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Выбранный для просмотра документ Applied Informatics.docx


Applied Informatics

Applied Informatics is the science of computer information systems. As an academic field it involves the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organizations, technologies and systems. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations and utilizes foundations developed in other fields. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many individual specializations, including disciplines of computer science, information systems, information technology and statistics. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This has led to the study of informatics with computational, mathematical, biological, cognitive and social aspects, including study of the social impact of information technologies.


This new term was adopted across Western Europe, and, except in English, developed a meaning roughly translated by the English ‘computer science’, or ‘computing science’. Mikhailov advocated the Russian term informatika (1966), and the English informatics (1967), as names for the theory of scientific information, and argued for a broader meaning, including study of the use of information technology in various communities (for example, scientific) and of the interaction of technology and human organizational structures.

Informatics is the discipline of science which investigates the structure and properties (not specific content) of scientific information, as well as the regularities of scientific information activity, its theory, history, methodology and organization

Usage has since modified this definition in three ways. First, the restriction to scientific information is removed, as in business informatics or legal informatics. Second, since most information is now digitally stored, computation is now central to informatics. Third, the representation, processing and communication of information are added as objects of investigation, since they have been recognized as fundamental to any scientific account of information. Taking information as the central focus of study distinguishes informatics from computer science. Informatics includes the study of biological and social mechanisms of information processing whereas computer science focuses on the digital computation. Similarly, in the study of representation and communication, informatics is indifferent to the substrate that carries information. For example, it encompasses the study of communication using gesture, speech and language, as well as digital communications and networking.

In the English-speaking world the term informatics was first widely used in the compound, ‘medical informatics’, taken to include "the cognitive, information processing, and communication tasks of medical practice, education, and research, including information science and the technology to support these tasks". Many such compounds are now in use; they can be viewed as different areas of "applied informatics".

Informatics encompasses the study of systems that represent, process, and communicate information. However, the theory of computation in the specific discipline of theoretical computer science, which evolved from Alan Turing, studies the notion of a complex system regardless of whether or not information actually exists. Since both fields process information, there is some disagreement among scientists as to field hierarchy; for example Arizona State University attempted to adopt a broader definition of informatics to even encompass cognitive science at the launch of its School of Computing and Informatics in September 2006.

A broad interpretation of informatics, as "the study of the structure, algorithms, behaviour, and interactions of natural and artificial computational systems," was introduced by the University of Edinburgh in 1994 when it formed the grouping that is now its School of Informatics. This meaning is now (2006) increasingly used in the United Kingdom.

The 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, of the UK Funding Councils, includes a new, Computer Science and Informatics, unit of assessment (UoA), whose scope is described as follows:

The UoA includes the study of methods for acquiring, storing, processing, communicating and reasoning about information, and the role of interactivity in natural and artificial systems, through the implementation, organisation and use of computer hardware, software and other resources. The subjects are characterised by the rigorous application of analysis, experimentation and design.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Global Internet.docx


Global Internet

As well as being a global network of networks, the Internet is a global network of people, ideas and information. The Net is as interesting and exciting as the people, organisations, companies, governments and weirdoes that are connected to it.

There is another thing that's exciting about the Internet. Like love and life, the Net is what you make it. If you don't like what's happening on one part of the network, you can build yourself a whole new cybercity, appoint yourself as mayor and run it exactly as you want.

The Internet enables you to do a lot of things simultaneously. You can read the latest copy of your favourite newspaper while planning your night's TV viewing and ordering some cheap CDs from an American discount disc store.

You can send e-mail to someone you've never met before ... Some people have "met" over the Internet and got married.

The first web browsers only supported simple texts and images, but now a multitude of multimedia plug-ins enables webpages to sing and dance.

From PC banking to online shopping and chats with celebrities, the Internet is already changing our lives. The arrival of digital TV promises even more exciting things.


Роль Интернета в современном мире.

Будучи глобальной сетью , Интернет также представляет собой глобальную сеть людей, идей и информации. Интернет так же интересен и захватывающ, как и  люди, организации, компании, правительства , которые связаны с ним.

Существует еще одна вещь, которая захватывает в Интернете. Как любовь и жизнь, нэт- это то, что вы создаете. Если вам не нравится, что происходит в одной части сети, вы можете построить себе новый кибэр-город, назначить себя  мэром и править им так, как вы хотите.

Интернет позволяет делать много вещей одновременно. Вы можете читать последнюю копию вашей любимой газеты,  планировать ваш  ночной просмотр телевизора и заказывать дешевые компакт-диски из американского магазина со скидкой.

Вы можете отправить сообщение по электронной почте людям, которых вы никогда раньше не встречали ... Некоторые люди "встречались" через Интернет и поженились.

Первые веб-браузеры поддерживали только простые тексты и изображения, но теперь множество мультимедийных плагинов позволяет веб-страницам петь и танцевать.

От PC банков до Интернет-магазинов и чатов со звездами, Интернет уже меняет нашу жизнь.А появление цифрового телевидения обещает еще больше интересного.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Internet Facts.docx



Internet Facts 

The prototype for the Internet was created in the sixties by the US Defense Department. To ensure that communication could be kept open in the event of a nuclear attack, it created a computer network known as Arpanet — the Advanced Research Project Agency Network.

The first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another was made by researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Institute on 20 October 1969.

The first people to coin the term 'internet' were two scientists, Vinton Cerf (known as 'father of the Internet') and his collaborator Bob Kahn, who in 1974 devised a means by which data could be transmitted across a global-network of computers.

An Oxford graduate, Tim Berners-Lee, set up the first 'www server' (a Server receives and sends messages) to store the archive of the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland.

The first e-mail ever sent was in 1972 between computers in two American universities. The most frequently used search word on the net is "sex", typed in 1,550,000 times every month.

The most mentioned male on the Internet is President Bill Clinton, whose name is linked to 1,542,790 sites.

The most mentioned female on the Internet is the actress Pamela Anderson, whose name is linked to 1,542,282 sites.


Факты об Интернете

Прототип Интернета был создан в шестидесятых годах Министерством обороны США. Для гарантии сохранения открытой связи в случае ядерного нападения оно создало компьютерную сеть известную как Арпанет — сеть агентства Проектов перспективных исследований.

Первая попытка подключить два компьютера и дать им возможность поддерживать связь друг с другом была сделана исследователями в университете Калифорнии в Лос-Анджелесе и научно-исследовательском институте Стэнфорда 20 октября 1969 года.

Первые кто придумал термин «Интернет» были два ученых, Винтон Сэрф (известный как «отец Интернета») и его сотрудник Боб Кан, который в 1974 году изобрел средство, с помощью которого данные могли быть переданы по глобальной сети компьютеров.

Дипломированный специалист Оксфорда, Тим Бернерс-Ли, установил первый «сервер WWW» (сервер получает и посылает сообщения), чтобы сохранить архив Европейской лаборатории физики частиц в Швейцарии.

Первая электронная почта была отправлена в 1972 году между компьютерами в двух американских университетах. Наиболее часто используемое поисковое слово в сети — «секс», печатается 1 550 000 раз каждый месяц.

Наиболее часто упоминаемый мужчина в Интернете — президент Билл Клинтон, чье имя связано с 1 542 790 сайтами.

Наиболее часто упоминаемая женщина в Интернете — актриса Памела Андерсон, чье имя связано с 1 542 282 сайтами.



1. Who was the prototype for the Internet created by?
2. Why was the prototype for the Internet created?
3. Who was the first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another made by?
4. Who is known as father of the Internet'?
5. Why was the first 'www server'set up?
6. What is the most frequently used search word?
7. Do you think 'The Internet' will have an important influence on our daily lives?


Defense Department — Министерство обороны
ensure —
network —
coin —
collaborator —
devise —
means —
store —
net —
link —
соединять, связывать

Выбранный для просмотра документ Internet and Modern Life.docx


Internet and Modern Life

The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundred of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.

The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundred of millions of users and their number is growing.

Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.

In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.

However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Notwith-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.

Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the^Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream.


Интернет и современная жизнь

Интернет уже вошел в нашу повседневную жизнь. Каждый знает, что Интернет — это глобальная компьютерная сеть, которая связывает сотни миллионов пользователей по всему миру и помогает нам общаться друг с другом.

История Интернета началась в Соединенных Штатах в 1969 году. Это был военный эксперимент, разработанный, чтобы помочь выжить в ядерной войне, когда все вокруг может быть заражено радиацией и будет опасно выйти наружу, чтобы доставить какую-либо информацию. Информация же, посланная по Интернету, идет от одного компьютера к другому по самым коротким и безопасным маршрутам, имеющимся в наличии. Благодаря этому два компьютера в сети могут поддерживать связь друг с другом до тех пор, пока существует хотя бы один маршрут между ними. Эта технология была названа пакетным переключением.

Изобретение модемов, специальных устройств, позволяющих вашему компьютеру посылать информацию через телефонную линию, открыло двери в Интернет для миллионов людей.

Большинство основных сетевых серверов находятся в Соединенных Штатах Америки. Ясно, что точное число пользователей трудно подсчитать, никто точно не знает, сколько людей пользуются Интернетом сегодня, так как пользователей насчитывается сотни миллионов и их число постоянно растет.

В наше время самой популярной службой Интернета является электронная почта. Многие люди используют Интернет только для того, чтобы послать или получить электронную почту. Они могут это сделать или когда находятся дома, или в интернет-клубе, или на работе. Другие службы Интернета также доступны в сети. Это чтение новостей, которые доступны на некоторых специально предназначенных для этого серверах, Интернет-телефония, ФТП-серверы и т. д.

В большинстве стран Интернет может предоставить бизнесмену свою собственную надежную систему коммуникаций, альтернативную другим дорогостоящим и ненадежным телекоммуникационным системам. Пользователи, экономя свои средства, могут использовать Интернет для общения со всем миром, тратя при этом небольшие деньги. Когда они отправляют электронную почту, им нужно оплатить только телефонный звонок к местному провайдеру, а не международный звонок, когда необходимо заплатить кругленькую сумму.

Экономия средств — это только первый и далеко не последний шаг. Сеть используют и в коммерческих целях, и это направление развивается быстрыми темпами. Вы можете работать через Интернет, играть в Интернете в азартные или обычные игры.

Однако есть и проблемы. Самой важной проблемой является проблема безопасности. Когда вы отправляете электронное сообщение, ваше сообщение путешествует через разные сети и компьютеры. Данные направляются к месту назначения специальными компьютерами, которые называются маршрутизаторами. Из-за этого в любой из компьютеров на данном маршруте можно проникнуть, перехватить и даже изменить данные, пересылаемые через Интернет. Но существует и много кодирующих программ. Тем не менее, эти программы не совершенны и могут быть легко взломаны.

Другой большой и серьезной проблемой сети является контроль. Да, в Интернете нет эффективного контроля, так как в Интернете циркулирует огромнейшее количество информации. Это огромнейшая библиотека и рынок в одно и тоже время. В будущем ситуация может измениться, но сейчас мы имеем то, что имеем. Это можно выразить двумя словами — мечта анархиста.



1. What is the Internet?
2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?
3. Why was the Internet designed?
4. What is modem?
5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?
6. What is the accurate number of internet users?
7. What is the most popular Internet service today?
8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?
9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?
10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?
11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?


network — сеть
to embrace — охватывать, окружать
user — юзер, пользователь
to design — задумывать, придумывать, разрабатывать
to survive — выжить
nuclear war — ядерная война
to pollute — загрязнять
dangerous — опасный
path — путь, маршрут
available — доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный
the net — интернет, сеть
packet switching — пакетное переключение
invention — изобретение
accurate — точный
to count — считать, сосчитать
approximately— приблизительно, примерно
to receive — получать
message — послание
to provide — снабжать, доставлять, обеспечивать
reliable — надежный
alternative — альтернативный
provider — провайдер, поставщик
security — безопасность
router — маршрутизатор
to intercept — перехватить (сигнал и т. д.)
to encode — кодировать, шифровать
notwithstanding — тем не менее, однако, все же
to crack — взломать
huge — большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
to circulate — передвигаться/двигаться в пределах чего-то
tremendous —разг. огромный, гигантский, громадный; потрясающий

Выбранный для просмотра документ My Favourite Book.docx


My Favourite Book (1)

My favourite book is "Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe. D. Defoe (1660—1731) was a great master of realistic detail. The novel "Robinson Crusoe" was written in 1719. The novel is praise to human labour and the triumph of man over nature.

Defoe shows the development of his hero. At the beginning of the story we see an inexperienced youth, a rather frivolous boy, who then becomes a strong-willed man.

Robinson Crusoe's most characteristic trait is his optimism. His guiding principle in life become "never say die" and "in trouble to be troubled is to have your troubles doubled".

He had confidence in himself and in man. He believed it was within the power of man to overcome all difficulties. Crusoe was an enthusiastic worker and always hoped for the best.

Defoe is a writer of the Enlightenment. He teaches people how to live, he tries to teach what's good and what's bad. His novel "Robinson Crusoe" is not only a work of fiction, an account of adventures, a biography and an educational pamphlet.

It is a study of man, a great work showing man in relation to nature and civilization as well as in relation to labour and private property.

Моя любимая книга (1)

Моя любимая книга — "Робинзон Крузо", написанная Даниэлем Дефо. Д. Дефо (1660 — 1731) был великим мастером реализма. Роман "Робинзон Крузо" был написан в 1719 году. Роман — хвала человеку труда и торжеству человека над природой.

Дефо показывает развитие своего героя. В начале повествования мы видим неопытного юношу, довольно легкомысленного парня, который затем становится мужчиной с сильным характером.

Наиболее характерной чертой характера Робинзона Крузо является его оптимизм. Ведущий принцип его жизни — "никогда не думать о гибели" и "беспокоиться в беде — означает, что твоя беда удваивается".

Он уверен в себе и в человеке. Он верит, что во власти человека преодолеть трудности. Крузо был энтузиастом-трудягой и всегда надеялся на лучшее.

Дефо — писатель эпохи Просвещения. Он учит людей как жить, он старается научить тому, что такое хорошо и что такое плохо. Его роман "Робинзон Крузо" — это не только художественное произведение, описание приключений, биография и поучительная книга.

Это — исследование человека, величайший труд, показывающий как его взаимоотношения с природой и обществом, так и его отношение к труду и частной собственности.


praise — п. хвала, v. хвалить
triumph — торжество, победа
unexperienced — неопытный
frivolous — пустой, легкомысленный
trait —: черта (характера)
trouble — п. беда, беспокойство, v. беспокоиться
to double — удваивать

My Favourite Book (3)

My favourite book is "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes" by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

I first discovered these stories when I was about twelve and I've loved them ever since. They're brilliantly written, full of bizarre crimes and they've got a terrific Victorian atmosphere.

When you read them you really feel like you've been carried back to nineteenth-century London.

All the twentieth century detectives like Miss Marple and Inspector Morse seem really boring compared to Sherlock Holmes.

That's where Conan Doyle, really makes you believe that Holmes is unique — a genius with amazing mental powers.

Normally I only read detective stories once. I mean, why read them again when you know what happens in the end?

With the Sherlock Holmes stories, though, its different.

Each time I re-read them I discover more and more to enjoy.

Моя любимая книга (3)

Моя любимая книга — «Приключения Шерлока Холмса» сэра Артура Конан Дойла.

Я впервые открыл для себя эти истории, когда мне было примерно двенадцать, и с тех пор я полюбил их. Они блестяще написаны, полны приключений, пропитаны потрясающей атмосферой Викторианской эпохи.

Когда вы читаете их, вы действительно чувствуете, будто переноситесь в Лондон девятнадцатого столетия.

Все детективы двадцатого столетия, такие как мисс Марпл и инспектор Морзе, кажутся действительно скучными по сравнению с Шерлоком Холмсом.

Вот где Конан Дойл действительно заставляет вас верить, что Холмс уникален, что он гений с удивительными умственными способностями.

Обычно я читаю детективные романы один раз. Я имею в виду, зачем читать их снова, когда вы знаете все, что случается в конце?

С историями Шерлока Холмса, тем не менее, все по-другому.

Каждый раз, когда я перечитываю их, я обнаруживаю, что это доставляет мне все больше удовольствия.


Выбранный для просмотра документ My Favourite Film.docx



My Favourite Film (1)

Usually we see films either in the cinema or on the TV. But from time to time I go to the cinema. My favourite film is "War and Peace". The script of the film was written by Sergey Bondar-chuk and W. Solowjew. The Leningrad (now Sankt Petersburg) ballet-dancer Ludmila Saweljiewa played the main part. She played this role wonderfully.

The other parts were played by A. Ktorov (old Bolkonsky), 0. Tabakov (Nikolai), I. Skobzeva (Helena). Borodino struggle, hunting, the first ball of Natasha made a great impression on me.

My favourite film is "The Fate of a Man". This film is excellent. It is difficult to find other words to describe it. It has enormous vigour and delicacy, it is full of purity and hope.

"...A man is caught in the storm of war and loses everything. Black clouds surround him, and -yet he finds strength to bear up with it all; he finds strength to adopt a child, a destitute, helpless creature..."

All the great events and the feelings aroused are depicted with taste, tact and restraint. Тo wish to draw attention particularly to the extraordinary performance of the boy.

Even if the film has no other merits, the child scenes, so subtle, profound and lifelike, so full of tragic vigour — these scenes alone would win Bondarchuk the reputation of a great director.

Мой любимый фильм (1)

Обычно мы смотрим фильмы либо в кинотеатре либо по телевизору. Но время от времени я все же хожу в кинотеатр. Мой любимый фильм — "Война и мир". Сценарий к этому фильму был написан С. Бондарчуком и В. Соловьевым. Балерина из Ленинграда (ныне Санкт-Петербург) Людмила Савельева сыграла главную роль. Она сыграла ее замечательно.

Остальные роли сыграли А. Кторов (старый Болконский), О. Табаков (Николай), И. Скобцева (Элен). Битва под Бородино, охота, первый бал Наташи произвели на меня большое впечатление.

Мой любимый фильм также "Судьба человека". Это фильм замечательный. Трудно подобрать другие слова, чтобы его описать. В нем сочетаются огромная энергия и нежность, он полон чистоты и надежды.

"...Человек попадает в пучину войны и теряет все. Черные тучи окружают его, и все же он находит силы выстоять; он находит силы приютить обездоленного ребенка, беззащитное существо..."

Все большие события и великие чувства, которые появляются, изображены со вкусом, тактом и сдержанностью. Хотелось бы обратить внимание особенно на необычайную игру мальчика.

Даже если бы фильм не имел других достоинств, сцены с ребенком, такие искусные, глубокие и жизнелюбивые, полны трагической силы, — только одни эти сцены могли бы создать Бондарчуку репутацию великого режиссера.

enormous — огромный, ужасный
vigour — сила, энергия
delicacy — деликатность, щепетильность
purity — чистота, непорочность
to bear up — держаться стойко
destitute — лишенный чего-либо, нуждающийся
to arouse — возникать, появляться
to depict — изображать, описывать
restraint — сдержанность, самообладание
merit — достоинство


My Favourite Film (2)

Last Tuesday I saw the film "Romeo and Juliet" by Shakespeare. The starring was perfect. Romeo was played by Leonardo DiCaprio.

And I'll try to tell you about this film. In the town of Verona there were two rich families, the Capulets and the Montagues. There was an old quarrel between those two families. One day Capulet made a great supper. At that supper Romeo saw Juliet and fell in love with her at ones.

Juliet had the same feelings. Romeo asked Juliet to marry him. She agreed, but nobody knew about their plan. The next day Romeo and Juliet came to friar and he married them.

Some days passed and Juliet's father told her that she was to marry a young man whose name was Paris. Juliet didn't know what to do. But the friar helped her. He gave her medicine and told her to go home and be ready to marry Paris. But when she drinks that medicine she will sleep for forty — two hours.

Juliet did as the friar told her. Juliet's parents thought that she was dead and put her into the family tomb. When Romeo heard that Juliet was dead he bought some poison and went to the tomb of the Capulets. Paris was there and Romeo killed him.

Then Romeo kissed Juliet on the lips and drank his poison. At this moment Juliet woke up and saw that the young man was dead. Juliet took a dagger that was on the floor and killed herself.

Мой любимый фильм (2)

В прошлый вторник я смотрела фильм "Ромео и Джульетта" по Шекспиру. Игра актеров была отличной, Ромео сыграл Леонардо ДиКаприо.

Я попытаюсь рассказать об этом фильме. В городе Верона были две богатые семьи, Капулетти и Монтекки. Те две семьи были в давней ссоре. Однажды Капулетти организовал большой ужин. На этом ужине Ромео увидел Джульетту и сразу же влюбился в нее.

У Джульетты были такие же чувства. Ромео предложил Джульетте выйти за него замуж. Она согласилась, но никто не знал об их плане. На следующий день Ромео и Джульетта пришли к монаху, и он их поженил.

Прошло несколько дней, и отец Джульетты сказал, что ей нужно выйти замуж за молодого человека по имени Парис. Джульетта не знала, что делать. Но монах помог ей. Он дал ей снадобье и сказал идти домой и дать согласие выйти замуж за Париса. Но когда она выпьет снадобье, она будет спать 42 часа.

Джульетта сделала, как сказал монах. Родители Джульетты подумали, что она мертва, и положили ее в фамильный склеп. Когда Ромео узнал, что Джульетта мертва, он купил яд и пошел к склепу Капулетти. Парис был там, и Ромео убил его.

Потом Ромео поцеловал Джульетту в губы и выпил яд. В этот момент Джульетта очнулась и увидела, что молодой человек мертв. Джульетта взяла кинжал, который лежал на полу, и убила себя.



1. What is your favourite film?
2. Who is the producer of your favourite film?
3. Who played the main role?
4. Retell the plot of "Romeo and Juliet".
5. What do you feel when you watch this film?

to fall in love — влюбиться
friar — монах
poison — отрава
dagger — кинжал
tomb — могила, гроб

My Favourite Film (3)

Among different types of films (that is comedy, romantic drama, western, adventure film, police drama or detective film, psychological thriller, horror film, historical film) best of all I like comedy and romantic drama, because such films are very cheerful and full of life. I don't like horror films and I find them quite disgusting.

Sometimes I may watch a police drama or a historical film, but I'm not very keen on these types of films. Now let me tell you about one of my favourite films "Gone with the wind" by the novel by Margaret Mitchell.

Unfortunately, I don't remember the name of its producer, but I like the acting. Scarlett O'Hara — there is no more lively character, which makes the reader and the spectator palpitate (in the film this role was played by Vivian Lee). Maybe the words from the Irish song are about Scarlett: "if the Irish eyes are laughing, oh, they' re stealing your heart".

Scarlett goes through many trials and troubles, but her sharp and strong mind, her strong will help her to survive. And not only to survive, but to render and to develop moral values in this cruel world. Ratt was telling her in vain that they were both scoundrels. He is cynical by conviction, she is under the pressure of circumstances.

Scarlett is a symbol of wonderful America, the child, who was crippled with greed, but didn't lose inner beauty. Even her name, which was found at the last moment >n the publishing house contained the ideal and vice, innocence and regeneration. In English it sounds like Scarlett flower and illness (scarlet fever).
Much in common, though their characters and fates are different, has Scarlett with the character of another film Jane Eyre.

They are too different, but at the same time too similar. Scarlett is very beautiful, flighty and noisy. Jane isn't beautiful. She is modest and peaceful. But they are both strong in the difficult minutes of the life. Skarlett and Jane for the sake of love can pass through all the difficulties. They are faithful to their men.

And I like it, that they, thank to their mind and abilities reached a lot in life. And eventually people get to appreciate both of them.


Мой любимый фильм (3)

Среди разнообразия фильмов (комедия, романтическая драма, вестерн, приключенческий фильм, полицейская драма или детективные фильмы, психологический триллер, фильм ужасов, исторический фильм) больше всего я люблю комедии и романтические драмы, потому что такие фильмы веселые и оптимистичные. Я не люблю фильмы ужасов и нахожу их достаточно отталкивающими.

Иногда я могу посмотреть полицейскую драму или историческое кино, но мне не очень нравятся такие фильмы. А сейчас я хочу рассказать об одном из моих любимых фильмов — "Унесенные ветром" по роману Маргарет Митчелл.

Мне нравится игра актеров, но к сожалению, я не помню имени режиссера. Скарлетт О'Хара — нет более живого характера, который бы заставлял читателя и зрителя трепетать (в фильме эта роль была сыграна Вивьен Ли). Наверное, слова этой ирландской песни — о Скарлетт: "...если ирландские глаза улыбаются, о, они овладевают вашим сердцем".

На Скарлетт обрушивается столько испытаний и бед, но выжить ей помогают сильный и острый ум, страстная жажда жизни. И не только выжить, но и пронести и развить моральные ценности в этом жестоком мире. Напрасно Ретт говорил ей, что они оба негодяи. Он — циник по убеждению, она — под давлением обстоятельств.

Скарлетт — символ прекрасной Америки, дитя, искалеченное жадностью, но не потерявшее внутренней красоты. Даже имя ее, найденное в последний момент прямо в издательстве, соединило в себе идеал и порок, чистоту и перерождение. В английском языке оно звучит как алый цветок и болезнь (скарлатина). Много общего, хотя их характеры и судьбы разные, есть у Скарлетт с героиней другого фильма — Джен Эйр.

Они такие разные, но в то же время такие похожие. Скарлетт очень красивая, капризная и шумная. Джен некрасивая. Она скромная и мирная. Но они обе сильные в трудные минуты своей жизни. Скарлетт и Джен радилюбви переживают все трудности. Они преданы своим мужчинам.

И мне нравится, что благодаря уму и способностям они достигли многого в жизни. И в конце концов, люди начали ценить их обеих.



1. What is your favourite film?
2. What types of films do you know?
3. Who is the author and producer of your favourite film?
4. What other books, written by this author, are known to you?
5. For what features of character do you like or dislike the main hero?

to palpitate — трепетать
spectator — зритель
scoundrel — подлец
conviction — убеждение
pressure — давление
circumstance — обстоятельство
greed — жадность
scarlet fever — скарлатина
for the sake of love — ради любви
faithful — преданный
to appreciate - ценить


Выбранный для просмотра документ My Native Town.docx


My Native Town - Мой родной город

There are many beautiful cities and towns in the world. I would like to visit some of them, to see with my own eyes what I have read or heard about. But there is no place like home. I love my native city. I was born here and live with my parents. It's not the capital, but it is a wonderful place to live.

My city is old and modern at the same time. It is old because it was founded in the 11th century. At that time its streets were narrow, dark and dirty. Now my city looks modern because of its architecture. Almost all the buildings were built after the war. The streets and avenues are wide and clean.

I live in the main street. It is the widest street in the city. A lot of cars, buses and trolley-buses run fast along it. If you want to see the places of interest in our city, you can walk along the main street. It leads to the main square. It will be a short trip, but you can see a lot: a cinema and a concert hall, an art gallery and museums, a stadium, a zoo and a large park.

Our art gallery is next to the main post office. Opposite the post office there is a modern hotel. If you turn to the left, you can see a theatre. And in front of the theatre there is a museum of history and culture. Walk two blocks and you'll come to a monument to our famous writer and a fountain in the park. If you want to visit our zoo, take a bus and get off on the third bus stop. Not far from the traffic lights you will see the entrance to the zoo. Near it there is a circus. Children and tourists can't but visit it. They admire funny clowns, tamed animals, miracles and magic. There are only some churches in our city. Every evening we can hear the sound of the bells.

Our city stands on the river. Parks, lanes, bridges across the river, small waterfalls and man-made islands add much to the beauty of the city.

Just come and see everything with your own eyes. It is better to see than to hear.

My village

A village is a quiet, peaceful place outside the city, which is a perfect place for rest. My native

village is situated in Azovsky District and it’s called Alexandrovka. At the moment my

grandparents live there and we often visit them. I grew up in this village, as my parents were

most of the time at work. So, my grandmother raised me and I feel there at home. Each weekend

or holiday season I spend in Alexandrovka. My favourite time of the year is summer. It’s the

time when I can live there for three months. Our house is comparatively small, but it’s not a

problem for us. It’s a one-storey house with a basement and an attic. There are three bedrooms in

the house, a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet. The house is surrounded by enormous land. This is

where my grandparents grow fruit and vegetables. Every summer we have our own harvest of

potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages, various herbs, apples, plums, apricots. There is a small flower bed

as well. This is where my grandma grows the tulips and the daffodils. We also have a summer

bath in the backyard. It is a very convenient invention. It saves lots of water and energy. Other

houses in the village are similar to ours. By the way I have many friends in the village, so there

is no time to be bored. We swim in the nearest lake, we play hide-and-seek and we simply run

around during the summer days. Thus, summer in my village flies quickly. On the 1st of

September I have to be in the city, as the school starts. However, I look forward to new

weekends and holidays to go to the village. Being there is a real pleasure for me.

Выбранный для просмотра документ My Working Day.docx


My Working Day

I usually start my day with getting up and doing all things that everybody does in the morning: washing, having breakfast, etc. Also, I got used to gather my learning tools: pencils, exercise-books, text-books in the morning. Then I usually go to the college. Fortunately, father takes a car every morning and he often picks me up and drives me to the doors of our college building.

And soon the lectures and lessons begin... We have from 2 to 4 lectures every time, depending on day. I like studying in the college more than in the school because in college it is mostly allowed to miss some lectures (of course, later you should take a summary from your mate and copy it). So, a student is much more free, than a pupil is.

After the lessons I usually return home where I have dinner and start thinking about my ways of spending the rest of the day. Very often I go to my friend's places. During the early autumn and summer I often go to the sports ground or on the beach. I also like visiting different sports events, for example, soccer matches of "Luch" in Russian championship. So, the world is full of enjoyable things to do.

On returning home I usually start doing my homework (perhaps, it is the most dull part of the day). Having finished it, I open a book and read it or watch TV. At last, I go to bed.

Of course, I would like to tell you more about myself and my working day, but, unfortunately, my time is rather limited and I have got a lot of homework to do. Generally, now you know about my working day enough.

My Working Day

I usually get up at 7 o'clock in the morning. I do my morning exercises, but not always, make my bed, wash and dress. Then I sit down to have breakfast. At 8 o'clock I leave home and go to college. As a rule I come to college in time as the lessons begin at 9 o'clock. I live not far from college and it usually takes me 15 minutes to get to college on foot. Usually we have 3 or 4 classes every day and after classes I return home. At 5 o'clock I have dinner and rest a little. After that I do my home work and help my mother about the house if she needs my help. Then I have supper and if the weather is good I go for a walk with my friends and if the weather is not good I stay at home sometimes I watch TV; sometimes I listen to music or chat with my friends over the telephone. I never work late in the evening. At 11 o'clock I usually go to bed but sometimes I watch television till late in the evening and that's why I may go to bed very late. But I always remember the proverb: "Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy wealthy and wise."

Выбранный для просмотра документ NUMERALS.pptx

Именем числительным называется часть речи, которая обозначает количество или...
Числительные hundred, thousand, million не приобретают окончание s как показа...
ПОРЯДКОВЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ Порядковые числительные образуются от соответствующих...
ДРОБИ В простых дробях числитель обозначается количественным числительным, а...
ДАТЫ При чтении обозначения года называют два двузначных числа, соответствующ...
ЧТЕНИЕ ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЯ ГОДА ПИШЕТСЯ ЧИТАЕТСЯ 1612 1812 1941 1960 1900 1905 sixtee...
2000 год — the year two thousand Начиная с 2001, годы читаются как количестве...
Read Количественные числительные Год Дата Дробь 27 146 1234 1242 4 Аpril1147...
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№ слайда 2 Именем числительным называется часть речи, которая обозначает количество или
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Именем числительным называется часть речи, которая обозначает количество или порядок предметов. Имена числительные делятся на количественные (Cardinal Numerals) и порядковые (Ordinal Numerals). Количественные числительные обозначают количество предметов и отвечают на вопрос how many? сколько? Например: one один, two два, three три и т. д. Порядковые числительные обозначают порядок предметов и от­вечают на вопрос which? который? Например: first первый, second второй, third третий и т. д.

№ слайда 3 КОЛИЧЕСТВЕННЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ПРОСТЫЕ СОСТАВНЫЕ 0 - 12 13 - 19(+teen) 20 - 90(+
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КОЛИЧЕСТВЕННЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ПРОСТЫЕ СОСТАВНЫЕ 0 - 12 13 - 19(+teen) 20 - 90(+ty) 1. Составные числительные от 20 до 100 образуются так же, как и в русском языке:25-twenty-five,93-ninety-three. 2. В составных числительных после 100 перед десятками, а если их нет, то перед единицами, ставится союзand:375(threehundredandseventy-five),901(ninehundredandone) 0 — zero 1 — one 2 — two 3 — three 4 — four 5 — five 6 — six 7 — seven 8 — eight 9 — nine 10 — ten 11 — eleven 12 — twelve 13 —thirteen 14 — fourteen 15 —fifteen 16 — sixteen 17 — seventeen 18 —eighteen 19 — nineteen 20 —twenty 30 —thirty 40 —forty 50 —fifty 60 — sixty 70 — seventy 80 —eighty 90 — ninety 100— one (a)hundred 1,000— one (a)thousand 1,000,000– one (a)million

№ слайда 4 Числительные hundred, thousand, million не приобретают окончание s как показа
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Числительные hundred, thousand, million не приобретают окончание s как показатель множественного числа, однако если эти слова выполняют функцию существительных, т. е. перед ними нет числительного (а после них обычно стоит предлог of), то во множественном числе добавляется s: hundreds of people - сотни людей, thousands of words - тысячи слов.

№ слайда 5 ПОРЯДКОВЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ Порядковые числительные образуются от соответствующих
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ПОРЯДКОВЫЕ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ Порядковые числительные образуются от соответствующих количественных числительных путем прибавления суффикса th: seven — seventh - седьмой, twenty-four — twenty-fourth - двадцать четвертый.

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ПРАВИЛА ОБРАЗОВАНИИЯ ПОРЯДКОВЫХ ЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ № п/п ПРАВИЛО ПРИМЕР 1 В составных порядковых числительных суффикс-thприсоединяется к последнему слову the forty-sixth-сорок шестой 2 Перед порядковыми числительными обычно употребляетсяопределенный артикльthe thetenth -десятый theeleventh –одинадцатый thetwenty-sixth–двадцатьшестой thehundredth -сотый 3 Десятки, имеющие конечное-y,меняют его на-ieперед-th ninety-девяносто -ninetiethдевяностый 4 ИСКЛЮЧЕНИЯ the first-первый,the second-второй,the third-третий,the fifth-пятый,the ninth-девятый,the twelfth-двенадцатый

№ слайда 7 ДРОБИ В простых дробях числитель обозначается количественным числительным, а
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ДРОБИ В простых дробях числитель обозначается количественным числительным, а знаменатель - порядковым. Порядковое числительное, т. е. знаменатель, принимает окончание множественного числа -s, если числитель больше единицы.

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ПРОСТЫЕ ДРОБИ (THE FRACTIONS) ПИШЕТСЯ ЧИТАЕТСЯ ПИШЕТСЯ ЧИТАЕТСЯ 1/2 1/3 ¼ 1/5 1/10 1/25 1/100 1/1225 (one) half a (one) third a (one) fourth/quarter a (one) fifth a (one) tenth a (one) twenty-fifth a (one) hundredth a (one) thousand two hundred and twenty-fifth 2/3 ¾ 4/7 7/18 9/10 2 1/2 3 ¼ 2/5 ton 1/4kilometre 1/2kilometre two thirds three fourths/quarters four sevenths seven eighteenths nine tenths two and a half three and a quarter/fourth two fifths of a ton quarter of akilometre half akilometre

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ДЕСЯТИЧНЫЕ ДРОБИ (THE DECIMAL FRACTIONS) ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПИШЕТСЯ ЧИТАЕТСЯ В десятичных дробях в английском языке ставитсяточка (point)вместо запятой 0.2 .2 0.5 3.4 3.215 53.75 (zero) point two point two (zero) point five three point four three point two one five fifty-three point seven five

№ слайда 10 ДАТЫ При чтении обозначения года называют два двузначных числа, соответствующ
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ДАТЫ При чтении обозначения года называют два двузначных числа, соответствующих двум первым и двум последним цифрам обозначения:

№ слайда 11 ЧТЕНИЕ ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЯ ГОДА ПИШЕТСЯ ЧИТАЕТСЯ 1612 1812 1941 1960 1900 1905 sixtee
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ЧТЕНИЕ ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЯ ГОДА ПИШЕТСЯ ЧИТАЕТСЯ 1612 1812 1941 1960 1900 1905 sixteen twelve eighteen twelve nineteen forty-one nineteen sixty nineteen hundred nineteen o [əu] five В таком чтении словоyearгод не добавляется: Pushkinwasborninseventeenninety-nine. Пушкин родился в 1799 году. Годы могут читаться и по-другому:1754 -theyearseventeenhundredandfifty-four.Такое чтение иногда встречается в документах.

№ слайда 12 2000 год — the year two thousand Начиная с 2001, годы читаются как количестве
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2000 год — the year two thousand Начиная с 2001, годы читаются как количественные числительные: 2007 — two thousand (and) seven Начиная с 2010 года всё чаще встречается чтение года как двух чисел: 2014 - twenty fourteen, 2020 - twenty twenty Так, к примеру, 2013 год можно прочитать как : (the year) two thousand (and) thirteen, либо twenty thirteen.

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ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЕ И ЧТЕНИЕ ДАТ ПИШЕТСЯ ЧИТАЕТСЯ ПЕРЕВОД 25th July, 1976 July 25 (25th), 1976 25 July 1976 The twenty-fifth of July, nineteen seventy-six; July the twenty-fifth, nineteenseventy-six 25 июля 1976 года

№ слайда 14 АНГЛИЙСКИЕ МЕРЫ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ МЕРА ЭКВИВАЛЕНТ 1 inch 1дюйм 2.5centimetres
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АНГЛИЙСКИЕ МЕРЫ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ МЕРА ЭКВИВАЛЕНТ 1 inch 1дюйм 2.5centimetres2,5см 1 foot 1фут 30.5centimetres30,5см 1 yard 1ярд 0.9metre 0,9м 1 mile 1миля 1.6kilometres 1,6км 1 ounce 1унция 28.4grams 28,4г 1pound  1фунт 453.6grams 453,6г

№ слайда 15 Read Количественные числительные Год Дата Дробь 27 146 1234 1242 4 Аpril1147
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Read Количественные числительные Год Дата Дробь 27 146 1234 1242 4 Аpril1147 38 278 5678 1380 45 397 9876 1492 8 July 1709 52 459 2345 1654 63 520 4567 1666 12June 1812 79 671 7890 1861 81 804 8080 1905 9 May 1945 96 909 2101 1961

Выбранный для просмотра документ The subject of physics.docx


The subject of physics.

In Greek language the word «physics» means «nature». So, the physics relates to the natural Sciences.

Physics is the science of the structure and objective properties of the material world around us.

Along with other natural Sciences, physics deals with the General forms of matter, mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, etc., as well as their mutual transformations.

Being studied by physics simple forms of motion present in all higher and more complex forms of motion – chemical, biological and other.

Thus to delve deeply and to learn any complex biological, chemical or other natural processes, it is essential first to understand the physical phenomena, to acquire the installed in the basic laws of physics.

What is «
А Physical law»?

Physical laws express the relationship between the physical phenomena and represent dependencies between physical quantities.

In the process of development of physics established many relationships with some of the other phenomena and a myriad of physical laws.

Speaking about physics, about science, you can not put down what it is an exact science. For this reason, mathematics is an essential tool of physics, without which a conclusion of laws, dependences, establishment of compliances is impossible.

Выбранный для просмотра документ American Food.docx


American Foodhello_html_2ee240d1.jpg

What is “American” food?

The answer is that it is part Italian, part British, part German, part Mexican, part Chinese… When people from other countries came to live in the US, they brought different cooking traditions. Some of them opened restaurants. Today Americans enjoy food from all over the world.

Over the years some foreign dishes changed a little. Doughnuts were originally from Holland. In 1847 a young American boy told his mother that her doughnuts were never cooked in the middle. He cut out the centre and his mother cooked them — and they were very tasty!

Maybe the US is most famous for “fast foods”. The first fast food restaurants served hamburgers, but now they serve other kinds of food too. Inside there is often a “salad bar”, where you can help yourself to as much salad as you want.

Americans eat a lot, and when they go to a restaurant, they don’t expect to be hungry afterwards. Most restaurants will put a lot of food on your plate — sometimes it can be too much. But if you can’t finish it all, don’t worry: they will give you a “doggy bag” and you can take it home.

Most Americans now have a light breakfast instead of the traditional eggs, bacon, toast, orange juice and coffee. But on weekends there is more time, and a large late breakfast or early lunch is often eaten with family or friends.

Выбранный для просмотра документ English Cookery and Meal.docx


English Cookery and Mealshello_html_4a8be117.jpg

With the exception of breakfast meals in England are much the same as in other countries.

The usual meals in Great Britain are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. The English are very fastidious about their meals and keep to their meal times strictly.

Breakfast time is between 7 and 9 a. m. Many people like to begin it with porridge. English people eat porridge with milk or cream and sugar, but the Scots — and Scotland is the home of porridge — never put sugar in it. Then comes bacon and eggs, marmalade with toast and tea or coffee. For a change you can have a boiled egg, cold ham or perhaps fish.

The two substantial meals of the day, lunch and dinner, are more or less the same. Lunch is usually taken at one o’clock. Many people, who go out to work, find it difficult  to come home for lunch and go to a café or a restaurant, but they never miss a meal. Lunch is a big meal — meat or fish, potatoes and salad, puddings or fruit are quite usual for it.

In the afternoon, about four o’clock, the English have a cup of tea and a cake, or a slice or two of bread and butter.

Tea is very popular with the English; it may be called their national drink. The English like it strong and fresh made. Tea must be brewed as follows: one teaspoon for each person and one for the pot. They drink it with or without sugar, but almost always with milk. It is important to pour tea into milk, and not vice versa. Their “high tea” at 5 o’clock is very famous. Tea is accompanied by ham, tomatoes and salad, bread and butter, fruit and cakes.

Dinnertime is generally about half past seven or later. In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. They begin with soup, followed by fish, roast chicken, potatoes and vegetables, fruit and coffee. But in great many English homes the midday meal is the chief one of the day, and in the evening they only have light meal, for example, bread and cheese and a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruit.

The most important meal of the week is the Sunday dinner, which is usually eaten at 1 p.m. The traditional Sunday dish used to be roast beef, but nowadays pork, chicken or lamb are more common.

On Sunday evenings people have supper or high tea. The famous British afternoon tea is becoming rare, except at weekends.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Ordering Food in a Restaurant.docx


Ordering Food in a Restaurant

One of the most important tasks in English is ordering food when you go to a restaurant. There are basic forms and questions, as well food vocabulary that you can use in places where people speak English. In general, use the form "I'd like ..." when ordering food in a restaurant. A common question for someone taking an order is "What would you like for ...". Here's a short example:

Wait person: What would you like to drink?
Customer: I'd like a cup of coffee.

Take a look at this Menu

Read this dialogue

Waiter: Hello, Can I help you?
Kim: Yes, I'd like to have some lunch.
Waiter: Would you like a starter?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a bowl of chicken soup, please.
Waiter: And what would you like for a main course?
Kim: I'd like a grilled cheese sandwich.
Waiter: Would you like anything to drink?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a glass of Coke, please.
Waiter... After Kim has her lunch.: Can I bring you anything else?
Kim: No thank you. Just the bill.
Waiter: Certainly.
Kim:I don't have my glasses. How much is the lunch?
Waiter: That's $6.75.
Kim: Here you are. Thank you very much.
Waiter: You're welcome. Have a good day.
Kim: Thank you, the same to you.

Look at the menu above and practice ordering food and taking orders with a partner as in the dialogue.

Notice how the waiter asks: What would you like? and Kim responds: I'd like ...

"Would like" is the polite form used when asking and requesting.

Начало формы

Fill in the gaps. Click on the arrow to see the answer.

Waiter: Hello, Can I________Конец формы you?
Kim: Yes, ______to have some lunch.
Waiter: _________a starter?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a bowl of _______ soup,_______ .
Waiter: And what for a main course?
Kim: I'd like _________.
Waiter: Would you like to drink?
Kim: Yes, I'd like a glass of __________ , please.
Waiter... After Kim has her lunch.: Can I bring you anything else?
Kim: No thank you. Just the ________ .
Waiter: Certainly.
Kim:I don't have my glasses. ________ is the lunch?
Waiter: That's $_______.
Kim: . Thank you very much.
Waiter: You're _________. Have a good day.
Kim: Thank you, the_____________

Начало формы

Конец формы

Конец формы

Выбранный для просмотра документ диалоги.docx



What are we going to eat for dinner?


I'm going to fix some pork chops.


I'm afraid the meat is rotten.


That's strange!  I just bought it the day before yesterday.


Well, I forgot to put it in the refrigerator.


Good for you!  Now what should we eat?


Why don't we eat out?


Again?  Weren't you just complaining that it's too expensive to eat out?


Not when you're hungry.


John, where are the cookies?  Don't tell me you ate them all!  Again!


Yes, I did.  I couldn't help it.  They were so good.


I thought you didn't like cookies.


Well, I don't like cookies flavored with chocolate at all. But vanilla is different.  I love them to death. 


Huh, I didn't know that.


Well, tell you what, vanilla cookies taste even better with a glass of cold milk.


Are you ready to order now?


Yes.  I'll have some salad, roast beef, and mashed potatoes.


How do you want the beef?  Rare, medium, or well-done?


Well-done.  And easy on the salt, please.


Sure.  Anything to drink? 


Do you have coffee or tea?  I'd like decaf.


Yes, we have both.  Which one would you like, coffee or tea?

  • Hi Jim! How are you?

  • Hello! I am fine, thanks. How are things?

  • Just fine, thank you.
    Where are Hubert and Margaret?
    They must come in.
    Look! There is a vacant table in the corner.Let’s sit down at the table.
    What would you like to order?
    I prefer the cake “Tiramisu”, some coffee with a bit  whipped cream. And you?
    I rather want  some banana strawberry pie, a cup of cappuccino with some ice-cream.Oh, nice to meet you Hubert and Margaret! How have you been?
    I have been doing okay recently.Thanks.
    Good, thank you.Have you already ordered  some meal?
    Yes, we have. Sit down, please.What would you like to take?
    I  will  some cheesecake with a bit porous chocolate and a cup of Latte with vanilla.And you, Hubert?
    I want a glass of milk bilberry shake and a slice of fruit dessert.
    The order will be ready in a few minutes.I see, you’ve already eaten your portion.
    Yes.It was delicious.But I am stiil hungry.
    You needed to order something more substantial.
    Yeah, I will order sandwiches right now.
    What sandwiches have you decided to take?
    Cheeseburger with some slices of ham, cucumber pickles and lettuce.
    I think I will order some sandwiches as well.
    Will you eat some cheeseburgers too?
    No, I want sandwiches with salmon and  mayonnaise sauce.
    Oh, look, our orders are ready. Take them from the cash desk, please.
    This meal tastes good.I like it.

Выбранный для просмотра документ At the Doctor.docx



At the Doctor's

Is there anything more important than health? I don't think so. "Health is the greatest wealth," wise people say. You can't be good at your studies or work well when you are ill.

If you have a headache, heartache, toothache, backache, earache or bad pain in the stomach, if you complain of a sore throat or a bad cough, if you run a high temperature and have a bad cold in your head, or if you suffer from high or low blood pressure, I think you should consult a doctor. The doctor will examine your throat, feel your pulse, test your blood pressure, take your temperature, sound your heart and lungs, test your eyes, check your teeth or have your chest X-rayed.

After that he will prescribe some treatment, pills, tablets or some other medicine which we can buy at the chemist's. He will recommend you to stay in bed for some time, because there might be serious complications. The only thing you have to do is to follow his recommendations.

Speaking about doctors' recommendations, I can't help telling you one funny story.

An old gentleman came to see the doctor. The man was very ill. He complained of weakness, insomnia, memory loss and serious problems with his heart, lungs and liver. The doctor examined the patient and said that no medicine could cure his desease.

Do you want to know what the doctor's advice was?

He told his patient to go to a quiet place for a month and have a good rest. He also advised him to eat a lot of meat, drink two glasses of red wine every day and take long walks. In other words, the doctor recommended him to follow the rule: "Eat at pleasure, drink with measure and enjoy life as it is."

The doctor also said that if the man wanted to be well again, he shouldn't smoke more than one cigarette a day.

A month later the gentleman came into the doctor's office. He looked cheerful and happy. He thanked the doctor and said that he had never felt a healthier man.

"But you know, doctor," he said, "it's not easy to begin smoking at my age."

Выбранный для просмотра документ Healhty Way Of Life.docx


Healthy Way Of Life

Scientists say that in the future people will live longer. With healthier lifestyles and better medical care the average person will live to 90 or 100 instead of 70 and 75 like today. When the human genome is decoded, we'll probably live up to 150. Incurable diseases will be cured and "bad" genes replaced.

But that's tomorrow. And today, we continue to stuff ourselves with fast food — chips and pizzas, hamburgers and hot dogs. We are always in a hurry. We have no time to enjoy a home-cooked dinner with family and friends. We want to eat now and we want to eat fast. What is tasty is not always healthy. Doctors say that chips and pizzas are fattening, cola spoils our teeth and coffee shortens our lives.

If we eat too much, we'll become obese, and obesity leads to heart disease, diabetes and other serious illnesses. But the world today is getting fatter and fatter. America is the world's leader in obesity, but Europe is quickly catching up.

Lack of exercise is another serious problem. We spend hours in front of our computers and TV-sets. Few of us do morning exercises. We walk less, because we prefer to use cars or public transport. Research shows, however, that young people who don't take enough exercise often suffer from heart attacks.

It's common knowledge that smoking and drinking can shorten our lives dramatically. Cigarette-smoking, for example, kills about 3 million people every year. Many of them die from lung cancer. Some aren't even smokers. They are people who live or work with heavy smokers. Yet many young people smoke and drink. Why? One answer is that tobacco and drinks companies invest enormous sums of money in advertising their products. For them cigarettes and alcoholic drinks mean money. For us they mean disease and even death.

It is known that healthy people live longer and their career is more successful. To look well you must follow some simple rules: don’t smoke and take drugs, don’t drink alcohol, don’t eat too much chips and sweets, eat more vegetables and fruits, sleep well, do morning exercises and go in for sports.

We all know that the healthier we are, the better we feel. The better we feel, the longer we live. So why not take care of ourselves?


human genome –

to decode –

to cure –

to stuff –

obese –

obesity –

lack –

research –

heart attack –

cancer –

It’s common knowledge –

shorten –

enormous –

to advertise –

successful –

follow –

drug –

take care of –

Выбранный для просмотра документ What do British people like doing at the weekends.docx


What do British people like doing at their leisure-time?

The weekends are a time for families in Britain. Often the parents are not at work having worked a five day week from Monday to Friday. Saturdays are a busy time for shops with many families going shopping.


Sundays used to be a very special day of the week in Britain. It was the one day of the week for 'worship and rest'. The shops were closed and most people were at home or at church. Popular leisure activities on Sunday used to be going to church and doing odd jobs around the home such as gardening and DIY.


Until a few years ago shops were not permitted to open on a Sunday.  Sundays today are becoming like any other day other week with shops open. Some families will now spend their time shopping rather than going to church or they will combine the two activities.

Britain is becoming a far less Christian country with fewer people regularly attending Church.Many Christian's believe that Sunday should be kept special, as a time given to worshipping God.  They think it is important for Christians to meet together, listen to readings from the Bible and celebrate Holy Communion.  Others believe that it is important that families have time to be together.  (The shopping hours on a Sunday are less than on any other day of the week.)

How do people spend their free time?

People enjoy various indoor and outdoor activities in Britain.

A recent Euro stat survey, the EU's statistical office, discovered that people in Britain spend about 45% of their free time watching television, 24% of their free time socializing, 22-23% on sport and hobbies, and 10% on other activities. Other popular leisure activities are listening to the radio, listening to pre-recorded music, reading, DIY, gardening, eating out and going to the cinema.


The most common leisure activity in the UK is watching television. The average viewing time is 25 hours per person per week. Almost all households have at least one television set. In 1999, 13% of households had satellite television and 9% cable television. Many television programmes are about wildlife, animals, holidays, cooking and gardening. All these things are much cherished by British people.


People in Britain listen to an average 15 hours and 50 minutes of radio each week.
The only radio I listen to is the Top 40. I like to find out who is number one in the pop charts each week.

" My parents listen to the radio in the mornings and when we are having our evening meal."


The second most popular activity in Britain is visiting or entertaining friends or relations.

"Mum and Dad go out and visit friends at least once a week. Sometimes I and my brother go too. Every Wednesday after school James and I go to see our gran."

Cinema (Movie house)

Britons made 123 million visits to the cinema in 1998 making it the most popular cultural activity in the UK.

"I like to go to the cinema with my friends at the weekend whenever there is a good movie on."

Eating out

Eating out has grown in popularity, with British people spending in 1999 an average of £5.63 per person per week on food (excluding alcohol) outside the home.

"We go to McDonalds at least once a week. Sometimes we have a pizza delivered to our house. Occasionally we will go to a restaurant."

Homes and Gardens


The British are known as a nation of gardeners. Most people have a garden on their property. Gardening has been a popular pastime since Roman times. Many people in Britain are proud of their houses and gardens. They want their houses and gardens to look nice. Every town in Britain has one or more DIY (Do it Yourself) centres and garden centres. These are like supermarkets for the home and garden. These places are very popular with British home-owners at the weekends.

"We don't have a big garden like some people. Dad likes to mow the lawn. Sometimes I help him. Mum looks after the flowers. She weeds the garden so that the garden looks good. I am growing some vegetables in my garden."

Activities outside the home

Saturday is traditionally the day for shopping and watching sports.

Retail Therapy (Shopping)


A newspaper survey found that 20 per cent of women are compulsive shoppers.
Saturday is the main day when we go shopping. Sometimes we will go into town after school.

Sports and Physical Recreation


Sports and physical recreation have always been popular. Local governments provide cheap sport and leisure facilities such as swimming pools, tennis courts, parks and golf courses. People go to watch other people play sports like football or take part in sports themselves.

Sports play an important part in the life in Britain and is a popular leisure activity.

Many of the world's famous sports began in Britain, including cricket, football, lawn tennis, golf and rugby

England's national sport is cricket although to many people football (soccer) is seen as British national sport. Football is most popular sport. Some of England's football teams are world famous, the most famous being Manchester United, Arsenal and Liverpool.




Cricket is played on village greens and in towns/cities on Sundays from April to August

The rules of cricket became the responsibility, in the 18th century, of the Marylebone Cricket Club(MCC), based at Lord’s cricket ground in north London.

How to play Cricket (перевести на русский язык)

Teams are made up of 11 players each. They play with a ball slightly smaller than a baseball and a bat shaped like a paddle. Two batters stand in front of wickets, set about 20 metres apart. Each wicket consists of three wooden rods (stumps) pushed into the ground, with two small pieces of wood (bails) balanced on top. A member of the opposing team (the bowler) throws the ball towards one of the batters, who must hit the ball so that it does not knock a bail off the wicket. If the ball travels far enough, the two batters run back and forth between the wickets while the fielders on the opposing team try to catch the ball. The game is scored according to the number of runs, which is the number of times the batters exchange places.

Football (Soccer)

Football is undoubtedly the most popular sport in England, and has been played for hundreds of years.

In the English Football League there are 92 professional clubs. These are semi-professional, so most players have other full-time jobs. Hundreds of thousands of people also play football in parks and playgrounds just for fun.

The highlight of the English football year is the FA (Football Association) Cup Final each May.

Rugby (перевод на русский язык)

Rugby originated from Rugby school in Warwickshire. It is similar to football, but played with an oval ball. Players can carry the ball and tackle each other. The best rugby teams compete in the Super League final each September. hello_html_3a116782.jpg

For many years Rugby was only played by the rich upper classes, but now it is popular all over the country. There are two different types of rugby - Rugby League, played mainly in the north of England, and Rugby Union, played in the rest of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, together with France and Italy, play in an annual tournament called the Six Nations.


The world's most famous tennis tournament is Wimbledon. It started at a small club in south London in the nineteenth century. It begins on the nearest Monday to June 22, at a time when English often have the finest weather. Millions of people watch the Championships on TV live.

It is traditional for visitors to eat strawberries and cream whilst they watch the tennis.hello_html_m506a409d.jpg

Netball (найти информацию об игре в Интернете)

Netball is the largest female team sport in England. The sport is played almost exclusively by women and girls, although male participation has increased in recent years.hello_html_m352da996.jpg


Over 3 million people participate in basketball in the UK.


Scotland is traditionally regarded as the home of golf. There are over 400 golf courses in Scotland alone. The most important golf club in Scotland is in the seaside town of St. Andrews, near Dundee.

Horse racing

Horseracing, the sport of Kings is a very popular sport with meetings being held every day throughout the year. The Derby originated here, as did The Grand National which is the hardest horse race in the world.

Horse racing and greyhound racing are popular spectator sports. People can place bets on the races at legal off-track betting shops. Some of the best-known horse races are held at Ascot, Newmarket, Goodwood and Epsom.hello_html_7659db52.jpghello_html_55995d25.jpg

Ascot, a small town in the south of England, becomes the centre of horse-racing world for one week in June. It's called Royal Ascot because the Queen always goes to Ascot. She has a lot of racehorses and likes to watch racing.


Another equestrian sport is polo, brought to Britain from India in the 19th Century by army officers. It is the fastest ball sport in the world.

Polo is played with four men on horses to a team. A ball is hit with a stick towards the goal, one at each end of a 300 yard long by 160 yard wide field...

Table Tennis (ping pong)hello_html_m70b19a74.jpg

Table tennis was invented in England in 1880. It began with Cambridge University students using cigar boxes and champagne corks.
Although the game originated in England, British players don't have much luck in international championships.


Badminton takes its name from the Duke of Beaufort’s country home, Badminton House, where the sport was first played in the 19th century.

University Boat Race

In the nineteenth century, students at Oxford and Cambridge, Britain's two oldest universities, were huge fans of rowing. In 1829, the two schools agreed to hold a race against each other for the first time on the Thames River. The Oxford boat won and a tradition was born. Today, the University Boat Race is held every spring in either late March or early April.

Fishing (Angling)

Angling is one of the most popular sports in the UK, with an estimated 3.3 million people participating in the sport on a regular basis. Fishermen can be see sitting beside rivers and lakes.

Bowls (найти информацию об игре в Интернете)

The two main forms of bowls are lawn flat green (outdoor and indoor) and crown green.


Boxing in its modern form is based on the rules established by the Marquess of Queensberry in 1865. In the UK boxing is both amateur and professional, and strict medical regulations are applied in both.


Swimming is also a popular pastime and enjoyed by people of all ages.

Martial arts

Various martial arts, mainly derived from the Far East, are practised in the UK, such as judo and karate.


Darts is a very popular pub game. The game of darts, as it is today, was invented in the north of England in a town called Grimsby. However, the origins of the game date back to at least the Middle Ages.

Pubs (Public Houses)hello_html_5a9e656f.jpghello_html_22b03807.jpg


Going to the pub is the most popular leisure activity outside the home.



Two-thirds of all British people have their holidays in July and August, which are the most popular months for holidays. English school children are on holiday from the end of July to the beginning of September.hello_html_5952916b.jpg

Traditional Holidays


Many British people spend much of their free time during the summer months down by the sea. Children enjoy swimming in the sea and building sandcastles.

There are places near the sea, such as Blackpool, Scarborough and Bournemouth, where there is plenty to do even if it rains.

The traditional British holiday is a seaside holiday. Children used to watch a Punch and Judy show (puppets) and ride donkeys along a beach.


Punch and Judy show

Donkey rides along the beach


Traditional things to eat at the seaside are candy floss (pictured left)
and a stick of rock sweet (see below).




Holidays Abroad


Europe is the most popular destination for UK residents, accounting for 80 per cent of visits abroad. Spain has been the most popular country to visit since 1994, with 13.8 million visits in 2005. France was second in popularity, with 11.1 million visits.

The number of visits by UK residents to the USA increased by 2 per cent in 2005 to 4.2 million, 6 per cent higher than the number in 2001.

Holiday trips abroad

1971 - 6.7 million

2005 - 66.4 million

Two-thirds of these visits abroad are holidays with about half (47 per cent) package holidays.

Source: International Passenger Survey, Office for National Statistics

TOP Destinations for British tourists 2005

The five countries to which UK residents made the most visits in 2005 remained unchanged from 2004. These were Spain (13.8 million visits in 2005), France (11.1 million visits), USA (4.2 million visits), Irish Republic (4.2 million visits) and Italy (3.4 million visits). The next five countries also remained unchanged from 2004; Greece, Germany, Netherlands, Portugal and Belgium.


Preferred mode of transport to holiday destinations

  • Air 43 million

  • Sea 9.7 million

  • Channel Tunnel (train) 5.6 million

Popular holiday trends

  • Most holidays are taken in July and August

  • More and more Britons are taking a second holiday abroad in the winter (skiing for a week) or Spring (weekend/short breaks to European cities)

  • Seaside package holidays are the most popular type of holiday.

  • Most working people have 4 weeks holiday per year and take 2 weeks off in the Summer

A Timeline of British Holiday Habits


Ordinary working people only had holidays on ‘holy’ days (Sundays, Christmas, Easter)

1850-1900 hello_html_466f85b6.jpg

The creation of a national railway system helped ordinary people travel. Most holidays were day trips to the British seaside by train.



Most Britons started to take a short Summer holiday for a week. Camping and holidays in caravans became popular in the 60s as people started to buy cars. British holiday camps were popular.



The airline industry expanded and tour operators started to offer very cheap package holidays to Spain or ‘last minute’ cheap fares. Large numbers of UK residents started to go abroad for their holidays. The package holiday boom started. hello_html_4718ca7f.gif


1980s hello_html_m73fb22b9.jpg

Skiing holidays were starting to become popular and the package industry continued to expand. British tourists started to prefer a package holiday abroad to an expensive British holiday



Packages to the USA became much cheaper than trips to British resorts.
Most ordinary people went abroad.


1990s - 2007

A second yearly holiday became possible with more and more cheap packages. Holidays to Australia and more exotic locations became cheap enough for many ordinary working people.hello_html_m1c5a864b.jpg


Выбранный для просмотра документ What is a Hobby.docx


What is a Hobby?

A hobby is something people like to do regularly when they have some spare time. As tastes differ hobbies are different, too. Some people enjoy doing sports, others like reading, many prefer collecting and so on.

Hobby develops people, brings something new to a person’s life, improves his skills or widens his outlook. 

Types of Hobbies

Numerous hobbies are divided into four categories:

  • doing something;

  • making something;

  • collecting something;

  • learning something.

The first type of hobbies includes doing sports, travelling, gardening, photography, playing musical instruments. Gardening and cultivation of flowers, especially roses, are the most common hobbies among Englishmen.

People can make a lot of different things in their free time. For example, cooking, making dresses or toys, painting and drawing.

The most wide-spread things to collect are stamps, post cards, badges, coins, shells and stones. Some collections are very valuable such as collections of pictures, jewelries, old cars.

If your hobby is learning something you increase your knowledge greatly. People usually learn foreign languages and history.

My Hobbies

I devote my leisure time to two hobbies. I keep a dog and study English.

My dog is a black Labrador. It is an excellent friend and companion. My dog is very smart and active. We play and walk a lot. My dog makes me responsible, caring, kind, understanding.

Besides, I have been studying English for many years. This hobby allows me to travel much easier, to communicate with English-speaking friends, to surf the Internet and read books in original. With this hobby I feel I grow intellectually.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Упражнения на выражения настоящего времени в придаточных условия и времени в английском языке.docx


Упражнения на выражения настоящего времени в придаточных условия и времени в английском языке


Упражнение 1 – заполните пропуски в предложениях, поставив глаголы в соответствующие временные формы.

  1. I … (go) to the theatre if I … (go) out tonight.

  2. I … (be) angry if you … (get) back very late.

  3. We … (see) each other next month if we … (not/see) each other next month.

  4. If they … (come), I … (be) very surprised.

  5. We … (be) late if we … (wait) here.

  6. We … (go) to Italy if we … (go) on holiday this autumn.

  7. We … (not/have) a picnic if the weather … (not/improve).

  8. Peter and Jack … (go) to the party if they … (be) invited.

  9. I … (be) tired tomorrow if I … (not/go) to bed early this evening.

  10. We … (feel) sick, if we … (eat) all these cakes.

Упражнение 2 – переведите предложения с русского на английский язык

  1. Если ты не хочешь идти на прогулку, тогда я приготовлю ужин дома.

  2. Я приду сегодня пораньше, если ты действительно этого хочешь.

  3. Он не получит работу получше, если не сдаст этот экзамен.

  4. Я куплю новое платье, когда у меня будет достаточно денег.

  5. Она приготовит обед, если ты сходишь за продуктами в супермаркет.

  6. Они поедут на отдых в горы, когда у них будет достаточно времени.

  7. Мы опоздаем на нашу встречу, если не поторопимся прямо сейчас.

  8. Она возьмет такси, если вдруг начнется сильный дождь.

  9. Я никуда не пойду, если ты не пойдешь со мной.

  10. Если мы возьмем с собой Джона, ему будет очень приятно.

  11. Если ты дашь мне немного денег, я верну их тебе завтра с утра.

  12. Если они скажут нам, что они этого хотят, мы дадим им то, что они просят.

  13. Если Мэри придет, она захочет повести машину.

  14. Когда я снова полечу в Нью-Йорк, я куплю тебе сувенир в Эмпайр-Стейт-Билдинг.

  15. Если она еще не слышала этой плохой новости, тогда я расскажу ей сам.

  16. Тебе непременно стоит попробовать чизкейк в ‘Lindy’s’, когда ты будешь в Нью-Йорке.

  17. Если он придет, он сможет подвезти тебя до самого дома.

  18. Когда я его увижу, тогда я расскажу ему сам, насколько я зол.

  19. Если мы не получим этот контракт, мы просто потратим много времени и денег зря.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Формы выражения будущего времени в придаточных условия и времени в английском языке.docx


Формы выражения будущего времени в придаточных условия и времени в английском языке

В придаточных времени с союзами when (когда), after (после), before (перед тем как), as soon as (как только), until (до тех пор пока не), относящихся к будущему времени, а также в придаточных условия, вводимых союзами if (если) и unless (если не), будущее время заменяется формой настоящего времени, но на русский язык переводится будущим, например:
If you help me, I shall do this work on time.
- Если ты поможешь мне, я сделаю эту работу вовремя.

As soon as I get free, I shall give you a call.
- Как только я освобожусь, я вам позвоню.

We shall not sit to dinner until you come.
- Мы не сядем обедать, пока ты не придешь.

Иногда в сложносочиненном предложении словами when и if вводится придаточное дополнительное, а не придаточное времени или условия. В этом случае использование настоящего времени в придаточном будет ошибкой. Чтобы определить, какую форму глагола необходимо использовать, достаточно поставить
вопрос к придаточному предложению - «при каком условии?» и «когда?» к придаточным условия и времени и «что?» - к придаточному дополнительному.

We shall sit to dinner (Когда?) when he comes.
Мы сядем обедать, когда он придет.

We will go to the movies if he comes.   
Мы пойдем в кино, если он придет.

I want to know (
что?) when you will come.
Я хочу знать, когда ты придешь.

I want to know (
что?) if you will come.
- Я хочу знать, придешь ли ты.

Выбранный для просмотра документ modal verbs.docx


Задание 1. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами can, can't, could, couldn't, must, mustn't, need, needn't.

Пример: I was very busy, so I couldn't meet you at the airport.

1. You ... interrupt the lecturer. It's rude and impolite.
2. My friend ... speak five languages.
3. When I entered the room I ... smell roses.
4. I ... forget about this and move forward.
5. You ... come so early (вам не нужно (нет необходимости) приходить так рано).

Задание 2. Переведите предложения, используя модальные глаголы might, can, should, have to, be able to.

Пример: Маше следует заниматься спортом каждый день. – Mary should take exercises every day.

1. Возможно, я поговорю с ней.
2. Тебе следует сходить к зубному врачу.
3. Неужели он до сих пор спит?
4. Я могу починить вашу машину.
5. Мы должны прийти домой в 5 часов.

Задание 3. Укажите верные (correct) и неверные (wrong) предложения.

Пример: My father can play the guitar. – Correct.

1. You can not buy the tickets.
2. I must complete a painting by tommorow.
3. Children should respect their parents.
4. May I to come in?
5. I were able to sing very well, when I was young.

Задание 4. Перефразируйте предложения, используя модальные глаголы.

Пример: Would you mind my opening the window? – May/can/could I open the window?

1. - I can't find George anywhere. I wonder where he is. 
    - It's possible that he is visiting his grandmother. (
перефразируйте данное предложение
2. Perhaps we will stay here overnight.
3. You are forbidden to enter the engine room.

Выбранный для просмотра документ МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ.docx









Неизбежность совершения действия, обусловленная объективными причинами

He must understand it. Он должен понять это.

Вынужденность совершения действия, обусловленная объективными причинами

You must not ask too much of it.

Вы не должны спрашивать про это слишком много.

Необходимость, обусловленная субъективным мнением говорящего

I must be off as soon as I can. Я должен уйти, как только смогу.



Необходимость совершения действия, вызванная субъективным мнением говорящего

You shouldn't have come here. Тебе не следовало приходить сюда.

Необходимость совершения действия, вызванная объективными причинами

Insulators should be kept very clean. Изоляторы должны храниться в чистоте.



Необходимость совершения действия, вызванная субъективным мнением говорящего

I ought to do all I can to comfort her. Я должен сделать все, что могу, чтобы успокоить ее.

Целесообразность действия, обусловленная субъективным мнением говорящего

Perhaps I ought to have a talk to him about it first. Наверное, мне следует сначала поговорить с ним об этом.



Необходимость совершения действия, обусловленная субъективным мнением говорящего

Henry shall go home. Генри должен пойти домой.

Вопросительное предложение с shall содержит вопрос говорящего о мнении собеседника по поводу совершения действия

Shall I open the door? Мне открыть дверь?



Передает оттенок нужности, надобности действия

We needn't talk to each other unless we feel like it. Нам не нужно говорить друг с другом, если только мы не захотим этого.



Вынужденность действия

I didn't have to make any decisions. Мне не пришлось принимать решения.

Надобность действия

I have to know it. Мне надо это знать.



Неизбежность совершения действия

The novel, which is to be his last one has found a new sense. Роман, которому суждено было стать его последним романом, нашел новый смысл.

Необходимость совершения действия согласно предварительной договоренности

He was to come yesterday. Он должен был прийти вчера.

Необходимость совершения действия, вызванная объективными причинами

The wire may also be made of any metal though soft metals are to be avoided. Провод также может быть сделан из любого металла, хотя мягкие металлы не следует использовать.








Возможность совершения действия в силу наличия условий для его совершения в настоящем и будущем

I can stay with them.

Я могу остаться с ними.

Возможность совершения действия, основанная на позволении, разрешении

Can I see the producer? Могу я увидеть продюсера?

Глагол can может также передавать немодальное значение  способности, физической возможности совершить действие

He can speak English.

Он умеет говорить по-английски.

Вместо глагола can после глаголов seem казаться, appear оказаться, used to бывало в качестве формы инфинитива, а также для образования будущего времени употребляется сочетание to be able

Do you think you′ll be able to come three days a week? Ты думаешь, что сможешь приходить три дня в неделю?

Вместо could в прошедшем времени может употребляться сочетание to be able в прошедшем времени - was/were able.

На русский язык was/were able переводится глаголом совершенного вида: смог, смогла, смогли

I was able to write this test correctly. Я смог правильно написать этот тест.



Возможность совершения действия, которое может осуществиться, но может и не осуществиться

It may make that man furious. Это может взбесить этого человека.

Возможность совершения действия, обусловленная разрешением, позволением.

В этом значении вместо глагола may (might) могут использоваться эквиваленты — to be allowed, to be permitted

You may give me one kiss. Можете поцеловать меня разок.

You′ll be allowed to go out. Вам позволят выйти.








Предположение, основанное на фактах, знаниях, почти граничащее с уверенностью

He must be at home. Он, вероятно, дома.



Предположение, основанное на фактах

They should all be of equal mass. Вероятно, все они имеют одинаковую массу.



Предположение, основанное на фактах

It ought not to be very hard to find that man. Вероятно, найти этого человека будет не очень сложно.




Предположение, основанное на субъективном мнении говорящего

You′ll have heard of him? Вы, наверно, слыхали о нем?




Употребляется главным образом в отрицательных предложениях, выражая, таким образом, предположение о невероятности совершения действия

You can't really love me, or you wouldn′t hesitate. Ты, на самом деле, не любишь меня, иначе ты бы не колебался.



Предположение о возможности действия, которое может произойти, но может и не произойти

I may have said it. Я мог сказать это (но не сказал).



Предположение, в верности которого говорящий не уверен

She might have been thirty-five. Ей тогда было лет тридцать пять.

Предположение, не соответствующее действительности

Michael laughed and shouted and sang. He might have been fifteen. Майкл смеялся и кричал, и пел. В тот момент ему было лет пятнадцать.



Употребляется в отрицательных предложениях в значении предположения о необязательности действия

It needn't take you very long. Вряд ли это займет у вас много времени.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Popular US Sports.docx


Popular US Sports

Football is the most popular sport

American football is the most popular spectator sport in the United States. It is a combat game where highly trained athletes skillfully and brutally execute strategic plans. Attending a football game often begins with a "tailgate party" in the parking lot of the stadium followed by several hours of rowdy, emotionally charged excitement. Most fans watch football while gathered in a local bar or at a friend's home in front of a big-screen TV.

The National Football League (NFL) consists of 32 professional teams located in major cities across the USA. Each team plays 16 games between early September and the end of December. The two best teams meet at the Superbowl near the end of January. Games are on Sunday afternoons with a few nationally televised games on Monday nights. It is difficult to get tickets for any NFL games as they are generally "sold out" before the season begins. You can sometimes obtain tickets through travel agents and ticket brokers at premium prices. You can almost always buy tickets, for a high price, from illegal "ticket scalpers" in front of the stadium just before a game.

At hundreds of universities across the USA, they play college football games on Saturday afternoons. Games at the "football schools" with outstanding teams often attract over 100,000 fans. It is difficult to obtain tickets to games at the best football schools but easy to get tickets at the less popular college games.

Baseball has an entirely different atmosphere

Baseball is the second most popular sport in the USA and it has a completely different atmosphere than football. It is a game of intense concentration and the near perfect execution of playing skill. Attending a baseball game might start with a tailgate party that resembles a family picnic followed by several hours of relaxed socializing with friends while watching the game.

Safeco Field is home to the Seattle Mariners, a Major League Baseball team in the American League. hello_html_m4671f4c5.jpg

There are 30 Major League baseball teams divided into the National League and the American League. Each team plays about 160 games on weekday evenings or weekend afternoons between early spring and late fall. The best team from each league meet in late fall for the World Series games to determine the National Champion. Only the most popular games are sold out, so you can normally buy tickets to most Major League games.

Several hundred minor league baseball teams play in smaller cities across the USA and Canada. Each team is affiliated with one of the Major League teams and used as a training ground for future Major League players. Tickets are almost always available for minor league games. 

Basketball is a very popular winter sport

Basketball combines the fast-paced excitement of football with the concentration and athletic prowess of baseball. Basketball game can be intensely exciting but are usually less rowdy than football games.

The National Basketball Association (NBA) contains 29 teams from major Canadian and US cities. They play about 100 games on evenings and a few afternoons between October and May. The championship games are in June. NBA games in many cities are sold out well in advance, so it may be difficult to obtain tickets. There are ten Women's National Basketball Association teams (WNBA) in the US. Their games are not as popular as the NBA games but are just as exciting, and you can easily obtain tickets.

Hundreds of universities across the USA play college basketball. At the "basketball schools" with excellent teams ticket might be hard to find.

Hockey is also a popular winter sport in the USA

Hockey is not as popular as football, baseball or basketball, but it has a loyal following of fans in certain cities of the USA and Canada. The game has the fast paced excitement of football and basketball with plenty of violent body contact. Hockey games have a reputation for attracting loud, beer-drinking, rowdy fans.

The National Hockey League (NHL) has 30 teams in major cities across the USA and Canada. Each team plays about 80 games between October and April. Playoff elimination games are held after the season and the two top teams play in the "Stanley Cup" championship. Tickets are available for hockey games in most cities as only the most popular games are sold out.

Enthusiasm for NASCAR auto racing is growing rapidly

NASCAR is the second most viewed professional sport in the United States. hello_html_7286f872.jpg

Stock car racing was once popular primarily with the rural population in the small towns of Southeastern USA. Today, the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is one of the fastest growing spectator sports across the USA. About 35 major NASCAR races are held each year plus about 60 minor or specialty races. Tickets are usually available at most NASCAR racetracks as they have large seating capacities. The racing season begins in February in the southern states and extends through the end of August. Annual championships are awarded based on points accumulated throughout the season.

Minor league stock car racing is still held at numerous smaller tracks across the country where local racecars and drivers compete for regional championships. Drag racing meets are held at numerous "drag strips" across the US. Truck pulls, tractor pulls, big wheel exhibitions and demolition derbies are held at various racetracks and stadiums around the USA.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Sport In My Life.docx


Sport In My Life

Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been developing with the developing and growth of the mankind. To my mind we can hardly overestimate the meaning of sport in our life and day-to-day activities, because its main purpose is to bring up the harmoniously developed generation - the generation of strong and healthy people. Sport makes our bodies strong, quickens our reaction, and shapes the wits. It also prevents us from getting too fat, gives us so valuable practice in making eyes, brain and muscles work together and makes us more self-organized and better disciplined.

I'm absolutely sure that doing sports is the best way to keep fit. There is always a kind of sport which will suit you and there are many different kinds to choose from. If you like team games, try hockey, football, volleyball or basketball. Games for you to play with a friend include badminton, squash and tennis, and if you enjoy doing things on your own, you may take up swimming, riding, golf or athletics.

I'm sure you know an axiom: "Sport makes people healthy". No doubt, that's true, but frankly speaking one knows that there are some kinds of sport which you cannot go in for if you are not healthy enough. Say, body-building. If you have a heart decease or other sickness, attending the body-building trainings will bring you nothing but harm. And also, going in for sport is always connected with a great risk, because any athlete can get an injury. And we know many examples, when an athlete got trauma at the beginning of his sports career and in the prime of his life had to leave professional sport. But it doesn't mean at all that people shouldn't go in for sports. I only want to say that they should be careful and remember that the health is given to a human being only once, so, do your best not to lose it.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Sport in Our Life.docx


Sport in Our Life

People all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport makes people healthy, it keeps them fit, it makes them more organized and better disciplined. It unites people of different classes and nationalities. Many people do sports on their personal initiative. They go in for skiing, skating, table tennis, swimming, volley-ball, football, body-building, etc. All necessary facilities are provided for them in our country: stadiums, sport grounds, swimming pools, skating rinks, skiing stations, football fields.

Sport is paid much attention to in our educational establishments. Gymnastics is a part of children's daily activities in the kindergartens. Physical culture is a compulsory subject at schools and colleges.

Professional sport is also paid much attention to in our country. In Moscow there are different sporting societies, clubs and complexes.

Practically all kinds of sports are popular in our country, but football, gymnastics and tennis enjoy the greatest popularity.

As for me, I go in for table tennis (ping-pong). It needs mobility, liveliness and much energy. It keeps me in a good form. I have been playing table tennis for five years, but the more I play, the more I like it. I get a real joy taking part in competitions or simply playing with my friends. Sometimes, I go to tennis courts. Certainly, there's a great difference between my manner of playing and such favourites as Jim Courier, Stephan Edberg, Pete Sampras, Boris Becker, Per Korda, but I train with great pleasure and hope to play as well as the best players do.

Спорт в нашей жизни

Люди во всем мире любят спорт. Спорт делает их здоровыми, держит в хорошей форме, делает более организованными и более дисциплинированными. Он объединяет людей разных сословий и национальностей. Многие люди занимаются спортом по личной инициативе. Они увлекаются ходьбой на лыжах, катанием на коньках, настольным теннисом, плаванием, волейболом, бодибилдингом и другими видами спорта. Для занятий спортом имеются все необходимые условия: стадионы, спортплощадки, плавательные бассейны, катки, лыжные станции, футбольные поля.

В наших учебных заведениях спорту уделяется большое внимание. Гимнастика является частью ежедневных занятий в детских садах. Физическая культура — обязательный предмет в школах и институтах.

Профессиональному спорту также уделяется много внимания в нашей стране. В Москве есть много спортивных обществ, клубов и комплексов. Практически все виды спорта популярны у нас в стране, но футбол, гимнастика и теннис пользуются наибольшей популярностью.

Что касается меня, я занимаюсь настольным теннисом (пинг-понгом). Занятия теннисом требуют подвижности, живости и много энергии. Теннис держит человека в хорошей форме. Я занимаюсь теннисом пять лет, но чем больше я играю, тем больше мне это нравится. Я получаю большое удовольствие, принимая участие в соревнованиях или просто играя с моими друзьями. Иногда я хожу на теннисные корты. Конечно, между тем, как играю я, и тем, как играют такие знаменитые спортсмены, как Джим Корьер, Стефан Эдберг, Пит Сампрас, Борис Беккер, Пер Корда, существует большая разница. Но я тренируюсь с большим удовольствием и надеюсь играть так же, как играют лучшие спортсмены.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Sport in Russia.docx


Sport in Russia

Sport has always been popular in our country. There are different sporting societies and clubs in Russia. Many of them take part in different international tournaments and are known all over the world. A great number of world records have been set by Russian sportsmen: gymnasts, weightlifters, tennis players, swimmers, figure skaters, runners, high jumpers. Our sportsmen take part in the Olympic Games and always win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals.

Millions of people watch figure skating competitions, hockey and football matches, car races, tennis tournaments and other sports events. Certainly watching sports events and going in for sports are two different things.

In the past it was never admitted that professional sport existed in our country. The official point of view was that our sport was totally amateur. Now everybody knows that sport can be a profession and a business.

But sport can be fun as well. Besides, it helps to stay in good shape, to keep fit and to be healthy.

Doing sports is becoming more and more popular. Some people do it occasionally — swimming in summer, skiing or skating in winter — but many people go in for sports on a more regular basis. They try to find time to go to a swimming pool or a gym at least once a week for aerobics or yoga classes, body building or just work-out on a treadmill. Some people jog every morning, some play tennis.

For those who can afford it there are clubs where they give lessons of scuba diving or riding. In spring and summer young people put on their rollerskates and skate in the streets and parks.


Выбранный для просмотра документ Sport in the USA.docx


Sport in the USA

   Americans are very fond of sport. The most popular sports in the USA are football, which is played from April to October, baseball, played from September to December, basketball, played from October to April and ice hockey, played in most northern cities from October to March.

   American football derives from the English game of rugby. It started at Harvard University in the 1870's. It is a game for two teams of eleven men on the field. The object of the game is to have the control of the ball and to score points by carrying it across the goal-line.

   Baseball is a team game derived from the English game of cricket. It is played with a bat and ball by two teams of nine players each, on a field with four bases. Baseball is the national game in the USA and it is very popular in Canada too.

   Basketball is a game which nowadays is popular all over the world. It was invented in 1891. During the 20's the first US league championship was organized. In the 70's-the American Championship was divided into two leagues: the ABA (American Basketball Association), which does not exist any longer and which played with a blue, red and white ball and the NBA (National Basketball Association).
   The NBA is a professional league which still plays.

   There are more activities which Americans take part in such as golf, swimming, tennis, aerobics, wrestling, etc.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Sports are Important in Our Life.docx


Sports are Important in Our Life  


Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among young and old people.

Many people do morning exercises, jog in the morning and train themselves in clubs, in different sections and take part in sport competitions.

Other people like sports too, but they only watch sports games, listen to sports news. They prefer reading interesting stories about sportsmen. But they don't go in for sports.

Physical training is an important subject at school. Boys and girls play volley-ball and basketball at the lessons. There is the sports ground near our school and schoolchildren go in for sports in the open air.

A lot of different competition are held at schools, a great number of pupils take part in them. All participants try to get good results and become winners. Sport helps people to keep in good health. If you go in for sports you have good health and don't catch cold.

Children and grown-ups must take care of their health and do morning exercises regularly.

There are some popular kinds of sports in our country: football, volley ball, hockey, gymnastics, skiing, skating. Athletics is one of the most popular kinds of sports. It includes such kinds of sports as: running, jumping and others. Everybody may choose the sport he (or she) is interested in.

There are summer and winter sports.

My favourite sport is swimming. I go to the swimming-pool twice a week, but I prefer to rest by the lake or the river and swim there. My friend Kostya goes in for boxing. He is a good boxer and he is a brave and courageous boy. His hobby helps him in his every day life.



1. Do you do your morning exercises every day?
2. How do children and grown-ups take care of their health?
3. Are a lot of different competitions held at schools?
4. Do you go in for sports?
5. Are there any popular kinds of sports in our country? What are they?
6. What is your favourite sport?
7. Where do you prefer to rest?
8. Do your friends go in for sports?
9. Do you like winter or summer sports?
10. Our hobbies help us in our life, don't they?


to jog — бегать трусцой
section —
competition —
participant —
to go in for sports —
заниматься спортом
to catch cold —
to take care —
to include —
to choose —
to prefer —
courageous —

Выбранный для просмотра документ Sports in Great Britain.docx


Sports in Great Britain

The British are known to be great sports-lovers, so when they are neither playing, nor watching games, they like to talk about them. Many of the games we play now have come from Britain.

One of the most British games is cricket. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country. Summer isn't summer without cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behaviour. When they consider anything unfair, they sometimes say: "That isn't cricket."

But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which attracts the greatest attention is Association football, or soccer. Every Saturday from late August till the beginning of May, large crowds of people support their favourite sides in football grounds. True fans will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play. There are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over Britain. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place at Wembley.

Rugby football is also very popular, but it is played mainly by amateurs.

Next to football, the chief spectator sport in British life is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse which they think will win. The Derby is perhaps the most famous single sporting event in the whole world.

Britain is also famous for motor-car racing, dog-racing, boat-racing, and even races for donkeys. The famous boat-race between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of people.

A great number of people play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at Wimbledon are known all over the world. The innumerable tennis courts of Britain are occupied by people between the ages of 16 and 60 who show every degree of skill — from practically helpless to the extremely able.

The British also like to play golf, baseball, hockey, grass-hockey. Various forms of athletics, such as running, jumping, swimming, boxing are also popular. You can sometimes hear that there are no winter sports in England. Of course the English weather is not always cold enough to ski, skate, or toboggan, but winter is a good season for hunting and fishing. Indeed, sport in one form or another is an essential part of daily life in Britain.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Sports.docx



1). They say, "Health is above wealth". 2). Thousands of people consider sports to be very helpful in gaining good health. 3). That's why every country pays much attention to developing sports. 4). It is sport that helps to bring up physically strong, strong-willed, courageous and energetic people.

5). Unfortunately, it is very difficult to find time for going in for sports regularly. 6). People have become too busy nowadays. 7). There are quite a number of people who prefer watching sporting events rather than taking part in them. 8). They are so-called sportfans. 9). They pack stadiums during sport matches and competitions, they sit glued to the TV, and they are ready to give every moral support to their favourite sportsmen or teams.

10). In the meantime thousands of people devote their spare time to going in for sports. 11). They play indoor and outdoor games: volleyball, basketball, table-tennis, hockey, law-tennis. 12). The number of participants and spectators show that the most popular games are basketball, hockey and, of course, football. 13). A lot of people go in for track-and-field athletics, cycling, boxing, wrestling, gymnastics and so on.

14). Hockey, figure skating, skiing and skating are among the most popular winter sports. 15). In summer swimming is enjoyed by millions of people. 16). There are also many indoor swimming pools, which make swimming possible all the year round. 17). Cycling is useful exercise, too, because it takes you out into the fresh air and gives much work to all the muscles. 18). So if you arrange your day correctly you can find an opportunity for sports.

19). Physical training is an essential part of young people's development. 20). All pupils and students have regular training at PT lessons. 21). These classes are enjoyed by everybody as they give a lot of energy, develop muscles, make pupils strong, quick and healthy. 22). From time to time different kinds of competitions are organized at school or between schools. 23). The most popular sports at school are basketball, football and volleyball. 24). Besides, pupils and students attend a lot of sports clubs and sports sections after classes, where they take up their favourite kind of sport. 25). So if you think that physical fitness and health are important you are to go in for sports.

- What role do sports play in your life?
- Well, sport is an important part of my life. I go in for athletics in a sport club.
- What athletic event do you do?
- I do the long jump. Besides, I go in for basketball and in summer I am very fond of swimming.
- Are sports a source of recreation and pleasure for you?
- They surely are. Especially swimming. You always feel fit, healthy and cheerful after a long swim in the cool water. It's really a pleasure.
- What moral qualities do sports develop in people?
- Team games develop responsibility and cooperation, individual sports develop firmness of character, persistence, ability to stand up to difficulties.

Выбранный для просмотра документ Правила написания письма на английском.docx


Правила написания письма на английском

Правила написания письма на английском нужны не только тем, кто ведет деловую переписку, но и тем, кто выбрал английский язык в качестве дополнительного предмета по ЕГЭ. Правила и для того, и для другого случая схожи, но все же в них есть свои нюансы.

На ЕГЭ требуется написать личное письмо другу по переписке. Соответственно, правила его оформления не так строги, допускаются разговорные выражения и слова. Это материал будет также полезен не только тем, кто сдает экзамен, но и тем, кому необходимо написать письмо другу от руки.

  1. «Шапка» письма

Располагается в верхнем правом углу.

В ней указывается адрес отправителя, который записывается от частного к общему. Сначала указывается номер дома, затем название улицы, затем страна (у нас принято писать адрес наоборот - от общего к частному).

В той же части сверху, через одну строку, указывается дата.

Она может выглядеть неформально


или более строго – 18 June 2013.

Наиболее употребительный вариант написания даты – June 18, 2013.

  1. Основной текст письма.

Неформальное обращение начинается с Dear, Darling, My dear и т. п., без указания статуса (Mr., Ms., Mrs.), например: «Dear Jenna». В официальных письмах Dear означает не «дорогой», а «уважаемый».

После обращения ставится только запятая, восклицательный знак не используется.

«Тело» письма начинается через строчку с красной строки с заглавной буквы.

«Тело» письма должно иметь следующую структуру.

Первой идет вводная часть - благодарность другу за его письмо, извинение за то, что вы так долго не отвечали. В любом личном письме это могут быть отсылки к предыдущим, ведь именно так мы ведем переписку в жизни – словно бы продолжая беседу. В письме для ЕГЭ нужно обязательно поблагодарить и извиниться.

Далее нужно ответить на вопросы, указанные в задании, и задать встречные вопросы. Это и есть основная часть письма.

  1. Третья часть - заключительная.

В нее включаются всякие вежливые стандартные фразы, подтверждающие желание продолжать общение, вроде «Жду ответа как можно скорее» (Hope to hear from you soon), «До связи!» (Do keep in touch!).

Внизу, под основной частью письма, через строку указывается фраза-клише. Эти фразы могут быть разными в зависимости от степени близости отношений. Наиболее официальные варианты – Sincerely, Sincerely yours, что аналогично нашему «С уважением», «Искренне ваш». Но можно употребить и менее формальные выражения: Love, All my love (с любовью), With best wishes (С наилучшими пожеланиями). Наиболее подходящий вариант нужно выбрать исходя из тона письма. После этого слова ставится запятая. После запятой указывается имя автора письма. Поскольку письмо дружеское, то не нужно указывать ни должность, ни фамилию.

Напиши письмо другу по переписке:

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Thomas, who writes:

My friend and I often quarrel about things that to my mind are unimportant. Do you think it’s OK for friends to quarrel? Do you ever quarrel with your friends and why? Can true friendship be free of quarrels?

I am planning a short vacation – I would like to go to see the museums of London…

Write a letter to Thomas.

In your letter

  • Answer his questions

  • Ask 3 questions about his trip to London.

Write 100-140 words.

Remember the rules of letter writing

Правила написания делового письма на английском

Во многих компаниях существует шаблон для оформления деловых писем, как бумажных, так и электронных.

Деловое письмо обязательно содержит следующие элементы:


Она может оформляться по-разному, но обязательно содержит наименование организации и обозначение области ее деятельности, возможно - ее основные контакты.


Обращаться к адресату в деловом письме нужно по имени-фамилии, с указанием статуса (Mr., Ms., Mrs.). Обязательно нужно начать со слова «Уважаемый», то есть с «Dear…». Например, "Dear Mrs. Julia Johnson". Наиболее официальным обращением является "Dear Sir".

Содержание письма.

Должно быть ясным и четким, без лишних слов. Если это электронное письмо, то оно должно быть коротким. Если нужно изложить что-то длинное, то лучше отправить его отдельным файлом во вложении. Очень желательны вежливые формулы в конце письма, например:

If you have any question please feel free to contact me.

Looking forward to your early reply.

Best regards.

Каждое предложение следует писать с новой строки.

Подпись отправителя.

В подписи должны быть указаны имя и фамилия отправителя, его должность и личные контакты. Контакты также могут быть указаны ниже. В электронных письмах можно заполнить подпись, которая автоматически будет появляться в каждом электронном письме. Тогда в конце достаточно просто указать свое имя.

В конце через строку указываются контакты компании, ссылка на сайт, при необходимости – логотип.

Контакты нужно указать как можно подробнее, ваш собеседник должен знать все способы связи с вами и иметь возможность выбрать для себя наиболее удобный из них.

Вот что включают в свою электронную подпись современные компании:

Contact Name: Ms Olga Petrova

Company: GreenHouse.ltd

Website: www.greenhouse.ru

Office Address: Room202, 45, Lenina St., Novosibirsk, Russia

Telephone: +7 (383) 258-89-65

Mobile: +7 (800) 389-08-90

Fax: +7 (800) 335-08-91

MSN: olga51121@mail.ru

Skype: olga51121

Business e-mail: sales@greenhouse.ru

Выбранный для просмотра документ написание личного письма.docx


Написание письма на иностранном языке является несложным заданием, которое необходимо выполнить максимально быстро, чтобы оставить время на выполнение других заданий. Итак, рассмотрим единые правила написания личного письма.

В правом верхнем углу укажите адрес в следующем порядке:
номер дома, название улицы

Допускается указывать адрес в кратком виде, например:

Под адресом,
пропустив строку, необходимо написать дату письма:
June 4th, 2015
4 June 2015

или менее формально:

Письмо начинается с неофициального обращения. Если в задании имя вашего собеседника не указано, его следует придумать:
Dear Tim,
Dear Rebecca,

После обращения обязательно
ставится запятая!

Разделите текст письма на несколько логических абзацев, каждый из которых начните с красной строки.

1. В первом абзаце вам следует поблагодарить своего друга за его письмо:

Thanks (a lot) for your (last) letter.
Your last letter was a real surprise.
I was glad to get your letter.
It was great to hear from you! / It was great to hear that… / I was happy to hear…

Вы можете также извиниться за то, что не писали раньше:
Sorry I haven’t written for so long but …/ Sorry I haven’t been in touch for so long.
I'm sorry I haven't answered earlier but I was really busy with my school.

и/или упомянуть какой-либо факт из полученного письма:
I’m glad you passed your History test!
Sounds like you had a great time in London!
Great news about your…!

2. Основная часть письма (2–3 абзаца).

В ней вы должны раскрыть все аспекты, указанные в задании. Не забудьте задать необходимые вопросы.
Предполагается, что письмо должно быть написано в неформальном стиле, поэтому вы можете использовать неформальные слова-связки, такие как
well, by the way, anyway, so, разговорные выражения типа Guess what? Или Wish me luck! а также восклицательные знаки.

3. В последнем параграфе следует объяснить, почему вы заканчиваете письмо:

Well, I’d better go now as I have to do my homework.
Anyway, I have to go now because my Mum asked me to help her with the washing up.
I’ve got to go now! It’s time for my favourite TV show.

и упомянуть о дальнейших контактах:
Write (back) soon!
Take care and keep in touch!
Drop me a letter when you can.
Hope to hear from you soon.
I can’t wait to hear from you!

В конце письма
на отдельной строке указывается завершающая фраза-клише, которая зависит от близости автора и адресата. После нее всегда ставится запятая! Ниже приводятся возможные варианты от наименее формального (1) к более формальному (7):
1) Love,
2) Lots of love,
3) All my love,
4) All the best,
5) Best wishes,
6) With best wishes,
7) Yours,

На следующей строке под завершающей фразой указывается имя автора (без фамилии!). Например:
Andy или Kate

Таким образом, письмо к другу имеет следующий вид:


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Дата добавления 16.06.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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8 месяцев назад

уау супер спасибо огромное

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