe and America, but they also have some original traditions and celebrations unique in their character.

Perhaps the most celebrated and beloved holiday in the Christian world (and Australia belongs to the Catholic Church) is Christmas. Due to the fact, that this holiday in Australia comes in summer – December here is a summer month – there are some differences in the way of its celebration. As you can probably guess there is no traditional to us Christmas tree but this does not mean that Australians do not have a tree at all – they have a bit different one called New South Wales Christmas Bush. Homes and different enterprises are not as heavily decorated as we are used to. They usually trim a Christmas Bush and use flowers, Christmas bells and lights as traditional decoration. They also decorate their doors with wreaths and sing carols. Common thing is to put a Christmas tree on a beach and lit the night ocean sky with fireworks. Santa comes to their homes on kangaroos instead of traditional reindeers wearing shorts or swimming suit. Speaking about traditional Christmas food, we cannot omit turkey. During the holiday Australians also have such usual dishes for them as fresh seafood, ice cream, and panettone – a Christmas cake.

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The Anzac Day (April 25) belongs to the national holidays celebrated by Australians and also the Day of Australia (January 26) and Queen’s Birthday (June 8). hello_html_33243fa5.jpg

The Anzac Day commemorates the Army Corps of the Commonwealth of Australia particularly those of New Zealand and Australia itself. They memorialize all the victims of wars and sufferers of the World War I in particular.



The Day of Australia (early called the Foundation Day) is a public and also family holiday which coincides with the last days of summer vacations. This event is to honor the day when the British Empire proclaimed Australia a part of the Commonwealth making it an English colony. This happened in 1788 and since then it is celebrated with beach parties, fireworks and festivals. With this date another holiday is also connected – the Queen’s Birthday, which was first celebrated in honor of the British King George III. It was solemnized on the day that stood for the actual birthday of the monarch till 1936. After that, it was decided to set a stable date for this holiday.

hello_html_ma0539f8.jpg

















Apart from all above-mentioned holidays, each state of Australia also has its own public celebrations and festivities followed by local parties, fireworks, and festivals, which are very often free of charge. So, no matter at what time of the year you decide to visit Australia you’ll always find something interesting going around.



New Zealand: Customs and Traditions

New Zealand is a wonderful and original state. However, as a rule, people know so little about it. If you want to get to know the state, it will not be enough to explore the general information about it: capital, total area, geographical position or more. You need to study it from the inside. The easiest way to fulfill the task is to become familiar with country’s population, traditions and customs.

First of all, it is worth mentioning that nowadays more and more people in New Zealand start to greet each other in the Maori manner. Maori – the aboriginals of the state – do this by touching with their noses or just wish each other good blessings.

hello_html_5a7747.jpg

New Zealanders are very hospitable. One shouldn’t be surprised when being invited for a tea even by a scarcely known person. Though, don’t forget to bring a small present with you (sweets or flowers) and wait until the hosts tell you where to sit.

A lot of holidays and festivities are celebrated in the country. Apparently, the most important one is Waitangi – a national holiday celebrated on February 6. Originally, it was a date of New Zealand becoming a British colony (1810). On the day before it, a special speech highlighting all the country’s problems occurred. This holiday has been celebrated since 1974.  A three-day festival with dances, music, food and traditional Maori rituals also takes place.

hello_html_m6eed6697.jpg

A great number of festivals are held here. One of the well-known is International Arts Festival that is celebrated once in two years and continues for a month. The Biennial Wellington Jazz Festival, the International Comedy Festival and many others gather thousands of tourists annually.

New Zealand commemorates the British Queen every year on her birthday with a colorful parade. People also share with the British, one more holiday called the Boxing Day (December 26) when they visit friends and relatives and give them presents after Christmas celebration. The latter, by the way, comes during the summer holidays. Many of them enjoy the inherited afternoon tea tradition as well. Though, they have tea at 3 or 4 p.m.

hello_html_6fd7bbc9.jpg

One more holiday is dedicated to the commemoration of country’s soldiers who were fighting during the WWII. People usually organize special dances and rugby games.

According to the religious aspect, the population is divided into Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, and Methodists.

To become married you need to be at least 20 years old. Otherwise, a parental consent is required for this procedure.

The most popular sport here is rugby. The state’s rugby team called All Blacks is well-known worldwide.



Название документа Holidays in Australia.pptx

Holidays in Australia
Australia day Australia Day is the official National Day of Australia. Celebr...
Royal Hobart Regatta The Royal Hobart Regatta began in 1838, is a series of a...
Labour Day The Labour Day public holiday is fixed by the various state and te...
Anzac Day Anzac Day is a national public holiday and is considered by many Au...
The Queen's Birthday Except in the states of Western Australia and Queensland...
Picnic Day (Australian holiday) Picnic Day is a public holiday in the Norther...
Family & community day Family and Community was celebrated on the first Tuesd...
Christmas in australia 25, December In Australia people celebrate Christmas i...
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№ слайда 1 Holidays in Australia
Описание слайда:

Holidays in Australia

№ слайда 2 Australia day Australia Day is the official National Day of Australia. Celebr
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Australia day Australia Day is the official National Day of Australia. Celebrated annually on 26 January, it marks the anniversary of the 1788 arrival of the First Fleet of British Ships at Port Jackson, New South Wales, and the raising of the Flag of Great Britain at Sydney Cove by Governor Arthur Phillip In present-day Australia, celebrations reflect the diverse society and landscape of the nation, and are marked by community and family events, reflections on Australian history, official community awards, and citizenship ceremonies welcoming new immigrants into the Australian community. 26 January

№ слайда 3 Royal Hobart Regatta The Royal Hobart Regatta began in 1838, is a series of a
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Royal Hobart Regatta The Royal Hobart Regatta began in 1838, is a series of aquatic competitions and displays held annually in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia and is Tasmania's oldest sporting event. The regatta runs for three days, ending on the second Monday in February. It is normally well attended by public and competitors and is usually well supported by the Royal Australian Navy, which sends a warship to be a flagship for the regatta It was begun by the Governor of Tasmania, Sir John Franklin. Franklin provided free food and beer for all of the spectators, and the tradition of free entry continues to this day. The Monday was declared as a public holiday by the governor, and is now the oldest public holiday still continuing in Australia. 2nd Monday in February

№ слайда 4 Labour Day The Labour Day public holiday is fixed by the various state and te
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Labour Day The Labour Day public holiday is fixed by the various state and territory governments, and so varies considerably. It is the first Monday in October in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and South Australia. In Victoria and Tasmania, it is the second Monday in March. In Western Australia, Labour Day is the first Monday in March. In the Northern Territory and Queensland it is called May Day and occurs on the first Monday in May. It is on the fourth Monday of March in the territory of Christmas Island. The first march for an eight-hour day by the labour movement occurred in Melbourne on 21 April 1856. The Australian gold rushes attracted many skilled tradesmen to Australia. Some of them had been active in the chartism movement, and subsequently became prominent in the campaign for better working conditions in the Australian colonies. The eight hour day began in 1856 in the month of May.

№ слайда 5 Anzac Day Anzac Day is a national public holiday and is considered by many Au
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Anzac Day Anzac Day is a national public holiday and is considered by many Australians to be one of the most solemn days of the year. Marches by veterans from all past wars, as well as current serving members of the Australian Defence Force and Reserves, with allied veterans as well as the Australian Defence Force Cadets and Australian Air League and supported by members of Scouts Australia, Guides Australia, and other uniformed service groups, are held in cities and towns nationwide. The Anzac Day March from each state capital is televised with commentary 25, April

№ слайда 6 The Queen's Birthday Except in the states of Western Australia and Queensland
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The Queen's Birthday Except in the states of Western Australia and Queensland, Australia observes the Queen's Birthday on the second Monday in June. The day has been celebrated since 1788, when Governor Arthur Phillip declared a holiday to mark the birthday of the King of Great Britain. Until 1936, it was held on the actual birthday of the monarch, but, after the death of King George V, it was decided to keep the date on the second Monday in June Some well-known sporting events are held on the second Monday of June. These include an Australian Football League game played at the Melbourne cricket club between the Collingwood Magpies and the Melbourne Demons.

№ слайда 7 Picnic Day (Australian holiday) Picnic Day is a public holiday in the Norther
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Picnic Day (Australian holiday) Picnic Day is a public holiday in the Northern Territory of Australia which takes place every year on the first Monday of August It was originally declared a public holiday to commemorate the freeing of the Chinese Coolie indentured labourers who built the Darwin to Larrimah North Australia Railway. In a reversal of the existing policy the Chinese workers were given the right to stay in Australia as free settlers, and provided sufficient money for a steamer fare to Hong Kong. Instead they chose to go to Adelaide River for a picnic. The first Monday of August

№ слайда 8 Family & community day Family and Community was celebrated on the first Tuesd
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Family & community day Family and Community was celebrated on the first Tuesday of November from 2007-2009, coinciding with the Melbourne Cup. This public holiday was declared in 2007. Andrew Barr, ACT Minister for Industrial Relations stated the purpose of the new public holiday was: "...to enable workers to take a break from their hectic work and to spend some quality time with their family and friends. ... Australians do work the longest hours of any country in the western world. We do deserve a break.“ From 2010 onwards the date was moved to the first Monday of the September/October school holidays (27 September 2010). Where the first Monday of the school holidays falls on the ACT Labour Day public holiday (first Monday in October), the holiday is moved to the second Monday of the ACT school holidays.

№ слайда 9 Christmas in australia 25, December In Australia people celebrate Christmas i
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Christmas in australia 25, December In Australia people celebrate Christmas in summer, on the 25th of December. December in Australia is often very hot, and it is not unusual to celebrate Christmas Day in temperatures above 30ºC degrees. Because of the hot weather, the way they celebrate Christmas is very different to the rest of the world. Christmas in Australia is the beginning of the summer holidays, so it is very popular for families to go on holidays to the beach for Christmas and New Year’s. Summer Christmas!!

Название документа holidays in america.ppt

Holidays in the USA
New Year's Day, January, 1st People stay awake until after midnight on Decemb...
Valentine's Day, February, 14th It is not a national holiday. Banks and offic...
Easter Easter is in memory of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. The 40 days b...
Washington's Birthday, February, 22d In addition to commemorating the birth o...
Memorial Day, May, 30th: It is a national holiday. Schools, banks and offices...
Independence Day, July, 4th: On this day, in 1776, America signed the Declara...
Labor Day, the first Monday in September It is a holiday of recreation. It ma...
Halloween, October, 31st Halloween is the day or evening before All Saints' D...
Veterans Day On this day, the radio and television broadcast services held at...
Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November In the USA it is a national...
Christmas Day, December, 25th It is usually a one-day official holiday. Chris...
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№ слайда 1 Holidays in the USA
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Holidays in the USA

№ слайда 2 New Year's Day, January, 1st People stay awake until after midnight on Decemb
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New Year's Day, January, 1st People stay awake until after midnight on December 31st to "watch the Old Year out and the New Year in." Many parties are given on this night. Theatres, night clubs, restaurants are crowded. When midnight comes, they greet the New Year: people gather in the streets of big cities, they ring bells, blow whistles and automobile horns, some shoot off guns and firecrackers

№ слайда 3 Valentine's Day, February, 14th It is not a national holiday. Banks and offic
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Valentine's Day, February, 14th It is not a national holiday. Banks and offices do not close, but it is a happy little festival in honour of St Valentine, patron of sweethearts and lovers. It is widely celebrated among people of all ages by the exchange of "valentines." A "valentine" may mean a special greeting card or a little present. The greeting cards are often coloured red, have red trimmings and pictures of hearts

№ слайда 4 Easter Easter is in memory of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. The 40 days b
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Easter Easter is in memory of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. The 40 days before Easter are called Lent. Just before Easter, schools and colleges usually close. Students have a week or ten days of spring vacation. Easter is a church holiday, and many churches have an outdoor sunrise service. People give each other presents of eggs which are the symbol of new life. There is a popular belief that wearing three new things on Easter will bring good luck throughout the year

№ слайда 5 Washington's Birthday, February, 22d In addition to commemorating the birth o
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Washington's Birthday, February, 22d In addition to commemorating the birth of the United States' first President, it's a great day for shoppers. The department stores of Washington, DC, stated a national tradition of sales marked by unusual bargains. It is not a national holiday. Many schools, offices and banks close for this day, some stay open. The US Congress observes the birthday of George Washington with speeches and readings from his works

№ слайда 6 Memorial Day, May, 30th: It is a national holiday. Schools, banks and offices
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Memorial Day, May, 30th: It is a national holiday. Schools, banks and offices close for the day. On that day, Americans honour the servicemen who gave their lives in past wars. They hold memorial services in churches, halls, parks and cemeteries. In addition to solemn services Memorial Day is often marked by other, more joyful ceremonies: colourful parades, sports competitions.

№ слайда 7 Independence Day, July, 4th: On this day, in 1776, America signed the Declara
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Independence Day, July, 4th: On this day, in 1776, America signed the Declaration of Independence. It is a national public holiday celebrated with fireworks and speeches praising "Americanism, democracy, free enterprise".

№ слайда 8 Labor Day, the first Monday in September It is a holiday of recreation. It ma
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Labor Day, the first Monday in September It is a holiday of recreation. It marks the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. Vacation time is over. Resorts, camps and beaches close ... Parents go to summer camps and take their children back home

№ слайда 9 Halloween, October, 31st Halloween is the day or evening before All Saints' D
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Halloween, October, 31st Halloween is the day or evening before All Saints' Day. Halloween customs date back to a time when Now most people do not believe in evil spirits. On this day they just have a nice holiday. Children dress up as ghosts and witches and go out into the streets to beg. They go from house to house and say: "Trick of treat!", meaning "Give me a treat or I'll play a trick on you". People give them candy, cookies and apples. A favourite custom is to make a jack-o'-lantem. Children scrape out a pumpkin and cut the outlines of eyes, nose and mouth in its side. They light a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends.

№ слайда 10 Veterans Day On this day, the radio and television broadcast services held at
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Veterans Day On this day, the radio and television broadcast services held at the National Cemetery in Arlington. High officials come from Washington to attend these services. They place a wreath of flowers at the tomb of the Unknown Soldier. All stand in silence for a few minutes at eleven o'clock to honour the memory of the servicemen killed in the two World Wars

№ слайда 11 Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November In the USA it is a national
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Thanksgiving Day, the fourth Thursday in November In the USA it is a national holiday. It was first celebrated in 1621 by the Pilgrim Fathers after their first good harvest. Thanksgiving is a family day, for it is customary for all members of the family to gather at the home of their parents. The family eats a large traditional dinner, usually with turkey, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie

№ слайда 12 Christmas Day, December, 25th It is usually a one-day official holiday. Chris
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Christmas Day, December, 25th It is usually a one-day official holiday. Christmas is a family holiday. Schools and colleges close between Christmas and New-Year's Day. People stay at home and spend the time with their families. Everybody tries to come home for Christmas. People send cards or Christmas greetings to family and friends. Every family tries to have a Christmas tree, which is beautifully decorated. Santa Claus comes from the North Pole in his sleigh, dressed in red cap and jacket, entering the house from chimney. He has gifts for all children.

Название документа holidays in canada.ppt

WELCOME TO CANADA
FLAG OF CANADA
COAT OF ARMS OF CANADA
Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from...
The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "vil...
Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, as he...
HOLIDAYS IN CANADA
Traditions: Public parks and buildings across Canada are traditionally lit fo...
National Aboriginal Day In cooperation with national Aboriginal organizations...
Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day All across Canada, French Canadians express their cul...
Canadian Multiculturalism Day is an opportunity to celebrate diversity and co...
Canada Day is an opportunity to gather in communities, from coast to coast, a...
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№ слайда 1 WELCOME TO CANADA
Описание слайда:

WELCOME TO CANADA

№ слайда 2 FLAG OF CANADA
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FLAG OF CANADA

№ слайда 3 COAT OF ARMS OF CANADA
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COAT OF ARMS OF CANADA

№ слайда 4 Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from
Описание слайда:

Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest.

№ слайда 5 The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "vil
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The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535, inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct explorer Jacques Cartier toward the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word 'Canada' to refer to not only that village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona, Chief at Stadacona. By 1545, European books and maps began referring to this region as Canada.

№ слайда 6 Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, as he
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Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, as head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of the government. The country is a parliamentary democracy with a federal system of parliamentary government and strong democratic traditions. Executive authority is formally and constitutionally vested in the monarch.

№ слайда 7 HOLIDAYS IN CANADA
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HOLIDAYS IN CANADA

№ слайда 8 Traditions: Public parks and buildings across Canada are traditionally lit fo
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Traditions: Public parks and buildings across Canada are traditionally lit for the holidays at the same moment: 6:55 on the first Thursday in December. This tradition began in 1986 and is one uniting aspect of the country's many Christmas celebrations. Tourtiore, a meat pie made from pork, potatoes and onions, is served on Christmas Eve in many parts of French Canada. In Vancouver, Christmas is preceded by two weeks of caroling from children's choirs on ships parading through the harbor. The waterfront is decorated with thousands of lights and becomes a festive place for the holidays.

№ слайда 9 National Aboriginal Day In cooperation with national Aboriginal organizations
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National Aboriginal Day In cooperation with national Aboriginal organizations, the Government of Canada designated June 21 National Aboriginal Day. This date was chosen because it corresponds to the summer solstice, the longest day of the year, and because for generations, many Aboriginal groups have celebrated their culture and heritage at this time of year.

№ слайда 10 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day All across Canada, French Canadians express their cul
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Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day All across Canada, French Canadians express their cultural pride and rich heritage through colourful parades and lively parties on June 24 marking Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. These festivities combine the ancient rites of the summer solstice - a period of light and hope - with the traditional celebration in honour of the Patron Saint of French Canadians, who was officially proclaimed as such by His Holiness Pope Pius X in 1908.

№ слайда 11 Canadian Multiculturalism Day is an opportunity to celebrate diversity and co
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Canadian Multiculturalism Day is an opportunity to celebrate diversity and commitment to democracy, equality and mutual respect and to appreciate the contributions of the various multicultural groups and communities to Canadian society.

№ слайда 12 Canada Day is an opportunity to gather in communities, from coast to coast, a
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Canada Day is an opportunity to gather in communities, from coast to coast, and to proudly celebrate all we have in common. It is an opportunity to celebrate our achievements, which were born in the audacious vision and shared values of our ancestors, and which are voiced in nearly all of the languages of the world through the contribution of new Canadians.

Название документа holidays_in_great_britain.ppt

New Year’s Day, which is on January 1, marks the start of the year in the Gre...
In Scotland they celebrate New Year, which is known as Hogmanay. It is the bi...
St. Valentine's Day It is a very sentimental unofficial holiday, which is cel...
Valentine was a Christian priest who didn’t like the new law. He secretly ma...
Roses are red, Violets are blue, Honey’s sweet And so are you Honeysuckle’s y...
Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated each year on March 17th. In Ireland, Saint...
April Fool’s Day is the first of April. The fun of the holiday is to play sil...
In England tradition of celebrating Easter is deep-rooted in the history of...
Easter is the time for holidays, festivals and time for giving chocolate East...
St George's Day in England remembers St George, England's patron saint. The...
It is a celebration of the coming of spring. On May Day different outdoor eve...
Mother's Day is traditionally celebrated on the first Sunday in Lent. On this...
In June there is Father’s Day. On this day fathers get gift cards and a lot o...
The Queen celebrates two birthdays each year: her actual birthday on 21 Apri...
The official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II is marked each year by a military...
The celebrations in London are a wonderful display of soldiers in red jacket...
Halloween is a festival that takes place on October 31. In Great Britain chil...
There is a special day in England which is called Bonfire Night or Guy Fawkes...
 Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They burn a dummy,...
Remembrance Day is on 11 November. It is a special day set aside to remember...
Christmas Day, December 25, is the most popular holiday in Great Britain. Chr...
People decorate their houses with holly and mistletoe. They send Christmas ca...
On the eve of Christmas children hang their stockings at the end of their bed...
Answer the questions 1.Children wake up very early in the morning to find the...
Ресурсы: http://slovo.ws/topic/usa/62.html http://www.absent.ru/articles/praz...
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№ слайда 2 New Year’s Day, which is on January 1, marks the start of the year in the Gre
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New Year’s Day, which is on January 1, marks the start of the year in the Gregorian calendar. New Year’s Day is less popular in Great Britain than Christmas and it is not so widely celebrated. Traditional New Year parties and dances are held on New Year’s Eve. People see the Old Year out and the New Year in.

№ слайда 3 In Scotland they celebrate New Year, which is known as Hogmanay. It is the bi
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In Scotland they celebrate New Year, which is known as Hogmanay. It is the biggest festival of the year. It is time for merrymaking, the giving presents and observance of the old customs. At midnight Scottish people hold their hands in a large circle and sing the song “Auld Lang Syne” by Robert Burns. There are some traditions on New Year’s Day. One of them is called the First Footing. The first man who come into the house is very important because he brings luck. This man (not a woman) must be healthy, young, pretty-looking. He brings presents – bread, a piece of coal or a coin.

№ слайда 4 St. Valentine's Day It is a very sentimental unofficial holiday, which is cel
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St. Valentine's Day It is a very sentimental unofficial holiday, which is celebrated on the 14th of February by those who believe in love and friendship. On St Valentine`s Day people send a special valentine to those who they love. Some people buy presents for their sweethearts or give them a red rose, a symbol of love.

№ слайда 5 Valentine was a Christian priest who didn’t like the new law. He secretly ma
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Valentine was a Christian priest who didn’t like the new law. He secretly married people who were in love. One night the Emperor’s soldiers caught him and put him in prison. Many people were sorry for Valentine and visited him in prison. One of them was a daughter of a prison guard. On the day of his execution Valentine wrote a note to her and signed it “Love from your Valentine”. This was on 14 February 269 AD. There is a beautiful legend behind St Valentine’s Day. Saint Valentine lived in Rome in the third century AD. At that time the Emperor of Rome was Claudius who thought that single men were better soldiers than married, so he passed a law which banned marriage. Since then 14 February has been the Day of Love, when people send love letters and presents to each other. They don’t sign the cards with their names, but write “Guess who” or “Your Valentine”.

№ слайда 6 Roses are red, Violets are blue, Honey’s sweet And so are you Honeysuckle’s y
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Roses are red, Violets are blue, Honey’s sweet And so are you Honeysuckle’s yellow And leaves are green, You are the sweetest thing I’ve ever seen. I dream about you Every night Be my Valentine And hold me tight I’ll be your sweetheart, If you will be mine, All my life I’ll be Your Valentine.

№ слайда 7 Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated each year on March 17th. In Ireland, Saint
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Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated each year on March 17th. In Ireland, Saint Patrick's Day is both a holy day and a national holiday. Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland as he was the one who brought Christianity to the Irish. Saint Patrick's Day One traditional icon of the day is the shamrock. Patrick used the three-leafed shamrock to explain the Trinity, how the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit could all exist as separate elements of the same entity. His followers adopted the custom of wearing a shamrock on his feast day.

№ слайда 8 April Fool’s Day is the first of April. The fun of the holiday is to play sil
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April Fool’s Day is the first of April. The fun of the holiday is to play silly but harmless jokes on family members and friends. The victim of these jokes is called an April fool. This holiday first appeared in France when the French began to use the Gregorian calendar, some people continued to use the old calendar and to celebrate New Year’s Day in April 1. These people were called April fools. Today, April Fool’s jokes are played mostly by children, who enjoy the holiday very much.

№ слайда 9 In England tradition of celebrating Easter is deep-rooted in the history of
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In England tradition of celebrating Easter is deep-rooted in the history of the nation. Easter is a church holiday. The main symbols of Easter and spring include bunnies and rabbits. Easter is a feast that is not always held on the same date each year. Easter Day is celebrated on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox Easter marks the end of the forty-day long fasting of Lent. The word Easter is thought to have derived from the goddess Eostre, an Anglo-Saxon Goddess.

№ слайда 10 Easter is the time for holidays, festivals and time for giving chocolate East
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Easter is the time for holidays, festivals and time for giving chocolate Easter eggs, the day of parties, and above all a celebration that Jesus raised from the dead and lives forever. Eggs play an important part in Easter celebration; they are given to children. In Christianity, egg represents rebirth and symbolizes with the resurrection of the Lord. Traditionally Easter parades of people in bright new spring clothes are held on this day.

№ слайда 11 St George's Day in England remembers St George, England's patron saint. The
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St George's Day in England remembers St George, England's patron saint. The anniversary of his death, which is on April 23, is seen as England's national day. According to the legend, he was a soldier in the Roman army who killed a dragon and saved a princess. The most widely recognized symbol of St George's Day is St George's cross. This is a red cross on a white background, which is often displayed as a flag. It is used as England's national flag, forming part of the Union Flag, the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

№ слайда 12 It is a celebration of the coming of spring. On May Day different outdoor eve
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It is a celebration of the coming of spring. On May Day different outdoor events are held. Traditional English May Day celebrations include Morris dancing, crowning a May Queen and dancing around a Maypole.

№ слайда 13 Mother's Day is traditionally celebrated on the first Sunday in Lent. On this
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Mother's Day is traditionally celebrated on the first Sunday in Lent. On this holiday mother is rewarded for all her work about the house during the year. Her husband and children give her presents and traditionally bring her breakfast in bed. All children despite their age return to their homes.

№ слайда 14 In June there is Father’s Day. On this day fathers get gift cards and a lot o
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In June there is Father’s Day. On this day fathers get gift cards and a lot of attention from their children. It is celebrated to recognize the contribution that fathers and father figures make to the lives of their children. This day celebrates fatherhood and male parenting. Although it is celebrated on a variety of dates worldwide, many countries observe this day on the third Sunday in June.

№ слайда 15 The Queen celebrates two birthdays each year: her actual birthday on 21 Apri
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The Queen celebrates two birthdays each year: her actual birthday on 21 April 1926 and her official birthday on a Saturday in June. Her father, grandfather and Queen Victoria all had birthdays in winter so the official Queen’s birthday is celebrated in the UK in June when the weather is warmer.

№ слайда 16 The official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II is marked each year by a military
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The official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II is marked each year by a military parade and march-past, known as Trooping the Colour (Carrying of the Flag). The official name is “the Queen’s Birthday Parade”. It is the biggest royal event of the year. Each June, the Queen and other members of the Royal Family attend the Trooping the Colour ceremony on Horse Guards Parade, Whitehall in London. The Queen attends the ceremony to take the salute from thousands of guardsmen who parade the Colour (their regiment’s flag).The parade route goes from Buckingham Palace along The Mall to Horseguards Parade, Whitehall and back again.

№ слайда 17 The celebrations in London are a wonderful display of soldiers in red jacket
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The celebrations in London are a wonderful display of soldiers in red jackets, horses with riders in yellow jackets and musicians marching in a band. The weather on this day is usually nice and sunny. The royal family watch the Birthday Parade from the balcony of Buckingham Palace in London. The soldiers in beautiful uniforms ride and march along the Mall - a street in central London. You can see the Queen too. She rides in front of the soldiers. You can hear music and see bright flags, which fly high in the air. The parade is very beautiful and a lot of people from all over the world come to watch it. The parade has a name. The name is "Trooping the Colour” because "trooping” means "walking together” and "colour” means a flag.

№ слайда 18 Halloween is a festival that takes place on October 31. In Great Britain chil
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Halloween is a festival that takes place on October 31. In Great Britain children wear costumes and masks and go trick-or-treating. A favourite Halloween custom is to make a jack-o-lantern (the children scrape our a pumpkin and cut the eyes, nose and mouth). They light a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their friends. Fortunetelling and storytelling about ghosts and witches are popular activities. Halloween developed from new year festivals and festivals of the dead. Christian church established a festival on November 1 called All Saints' Day so that people could continue to celebrate their festivals.

№ слайда 19 There is a special day in England which is called Bonfire Night or Guy Fawkes
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There is a special day in England which is called Bonfire Night or Guy Fawkes Day. On that day, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I. He didn't succeed. The King's men found the bomb, took Guy Fawkes to the Tower and cut off his head.

№ слайда 20  Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They burn a dummy,
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 Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They burn a dummy, made of straw and old clothes, in a bonfire and let off fireworks. This dummy is called a "guy" (like Guy Fawkes). Children use guys to make money. They stand in the street and shout “ Penny for the guy”  If they collect enough money they can buy some fireworks.

№ слайда 21 Remembrance Day is on 11 November. It is a special day set aside to remember
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Remembrance Day is on 11 November. It is a special day set aside to remember all those men and women who were killed during the two World Wars and other conflicts. Special services are held at war memorials and churches all over Britain. November is the time of the year when we wear a red poppy in memory of those who sacrificed their lives for us during wars. Wreaths are laid beside war memorials by companies, clubs and societies. People also leave small wooden crosses by the memorials in remembrance of a family member who died in war.

№ слайда 22 Christmas Day, December 25, is the most popular holiday in Great Britain. Chr
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Christmas Day, December 25, is the most popular holiday in Great Britain. Christmas symbolizes the birth of Jesus Christ. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It’s a big Christmas Tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Central streets are beautifully decorated. Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house to house, they sing Christmas carols and collect money for charity.

№ слайда 23 People decorate their houses with holly and mistletoe. They send Christmas ca
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People decorate their houses with holly and mistletoe. They send Christmas cards to greet each other. Christmas trees are set up in houses, in the streets and churches. They are always decorated with lights, balls and small toys. Christmas is a family holiday. The family usually meets for a traditional dinner of turkey and Christmas pudding. Everyone gives and receives presents. Boxing Day is celebrated on December 26th. It comes straight away after Christmas Day. This is an old tradition, when in old times rich people used to give their servants money or “Christmas boxes”. Now it is the day when people simply have rest or visit their friends.

№ слайда 24 On the eve of Christmas children hang their stockings at the end of their bed
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On the eve of Christmas children hang their stockings at the end of their beds, hoping that Santa Claus will come down the chimney during the night and put presents into them. If the child didn’t behave properly Santa Claus can put there a piece of coal as punishment. Santa Claus got his name from a man known as St. Nicolas, who lived in the fourth century. He gave his wealth to the poor and often to children.

№ слайда 25 Answer the questions 1.Children wake up very early in the morning to find the
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Answer the questions 1.Children wake up very early in the morning to find their__________ have been filled by Father Christmas. 2.When was the Queen Elizabeth II born ? 3. At what time of the year is Halloween celebrated ? 4. Each holiday has its own symbols. What are they? 5.What holidays in the United Kingdom are celebrated in spring? 6.It is a special day set aside to remember all those men and women who were killed during the Wars.

№ слайда 26 Ресурсы: http://slovo.ws/topic/usa/62.html http://www.absent.ru/articles/praz
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Ресурсы: http://slovo.ws/topic/usa/62.html http://www.absent.ru/articles/prazdniki/prazdniki_amyeriki/dyen_pryezidyentov_ssha/ http://www.wrensworld.com/stpathistory.htm http://www.dltk-holidays.com/patrick/about.htm http://www.native-english.ru/topics/april-fools-day http://english-aid.ucoz.com/index/queen_39_s_birthday/0-24 http://audiorazgovornik.ru/in-the-news/590--q-q-queens-birthday-not-qjust-once-a-yearq http://en.wikipedia.org/

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Название документа holidays_in_russia.pptx

Holidays in Russia
Every culture has its own traditions and customs. Having annual holidays of p...
. The first public holiday worth mentioning is New Year, of course. People in...
Orthodox Christmas comes a week later and falls on January 7. People arrange...
At the end of February people see off winter and prepare to welcome spring. T...
One of the most popular spring holidays in Russia is the 8th of March – all...
Spring also brings another religious holiday – Easter. The date varies from y...
Victory Day, which is celebrated on May 9 each year, is also an important hol...
Independence Day in Russia is celebrated on June 12. On this day every city d...
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№ слайда 1 Holidays in Russia
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Holidays in Russia

№ слайда 2 Every culture has its own traditions and customs. Having annual holidays of p
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Every culture has its own traditions and customs. Having annual holidays of public and religious significance is a part of these traditions. Russian people love pompously celebrating holidays, especially those, which are considered to be days off. It’s a great opportunity to relax from work and to have fun in many ways.

№ слайда 3 . The first public holiday worth mentioning is New Year, of course. People in
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. The first public holiday worth mentioning is New Year, of course. People in every corner of the country have almost two-week holiday on this occasion. Children also don’t attend school during these weeks. This is the time when all families, relatives and friends get together and wish a happy and prosperous coming year. Many preparations are made before the holiday. For example, people nicely decorate their houses, set up Christmas trees, buy presents for their loved ones. Traditional meal includes various salads, sandwiches, preservings, cookies, tangerines. At midnight people drink champagne and listen to the Kremlin chimes on radio or TV. Next morning all children hope to find presents from Father Frost under their beds.

№ слайда 4 Orthodox Christmas comes a week later and falls on January 7. People arrange
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Orthodox Christmas comes a week later and falls on January 7. People arrange different festivals on this day. Many of them visit their relatives and treat them with sweet rice. Young girls want to know their fortune at night before Christmas.

№ слайда 5 At the end of February people see off winter and prepare to welcome spring. T
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At the end of February people see off winter and prepare to welcome spring. Traditional celebrations on this occasion are known as Maslenitsa. This is also the last week before the Great Lent. Maslenitsa week is celebrated with plenty of pancakes and spectacular festivals.

№ слайда 6 One of the most popular spring holidays in Russia is the 8th of March – all
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One of the most popular spring holidays in Russia is the 8th of March – all Women’s day. On this day mothers, grandmothers, daughters and sisters are treated in a special ways. Apart from getting presents, women get plenty of attention and help from men. They are freed from all household chores on this day.

№ слайда 7 Spring also brings another religious holiday – Easter. The date varies from y
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Spring also brings another religious holiday – Easter. The date varies from year to year, but usually falls on April. It’s an important Orthodox holiday that marks the Christ’s Resurrection. On this day Russian people cook tasty Easter cakes, called Paskhas, and brightly paint eggs. Many people carry this food to church for consecration. Children especially love Easter, as they get to eat lots of sweets and exchange colored eggs with their friends.

№ слайда 8 Victory Day, which is celebrated on May 9 each year, is also an important hol
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Victory Day, which is celebrated on May 9 each year, is also an important holiday for Russians. People throughout the country commemorate millions of victims of World War II. They participate in remembrance ceremonies and military parades.

№ слайда 9 Independence Day in Russia is celebrated on June 12. On this day every city d
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Independence Day in Russia is celebrated on June 12. On this day every city demonstrates local concerts and fireworks.  

Название документа russian holidays.ppt

Russian holidays It is a tradition to give greeting cards on these holidays....
Calendar of holidays 1.New Year- January,1 2.Christmas-January,7 3.Fatherland...
New Year New Year’s Day is celebrated on the 1st of January. People gather a...
Christmas In Russia Christmas is celebrated on January 7. On Christmas people...
Motherland Defender’s Day On 23 February, Russia honors those who are present...
Women’s Day It is celebrated on the 8th of March. The children give their mot...
Maslenitsa This holiday lasts for a week. Russian people celebrate it at the...
Easter It is a religious holiday. Easter symbolizes the Revival Of Jesus Chri...
May Day (Spring and Labor Day) May Day is celebrated on the 1st of May. It or...
Victory Day One day unites all the nations and religious of Russia. It is May...
Russia Day It is a holiday of national unity celebrated on June,12. On this d...
Day of Knowledge September,1 is the Day of Knowledge, the holiday of the begi...
Mother’s day It is celebrated on the last Sunday of November .On these days c...
Unity Day It was first celebrated in 2005, commemorates the popular uprising...
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№ слайда 1 Russian holidays It is a tradition to give greeting cards on these holidays.
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Russian holidays It is a tradition to give greeting cards on these holidays. Here you can see some of them.

№ слайда 2 Calendar of holidays 1.New Year- January,1 2.Christmas-January,7 3.Fatherland
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Calendar of holidays 1.New Year- January,1 2.Christmas-January,7 3.Fatherland Defender’s Day-February,23 4.Women’s Day –March,8 5.Maslenitsa 6.Easter 7.May Day( Spring and Labor Day)-May,1 8.Victory Day-May,9 9.Russia Day-June,12 10.Day of Knowledge-September,1 11.Unity Day-November,4 11.Mother’s Day-November,the last Sunday

№ слайда 3 New Year New Year’s Day is celebrated on the 1st of January. People gather a
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New Year New Year’s Day is celebrated on the 1st of January. People gather at midnight on New Year’s Eve to drink a toast to the coming year. They all hope that the coming year will bring luck to their families and friends .It is a tradition to decorate New Year’s tree with toys, colored lights and sweets. Each family prepare their holiday supper and lay the table. Five minutes before midnight people open a bottle of champagne and when they hear the chimes of the Kremlin Tower Clock at midnight, they drank a toast to the New Year. They wish “A Happy New Year” to one another and real celebrating begins with a lot of good eating.

№ слайда 4 Christmas In Russia Christmas is celebrated on January 7. On Christmas people
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Christmas In Russia Christmas is celebrated on January 7. On Christmas people celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ .It is a religious holiday. This holiday have become the day of family reunion, relax and happiness.

№ слайда 5 Motherland Defender’s Day On 23 February, Russia honors those who are present
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Motherland Defender’s Day On 23 February, Russia honors those who are presently serving in the Armed Forces and those who have served in the past. During the era of the Soviet Union, it was called “Red Army Day” or the “Day of the Soviet Army and Navy” (celebrating the day of the first mass draft of the Red Army in Petrograd and Moscow or the first combat action against the invading German forces). On this day all male citizens, from young boys to old men, receive congratulations and presents, and military men greet each other.

№ слайда 6 Women’s Day It is celebrated on the 8th of March. The children give their mot
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Women’s Day It is celebrated on the 8th of March. The children give their mothers some presents, greeting cards or flowers. Each family have a nice party.

№ слайда 7 Maslenitsa This holiday lasts for a week. Russian people celebrate it at the
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Maslenitsa This holiday lasts for a week. Russian people celebrate it at the end of February or at the beginning of March. They say “goodbye” to winter in these days. During the “Maslenitsa week” they always cook pancakes. It is a tradition to cook pancakes and eat them with fish, sour cream, honey, sugar, butter. People prepare fires and burn straw scarecrows of winter

№ слайда 8 Easter It is a religious holiday. Easter symbolizes the Revival Of Jesus Chri
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Easter It is a religious holiday. Easter symbolizes the Revival Of Jesus Christ. Easter has been celebrated widely only for the past several years, after Soviet times ceased. The Soviet Times forbad religious practices .After the church got its po back it became much easier for citizens to express their beliefs. So nowadays many people go to the church on this holiday and enjoy a joyful day with family. They greet each other with coloured eggs and make an Easter cookie. People here eat cookie with cottage cheese and raisins.

№ слайда 9 May Day (Spring and Labor Day) May Day is celebrated on the 1st of May. It or
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May Day (Spring and Labor Day) May Day is celebrated on the 1st of May. It originated in the USA in 1886 when the workers demanded an eight-hour working day. In fact, it is the international holiday of the working people .A couple of years ago people used to go to demonstrations to show their solidarity with the working class all over the world. They would sing patriotic songs and carry slogans and flags. But nowadays there are no demonstrations, and people can enjoy wonderful weather and have a time in a company of good friends.

№ слайда 10 Victory Day One day unites all the nations and religious of Russia. It is May
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Victory Day One day unites all the nations and religious of Russia. It is May 9th or Victory Day. On June22nd,1941, the Soviet Union was attacked by Germany. The war against the invaders for freedom and independence was called Great Patriotic War. The agressor was defeated but the cost of the victory was too high. Over 27 million people of our country were killed during the war, both soldiers and civilians, the country was ruined. It was the greatest tragedy in the history of Russia. Victory Day is truly a holiday with tears in people’s eyes. Every year thousands of people go to the monuments to those who died in the war ant put flowers in their memory.

№ слайда 11 Russia Day It is a holiday of national unity celebrated on June,12. On this d
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Russia Day It is a holiday of national unity celebrated on June,12. On this day, in 1990, Russian Parliament formally declared its sovereignty. On the 12th of June 1992, the first President of Russia was elected. The holiday was officially established in 1994. Initially it was named “Day of the adoption of the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Russian Federation”, on 1 February 2002 was officially renamed to “Russia Day”.

№ слайда 12 Day of Knowledge September,1 is the Day of Knowledge, the holiday of the begi
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Day of Knowledge September,1 is the Day of Knowledge, the holiday of the beginning of a new academic year, first of all for the students and instructors of all educational levels. Traditionally on this day schools conduct celebrations, dedicated to the beginning of a new academic year. First-graders are being especially celebrated.

№ слайда 13 Mother’s day It is celebrated on the last Sunday of November .On these days c
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Mother’s day It is celebrated on the last Sunday of November .On these days children give thanks for the support, love, care, and guidance which these special people provide. Children often make Mother’s Day gifts in school. They also buy greeting cards and make special dinner.

№ слайда 14 Unity Day It was first celebrated in 2005, commemorates the popular uprising
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Unity Day It was first celebrated in 2005, commemorates the popular uprising led by Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky which ejected the polish invaders from Moscow in November of 1612,and more generally the end of Time of Troubles and foreign intervention in Russia. The event was remarked by public holiday which was held in Russia on October 22 (old style) from 1649 till 1917.

Название документа Тема holidays in russia.docx

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Тема "Праздники России" (Russian holidays)

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Like the whole world, Russian people love celebrating their holidays. Celebrations in Russia reflect many aspects of its history, culture and traditions. Some Russian festivities are official public holidays and government offices, schools and banks have their days off.  These are New Year (January, 1st – 5th), Orthodox Christmas (January, 7th), Defender of the Motherland Day (February, 23rd), International Women’s Day (March, 8th), Spring and Labour Day (May, 1st), Victory Day (May, 9th), Russia Day (June, 12th), National Unity Day (November, 4th) and Constitution Day (December, 12th).

The Russians usually celebrate holidays with plenty of food and presents. The most popular holiday is New Year’s Day. Russian people decorate fir-trees, cook delicious meals, make fireworks. All children wait for Father Frost and his granddaughter Snegurochka to get presents from them. On Christmas people visit their relatives and friends and tell fortunes.

Defender of the Motherland Day is also known as Men’s Day because all Russian men and boys, active servicemen and war veterans get warm greetings and special presents from their families, friends and colleagues. International Women’s Day has been celebrated in Russia since 1913 and it is the day for all mothers, sisters, wives, daughters and girlfriends. Spring and Labour Day appeared in Russia on the 1st of May in 1890 after the strike of Chicago workers who demanded an 8-hour working day.

Victory Day is a sacred and dramatic holiday for Russia. The whole country commemorates millions of victims of the Great Patriotic war. Russia Day became a national holiday after the Declaration of Sovereignty was adopted in 1991.  And National Unity Day commemorates the liberation of Moscow from Polish occupation in 1612 and it is celebrated with parades. Constitution Day is a celebration of the adoption of the Russian Federation Constitution in 1993.

Unofficial Russian holidays are also observed. There are religious and foreign celebrations among them:  Old New Year (January, 14th), St. Valentine’s Day (February, 14th), Orthodox Easter Sunday, Maslenitsa, Cosmonaut’s Day (April, 12th), Halloween (October, 30th) and Mothering  Sunday (in November).  

Some Russians celebrate the New Year according to the Julian calendar that was used in Russia before 1918 and they call this holiday Old New Year. Easter is always celebrated with painted eggs and church services. Maslenitsa is a holiday of meeting the Russian spring with such rituals as eating pancakes and burning a dummy of winter.

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Название документа British Press.docx

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British Press

Probably in no other country are there such great differences between the various national daily newspapers — in the type of news they report and the way they report it.

On the one hand, there are the "quality" newspapers: The Times, The Independent, The Guardian, the Financial Times and The Daily Telegraph. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international events, with the world of politics and business and with the arts and sport.

On the other hand, there are the "populars" and "tabloids," so-called because of their smaller size. The tabloids — the most widely read of which are The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, The Sun and The Daily Star — concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring sex, violence, the Royal Family, film and pop stars, and sport. It's often said that the popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than inform them.

The tabloid press is much more popular than the quality press. In some countries, newspapers are owned by government or by political parties. This is not the case in Britain. Newspapers here are mostly owned by individuals or by publishing companies, and the editors of the papers are usually allowed considerate freedom of expression. This is not to say that newspapers are without political bias. Papers like The Daily Telegraph, The Daily Express and The Sun, for example, usually reflect Conservative opinions in their comment and reporting, while the Daily Mirror and The Guardian have a more left-wing bias.

In addition to the 12 national daily newspapers there are nine national papers which are published on Sundays. Most of the "Sundays" contain more reading matter than daily papers, and several of them also include "colour supplements" — separate colour magazines which contain photographically illustrated feature articles. Reading a Sunday paper, like having a big Sunday lunch, is an important tradition in many British households.

Besides, nearly every area in Britain has one or more local newspapers. The British are one of the biggest newspaper-reading nations in the world.

 



Название документа Mass Media.docx

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The mass media play an important part in our lives. Newspapers, radio and especially TV inform us of what is going on in this world and give us wonderful possibilities for education and entertainment. They also influence the way we see the world and shape our views.

Of course, not all newspapers and TV programmes report the events objectively, but serious journalists and TV reporters try to be fair and provide us with reliable information.

It is true that the world today is full of dramatic events and most news seems to be bad news. But people aren't interested in ordinary events. That is why there are so many programmes and articles about natural disasters, plane crashes, wars, murders and robberies. Good news doesn't usually make headlines. Bad news does.

Some people say that journalists are given too much freedom. They often intrude on people's private lives. They follow celebrities and print sensational stories about them which are untrue or half-true. They take photos of them in their most intimate moments. The question is — should this be allowed?

The main source of news for millions of people is television. People like TV news because they can see everything with their own eyes. And that's an important advantage. Seeing, as we know, is believing. Besides, it's much more difficult for politicians to lie in front of the cameras than on the pages of newspapers.

Still, many people prefer the radio. It's good to listen to in the car, or in the open air, or when you do something about the house.

Newspapers don't react to events as quickly as TV, but they usually provide us with extra detail, comment and background information.

The Internet has recently become another important source of information. Its main advantage is that news appears on the screen as soon as things happen in real life and you don't have to wait for news time on TV.

Название документа Internet Facts.docx

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Internet Facts 

The prototype for the Internet was created in the sixties by the US Defense Department. To ensure that communication could be kept open in the event of a nuclear attack, it created a computer network known as Arpanet — the Advanced Research Project Agency Network.

The first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another was made by researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Institute on 20 October 1969.

The first people to coin the term 'internet' were two scientists, Vinton Cerf (known as 'father of the Internet') and his collaborator Bob Kahn, who in 1974 devised a means by which data could be transmitted across a global-network of computers.

An Oxford graduate, Tim Berners-Lee, set up the first 'www server' (a Server receives and sends messages) to store the archive of the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland.

The first e-mail ever sent was in 1972 between computers in two American universities. The most frequently used search word on the net is "sex", typed in 1,550,000 times every month.

The most mentioned male on the Internet is President Bill Clinton, whose name is linked to 1,542,790 sites.

The most mentioned female on the Internet is the actress Pamela Anderson, whose name is linked to 1,542,282 sites.

 

Факты об Интернете

Прототип Интернета был создан в шестидесятых годах Министерством обороны США. Для гарантии сохранения открытой связи в случае ядерного нападения оно создало компьютерную сеть известную как Арпанет — сеть агентства Проектов перспективных исследований.

Первая попытка подключить два компьютера и дать им возможность поддерживать связь друг с другом была сделана исследователями в университете Калифорнии в Лос-Анджелесе и научно-исследовательском институте Стэнфорда 20 октября 1969 года.

Первые кто придумал термин «Интернет» были два ученых, Винтон Сэрф (известный как «отец Интернета») и его сотрудник Боб Кан, который в 1974 году изобрел средство, с помощью которого данные могли быть переданы по глобальной сети компьютеров.

Дипломированный специалист Оксфорда, Тим Бернерс-Ли, установил первый «сервер WWW» (сервер получает и посылает сообщения), чтобы сохранить архив Европейской лаборатории физики частиц в Швейцарии.

Первая электронная почта была отправлена в 1972 году между компьютерами в двух американских университетах. Наиболее часто используемое поисковое слово в сети — «секс», печатается 1 550 000 раз каждый месяц.

Наиболее часто упоминаемый мужчина в Интернете — президент Билл Клинтон, чье имя связано с 1 542 790 сайтами.

Наиболее часто упоминаемая женщина в Интернете — актриса Памела Андерсон, чье имя связано с 1 542 282 сайтами.

 

Questions:

1. Who was the prototype for the Internet created by?
2. Why was the prototype for the Internet created?
3. Who was the first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another made by?
4. Who is known as father of the Internet'?
5. Why was the first 'www server'set up?
6. What is the most frequently used search word?
7. Do you think 'The Internet' will have an important influence on our daily lives?


Vocabulary:

Defense Department — Министерство обороны
ensure —
обеспечивать
network —
сеть
coin —
придумывать
collaborator —
сотрудник
devise —
изобретать
means —
средство
store —
сохранить
net —
сеть
link —
соединять, связывать



Название документа Internet and Modern Life.docx

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Internet and Modern Life


The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundred of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.

The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundred of millions of users and their number is growing.

Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.

In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.

However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Notwith-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.

Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the^Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream.

 






Интернет и современная жизнь

Интернет уже вошел в нашу повседневную жизнь. Каждый знает, что Интернет — это глобальная компьютерная сеть, которая связывает сотни миллионов пользователей по всему миру и помогает нам общаться друг с другом.

История Интернета началась в Соединенных Штатах в 1969 году. Это был военный эксперимент, разработанный, чтобы помочь выжить в ядерной войне, когда все вокруг может быть заражено радиацией и будет опасно выйти наружу, чтобы доставить какую-либо информацию. Информация же, посланная по Интернету, идет от одного компьютера к другому по самым коротким и безопасным маршрутам, имеющимся в наличии. Благодаря этому два компьютера в сети могут поддерживать связь друг с другом до тех пор, пока существует хотя бы один маршрут между ними. Эта технология была названа пакетным переключением.

Изобретение модемов, специальных устройств, позволяющих вашему компьютеру посылать информацию через телефонную линию, открыло двери в Интернет для миллионов людей.

Большинство основных сетевых серверов находятся в Соединенных Штатах Америки. Ясно, что точное число пользователей трудно подсчитать, никто точно не знает, сколько людей пользуются Интернетом сегодня, так как пользователей насчитывается сотни миллионов и их число постоянно растет.

В наше время самой популярной службой Интернета является электронная почта. Многие люди используют Интернет только для того, чтобы послать или получить электронную почту. Они могут это сделать или когда находятся дома, или в интернет-клубе, или на работе. Другие службы Интернета также доступны в сети. Это чтение новостей, которые доступны на некоторых специально предназначенных для этого серверах, Интернет-телефония, ФТП-серверы и т. д.

В большинстве стран Интернет может предоставить бизнесмену свою собственную надежную систему коммуникаций, альтернативную другим дорогостоящим и ненадежным телекоммуникационным системам. Пользователи, экономя свои средства, могут использовать Интернет для общения со всем миром, тратя при этом небольшие деньги. Когда они отправляют электронную почту, им нужно оплатить только телефонный звонок к местному провайдеру, а не международный звонок, когда необходимо заплатить кругленькую сумму.

Экономия средств — это только первый и далеко не последний шаг. Сеть используют и в коммерческих целях, и это направление развивается быстрыми темпами. Вы можете работать через Интернет, играть в Интернете в азартные или обычные игры.

Однако есть и проблемы. Самой важной проблемой является проблема безопасности. Когда вы отправляете электронное сообщение, ваше сообщение путешествует через разные сети и компьютеры. Данные направляются к месту назначения специальными компьютерами, которые называются маршрутизаторами. Из-за этого в любой из компьютеров на данном маршруте можно проникнуть, перехватить и даже изменить данные, пересылаемые через Интернет. Но существует и много кодирующих программ. Тем не менее, эти программы не совершенны и могут быть легко взломаны.

Другой большой и серьезной проблемой сети является контроль. Да, в Интернете нет эффективного контроля, так как в Интернете циркулирует огромнейшее количество информации. Это огромнейшая библиотека и рынок в одно и тоже время. В будущем ситуация может измениться, но сейчас мы имеем то, что имеем. Это можно выразить двумя словами — мечта анархиста.

 

Questions:

1. What is the Internet?
2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?
3. Why was the Internet designed?
4. What is modem?
5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?
6. What is the accurate number of internet users?
7. What is the most popular Internet service today?
8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?
9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?
10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?
11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?


Vocabulary:

network — сеть
to embrace — охватывать, окружать
user — юзер, пользователь
to design — задумывать, придумывать, разрабатывать
to survive — выжить
nuclear war — ядерная война
to pollute — загрязнять
dangerous — опасный
path — путь, маршрут
available — доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный
the net — интернет, сеть
packet switching — пакетное переключение
invention — изобретение
accurate — точный
to count — считать, сосчитать
approximately— приблизительно, примерно
to receive — получать
message — послание
to provide — снабжать, доставлять, обеспечивать
reliable — надежный
alternative — альтернативный
provider — провайдер, поставщик
security — безопасность
router — маршрутизатор
to intercept — перехватить (сигнал и т. д.)
to encode — кодировать, шифровать
notwithstanding — тем не менее, однако, все же
to crack — взломать
huge — большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
to circulate — передвигаться/двигаться в пределах чего-то
tremendous —разг. огромный, гигантский, громадный; потрясающий

Название документа Magazine is one of the major mass media.docx

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Magazine is one of the major mass media. Magazine is a collection of articles and stories. Usually magazines also contain illustrations.

The earliest magazines developed from newspapers and booksellers catalogs. Magazines provide information on a wide range of topics such as business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science, and sports. Some magazines entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography or articles about TV, or movie stars.

Magazines are designed to be kept for a longer time in comparison to newspapers and that is why they are printed on a better paper and have covers. Magazines, unlike newspapers, do not focus on daily, rapidly changing events.

There are specialized magazines intended for special business, industrial and professional groups, and consumer magazines intended for general public. There are several kinds of consumer magazines.

Children's magazines contain stories, jokes, articles on subjects especially interesting for children and instructions for making games or useful items.

Hobby magazines are intended for collectors of coins, stamps, and other items; people interested in certain sports or games; photography enthusiasts.

Intellectual magazines provide analysis of current cultural and political events. Many of them publish fiction and poetry as well.

Men's magazines focus on such topics as adventure, entertainment, men's fashion and sports.

Women's magazines deal with child-raising, fashion trends, romance. They offer ideas on cooking and home decorating. Many of the monthlies with big circulations are women's magazines.



Название документа Newspapers.docx

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Newspapers

In the past people learnt about news from newspapers. Nowadays people usually learn what is happening in the country and in the world from TV or radio news programmes or from the Internet. Still we cannot imagine our life without newspapers. There are dozens of them on every news-stand. There are newspapers for professionals, for businessmen, for children and teenagers, for men and women, for sports fans, for those who are interested in gardening and for those who keep pets.

Some newspapers publish serious articles on politics, economy and finance, some aim to entertain their readers. Many newspapers express certain political opinion and people choose them according to their own political beliefs. In short, you can always find a paper which suits your interests. Besides, there are many free local newspapers which are put into your postbox whether you ask for it or not. Probably they are not interesting, because they consist mainly of advertisements, but you can find a lot of useful telephone numbers and addresses there.

My parents subscribe to Argumenty i Facty. I also like this weekly. I don't read all the articles, but in every issue I find something interesting. I think that most articles are very well written, they give a detailed and well-balanced analysis of current events and trends in economy. I like to read articles on social issues, interviews, reviews of new books, plays and TV shows. One of my favourite columns is The Quotation of the Day, where they quote our popular politicians and give their comments. Sometimes it's very funny.

Quite often I buy Sovershenno Secretno (Top Secret) and practically in each issue there are some fascinating stories which you read like a detective story. Sometimes they uncover things I have not heard about, sometimes they show well-known events in a completely new light.

From time to time I read Moskovsky Komsomolets. It's one of the most popular daily papers, but I don't consider it serious. However, I never miss an article written by Minkin. I think he is a very good journalist. I also like Merinov's cartoons. Sometimes they publish good reviews of new films, new CDs and so on.

In short, I think that TV, radio and the Internet have their advantages, but nothing can substitute newspapers.



Название документа Radio.docx

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Radio

Radio transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range. The term is commonly applied also to the equipment used, especially to the radio receiver.

Uses of Radio Waves

The prime purpose of radio is to convey information from one place to another through the intervening media (i.e., air, space, nonconducting materials) without wires. Besides being used for transmitting sound and television signals, radio is used for the transmission of data in coded form. In the form of radar it is used also for sending out signals and picking up their reflections from objects in their path. Long-range radio signals enable astronauts to communicate with the earth from the moon and carry information from space probes as they travel to distant planets (see space exploration ). For navigation of ships and aircraft the radio range , radio compass (or direction finder), and radio time signals are widely used. Radio signals sent from global positioning satellites can also be used by special receivers for a precise indication of position (see navigation satellite ). Digital radio , both satellite and terrestrial, provides improved audio clarity and volume. Various remote-control devices, including rocket and artificial satellite operations systems and automatic valves in pipelines, are activated by radio signals. The development of the transistor and other microelectronic devices (see microelectronics ) led to the development of portable transmitters and receivers. Cellular and cordless telephones are actually radio transceivers. Many telephone calls routinely are relayed by radio rather than by wires; some are sent via radio to relay satellites. Some celestial bodies and interstellar gases emit relatively strong radio waves that are observed with radio telescopes composed of very sensitive receivers and large directional antennas (see radio astronomy ).



Название документа Television.docx

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Television

Whether we realise it or not, TV plays a very important part in our lives.

It's the main source of information and a cheap form of entertainment for millions of people. It's the window on the world which gives us an opportunity to "travel" all over the world, to "meet" different people and learn about their customs and traditions. It has the power to educate and broaden our minds.

It helps us to relax after a hard day's work and escape from reality. There's always a great variety of programmes on TV: news and sports programmes, talk shows and TV games, documentaries and feature films, concerts and theatre performances. Of course, not all programmes are good. But many are made in good taste and with great professional skill.

Some people argue that television is a terrible waste of time. It makes us lazier. We stay at home instead of going out. We read less. We think less. We even talk less. It's true that some TV addicts spend hours in front of the "box" watching whatever's on — from second-rate Mexican soap operas to silly commercials.

The trick is to learn to control television and use it intelligently. The ideal is to turn on the TV-set only when there's a really interesting programme.

Violence on TV is another problem that worries people. As George Mikes once said, TV teaches us "how to kill, to rob, to shoot and to poison." But the same can be said about computer games and many films and books.

And if you don't like a certain programme, why watch it?



Название документа My College.docx

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My College

Vocabulary

To think about further education – подумать о дальнейшем образовании.

To read for exams well beforehand – заранее подумать о подготовке к экзаменам.

It depends on what you are interested in – это зависит от того, что тебя интересует

To have special subjects in the curriculum – иметь специальные предметы в расписании (учебном плане).

Pedagogy – педагогика.

Psychology – психология.

Methods of teaching – методики преподавания.

To attend all the lectures and seminars regularly – регулярно посещать лекции и семинары.   

Scholarship – стипендия.

To be at the top of the group – учиться в группе лучше всех.

To call the register – делать перекличку по журналу.

To do research – проводить исследование.

Exams and credit tests – экзамены и зачеты.

To do something after graduation – заниматься чемлибо после окончания.

A good opportunity– хорошая возможность.

To have a good opportunity – иметь хорошую возможность.

To enter a university without taking entrance exams – поступить в университет без сдачи вступительных экзаменов.

To study hard regularly – регулярно много учиться.

To work by fits and starts – гонять балду, работать спустя рукава.

It’s up to you to decide – тебе решать.

To make the right choice – сделать правильный выбор.

Friendship is the best thing in the world – дружбалучшее, что есть в мире.

My college

I am a student at the Teacher’s Training College №18 in Mitino. 

It is located not far from my house, it takes me 5 minutes to get there.Our college is a large and light building. There are 4 floors in it. There are a cloak – room, a dining – room and many classrooms on the ground floor. On the first floor we have two gyms, an Assembly hall and computer classes. We have physical training lessons in the gyms. Sometimes we study on the playground which is behind the college, but in winter we ski in the forest. In the Assembly hall we have meetings, concerts, discos. There are many classrooms at the college, which are clean, light and beautiful. We have many subjects. They are: maths, Russian, PT, History, literature.

Our college has got a library and a reading – room. There are a lot of interesting and new and old books there. Many students go to the reading – room to prepare homework. We like our college and go there to get good knowledge and important skills for future work.



Text 2

My college

I study at Teachers’ Training college in Mitino. I am a third year student. I would like to tell you some words about it. It is a 4-storeyed building with all modern conveniences. The building has 4 floors.

On the first floor there is a security at the entrance door and a cloak-room. Before entering I must show them my Identity Card and change my foot-wear. All college students and teachers must keep the rules. We must come 15 minutes before the lesson.

On the left there is a headmasters’ office and a large hall for singing lessons. Some students learn to sing and play different musical instruments. On the right there is a college canteen. If you turn right and go upstairs there is a gym, a large assembly hall on the second floor and a computer class. The students are taught computer skills. All college celebrations are held in the assembly hall. The whole college collects together in the hall to mark some holidays. There is a library on the third floor. 

At college we have classes in Russian, Literature, Mathematics, Geography, History and Chemistry. Some classrooms are well equipped. They have cinema and slide-projectors, a TV-set and a tape-recorder; you can see schemes and tables on the walls. They are often helpful at the lessons. 

There is a large hall on each floor for the students where they can have a rest during the break and sit on the soft, comfortable sofas and armchairs. 

The walls are decorated with different posters, pictures, photos of our teachers and best students. All windows have curtains.  

Many students enjoy PT lessons. There is a nice, large stadium behind the college. Our college is very proud of it. There is a nice ground coating for running and 

playing football or volleyball. Students can run for different distances and take part in different competitions. It is comfortable to train there.

As for me it is very pleasant to study here.


1. Where do you study? What year are you in?

2. How many floors does the building have?

3. Is the discipline strict in your college? What are the rules in your college?

4. Are you allowed to enter the college if you are late for a lesson?

5. Are the classes well equipped? What do they have?         

6. Which classroom do you like best? Why?

7. Where is the Assembly Hall? What is held there?

8. Is the quality of teaching high?

9. How many people are there in your group?

10. What are the halls for the students like? Is it comfortable to sit there? 

11. How are the walls decorated?

12. What is college canteen like? Is it pleasant to have food there?

13. Where do the students have PT lessons?

14. Why is the college proud of its stadium?  

15. Do you attend PT lessons?

16. What do you do at the English lessons?

17. What would you like to change in your college?



Название документа my college скитневский.ppt

My college
About college College №20 - one of the best educational institutions of the c...
Classrooms All the classrooms of our school are spacious and light. Everythin...
Our specialties IT-Security Applied Informatics Information Systems photograp...
Library In our library you can borrow books on special subjects, general educ...
Concert Hall The concert hall is made according to the "amphitheater" and has...
Additional education Courses Cisco systems Military-patriotic club “Dozor“ Mi...
Military-patriotic club “Dozor" You love your country, to honor the history a...
Museum "Great Pages of History" Activists of the museum - as part of a search...
Visit us to study!!!
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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 My college
Описание слайда:

My college

№ слайда 2 About college College №20 - one of the best educational institutions of the c
Описание слайда:

About college College №20 - one of the best educational institutions of the city of Moscow secondary vocational education, specializing in the training of specialists in the field of IT. Here you can get technical education sufficiently broad focus. If you want to make a career in photography, advertising, computer field or in the field of automatic control systems, college will provide an opportunity not only to develop your interests and abilities, but also to prepare for a higher level of training on the chosen specialty. And we have wonderful teachers who will teach you the chosen specialty

№ слайда 3 Classrooms All the classrooms of our school are spacious and light. Everythin
Описание слайда:

Classrooms All the classrooms of our school are spacious and light. Everything is new in our school – desks, tables, chairs. There are also computer classes

№ слайда 4 Our specialties IT-Security Applied Informatics Information Systems photograp
Описание слайда:

Our specialties IT-Security Applied Informatics Information Systems photographer

№ слайда 5 Library In our library you can borrow books on special subjects, general educ
Описание слайда:

Library In our library you can borrow books on special subjects, general education, literature: stories, novels, classics

№ слайда 6 Concert Hall The concert hall is made according to the "amphitheater" and has
Описание слайда:

Concert Hall The concert hall is made according to the "amphitheater" and has 273 seats. The room is well equipped technically scene, every detail is thought out lighting, fully meet the requirements of modern stage. The hall is equipped with modern mechanics, which allows you to create productions with complicated stage effects. Also, the concert hall is equipped with multi-band surround sound system with a complete set of concert equipment

№ слайда 7 Additional education Courses Cisco systems Military-patriotic club “Dozor“ Mi
Описание слайда:

Additional education Courses Cisco systems Military-patriotic club “Dozor“ Mini-football Basketball armsport

№ слайда 8 Military-patriotic club “Dozor" You love your country, to honor the history a
Описание слайда:

Military-patriotic club “Dozor" You love your country, to honor the history and books and stories about World War II does not leave you indifferent, and are of interest? Then you are in the military-patriotic club “Dozor" under the direction of head of the department GBOU SPO Kait №20, commander of the military-industrial complex “Dozor", founder and director of the college museum "Great Pages of History" Vladimir Vladimirovich Stupakov. You will be able to do something very meaningful and useful to society. A military training teaches you endurance and stamina.

№ слайда 9 Museum "Great Pages of History" Activists of the museum - as part of a search
Описание слайда:

Museum "Great Pages of History" Activists of the museum - as part of a search of association went to the excavations in Novgorod, Moscow, Tver, Kaluga, Smolensk Oblast and the Republic of Karelia. There were found helmets, Soviet and German, sleeves from shells, bullets, bayonets and remnants of shells. The museum stands were made, which are disclosed in the stage of the battle. During the seven years of the detachment, searching was attended by over 250 students. We have raised and solemnly buried more than 350 remains of the fallen defenders of the Fatherland.

№ слайда 10 Visit us to study!!!
Описание слайда:

Visit us to study!!!

Название документа мой колледж.docx

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На английском языке

Перевод на русский язык

My College

Мой колледж

My name is Elena. I’m sixteen years old. I live in Kazan city, Russia. I have recently graduated from my high school and entered the Kazan Medical College. It is one of the best colleges in the city. Besides, I have always wanted to study medicine after school. I really like this college and some of my close friends have also applied to study here. My parents have always wanted me to be a lawyer, but I have made up my mind to become a medical assistant or a nurse. The entrance exams included Biology and Russian and I passed both of them with excellent marks. I am delighted to study such subjects as Anatomy, Latin, English, Nursing, Genetics, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Physical Education and else. Our college is rather well equipped. There is a large sports ground outside and one gym inside. There is also a huge library with a good choice of medical books. Actually, this college is one of the oldest educational institutions in the city and in Russia. It was founded in 1837. At first it was simply a paramedic school. After the revolution the first Soviet midwifery school was based here. In 1954 the school received the status of Kazan basic medical college. Today, the college provides basic and advanced training in such specialties as dentistry, midwifery, paramedics, pharmacy, laboratory diagnosis, and some other branches. In addition, each year the college provides postgraduate training for nurses. I’m very proud to be a student of this college. Today, Kazan Medical College is one of the most prestigious and reliable institutions in the city. Thousands of young people can get decent education in healthcare area at this college.

Меня зовут Елена. Мне шестнадцать лет. Я живу в Казани, в России. Я недавно окончила среднюю школу и поступила в Казанский медицинский колледж. Это один из лучших колледжей в городе. Кроме того, я всегда хотела изучать медицину после школы. Мне очень нравится этот колледж и некоторые из моих близких друзей, также подали документы для обучения в нём. Мои родители всегда хотели, чтобы я стала юристом, но я решила, что стану фельдшером или медсестрой. Вступительные экзамены включали биологию и русский, и я сдала оба экзамена с отличием. Я рада изучать такие предметы, как анатомия, латынь, английский, медсестринское дело, генетика, фармакология, микробиология, физическая культуру и прочее. Наш колледж довольно хорошо оборудован. Снаружи есть большая спортивная площадка, а внутри - тренажерный зал. Есть также огромная библиотека с хорошим выбором медицинских книг. На самом деле, этот колледж является одним из старейших учебных заведений в городе и в России. Он был основан в 1837 году. Сначала это была просто фельдшерская школы. После революции здесь базировалась первая советская школа для акушеров. В 1954 году школа получила статус базового Казанского медицинского колледжа. Сегодня, колледж предоставляет основную и продвинутую подготовку по таким специальностям, как стоматология, акушерство, фельдшерское дело, фармакология, лабораторная диагностика, и некоторым другим направлениям. Кроме того, каждый год колледж проводит последипломное обучение медсестер. Я очень горжусь тем, что являюсь студенткой этого колледжа. Сегодня Казанский медицинский колледж является одним из самых престижных и надежных учреждений в городе. Тысячи молодых людей может получить достойное образование в области здравоохранения в этом колледже.



Название документа КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2.docx

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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2


Задание 1. Составь мини диалог

Прочитай фразы. Подбери к каждой фразе подходящую ответную реплику. Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 4 балла.


- (1)

- Hello, lovely day, isn't it?

- (2)

- Yes, it says it will be bright and sunny.

- (3)

- You are right.

- (4)

-See you.

(a) -Hello.

(b) -How nice. Nice weather for outing.

(c) - Absolutely wonderful, nice and warm. What's the weather forecast for tomorrow? Do you know?

(d) - See you later.


Задание 2. Составь предложения из предложенных слов. Каждое предложение оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 3 балла.

1. Have, a toothache, we, when, to, we, go, the, dentist.

2. Heart, our, he, examines.

3. Gives, a, doctor, us, prescription.


Задание 3. Выбери подходящее по смыслу слово. Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 5 баллов.



Tennis.

Tennis is another favourite (1)______ of the Englishmen. People all over the world know (2)_______ which is the center of lawn (3)______. It is the oldest tennis (4)________ in the world considered by many people to be the most prestigious. It takes place over two weeks in late June and early July. Wimbledon is known for its traditions — strict white dress code for competitors, the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts and some others. Every tennis (5)________ dreams of taking part at this tournament.


Wimbledon, player, sport, tournament, tennis


Задание 4. Английский друг попросил тебя рассказать о твоей матери, напиши небольшой рассказ о ней. В твоем рассказе должна содержаться следующая информация: his (her) name, age, hobby, work, personal characteristics, home duties, likes. Каждое предложение оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 7 баллов.



Задание 5. Подбери к слову перевод. Каждое соответствие оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 6 баллов.


1. irresistible a) покладистый

2. aggressive b) добросердечный

3. good-hearted c) симпатичный

4. intelligent d) неотразимый

5. easy-going e) агрессивный

6. charming f) умный



Задание 6. Переведи русские слова и словосочетания на английский язык. Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 3 балла.

  1. My grandparents have a (1) _________(маленький дом).

  2. I enjoy spending my (2)________(выходные и праздники) there.

  3. It is very relaxing to walk alone (3)_________ ( сельская дорога).


Задание 7. Выпишите из текста 6 глаголов в прошедшем времени и определите их начальную форму. Каждый ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 6 баллов.

A NIGHT STORY

I watched a long film on TV last night, and it was very late when I went to bed. I read a book in bed because I couldn't go to sleep. I fell asleep at about two o'clock at night but I woke up suddenly at three because I heard a loud noise in the kitchen. I walked downstairs, opened the kitchen door and I saw — our cat! I shouted at it, and it ran away through the open kitchen window.


Задание 8 . Подбери к слову его описание. Правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл.

(a) Princess Diana is… 1) the medical service in Russia.

2) the area outside of the city.

3) the first and famous tennis tournament.

4) the first wife of Prince Charles




Задание 9. Прочитайте текст, ответьте на вопросы. Используйте краткие ответы Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 3 балла.

Living in the City.

Living in the city has both advantages and disadvantages. From one hand, it is always easier to find a good job or to visit interesting places and exhibitions. There is also a good choice of public transport. From the other hand, the noise and pollution level in big cities is really high. As for me, I quickly become tired of it. I live in Krasnodar with my family. It’s the biggest city in Krasnodar region and its capital. It is also the cultural, political and social center of the region. I should say that the city is really beautiful and many people from smaller towns and villages come to work and study here. What they like about the city is that there are lots of interesting things to do and places to see. They also like job and study opportunities. There are lots of good universities and large companies in Krasnodar. There are also many ways to spend the weekends, for example, visiting a museum, going to the cinema or theatre, shopping, eating in good restaurants, going to concerts, etc. If people want to relax they go to parks for a walk or to read a book. In general, the city offers various opportunities and you never get bored. However, there are some disadvantages as well. Sometimes it’s difficult to find a cheap apartment, so living in a city becomes very expensive. The roads are full of cars which pollute the air and the traffic is really heavy on weekdays. Public transport is also over-crowded. That’s why many people leave the city at weekends. They try to relax in the countryside, where the air is much fresher and there isn’t any noise from cars. We also go away each Saturday and Sunday to visit my grandparents.

Вопросы:

  1. What is the capital of Krasnodar region?

  2. What is really heavy on weekends?

  3. What do you can visit in the city?


Название документа КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №1.docx

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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2


Задание 1. Составь мини диалог

Прочитай фразы. Подбери к каждой фразе подходящую ответную реплику. Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 4 балла.

- Hi Jeanne! How are you?

- (1)

 - I’m also well, thanks! How’s the weather in Ottawa today?

- (2)

- You know, as usual. It’s quite foggy and chilly.

- (3)

- How is summer in Ottawa?

- (4)

(a) - I’m fine, thank you! And how are you?

(b) - It’s a fine weather, but it’s a bit rainy. How about London? Is the weather good there?

(c) - Yes, summer in London is gorgeous.

(d)- Well, it is nice, of course. It can also rain sometimes or be cloudy, but in general it’s warm and sunny.


Задание 2. Составь предложения из предложенных слов. Каждое предложение оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 3 балла.

We, when, ill, are, call, we, doctor, the.

Us, he, examines.

The, doctor, illness, the, diagnoses


Задание 3. Выбери подходящее по смыслу слово. Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 5 баллов.

Rugby.

There is a certain type of(1) ______ called rugby. The game is called so because it was originated at Rugby — a well-known English public school. As well as common football it is a game played by two(2) _____ of fifteen (3)______ each. The game takes place on a field 100 meters long and 80 meters wide. There are goal posts at both ends of the field. Rugby is played with an oval or egg-shaped ball which can be carried by hands and kicked. The (4)______ is passed from hand to hand in order to be thrown across the goal line. It is a rather violent(5) ______, that is why the players must be big and strong. Another requirement for the players is to wear helmets, masks and chest and shoulder ">

Game, football, players, teams, ball.


Задание 4. Английский друг попросил тебя рассказать о твоем русском друге. Напиши небольшой рассказ о нем. В твоем рассказе должна содержаться следующая информация: His name, age, hobby, work, personal characteristics, home duties, likes.

Каждое предложение оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 7 баллов.


Задание 5. Подбери к слову перевод. Каждое соответствие оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 6 баллов.

1.unique a) неуклюжий

2. sharp-minded b) пустоголовый

3. talented c)упрямый

4. empty-headed d)талантливый

5. awkward e)неповторимый

6. stubborn f)смышленый



Задание 6. Переведи русские слова и словосочетания на английский язык. Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 3 балла.

  1. I have always wanted to spend more time in the (1)______________ (сельская местность).

  2. I can pick (2) ____________(ягоды и грибы).

  3. The best thing in the countryside is the (3)____________ (свежий воздух).


Задание 7. Выпишите из текста 6 глаголов в прошедшем времени и определите их начальную форму. Каждый ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 6 баллов.

ENGLISH POST-OFFICE

Jane and John lived in an old house in an English village. John worked at home. The village post-office was in one room in their house and John worked there. The people in the village bought stamps, envelopes and newspapers in Jane and John's1 house. The red postbox was on the front door. John and Jane were very happy in their house and they liked it very much.


Задание 8 . Подбери к слову его описание. Правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл.

(а) Countryside is… 1) the first wife of Prince Charles.

2) the medical service in Russia.

3) the area outside of the city.

4) the first and famous tennis tournament.


Задание 9. Прочитайте текст, ответьте на вопросы. Используйте краткие ответы. Каждый правильный ответ оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальное количество 3 балла.

Living in the City.

Living in the city has both advantages and disadvantages. From one hand, it is always easier to find a good job or to visit interesting places and exhibitions. There is also a good choice of public transport. From the other hand, the noise and pollution level in big cities is really high. As for me, I quickly become tired of it. I live in Krasnodar with my family. It’s the biggest city in Krasnodar region and its capital. It is also the cultural, political and social center of the region. I should say that the city is really beautiful and many people from smaller towns and villages come to work and study here. What they like about the city is that there are lots of interesting things to do and places to see. They also like job and study opportunities. There are lots of good universities and large companies in Krasnodar. There are also many ways to spend the weekends, for example, visiting a museum, going to the cinema or theatre, shopping, eating in good restaurants, going to concerts, etc. If people want to relax they go to parks for a walk or to read a book. In general, the city offers various opportunities and you never get bored. However, there are some disadvantages as well. Sometimes it’s difficult to find a cheap apartment, so living in a city becomes very expensive. The roads are full of cars which pollute the air and the traffic is really heavy on weekdays. Public transport is also over-crowded. That’s why many people leave the city at weekends. They try to relax in the countryside, where the air is much fresher and there isn’t any noise from cars. We also go away each Saturday and Sunday to visit my grandparents.

Вопросы:

  1. What is easier to find in the city?

  2. What ways to spend the weekends are there in the city?

  3. Where do many people go on weekends?


Название документа Возвратные местоимения в английском языке.docx

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Возвратные местоимения в английском языке

Еще одной группой местоимений являются возвратные местоимения в английском языке (reflexive pronouns / self-pronouns). Эти местоимения имеют следующие формы:

Imyself (я сам)

Youyourself (ты сам)

Hehimself (он сам)

Sheherself (она сама)

Ititself (оно само)

Weourselves (мы сами)

Youyourselves (вы сами)

Theythemselves (они сами)

Oneoneself (сам)

Возвратные местоимения в английском языке так и называются, потому что служат для выражения категории возвратности. А возвратность мы наблюдаем в том случае, когда подлежащее и дополнение в предложении являются одним и тем же лицом (предметом). Категория возвратности также может выражать значение взаимного действия двух и более производителей. В русском языке мы передаем возвратность с помощью суффикса -ся (-сь): одеваться, порезаться, накраситься, поцеловаться и т.д. В английском же языке эта же категория может передаваться с помощью:

  • глагола в активном залоге (to come upstairs – подниматься наверх, to part — расставаться, to dress — одеваться, etc.)

  • глагола в пассивном залоге (This house is being built at the moment. – Дом сейчас строится)

  • конструкции «глагол+возвратное местоимение» (help yourself – угощайся)

  • фразового глагола или устойчивого сочетания (to come back — возвращаться, to give up – сдаваться, can’t help doing something – не могу сдержаться, чтобы не сделать что-либо).

Употребление возвратных местоимений в английском языке

В предложении возвратные местоимения в английском языке могут выполнять функцию не одного члена предложения, а нескольких: прямого или косвенного дополнения, определения, предикатива, обстоятельства образа действия. Например:

  1. She has cut herself. Она порезала себя. (прямое дополнение)

  2. I work for myself. – Я работаю на себя. (косвенное дополнение)

  3. They will solve their problems themselves.Они сами решат свои проблемы. (обстоятельство)

  4. You are not quite yourself today. – Ты сегодня сам не свой (не в своей тарелке). (предикатив)

  5. How can we confront the dark parts of ourselves? – Как мы можем противостоять нашим темным сторонам? (определение)

В каких случаях мы прибегаем к использованию возвратных местоимений в английском языке? Мы употребляем их:

  1. С некоторыми глаголами, когда подлежащее и дополнение, относящиеся к глаголу, представляют одно и то же лицо: behave – вести себя, burn – обжечься, cut – порезаться, enjoy – веселиться, hurt – пораниться, introduce – представляться, look at – смотреть на, teach – научиться и т.д.

Will you introduce yourself, young man? – Вы представитесь, молодой человек?

Be careful, you can hurt yourself! – Будь осторожен, ты можешь пораниться!

The party was great. We enjoyed ourselves very much. – Вечеринка была чудеснойМы повеселились от души.

I’m trying to teach myself English. – Я пытаюсь научиться английскому.

Но, возьмите на заметку, что возвратные местоимения мы не используем после предлогов места.

He closed the door behind him. – Он закрыл за собой дверь.

She had a suitcase beside her. – У нее был чемодан рядом с собой.

  1. С предлогом by, когда выражение означает «сам, один». Здесь два момента: выражение с предлогом by и возвратным местоимением может подразумевать, что кто-то осуществляет какие-либо действие в одиночестве, без компании или сопровождения. В этом случае синонимом такого выражения будет словосочетание on one’s own (сам по себе, своими силами). И второе значение – сочетание предлога by с возвратным местоимением может означать, что кто-то выполняет что-либо самостоятельно, без чьей-либо помощи.

She likes living by herself (=on her own). – Она любит жить одна (без кого-либо)

Are you going on holiday by yourself? (=on your own). – Ты собираешься ехать в отпуск один? (сам, без компании)

Can he do it by himself? – Он может сделать это сам? (без чьей-либо помощи)

Jane and Carol can’t lift the piano by themselves. – Джейн и Кэрол не могут сами поднять пианино. (без чьей-либо помощи)

  1. В таких выражениях, как: enjoy yourself (весело проводить время), behave yourself (прилично себя вести), help yourself (угощаться), find oneself (очутиться), amuse oneself (развлекаться), do it yourself (сделай сам), pinch oneself (отказать себе в чем-либо), take care of oneself (заботиться о ком-то) и другие.

The sick man can’t take care of himself. – Больной мужчина не может о себе заботиться.

Make yourself comfortable and help yourself to the cake. – Располагайтесь (чувствуйте себя как дома) и угощайтесь тортом.

I found myself alone in a strange city. – Я очутилась одна в незнакомом городе.

Collect yourself, you are a man! – Соберись, ты мужчина!

  1. Для усиления значения подлежащего или дополнения в предложении.

I myself baked the cake. – Я сама испекла пирог.

He said it himself. – Он сам это сказал.

The book itself wasn’t very interesting. – Сама книга не была интересной.

The composer himself conducted the orchestra. – Композитор сам (лично) дирижировал оркестром.

Обычно после следующих глаголов мы не используем возвратные местоимения в английском языке: to dress – одеваться, to hide – прятаться, to wash – умываться, to bathe – купаться, to shave – бриться. Но, если мы стремимся показать, что человек сам что-то сделал, или приложил усилия, чтобы сделать что-то, можно добавить эти местоимения.

Hide behind the wall. – Спрячьтесь за стенкой.

She likes to bathe in the lake. – Она любит купаться в озере.

I had a broken finger, but I managed to dress myself. – У меня был сломан палец, но я смогла одеться сама.

Исключением служит глагол to dry (высушиться, вытереться). Он всегда употребляется с возвратным местоимением – to dry oneself:

She quickly dried herself and dressed in the silk nightgown. – Она быстро вытерлась и надела шелковую ночную рубашку.

Запомните! Возвратные местоимения в английском языке не нужно употреблять после глаголов to feel (чувствовать), to concentrate (сосредоточиться), to relax (расслабиться), to meet (встретиться), to kiss – поцеловаться (и с другими русскими глаголами, которые выражают значение взаимного действия). Также они не используются в выражении to take / to bring something with (взять с собой, принести с собой).

I feel good! – Я хорошо себя чувствую (не говорим I feel good myself)

We shall meet later. – Мы встретимся позже (не говорим We shall meet ourselves later)

When I leave, I will take this bag with me. – Когда я буду уезжать, я заберу эту сумку с собой (не говорим I will take this bag with myself)

Есть еще два небольших нюанса, касающихся возвратных местоимений в английском языке, на которые следует обратить внимание, так как они помогут вам разобраться в значениях и не совершать ошибок в будущем.

  • Нам известно, что возвратные местоимения в английском языке соответствуют возвратным местоимением в русском языке «себя, себе, собой, о себе и т.д.». В английском языке это может привести к небольшой путанице. Чтобы точно знать, использовать ли в определенном случае возвратное или личное местоимение, мысленно подставляйте в предложение слово «сам». Например:

I bought myself a new car. – Я купила себе новую машину. (купила сама себе)

Look at yourself! – Посмотри на себя. (на саму себя)

Если же подставить слово «сам» по смыслу не получается, мы используем личное местоимение в объектном падеже:

She put a pile of papers before her.Она положила стопку бумаг перед собой.

I would like to take you with me.Я хотел бы взять тебя с собой.

  • Обратите внимание на разницу в значениях: selves и each other.

Mother and father stand in front of the mirror and look at themselves. – Мама и папа стоят перед зеркалом и смотрят на себя (=папа и мама смотрят на папу и маму – отражения в зеркалах)

Mother looks at father and father looks at mother. They look at each other. – Мама смотрит на папу, папа смотрит на маму. Они смотрят друг на друга. (=они смотрят друг на друга)

Вот такие вот одновременно простые и иногда сложные возвратные местоимения в английском языке.



Название документа Возвратные местоимения упражнения.docx

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Возвратные местоимения — Упражнения

1. Подберите к каждому личному местоимению из первого столбика соответствующее возвратное местоимение из второго.

2. Переведите следующие фразы и предложения с возвратными местоимениями.
  1. Help yourself.

  2. Enjoy yourselves.

  3. Dress yourself.

  4. I have cut myself.

  5. Don’t blame yourself.

  6. She likes to talk to herself.

  7. Kids, behave yourselves!

  8. Make yourselves comfortable.

  9. He hurt himself.

  10. Let me introduce myself.

  11. We can’t defend ourselves.

  12. Fashion often repeats itself.

  13. I taught myself to swim.

  14. They carried all their luggage themselves.

  15. We always design our clothes ourselves.

3. Поставьте в предложения подходящие возвратные местоимения myself, yourself и т.п.

Н-р:  Be careful, you can cut …… (Осторожно, ты можешь порезаться.) - Be careful, you can cut yourself.

  1. Dinner is ready! Sit down and help …… to the chicken. (Ужин готов! Присаживайтесь и угощайтесь курицей.)

  2. Tom built the house …… (Том сам построил дом.)

  3. They amused …… by telling anecdotes. (Они развлекались, рассказывая анекдоты.)

  4. Kate hurt …… while she was playing volleyball. (Кейт поранилась во время игры в волейбол.)

  5. I really enjoyed …… at the seaside. (Я действительно отдохнул на море.)

  6. She has to buy …… a new blouse tomorrow. (Ей нужно купить себе новую блузку завтра.)

  7. My granny knits all her socks and scarves …… (Моя бабушка вяжет все свои носки и шарфы сама.)

  8. It’s very delicious! Did you invent the recipe ……? (Очень вкусно! Ты сама придумала рецепт?)

  9. We painted the walls of our kitchen …… (Мы сами покрасили стены нашей кухни.)

  10. He chose the car …… (Он сам выбрал машину.)

  11. They were proud of …… (Они гордились собой.)

  12. We wished …… good luck before the exam. (Мы пожелали себе удачи перед экзаменом.)

  13. They devoted …… to their children. (Они посвятили себя своим детям.)

  14. In my dreams I often see …… on a beautiful island. (В своих снах я часто вижу себя на красивом острове.)

  15. The pirate found …… in a strange place. (Пират оказался в странном месте.)

4. Поставьте подходящее возвратное местоимение.

1. She should respect … . (Ей следует уважать себя.)

2. I cant seein the mirror. (Я не могу увидеть себя в зеркале.)

3. We have to do the homework … . (Мы должны сделать домашнее задание сами.)

4. Why doesn’t he wash the cup …? (Почему он сам не моет свою чашку?)

5. Are they going to Moscow by …? (Они собираются в Москву одни?)

6. Peter, you are talking about … all the time. (Петя, ты все время говоришь о себе.)

7. Harry thinks of … as an extremely smart boy. (Гарри считает себя крайне умным мальчиком.)

8. My dear friends, help … to the sandwiches and fruits. (Дорогие друзья, угощайтесь сэндвичами и фруктами.)

9. My granny has knitted this scarf … . (Моя бабушка сама связала этот шарф.)

10. Did they write the essays … ? (Они написали сочинения сами?)

11. I cut … with the scissors. (Я порезался ножницами.)

12. The zebra can’t defend … . (Зебра не может себя защитить.)

13. His old grandfather often talks to… . (Его старый дедушка часто разговаривает сам с собой.)

14. Anna, where did you hurt …? ( Анна, где ты поранилась?)

15. Don’t worry, we can pay for … . (Не беспокойся, мы можем заплатить за себя.)

5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на возвратные местоимения.

1. My son is too small to eat by himself.

2. Did your kids decorate the Christmas tree by themselves?

3. Please sit down and make yourselves comfortable.

4. The dog was so dirty that it was scratching itself.

5. I introduced myself to my future mother-in-law.

6. Let’s move the table ourselves.

7. Mary blames herself for the accident.

8. They have lived by themselves for a couple of years.

9. Did little Tommy behave himself?

10. I was so sick that I wasn’t able to look after myself.



Название документа Неопределенные местоимения упражнения.docx

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Неопределенные местоимения. Упражнения.

1.Составьте из данных слов предложения. Переведите.

  1. some – the kitchen – I – for – want – furniture – to buy.

  2. aren’t – the table – cakes – on – there – on – any.

  3. have – I - please – can – some – butter?

  4. there – any – casinos – in – are – Berlin?

  5. take – book – you – any – can – here.

  6. lives – the west – Mary – somewhere – in.

  7. something – talk – let’s – else – about.

  8. loves – our family – fish – in – nobody.

  9. on TV – interesting – is – nothing – tonight - there.

  10. anybody – my dictionary – has – seen?

 2. Преобразуйте следующие предложения в отрицательные.

Н-р:  I’ve got some euros in my purse. (У меня есть немного евро в кошельке.) – I haven’t got any euros in my purse. (У меня нет евро в кошельке.)

  1. We saw some water under the fridge. (Мы видели воду под холодильником.)

  2. There are some fancy dresses in this store. (В этом магазине есть модные платья.)

  3. You’ll find some balls on the floor. (Ты найдешь несколько мячей на полу.)

  4. I’ve had some important phone-calls this morning. (У меня было несколько важных звонков этим утром.)

  5. He is reading some letters in the kitchen. (Он читает письма на кухне.)

  6. I recognized somebody at the party. (Я узнал кое-кого на вечеринке.)

  7. You can plant this flower somewhere in the garden. (Ты можешь посадить этот цветок где-нибудь в саду.)

  8. We should call somebody. (Нам нужно кого-нибудь позвать.)

3. Преобразуйте следующие предложения в вопросительные.

Н-р:   I can speak some Russian. (Я могу немного говорить по-русски.) – Can you speak any Russian? (Ты можешь немного говорить по-русски?)

  1. My teacher gave me some advice. (Мой учитель дал мне совет.)

  2. We have seen some great films this month. (Мы посмотрели несколько классных фильмов в этом месяце.)

  3. He has got some beer in the fridge. (У него есть немного пива в холодильнике.)

  4. She said something strange about her neighbor. (Она рассказала кое-что странное о своем соседе.)

  5. They ate something for lunch. (Они что-то съели на обед.)

  6. We can find better food somewhere else. (Мы можем найти более лучшую еду где-нибудь еще.)

  7. There is something wrong with your car. (С твоей машиной что-то не в порядке.)

  8. Somebody is calling my name. (Кто-то зовет меня.)

4. Поставьте подходящее местоимение.

  1. Would you like … (some/any/no) milk?

  2. You can leave at … (some/any/no) time.

  3. Could you give me … (some/any/no) help, please?

  4. We must buy … (some/any/no) vegetables for dinner.

  5. I haven’t got … (some/any/no) eggs for pancakes.

  6. I think … (something/anything) is burning.

  7. (Somebody/Anybody) told me about his job.

  8. I couldn’t find my umbrella … (somewhere/anywhere/nowhere).

  9. Sorry, I can do … (someone/anyone/nothing) for you.

  10. There was … (something/anything/nobody) to answer the phone in the office.



Название документа неопределенные местоимения.docx

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Неопределенные местоимения 

some, any, no, every и их производные

Английские неопределенные местоимения some, no, any, every, при сочетании со словом thing, означающим «вещь, предмет», могут образовывать другие местоимения, которые будут заменять неодушевленные существительные. А в сочетании с словами one и body (тело) образуются местоимения заменяющие одушевленные имена существительные. "Where" означает "где", соответственно, производные somewhere, anywhere и nowhere будут обозначать местоположение. 

Как правильно употреблять производные от some, any, no

Обратите внимание на таблицу образования местоимений, в которой подробно указаны все местоимения, образованные в соответствии с вышеуказанным способом, с переводом на русский язык.hello_html_m384d5295.jpg

Производные употребляются по тому же принципу, что и some, any, no. Местоимения somebody, someone и something, так же как и неопределенное местоимение some, используется только в утвердительных предложениях,anybody, anyone, и anything заменяют их  в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях.Примеры:

  • I see somebody near the gate. – я вижу кого-то  возле ворот

  • I don’t see anybody there. – я никого там не вижу

  • There is something in the basket. – в корзине что-то есть

  • Is there anything in the basket? – в корзине есть что-то?

Предложение, в котором есть местоимения no, nothing, nobody, называемые  отрицательными, будет содержать только одно отрицание, т.е. сказуемое будет не в отрицательной, а в утвердительной форме.

Примеры:

  • Здесь никого нет – there is nobody here

  • Я  ничего не знаю – I know nothing

  • Никто не приходил – nobody has come

Как видно из вышеприведенных примеров, в русских предложениях содержится по два отрицания : первое, выраженное отрицательной частицей «нет», а второе отрицательными местоимениями «никого, ничего, никто», но при переводе на английский язык отрицание должно быть только одно. Поэтому, если мы употребляем nothing, nobody, nowhere, то нам нужно утвердительное предложение. Напоминаем, что если эти же предложения поставить в вопросительную форму, no, nobody , nothing будут заменены на any, anybody, anything.

  • There is nobody in the class – is there anybody in the class? – в классе есть кто-нибудь?

  • I know nothing          – do you know anything? – вы  знаете что-либо?

  • Nobody  has come     – has anybody come?      – кто-нибудь приходил?

При переводе предложений с русского на английский, содержащих неопределенные  местоимения и их производные, определите сначала какое перед вами предложение: утвердительное, отрицательное или вопросительное, и только потом выполняйте перевод.

  • Производные с every — everybody/everyone — все, каждый и everything — всёсочетаются с глаголом единственного числа 3го лица: Everything is OK. Has everyone come?

В предложении производные местоимения выступают в роли подлежащего или же дополнения:

  • Somebody is сalling you. – в данном случае слово «Somebody» является подлежащим — Кто-то вам звонит.

  • Do you hear anything? – а в этом предложении является дополнением — Ты слышишь что-нибудь?

Производные с where

Неопределенные местоимения Some, any, no, every также  сочетаются с вопросительным местоимением «where – где» и  образуют от него наречия , которые переводятся как somewhere , anywhere  — «куда-то, где-то, куда-нибудь, где-нибудь», nowhere – «никуда, нигде», everywhere  — «везде».

Примеры:

  • Are you going anywhere? – вы собираетесь куда-нибудь?

  • He works nowhere – он нигде не работает

  • Does he work anywhere? – он где-нибудь работает?

  • The snow is everywhere – снег повсюду

Как вы видите из вышеуказанных примеров, производное наречие somewhere, так же как в  случае с производными местоимениями, используется в утвердительных предложениях, а anywhere заменяет его в вопросительных и отрицательных.

Название документа Bathroom.docx

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hello_html_m5d0fea7b.png

*Термин Water pik требует отдельного объяснения. Ирригатор представляет собой устройство для очищения межзубных промежутков с помощью тонкой струйки воды, которая подается под давлением.



Название документа Bedroom.docx

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hello_html_m143fe834.png

Название документа Dining Room.docx

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hello_html_281acdfe.png



Название документа Kitchen.docx

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hello_html_m167ccb9.png

Название документа Living Room.docx

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Название документа Вещи в доме на английском.docx

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Вещи в доме на английском

1. Сопоставьте название комнаты с определением

A room where you have breakfast or dinner.

A room where you cook food and wash dishes.

A room where you usually relax and watch TV.

A room where you sleep.

A room where you brush your teeth and have a shower.

Dining room

Bathroom

Kitchen

Living room

Bedroom

2. Посмотрите на картинку и выберите правильный вариант ответа

hello_html_m1479c16.png

Задание 1.

There is a green pillow-case on the sofa.

  • True

  • False

Задание 2.

There isn’t a TV-set in the room.

  • True

  • False

Задание 3.

There are three books on the bookshelf.

  • True

  • False

Задание 4.

The arm-chair is blue.

  • True

  • False

Задание 5.

There is a centerpiece on the table.

  • True

  • False

3. Посмотрите на картинку и выберите правильный вариант ответа

hello_html_m5c5b0cb8.png

Задание 1.

There is a mantel above the fireplace.

  • True

  • False

Задание 2.

It is a dining room.

  • True

  • False

Задание 3.

There is a computer behind the sofa.

  • True

  • False

Задание 4.

There is a vanity in the room.

  • True

  • False

Задание 5.

There is a yellow carpet on the floor.

  • True

  • False



Название документа Оборот there +be.docx

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Оборот there is / there are в английском языке

Даже если вы только приступили к изучению английского языка, наверняка встречали предложение, которое начиналось бы с оборота there is или there are. По своему опыту мы знаем, что даже студенты со средним уровнем знаний испытывают трудности в использовании there + be. Не из-за того, что эту конструкцию трудно понять, а потому, что в русском нет прямого эквивалента фразе. Вот поэтому студенты часто забывают ее употреблять. В статье мы расскажем о возможных случаях использования there + be.

Что означает there + be

Итак, что значат обороты there is / there are в английском языке и когда нам надо их употреблять? Вы знаете, что слово there переводится как «там», а глагол to be – быть. Если соединить два слова, то получится «там есть». Отсюда и вытекает функция этой конструкции: когда мы хотим сообщить, что что-то где-то есть, находится, то используем there + be.

There is a new shopping centre in that village. – В той деревне есть новый торговый центр.

There are many books in room 145. – В аудитории 145 много книг.

Обратите внимание, что сами по себе обороты there is / there are не переводятся на русский язык. Условно их можно перевести на русский словами «есть», «имеется», «существует», «находится». А еще предложения, которые начинаются на there + be, мы начинаем переводить с конца, то есть сначала сообщаем место, где это что-то находится.

Как использовать конструкцию there is / there are в английском языке

Утверждение

Мы можем использовать there + be во всех временах: настоящем, прошедшем и будущем. Соответственно, для этого нам надо менять форму глагола be.

There is a bottle of milk in the fridge. – В холодильнике есть бутылка молока. (сейчас есть, поэтому настоящее время и форма глагола to be “is”)

There was a bottle of milk in the fridge. – В холодильнике была бутылка молока. (раньше была, поэтому прошедшее время и форма глагола to be “was”)

There will be a bottle of milk in the fridge. – В холодильнике будет бутылка молока. (будет в будущем, поэтому будущее время и форма глагола to be “will be”)

А еще to be уникален тем, что он может иметь форму единственного и множественного числа. Если после there + be идет существительное в единственном числе, то берите is или was. А если идет во множественном – are или were. А will be – универсальный, и его можно использовать как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

А теперь давайте приведем табличку, в которой наглядно все изображено:

Something

(ЧТО-ТО)

Somewhere

(ГДЕ-ТО)

Отрицание

Отрицательное предложение можно составить двумя способами: либо при помощи отрицательного местоимения no, либо при помощи отрицательной частицы not и местоимения any. И таким образом вы скажете, что чего-то где-то нет.

There is no table in the room. = There is not (isn’t) any table in the room.– В комнате нет стола.

There are no souvenirs on the shelf. = There are not (aren’t) any souvenirs on the shelf. – На полке нет сувениров.

Вопрос

Вопрос строится легко: возьмите нужную форму be и поставьте ее в начало предложения.

Is there a table in the room? – В комнате есть стол?

Were there many people at the party? – На вечеринке было много людей?

Особенности употребления there + be

  1. Если мы перечисляем предметы и первое слово стоит в единственном числе, то следует брать to be в единственном числе (is/was):

There is a lamp and four tables in the room. – В комнате лампа и 4 стола.

  1. Если мы перечисляем предметы и начинаем с множественного числа, то следует брать множественное число (there are):

There are four tables and a lamp in the room. – В комнате четыре стола и лампа.

  1. Особое внимание важно уделить исчисляемым и неисчисляемым существительным.

There is a lot of sugar in coffee. – В кофе много сахара. (сахар – неисчисляемое существительное, у него нет формы множественного числа, поэтому мы используем глагол is, несмотря на слово “a lot”много)

There are a lot of oranges in the box. – В коробке много апельсинов. (мы можем посчитать апельсины, у слова есть множественное число, поэтому используем are)



Название документа темы по английскому языку 1 курс.docx

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Moscow

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic and cultural center. It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as the start of Moscow's history. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the center of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke.

In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Although Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about 900 square km. The population of the city is over 11 million people. Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

The heart of Moscow is Red Square. The Kremlin and St. Basil's Cathedral are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower, the Palace of Congress, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world.

St. Basil's Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. There is a legend, that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Barma and Postnik, because he didn't want them to create another masterpiece.

Moscow is world-famous for its theatres. The best known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.

Moscow is a city of students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions including several universities. Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament and the center of the political life of the country.

Books

A book is one of the greatest wonders of world. Why are so many people fond of reading? The world of books is full of wonders. Together with the characters of books you can find yourself in different times and countries, have a lot of adventures. The book is a faithful friend. They form our values and characters. We try to look like the characters of your favourite books: to be brave, honest, not to be silly and greedy, to be real friends. We enjoyed the beauty and wisdom of fairy-tales and fables when we were babies and Granny read them. They taught us to be kind, clever, hardworking, to understand other people and help them. They teach us to understand the beauty of nature, take care of it, to love our homeland.

Books have been with us since childhood. Who hasn't read "Alice in the wonderland", "Mowgli"? Who hasn't travelled with Marry Poppins to her imaginary world? Who hasn't imagined himself to be Robinson Crusoe on the deserted island?

I have read a lot of interesting books, but my favourite book is "The adventures of Tom Sawyer" by Mark Twain. This well-known book is popular with the children all over the world.

The main character of the book is Tom Sawyer, who lived in a small town on the Mississippi River. He was a boy with a wild imagination. He and his friends often dreamed of different adventures. Tom was naughty, kind and brave. Besides he was noble. I like this boy because he teaches us to be true friends.

If you are not fond of reading, take a book to your liking or borrow it from the library and read it. Books are worth reading. Really, they are our good friends.

Hobbies

Hobbies differ like tastes. If you have chosen a hobby according to your character and taste - you are lucky because your life becomes more interesting.

Hobbies are divided into four large classes: doing things, making things, collecting things, and learning things.

The most popular hobby group is doing things. It includes a wide variety of activities, everything from gardening to traveling and from chess to volleyball. Gardening is one of the oldest man's hobbies. It is a well-known fact that the English are very fond of gardening and growing flowers, especially roses.

Both grown-ups and children are fond of playing different computer games. This is a relatively new hobby but it is becoming more and more popular.

Making things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, designing costumes, handicrafts and others. Two of the most famous hobby painters were President Eisenhower and Sir Winston Churchill. Some hobby is to write music or play musical instruments. President Bill Clinton, for example, plays the saxophone.

Almost everyone collects something at some period of his/her life: stamps, coins, matchboxes, books, records, postcards, toys, watches and other things. Some collections don't have real value. Others become so large and so valuable that they are housed in museums and art galleries. Many world famous collections started in a small way with one or two items. People with a good deal of money often collect paintings, rare books and other art objects. Often such private collections are given to museums, libraries and public galleries so that others might see them.

No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he/she always has the opportunity of learning things from it. By reading about the things he/she is interested in, he/she adds to what he knows in different kinds of science, culture, art, sport and etc.. Learning things can be the most exciting aspect of a hobby. So I think that everyone should have a hobby, it is like the target of your life.

My family

I think that a family is the most important thing for every person. Family are the people that always love you, support you and help you. For me it is impossible to live without my family. My family is not large. We are: my parents, brother and me.

My father is a welder. He is a professional. My father does his work very well. My mother is a housewife. She looks after the house and us, the kids. Mother makes very tasty breakfasts and dinners. Our mother is very kind, but strict to us. She always checks how we do our homework. Mother arranges our free time, so that we cannot just fool around.

My brother, Pasha, is a little child. He is only two years old. I like to play with my brother and to read tales for him.

As for me, I have always loved…

Our grandparents are … Grandfather is a … Grandmother is a …Everyone in our family is rather busy, but we always look forward to a possibility to spend some time together. My family means a lot to me

My flat

We have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the fifth floor of a nine-storied building. It has all modem conveniences: central heating, running hot and cold water, electricity, gas, a lift and a chute to carry rubbish down.

We have a three-room flat which consists of a living-room, a bedroom, a study (which is also my room), a kitchen, a bath-room and a toilet. Our flat has also a balcony

The living-room is the largest and most comfortable one in the flat. In the middle of the room we have a square dinner-table with six chairs round it. To the left of the dinner-table there is a wall-unit which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some shelves. To the right there is a little table with colour TV set on it. Opposite the TV set there are two cozy armchairs. A sofa and a standard lamp are in the left-hand corner. There is a thick carpet on the floor. Two water-colours hung on the wall above the sofa. In the evening we usually draw the curtains across the windows, and a red lampshade gives a warm colour to the room.

The bedroom is smaller than the living-room and not so light as there is only one window in it. In this room there are two beds, two dressing-tables and a wardrobe. In the corner of the bedroom there is a small colors TV set. On the dressing table there is an alarm-clock and small lamp with green lamp-shade.

Our study is the smallest room in the flat, but in spite of it, it is very cozy. There isn't much furniture in it, but there are a lot of shelves full of books. It has a desk, an armchair and a bookcase too. A small round table with cassette-recorder is standing in the right-hand corner of the study. Besides there is a small sofa near the wall opposite the bookcase. This room was my father's study, but as I grew older, it has become my room. And in my opinion it is the best room in our flat.

Seasons

There are four seasons in a year. Winter is the coldest part of the year. In Russia, it is a time when the ground and trees are covered with snow. Rivers and lakes freeze and temperatures drop down to minus 20 degrees Celsius and below. In winter, people wear warm clothes, such as sheepskin and fur coats, fur hats, and wool clothing. It gets dark early, and the sun rises later. The days are short. The sun shines, but it is not warm. During the winter season, people enjoy skiing, skating, ice hockey and other winter activities.

After the long, cold winter comes the long-awaited spring. This is a time of year when the trees are covered with buds, and the ground sprouts green grass, while beautiful flowers awaken. Everyone sheds their winter clothes, enjoying the sunshine.

Then there is the most-liked season of the year, summer! People go on vacations, and go to the countryside. Summer is the best part of the year for students and scholars.

Autumn follows summer. The weather is bad and there are rainy evenings and lots of dirty roads. Students and pupils go back to school.

But once a famous man said, “Nature doesn't have bad weather.”



Sports

Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young and old people. Many people do morning exercises, jog in the morning, train themselves in clubs and different sections.

Other people like sport too; they only watch sports game on TV and listen to the sports news. They prefer reading interesting stories about sportsmen but they do not go in for sports.

Physical training is an important subject at school. Pupils have physical training twice a week. Boys and girls play volleyball and basketball at the lessons. There is a sport ground near our school and schoolchildren go in for sports in the open air. A lot of different competitions are held at school. A great number of pupils take part in them. All participants try to get good results and become winners.

Sport helps people to keep in good health. If you go in for sports you don't catch cold. Children and grown-ups must take care of their health and do morning exercises regularly. There are some popular kinds of sport in our country: football, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, skiing and other. Athletics is one of the most popular kinds of sport. It includes running, jumping and others. My favorite sport is swimming. I go to the swimming pool twice a week. I prefer to rest by the lake or river and swim there. My friend goes in for boxing. He is a good boxer. His hobby helps him in his everyday life.

Travelling

People are fond of travelling. They spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, to learn a lot about people's traditions, to enjoy picturesque places. It is interesting for them to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food.

Those who live in the country like to find themselves in large cities with their shops, cinemas, crowds of people. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains with nothing to do but walking and bathing, laying in the sun. Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - beautiful views of waterfalls, forests, unusual plants and animals. These photos will remind them of the happy time of holiday.

These are many ways of traveling - by train, by plain, by ship, on foot. Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling by plain. And not because it is very comfortable. It is exciting. I also like traveling by train. I've traveled this way a lot. When you are in the train you can see the beauty of nature.

As for me I'd like to have a coach tour to some foreign country. Coach tours are planned and I'll have a chance to do a lot of sightseeing and have a good rest at the same time.

When we cook, we boil, roast, fry or stew our food. We boil eggs, meat, chicken, fish, milk, water and vegetables. We fry eggs, fish and vegetables. We stew fish, meat, vegetables or fruit. We roast meat or chicken. We put salt, sugar, pepper, vinegar and mustard into our food to make it salted, sweet, sour or simply tasty. Our food may taste good or bad or it may be tasteless.

 

The usual meals in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner or, in simpler houses, breakfast, dinner, tea and supper.

 

For breakfast English people mostly have porridge or corn-flakes with milk or cream and sugar, bacon and eggs, marmalade with buttered toast and tea or coffee. For a change they can have a boiled egg, cold ham, or fish.

 

English people generally have lunch about one o'clock. At lunch time in a London restaurant one usually finds a mutton chop, or steak and chips, or cold meat or fish with potatoes and salad, then a pudding or fruit to follow.

 

Afternoon tea can hardly be called a meal. It is a substantial meal only in well-to-do families. It is between five and six o'clock. It is rather a sociable sort of thing, as friends often come in then for a chat while they have their cup of tea, cake or biscuit.

 

In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. But in great many English homes, the midday meal is the chief one of the day, and in the evening there is usually a much simpler supper — an omelette, or sausages, sometimes bacon and eggs and sometimes just bread and cheese, a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruit.

Cinema

Cinema plays an important role in the life of any society. It is an available popular form of art. Lots of people find going to the cinema one of the best ways of spending their leisure time.

No matter how large the place you live in is (whether it's a big city or a small provincial town, or even a settlement) there's most likely to be a cinema there. There are such genres of feature films as the western, the thriller, the musical, the drama and the comedy. The performance lasts from two or three hours and most cinemas have at least 4 performances a day. There is no doubt that a good cinema show is an excellent entertainment and quite cheap.

As for me, I'm fond of going to the cinema. When I want to go to the cinema, I usually see in the programme what films are on. Then I phone my friends and we discuss what films to see. We prefer feature films but also enjoy cartoons and popular science films. To see a good love story, musical or detective film is a very pleasant way of spending free time. People do need something amusing and pleasant, something to laugh at. That's why I give my preference to comedies.

The last comedy, I saw, is "Crocodile Dandy". The film tells about amusing adventures of a young lovely woman — reporter and a strong and brave crocodile hunter. At first, their relations were not friendly. She even looked down on him and he in return neglected her. But after he rescued her out of some difficult situations, their relations became more friendly. A happy end is an essential feature of American films. The same is true of this comedy. The main characters fall in love with each other in the end of the film. I was deeply impressed by their acting and the film itself.

Holidays

Many great holidays and anniversaries are celebrated in our country.

On the 1st of May there is May Day — the holiday of spring and labour. On the 8th of March there is Women's Day — the holiday of all women and girls. On the 23rd of February z we celebrate Defenders’ Day. We celebrate great holiday on the 9th of May – Victory Day, when all people honoured the veterans of the Great Patriotic War. We celebrate Day of Independence of Russia on the 12th June and Day of Russian Constitution on the 12th of December. Now people celebrate some religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter. But my favourite holiday is New Year's Day, of course. It is a really wonderful holiday. People get ready for this holiday long before it. They buy New Year trees and decorate them. Every year a fairy-tale comes to every house and every family on New Year's Eve. Children and even grown-ups wait for this day because they believe that all their wishes and desires come true and different wonderful miracles happen on that day.
On New Year' s Eve people get together to see “the old year out and the new year in”. They eat tasty food, drink champagne, dance and have a good time together. They wish each other happiness and good luck in the new year and put the presents under the New Year tree. Children like this holiday very much. They wait for New Year presents, which, they believe, Father Frost brings to them. Everybody is merry on that day and wishes the next year to be good and happy and all one's troubles and disappointments to remain in the past.

Holidays


After each term in school we had our holidays. It's fun to have holidays, you can do whatever you like, you don't have to get up too early, do your homework or think of troubles which occur very often at school.

Most of all I like summer holidays, they are the longest ones, though, when winter is snowy and frosty, I enjoyed on my winter holidays skating and skiing, sledging and making a snowman or having a fight with snowballs.

I'd like to tell you about my summer holidays I spent in Sochi. It was last year. My parents and me were sitting in the living-room discussing our plans for the summer holidays. My father suggested that we should go to Sochi. On hearing that I jumped up with joy and said it was a wonderful idea. My mother wasn't against the idea either. So one summer morning we started for our journey to Sochi.

First, we travelled to Odessa by plane and from there we got to Sochi by boat. We stayed in Odessa for three days, our relatives live there and they gave us board and lodging. So we had an excellent opportunity to go round the city, to see beautiful monuments to the famous people who had lived in Odessa, museums and the Odessa Opera House.

We enjoyed our trip from Odessa to Sochi. The Black Sea was calm. We sat on deck in the lounge chairs and looked at the sea. I like Sochi very much, we bathed and went boating and swimming, lay in the sun on the beach. In the evenings we went for a walk or dropped in at a cafe to have ice-cream or juice.

My father showed us the famous Botanical Gardens, we went for hikes in the mountains, we saw the magnificent Augura Waterfalls. The sea was nice and warm. The weather was fine. When it was time to go home, we were sorry to leave the marvellous town of Sochi.



Holidays in Great Britain  


There are fewer public holidays in Great Britain than in other European countries. They are Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Years Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday, and Summer Bank Holiday. Public holidays in Britain are called bank holidays, because the banks as well as most of the offices and shops are closed.

The most favourite holiday is Christmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It's a big Christmas tree and it stands in the Trafalgar Square.

Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charities and sing carols, traditional Christmas songs. Many churches hold a service on the Sunday. before Christmas.

The fun starts the night before, on the 24th of December. Traditionally this is the day when people decorate their trees. Children hang stockings at their beds, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and fill them with toys and sweets.

Christmas is a family holiday. All the family usually meet for the big Christmas dinner of turkey and Christmas pudding. And everyone gives and receives presents. The 26th of December, Boxing Day, is an extra holiday after Christmas. Its the time to visit friends and relatives.



New Years Day is not such favourable in Britain than Christmas. But in Scotland Hogmanay, New Years Eve is the biggest festival of the year.

Besides public holidays, there are some special festivals in Great Britain. One of them takes place on the 5th of November. On that day, in 1605, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I. He didn't succeed. The King's men found the bomb, took Guy Fawkes to the Tower and cut off his head.

Since that day the British celebrate the 5th of November. They burn a dummy, made of straw and old clothes, in a bonfire and let off fireworks. This dummy is called a "guy" (like Guy Fawkes).



Holidays in the USA


There are a lot of holidays in the USA. Many of them are associated with the history of the nation. The main holidays of the USA are New Year's Day, Easter, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas.

The New Year's Eve is a time for merriment. Most Americans spend this night with friends, at home or in restaurants. Thousands of people gather in New York in Times Square to see the New Year in. The Tournament of Roses takes place in Pasadena, California, on January 1 each year. Prizes are given to the cities with the most unusual floral compositions.

At Easter there is a tradition for people to buy new clothes. After church services many people take walks along the streets of their towns, wearing their new Easter hats and suits. This is usually called the "Easter Parade".

Memorial Day comes on May 30. It is dedicated to the memory of those who died for America in different wars. The national flags are put on the graves of soldiers on this day.

The 4th of July, an Independence Day, is the biggest national holiday of the USA. On this day in 1776 a document, known as the Declaration of Independence, was adopted. During this holiday American cities have parades, people shoot off fire-works in parks and fields.

Thanksgiving Day comes on the fourth Thursday of November. When the first settlers landed in America, their first year was very hard and 50 of 100 people died. But the Indians taught people how to plant corn and wild vegetables and in autumn they got a large harvest. Thanksgiving Day was their holiday, the day of giving thanks to God. It is a family holiday and Americans try to gather all family at home on this day.

There are also some holidays which are not celebrated nation-wide, but only by each state separately.

 








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Дата добавления 16.06.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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