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Лексический портфель к УМК Laser B 1

Выбранный для просмотра документ Laser 1.doc


Unit 1.


a subject - an area of knowledge that you study at a school or university:

The only subject, arts (science, favourite, school) subject, to learn subjects;

My favourite subject is math. The program was designed to use new methods to teach traditional academic subjects. Traditionally, boys were thought to perform better at science subjects than girls. What subjects are you studying?

a timetable 1) a list of the times at which buses, trains, planes etc arrive and leave; synonym schedule:

A railway (train, bus) timetable;

2) a list of the times of classes in a school, college, synonym schedule:

A new school (terrible, heavy) timetable; to change (to work out, to look at) the timetable.

a course - a series of lessons in a particular subject; synonym class:

To do (take, start, attend) a course on (architecture) / in (French) / over the Internet,

a one-month course, online courses;

Andy's doing a one-year journalism course. I'm taking a course in graphic design. She’s taking a secretarial course. For details, contact your course tutor.

a report - a written statement by teachers about a child's work at school, which is sent to his or her parents, synonym report card:

To write (receive, get) a (good) report, to show the report to the parents, a regular (the last, an end-of-term) report.

to report - to give people information about recent events:

to report (to sb) on sth, to report to sb, to report sth to sb, to report sb to sb;

The incident was reported in the newspaper. The paper reported the talks in detail. She reported Tom to the headmaster for rudeness. He reported his findings to the committee.

revision - [uncountable] the work of studying facts again in order to learn them:

To do (enough) revision for sth;

I know I haven't done enough revision for tomorrow's exam. How is your history revision going? I can't come out tonight - I've got a lot of revision to do. I’ve got loads (a lot) of revision to do for my exams

to revise - to study facts again, in order to learn them before an examination, synonym review, study:

To revise sth for sth (before a test);

I've got to revise my geography. She's revising for her history exam. The library was full of students revising for the final exams. What are you revising tonight?

a break 1) [countable] a period of time when you stop working in order to rest, eat etc:

During (after) the break, without a break. a 30 minute (an hour) break (for lunch), to take (make, have) a (lunch, coffee, tea) break;

We'll have a short break for lunch, then start again at 2 o'clock. Let's take a ten-minute break.

We'd worked for ten hours without a break. I'll go shopping during my lunch break. Could you come and see me during afternoon break? Harry had worked for eight hours without a break. I'll phone you in my lunch break. The children have a fifteen-minute break at 11 o'clock.

2) [uncountable] the time during the school day when classes stop and teachers and students can rest, eat, play etc, synonym recess:

At break, big break;

I'll speak to you at break. They get together with their friends at break time. Come and see me at break, Tom.

a lesson 1) a period of time in which someone is taught a particular skill, for example how to play a musical instrument or drive a car:

To have (take, give) piano (tennis) lessons, lessons in /on First Aid (road safety);

She's started taking driving lessons. Dominic will be having his first driving lesson this Thursday.

2) a period of time in which school students are taught a particular subject; synonym class:

A(n) French (physics, art) lesson, the next lesson;

I've got a double maths lesson next. Andrew gives private lessons in Spanish. She gives English lessons to business people in the evenings. It is algebra for today's lesson, my worst topic in maths.

an ambition 1) [countable] a strong desire to achieve something:

To achieve (fulfill, realize) an ambition, an ambition to do sth / of doing sth, to have (great, wild, the same) ambitions, to succeed in the ambition;

She fulfilled her ambition to run the 10,000 metres in under 30 minutes. He always had this burning ambition (=very strong desire) to start his own business. His ambition to become a pilot was thwarted by poor eyesight. My ambition is to become a doctor.Your problem," said Arthur, "is that you have no ambition." Earlier this year, he achieved his ambition of competing in the Olympic games.

2) [uncountable] determination to be successful, rich, powerful etc:

a lack of ambition;

Eric wasn't particularly intelligent but he had plenty of ambition. My teachers always told me that I lacked ambition, and would never get anywhere. What can you do with a kid who has no ambition?

ambitious - 1) determined to be successful, rich, powerful etc:

mothers who are highly ambitious for their children (=who want their children to be successful), ambitious people;

Alfred was intensely ambitious, obsessed with the idea of becoming rich.

2) an ambitious plan, idea etc shows a desire to do smth good but difficult:

an ambitious engineering project.

a couple - a small number of things; synonym a few:

A couple of (years, hours, weeks, months) ago, (to drink) a couple of beers;

You'll be all right in a couple of days. He's only been here a couple of weeks. They talked for a couple of hours.

Word Patterns.

to be able to do

to be good at doing

to be fond of doing

to look forward to doing

to begin to do

to help sb with doing / sth (equipment)

to try one’s best (as hard as you can)

to get ready for

to prepare for (history test)

to take an exam

to find sth interesting

to seem difficult (normal)

to seem to be really nice

to be / get stuck 1) impossible or unable to move from a particular "; "> Sara tried to open the window but it was stuck.. They got stuck in a traffic jam. The car got stuck in the mud. I've got something stuck in my throat. A bone got stuck in my throat. The elevator was stuck between two floors. Sorry I'm late. I got stuck in traffic.

2) unable to escape from a bad or boring situation:

We could be stuck in this place for days. I was stuck in London all summer.

3) unable to do any more of something that you are working on because it is too difficult:

Can you help me with my homework, Dad? I'm stuck. If you get stuck on a difficult word, just ask for help.

4) to have to spend time with sb even though you do not want:

I was stuck with him all morning.

5) to be unable to think what to say or do:

For once Anthony was stuck for words (=did not know what to say). I was stuck for an answer.

on one’s own - 1) alone:

I've been living on my own for four years now. He didn't want to be left on his own. I’m on my own now. They left her on her own.

2) without anyone's help:

To do (study) on one’s own, to spend time doing on one’s own;

You can't expect him to do it all on his own. I can manage on my own, thanks. She does all the cooking on her own.

to take / get the hang of sth – to learn how to do sth or use sth:

It seems difficult at first, but you'll soon get the hang of it. I didn’t get the hang of what he was saying. I haven’t got the hang of this washing machine.

to put up with sth - to accept an unpleasant situation or person without complaining:

I won’t put up with that!

to catch up on with - to do what needs to be done because you have not been able to do it until now:

To catch up on one’s homework;

I have some work to catch up on. I need to catch up on some sleep (=after a period without enough sleep). He had caught up on sleep. I must catch up on my work.

to do - to study a particular subject in a school or university:

To do gymnastics (science, sth scientific, a research, experiments in Chemistry, sums, multiplication, division, a French lesson, revision, exercises, a course, a project, a picture).

to cause - to make something happen, especially something bad:

Heavy traffic is causing delays on the freeway. The fire caused £15,000 worth of damage. The oil spill is causing problems for coastal fisheries. You've caused us all a lot of unnecessary worry. About half of the chemicals that were tested caused cancer in rats. As children we were always causing our parents trouble.


Выбранный для просмотра документ Laser 10.doc


Unit 10.



bungee jumping - a sport in which you jump off something very high with a long length of special rope that stretches tied to your legs, so that you go up again without touching the ground:

However, I would think twice about bungee jumping.

hang-gliding - the sport of flying using a hang-glider.

abseiling - to go down a cliff or a rock by sliding down a rope and pushing against the rock with your feet, synonym rappel.

sport - a physical activity in which people compete against each other:

to do (play, try) sport;

Sport has always been very important in this part of the country. His favourite sports are swimming and tennis. Motorcycle racing can be a dangerous sport. We don't do much sport at my school. Today's kids need to spend less time watching television, and more time playing sports. Which sports do you play at school?

Adjectives: 1. sports relating to sport:

sports shop (ground, wear, man, type, day, jacket);

2. sporty 1) someone who is sporty likes sport and is good at it, synonym athletic:

2) sporty clothes are designed to look attractive in a bright informal way:

a sporty jacket and skirt;

3) a sporty car is designed to look attractive and go fast:

The new model is slightly more sporty. That's a sporty little car.

3. sporting - relating to sports:

one of the major sporting events of the year, a great sporting achievement, sporting goods;

The college offers a wide range of sporting activities.

free / spare time - time when you are not working:

a spare moment (hour), a free day (morning, half-hour);

He writes poetry in his spare time. Coburn plans to spend much of her free time writing.

fit - sb who is fit is strong and healthy, especially because they exercise regularly, opposite unfit:

to keep (feel, get) fit (=to be in a good form), keep-fit classes (=classes in which you do exercises to keep yourself healthy, synonym aerobics), to be physically fit;

You must be very fit if you do so much running. He was young, good-looking, and physically fit. I swim twice a week to try and keep fit. I don't know if I'll be fit enough to take part in the race. She's over eighty now, but still as fit as a fiddle (=very fit). Cycling is a good way to keep fit.

exercise - physical activities that you do in order to stay healthy and become stronger:

to do (take, get) exercise;

Working in an office, I don't get much exercise. Most people need to do more exercise.

to exercise - to do sports or physical activities in order to stay healthy and become stronger:

It's important to exercise regularly.

to meet up - to meet someone in order to do something together:

We often meet up after work and go for a drink.

to take part - to be involved in an activity, sport, event etc with other people:

to take part in competitions;

About 400 students took part in the protest.

to participate - to take part in an activity or event:

to participate in charity events;

Some members refused to participate. Everyone in the class is expected to participate actively in these discussions. They welcomed the opportunity to participate fully in the life of the village. Members can participate in any of the trips organized by the club.

an amateur - someone who does an activity just for pleasure, not as their job, opposite professional:

amateur hockey player (competition);

Mickelson won his first major golf tournament while still an amateur. The orchestra is made up entirely of amateurs.

free diving - the sport of swimming under water without special equipment: a free diver.

a record - the fastest speed, longest distance, highest or lowest level etc that has ever been achieved or reached, especially in sport:

to break=beat (hold, set) a record, the world (a team’s, Olympic) record;

As a student, he broke the Scottish record for the 100 metres. He also holds the record for the number of goals scored in a single season. The Americans set a new world record in the sprint relay.

equipment - the tools, machines, clothes etc that you need to do a particular job or activity:

a piece (bit) of equipment ,some brand new computer equipment, high-tech communications equipment, rescue equipment, to use equipment, a very useful bit of equipment;

The school bought several new pieces of equipment for the chemistry lab.

oxygen tank a large container for storing gas.

a jumbo jet - a very large plane for carrying passengers:

The jumbo jet is after all one of the most potent symbols of this century.

jumbo - larger than other things of the same type: jumbo-sized hot dogs.

to quit (quit / quitted – quitting) – 1) to leave a job, school etc, especially without finishing it completely:

He quit his job after an argument with a colleague. I quit school at 16. She has decided to quit show business. I've always regretted quitting piano lessons. She quit her job and went traveling in South America.

2) to stop doing something, especially something that is bad or annoying:

The majority of smokers say that they would like to quit the habit. Quit that! You're driving me crazy. I quit taking the pills because they were making me put on weight.

to experience 1) if you experience a problem, event, or situation, it happens to you or affects you:

to experience problems (difficulties);

Many old people will experience problems as the result of retirement. Children need to experience things for themselves in order to learn from them. Many local companies have recently been experiencing financial difficulties. Many regions are experiencing a shortage of food. They've experienced a lot of problems with their eldest son.

2) to feel a particular emotion, pain etc:

He said that he had never experienced such pain before. I experienced a great sense of loss when my father died. When you first tried a cigarette, you probably experienced a feeling of dizziness.

to find time- to plan so that you have time available for something.

to take up one’s time to fill a particular amount of time:

to take up most (a lot) of your time, to take up all you time;

I won’t take up any more of your time.

to take up a hobby - to become interested in a new activity and spend time doing it.

for the time being - for a short period of time from now, but not permanently:

Now, for the time being, she is living with her father in London.

to have / get time to do to have an amount of time that is available for you to do smth:

How do you get time to study? He liked to have time to think what he was going to feel about something before it happened. I do not have time to check them all. Still, you do have time to show your document.

to spend time doing - to use time doing a particular thing:

Stacey spends all her free time painting.

It takes time to do to take a long period of time:

It took her a long time to make a decision. Learning a language isn't easy - it takes time.

time passes synonym goes by:

Their marriage got better as time went by. As time passes, I appreciate her performance more and more.

for the first time - used to say that smth has never happened or been done before:

For the first time in his life he felt truly happy. That year unemployment climbed above 3 million for the first time. It rained for the first time since we arrived in London today.

Dictionary Corner

to beat (beat – beaten) - to get the most points, votes etc in a game, race, or competition, synonym defeat:

to beat a team (by 4 goals to 2, a record);

Brazil were beaten, 2-1. Labour easily beat the Conservatives in the last election. This beats me.

to draw (drew – drawn) - to finish without either side winning in a game such as football, synonym tie:

to draw 3 all (one all);

They drew 3-3. Liverpool drew with Juventus. “Did you win?'' "No, we drew.'' Real Madrid drew with Barcelona in the last game of the season.

a draw - the final result of a game or competition in which both teams or players have the same number of points, synonym tie:

to be a draw, to end in a draw;

The match ended in a draw. The match was a draw. I offer you a draw. "What was the result of the Barcelona v Real Madrid game?" "It was a draw."

to lose - to not win a game, argument, election, war, opposite win:

to lose a game, to lose by one goal (by point, by 20 votes);

They played so badly they deserved to lose. Russia lost to Spain in the semi-final. I'm not playing tennis with her any more - I always lose. I always lose when I play tennis with my sister.

to play - to take part or compete in a game or sport:

to play a tremendous game;

Karen began playing basketball when she was six. If you feel any pain, you shouldn't play. Men were sitting in the park, playing cards. Bristol will play against Coventry next week. Moxon played for England in ten test matches.

to score - to win a point in a sport, game, competition, or test:

to score a terrific (amazing) goal, to score 3 goals (the first goal), to score in the final minute of the game, to score for Manchester, to score an own goal;

Great cheers went up when he scored in the final minute of the game. Anyone who scores under 70 percent will have to take the test again. He has scored 12 goals so far this season.

a score - the number of points that each team or player has won in a game or competition:

to keep the score, to get the same score;

The score was one-nil (=zero). At half-time the score was one-all. What's the score? Is anybody keeping score (=making a record of the score)? The final score was Southampton two, Leeds United nil. After two hours and twenty minutes of play, the final score was 3-2. The final score was 2-1 to Juventus.

to win - to be the best or most successful in a competition, game, election etc, opposite lose:

to win a race (a game, an election, a prize, a trophy, a silver cup, a match, a championship);

Who do you think will win the next election? He won the Tour de France last year. Chang won the first set but lost the next two.


to cheer 1) to shout as a way of showing happiness, praise, approval, or support of someone:

The audience was shouting and cheering. The spectators cheered him wildly. At the end, the whole audience stood up clapping and cheering. Fans began to cheer as the teams entered the stadium. I saw the way the crowd cheered for him, and I thought, "I want to be like that!"

2) to make someone feel more hopeful when they are worried:

By late afternoon there came news that cheered them all. All the mums and dads come to cheer their kids on.

to send off - to order a sports player to leave the field because they have broken the rules:

One of Dundee's players was sent off for punching another player.

a track - a circular course around which runners, cars etc race, which often has a specially prepared surface:

a race track, an athletic track.

stuff - used when you are talking about things such as substances, materials, or groups of objects when you do not know what they are called, or it is not important to say exactly what they are:

I've got some sticky stuff on my shoe. I felt sorry for the ones who had to eat the awful stuff. What kind of stuff did they teach you there?

Grammar I

rollerblades - special boots with a single row of wheels fixed under it, used for skating on hard surfaces.

to rollerblade to roller skate.

a goalie - a goalkeeper - the player in a sports team whose job is to try to stop the ball going into the goal, synonym goaltender, goalkeeper:

But in his next match he was sent off for twice attacking the goalie.

an opponent - someone who you try to defeat in a competition, game, fight, argument:

a leading (main, chief) opponent, to defeat the opponents;

During the primary elections, McCain was Bush's leading opponent. He is admired even by his political opponents. Karpov defeated his 24-year-old opponent in 57 moves. My opponent was much older than I was. My opponent was the same age and height as myself.

to sprain an ankle - to damage a joint between your foot and your leg by suddenly twisting it, synonym twist:

I fell down the steps and sprained my ankle. You'll need strong walking boots in the mountains, if you don't want to sprain an ankle. For a sprained ankle use rest, ice, compression and elevation.

Grammar II

a tracksuit - loose clothes consisting of trousers and a jacket, worn especially for sport:

He had brought his tracksuit and trainers with him to try to keep up his jogging. He went straight up to Oxford Street and bought a tracksuit. They were wearing only tracksuits and trainers and had no tents, maps, compasses or food.

a wetsuit a tight piece of clothing usually made of rubber worn by people who are swimming.

a bikini - a piece of clothing in two separate parts that women wear for swimming.

a swimming costume - a piece of clothing worn for swimming, especially the type worn by women, synonym swimsuit:

I put on my swimming costume and shorts and opened the door.

a range - a number of people or things that are all different, but are all of the same general type:

a wide (broad, whole, full) range of something , a narrow (limited) range of something;

A fairly narrow range of people are responsible for key decisions.

a trolley - a large basket on wheels that you use for carrying bags, shopping etc, synonym cart:

a supermarket trolley.

to save up - to keep money in a bank so that you can use it later, especially when you gradually add more money over a period of time, opposite spend:

I'm saving up for a new car.


Выбранный для просмотра документ Laser 11.doc


Unit 11.

The Environment.


to care about - to be concerned about what happens to someone, because you like or love them:

I care about him and hate to see him hurt like this.

the environment - the air, water, and land on Earth, which can be harmed by man's activities :

to educate people about the environment, to protect (damage, help, care about, take care of) the environment, to be bad (much better) for the environment;

Some of these chemicals are very damaging to the environment. Recycling paper and cans is one easy way to preserve the environment. People between 18 and 30 tend to be much more concerned about the environment than the older generation.

environmental - concerning or affecting the air, land, or water on Earth:

an environmental group (=group of people who want to protect the environment), an environmental organization, Environmental studies, environmental laws, to prevent environmental damage, to discuss environmental issues, the environmental damage caused by the chemical industry, a variety of urgent environmental problems.

environmentally friendly - products that are environmentally friendly do not harm the environment when they are made or when you use them, synonym eco-friendly:

a more environmentally friendly fuel;

And as you don't need chemicals, it's environmentally friendly, and saves you money. As an agricultural crop, sunflowers are extremely environmentally friendly. In some cases, the materials are not environmentally friendly.

landfill site a place where waste is buried under the ground:

to bury in landfill sites, the existing landfill sites;

This causes problems in finding enough suitable landfill sites. But it's becoming a major issue as landfill sites fill up. The rest is dumped in landfill sites. Now authorities are having to monitor landfill sites, a process which is expensive and lengthy. It's all part of a plan to cut down on the quantity of rubbish being taken to already overflowing landfill sites.

rubbish 1) food, paper etc that is no longer needed and has been thrown away:

a rubbish bin, household rubbish, to put rubbish in the ground, to have a problem with rubbish, a huge amount (a load, millions, tons) of rubbish, to turn rubbish into new products, to collect rubbish, to pick up the rubbish, to fine for throwing rubbish, to clear rubbish, to clean up the rubbish;

The dustmen collect the rubbish on Wednesdays. There was rubbish and broken glass all over the grass.

2) informal objects, papers etc that you no longer use and should throw away:

I've got so much rubbish on my desk it's unbelievable.

3) an idea, statement, etc that is rubbish is silly or wrong and does not deserve serious attention, synonym nonsense; synonym garbage:

to watch rubbish on TV, to talk rubbish;

You do talk rubbish sometimes. That's a load of rubbish. The suggestion is absolute rubbish. "What did you think of his speech?'' "I thought it was rubbish!” If you believe all this rubbish, you'll believe anything.

4) a film, book etc that is rubbish is very bad:

the usual Hollywood rubbish. I don't know why you're watching that film, it's a load of old rubbish.

litter (an uncountable noun and has no plural form. Use a singular verb after it) - waste paper, cans etc that people have thrown away and left on the ground in a public place, synonym rubbish, trash, garbage:

a town with a litter problem, to drop litter, a picnic area with large wooden tables and litter bins;

People who drop litter can be fined in some cities. Litter spoils the countryside. I am tired of picking up litter thrown by other people. These streets are full of litter. You can be fined £100 for dropping litter.

to recycle - to put used objects or materials through a special process so that they can be used again:

packaging made of recycled paper, to recycle rubbish (used bottles, paper), recycled paper products;

We take all our bottles to be recycled. Plastic bottles can be recycled into clothing.

recycling - the process of treating used objects or materials so that they can be used again:

Recycling Centre, a recycling scheme (factory), the city's recycling program;

Recycling is important to help protect our environment. School students collected tons of drinks cans and bottles for recycling. The recycling program involves every household in the neighborhood.

to degrade - if a substance, chemical etc degrades, or if something degrades it, it changes to a simpler form:

to degrade after 4 centures;

Black plastic starts to degrade upon exposure to sunlight.

crisps - a very thin flat round piece of potato that is cooked in oil and eaten cold; synonym potato chip:

a packet of crisps, a crisp packet;

Like many children, David was fond of sugary foods and liked ice-cream, orange squash, chocolate and crisps.

to dispose of sth - to get rid of something, especially sth that is difficult to get rid of:

to dispose of rubbish (batteries).

disposal - when you get rid of something:

the disposal of rubbish (chemicals products), disposal products (razors), rubbish disposal, to use for the disposal;

The problem of waste disposal is a major problem.

to dig (dug - dug - digging) - to move earth, snow etc, or to make a hole in the ground, using a spade or your hands:

to dig a hole;

They dig a small hole in the sand to bury their eggs. Some of the prisoners escaped through a tunnel they had dug under the wall. The whole family was out in the fields digging potatoes. The workmen began digging a hole in the middle of the road. There were two fishermen on the beach digging for worms.

to dump - to get rid of waste material by taking it from people's houses and burying it under the soil:

to dump rubbish in landfill sites (into the sea, practically anywhere);

Britain dumps more of its waste than any other European country. Hill had to drive six miles just to dump her garden waste. People who want to get rid of old cars sometimes dump them in the woods. Toxic waste is being dumped into the ocean.

a dump - a place where unwanted waste is taken and "">rubbish dump Br /garbage dump Am, an underground nuclear waste dump, a dump site;

The fire probably started in a rubbish dump. Put the rest into a sack to take to the dump. How can you live here? This place is a dump. The State of Illinois, south of Chicago, is an endless dump. There was a car dump there now.

to destroy - to damage something so badly that it no longer exists or cannot be used or repaired:

completely (totally) destroy, companies that are polluting and destroying the environment, to destroy the natural beauty of the area;

The school was completely destroyed by fire. A vast amount of the Amazonian rainforest is being destroyed every day. The earthquake destroyed much of the city.

destruction - the act or process of destroying something or of being destroyed:

the destruction of the rainforest (sea life), weapons of mass destruction, the environmental destruction caused by the road building programme;

The floods brought death and destruction to the area. The president flew in to look at the destruction caused by the earthquake. The war caused widespread death and destruction.

to give off - to produce a smell, light, heat, a sound etc, synonym emit:

The wood gave off a sweet, perfumed smell as it burned.

to recharge - to put a new supply of electricity into a battery:

rechargeable batteries, a non-rechargeable battery.

to reduce - to make something smaller or less in size, amount, or price, synonym cut; opposite increase:

to reduce the amount of rubbish (the number of deaths, unemployment, the prices, one’s pocket money, waste to minimum);

The governor announced a new plan to reduce crime. Giving up smoking significantly reduces your risk of heart disease. The new bridge should reduce travelling time from 50 minutes to 15 minutes. Doctors are urging people to reduce the amount of salt in their diet. I was hoping they would reduce the price a little. Supermarkets can help promote healthy eating habits by reducing the amount of sugar and fat in their products. The new road will reduce traffic through the town by 30%.

reduction - a decrease in the size, price, or amount of something, or the act of decreasing something, opposite increase:

a slight reduction in the price of oil, the reduction of interest rates, a reduction in the amount of waste, to get a reduction;

There has been a reduction in the number of students choosing science.The company promised they would make no staff reductions for at least two years. Waste reduction in the chemical industry is increasingly important. Cleaner fuel has contributed to a reduction in air pollution. New production methods led to a cost reduction of about 50 percent. Several holiday firms are offering huge price reductions on winter holidays. The U.S. has agreed to an arms reduction proposal. There were reductions of up to 50% in some stores.

to cut down 1) to reduce the amount of something:

to cut down the waste;

2) eat/use less to eat, drink, or use less of something, especially in order to improve your health:

I've always smoked, but I'm trying to cut down. If you can't give up smoking completely, at least try to cut down. Cut down on fatty foods if you want to lose weight.

3) to cut through the main part of a tree so that it falls on the ground, synonym fell:

to cut down trees.

to reuse - to use something again:

The bottles are designed to be reused up to 20 times. Sterilized needles for taking blood are never reused. The supermarket encourages shoppers to reuse plastic bags.

to package- to put food or other goods into a bag, box etc ready to be sold or sent:

food packaged in plastic, unpackaged;

The code informs us where and when a product was packaged. The videos were packaged up, ready for distribution.

to wrap (wrapped – wrapping) - wrap up to put paper or cloth over something to cover it:

to wrap something in something (in plastic), to unwrap;

The present was beautifully wrapped in gold paper. I've still got a few Christmas presents to wrap up.

to grow out of - if a child grows out of clothes, he or she becomes too big to wear them, synonym outgrow:

to grow out of old clothes.

a bin - a container for putting waste in:

to put in the bin, recycling bins, a paper bin;

Throw it in the bin. The vast majority of people in Thurrock took my advice and put the silly leaflet in the bin.

charity 1) an organization that gives money, goods, or help to people who are poor, sick:

Several charities sent aid to the flood victims. The corporation has donated nearly $70 million to children's charities over the past 17 years.

2) charity organizations in general:

to give sth to charity, to collect money for the hospice charity;

All the money raised by the concert will go to charity. The children raised over £200 for charity. All profits from the show will go to charity. Clear out all the clothes you never wear, and give them to charity.

3) money or gifts given to help people who are poor, sick etc:

Her pride wouldn't allow her to accept charity. Many homeless people are too proud to ask for charity.

logging - the work of cutting down trees in a forest:

logging companies, the logging industry;

waste - unwanted materials or substances that are left after you have used something:

industrial (chemical) waste, proposals to end the dumping of industrial waste into rivers and seas, waste of all sorts, to process waste, waste disposal;

It's a good idea to recycle household waste. The costs of waste disposal are rising all the time. Too much waste has been dumped into the North Sea.

pollution - the process of making air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty and not suitable for people to use, or the state of being dangerously dirty:

air (water, soil) pollution, noise pollution;

Pollution from cars is the main cause of global warming. Pollution levels are often dangerously high in large cities. Industrial pollution has killed much of the river's wildlife. The city is looking into ways to reduce air pollution.

a bottle bank - a container in the street that you put empty bottles into, so that the glass can be used again:

to carry glass to the nearest bottle bank.

to empty - to remove everything that is inside something:

to empty the bank (bins);

Did you empty the dishwasher? He emptied out the ashtray. Could you empty the wastebasket - it's getting pretty full. The garbage cans are emptied once a week. The police made us stand against the wall and told us to empty our pockets.

empty adj, empty bottles.

a quantity - an amount of something that can be counted or measured:

a large (small, huge)quantity of something, in large (small) quantities, to eat in large quantities, to produce large quantities;

Add 50 grams of butter, and the same quantity of sugar. He had consumed a large quantity of alcohol. Huge quantities of oil were spilling into the sea. Buy vegetables in small quantities, for your immediate use. Sugar is bad for health if consumed in large quantities. This species grows in large quantities in lakes and ponds between sea level and 1300 meters. Your work has improved in quantity and quality this term. An enormous quantity of chemical waste has been dumped in the river. Make sure that you add the correct quantity of water. Use equal quantities of flour and butter.

a quality - how good or bad something is:

air (water) quality, to be of poor (good, high) quality, a quality of life, good quality clothes, high-quality products, quality restaurants, to feel the quality of the silk;

The recent hot, humid weather is affecting air quality. Much of the land was of poor quality. Use only high quality ingredients. The company guarantees the quality of its service. We always guarantee the best quality to our customers.

a chemical a substance used in chemistry or produced by a chemical process:

chemical waste, chemical products, chemicals;

Farmers are moving away from the use of chemicals and pesticides.

to get rid of - !) to throw away or destroy something you do not want any more:

It's time we got rid of all these old toys. Governments should be encouraged to get rid of all nuclear weapons.

2) to take action so that you no longer have something unpleasant that you do not want:

I can't get rid of this cough. He opened the windows to get rid of the smell. They burned the ship to get rid of the evidence.

3) to make someone leave because you do not like them or because they are causing problems:

Are you trying to get rid of me? It can be difficult for schools to get rid of poor teachers. My mother made me get rid of my dog.

to lead to - to cause something to happen or cause someone to do something:

the events that led to the start of the First World War; to lead to a reduction, to lead to recycle rubbish, to lead to environmental damage, to lead to the extinction of plants and animals, to lead to an argument, to lead sb to expect, to lead to disappointment, to lead to the loss of culture;

What led him to kill his wife? His actions could lead to him losing his job.

to mislead (misled) - to make someone believe something that is not true by giving them information that is false or not complete:

to mislead somebody about/over something

Politicians have misled the public over the dangers of these chemicals. Don't be misled by appearances, he's a good worker.

misleading - likely to make someone believe something that is not true:

a misleading advertisement;

The article was misleading, and the newspaper has apologized. These figures are highly misleading. The advertisements were deliberately misleading and false. The holiday brochure is deliberately misleading, because the hotels it shows are not the ones you actually stay in.


to be associated with - to be related to a particular subject, activity etc:

Poverty and crime are closely associated.

green 1) connected with the environment or its protection:

green issues such as the greenhouse effect and global warming, green groups;

There are lots of green groups in Portland and Seattle.

2) harming the environment as little as possible:

to be reasonably green;

We need to develop greener cleaning products. More money needs to be invested in developing greener fuel sources.

greenery - green leaves and plants:

the rich greenery of grass and trees.

an outing - a short trip that a group of people take for pleasure:

a family (school) outing, a class outing to the ballet, an outing to the beach;

Mrs Pollack took her class on an outing to the local museum.

to convince sb 1) to make someone feel certain that something is true:

Her arguments didn't convince everyone, but changes were made. The officials were eager to convince us of the safety of the nuclear reactors.

2) to persuade someone to do something synonym persuade:

to convince somebody to do something

I've been trying to convince Jean to come with me.

a top - the highest part of something opposite "">to get a good view from the top, to be on top (=winning in a game or competition);

After the first set, the Australian was comfortably on top. Write your name at the top of the page.

top - best or most successful:

our top tennis players, a top job (company);

a top priority - the thing that you think is most important:

Education is this government's top priority. Safety will be a top priority. This was and remains a top priority for all businesses.

to top it all - in addition to other bad things that have happened to you:

To top it all I lost my job. And to top it all off, he was gorgeous.

sensible 1) reasonable, practical, and showing good judgment:

sensible advice;

She seems very sensible. It's sensible to keep a note of your passport number.

2) suitable for a particular purpose, and practical rather than fashionable:

the least sensible places;

Eat a sensible diet and exercise daily.

Grammar 1

to introduce - to bring a plan, system, or product into use for the first time:

to introduce a recycling scheme (a new programming language), to introduce as a means of transport;

They want to introduce a system of identity cards. The store have introduced a new range of food for children. Nearly 60 notebook computer models were introduced in 1991.

a council 1) a group of people that are chosen to make rules, laws, or decisions, or to give advice:

the UN Security Council;

2) the organization that is responsible for local government in a particular area in Britain:

a local council, local council elections;

He sent a letter to the council to complain about the noise.

rainforest - a tropical forest with tall trees that are very close together, growing in an area where it rains a lot:

the destruction of the rain forest, to care about the rainforests;

In short, farming is reducing the rain forest by 1.5% of its area annually.

a volunteer 1) someone who does a job willingly without being paid:

Most of the relief work was done by volunteers.

2) someone who is willing to offer help:

I need some volunteers to help with the washing-up.

voluntary work - work etc that is done by people who do it because they want to, and who are not paid:

to do voluntary work;

She does a lot of voluntary work for the Red Cross. The council is trying to get more young people involved in doing voluntary work. This post is voluntary work.

to separate - to divide or split into different parts, or to make something do this:

At this point the satellite separates from its launcher. Separate the students into four groups.

fumes - strong-smelling gas or smoke that is unpleasant to breathe in:

exhaust pipe fumes, traffic fumes, to produce fumes;

A strong smell of paint fumes filled the studio.

to annoy - to make someone feel slightly angry and unhappy about something, synonym irritate:

to annoy people;

What annoyed him most was that he had received no apology. It really annoys me when I see people dropping litter. She annoyed him with her stupid questions. Are you doing that just to annoy me? I find it annoying when people eat smelly foods on public transport. It annoys me that Kim never returns the books she borrows.

to pump - to make liquid or gas move in a particular direction, using a machine for forcing liquid or gas into or out of something:

to pump a lot of waste into rivers;

Emergency crews were called to pump water from 7 houses.


rural - happening in or relating to the countryside, not the city, opposite urban:

rural environment (areas), a magazine about rural life;

Many people living in rural areas have lower incomes and fewer job opportunities than those in cities.

urban - relating to towns and cities, opposite rural:

unemployment in urban areas, urban environment, an urban way of looking at things;

Rapid urban growth has had a negative effect on birds and animals.

organic 1) relating to farming or gardening methods of growing food without using artificial chemicals, or produced or grown by these methods:

organic food (vegetables, milk);

Organic farming is better for the environment. The shop sells organic food. Organic fruit is generally more expensive. Most supermarkets now sell organic produce. Nowadays I only buy meat that is organic.

2 )living things living, or produced by or from living things, opposite inorganic:

organic material such as leaves, bark, and grass.

to contain 1) if something such as a bag, box, or place contains something, that thing is inside it:

The museum contains a number of original artworks.

2) if a document, book, speech etc contains something, that thing is included in it:

The book contains some useful material.

3) if a substance contains something, that thing is part of it:

to contain CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbon - a gas used in fridges and aerosol cans, believed to be responsible for damaging the ozone layer);

This product may contain nuts. It is important to eat meat or eggs, as they contain protein and vitamins.

harmful - causing or likely to cause harm:

the harmful effects of smoking, chemicals that are harmful to the environment;

80% of Americans think that television is harmful to society and especially to children. As yet there is no proof that genetically modified foods are harmful to humans. Doctors have warned against the harmful effects of smoking. Scientists tend to agree that most diets don't work and can be harmful.

it’s / what a shame - used when you wish a situation was different, and you feel sad or disappointed, synonym it’s / what pity:

'She's failed her test again.' 'What a shame!' It's a shame that you have to leave so soon. What a shame we missed the wedding. It's a shame to cover this beautiful table with a tablecloth. That’s a great shame.

to stuff 1) to push or put something into a small space, especially in a quick careless way, synonym shove:

She stuffed two more sweaters into her bag.

2) to fill something until it is full:

a pillow stuffed with feathers, boxes stuffed full of papers;

Volunteers were busy stuffing envelopes.

to put pressure on - to persuade someone by using influence, arguments, or threats:

to put pressure on governments and businesses;

They are putting pressure on people to vote yes. His parents have been putting pressure on him to find a job.

to be / become aware - if you are aware that a situation exists, you realize or know that it exists:

to be aware of the need;

The children are aware of the danger of taking drugs. Were you aware that Joe had this problem with his knee?

awareness - knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation:

environmental (political, social) awareness, Environmental Awareness;

There is a new culture of environmental awareness in the world. Health officials have tried to raise awareness (=improve people's knowledge) about AIDS.

Dictionary Corner

to break out - to escape:

to break out from prison (of the zoo);

Three men have broken out of a top security jail.

to bring out - to produce something that will be sold to the public:

to bring out a solar-powered car (the “green” car, new environmentally friendly products);

He's bringing out a new album next month.

to fall out - to have a quarrel:

to fall out over sth;

Carrie's always falling out with people. It was the first time Bill and I had fallen out. Maria fell out with some of her colleagues and decided to look for a new job. She fell out with some of her school friends.

to hand out - to give something to each person in a group, synonym distribute:

to hand out some leaflets (some photocopies, the question papers, the worksheets);

Could you start handing these books out please? He was handing out leaflets to members of the audience.

Look out! - used to warn someone that they are in danger, synonym watch out:

Look out! There's a car coming.

to make out - to be just able to see or hear something:

to make out the signs (letters, name of the ship);

He could just make out a dark shape moving towards him. I couldn't make out what he was saying.

to put out to stop the fire burning:

It took firefighters several hours to put out the fire. It took firemen several hours to put out the fire.

to turn out - to happen in a particular way, or to have a particular result, especially one that you did not expect:

to turn out to be a disaster (a great success, all right, quite disappointing), to turn out worthwhile;

It was a difficult time, but eventually things turned out all right. To my surprise, it turned out that I was wrong. As it turned out (=used to say what happened in the end), he passed the exam quite easily. That guy turned out to be Maria's second cousin. As it turned out, they were both right.

to run out - 1) to use all of something and not have any more left:

to run out of space;

I've got money you can borrow if you run out. He'd run out of ideas.

2) if something is running out, there will soon be none left:

We must act now because time is running out. My patience was running out. We've run out of milk. Could you stop at the store on your way home? We ran out of gas on the freeway last night.

Grammar 2

to install - to put a piece of equipment somewhere and connect it so that it is ready to be used, synonym put in:

to install a bottle bank (lightning, benches, a shower, a burglar alarm, new filters, new central heating, air conditioning);

They've installed the new computer network at last. Security cameras have been installed in the city centre. We've installed new anti-virus software.

solar-powered - working or moving using the power of the sun's light and heat:

a solar-powered car (motorbike, water heater).

a nest - a place made or chosen by a bird to lay its eggs in and to live in:

a bird's nest, wasps’ nests, an eagle nest, to remove wasps’ nests;

In May the females build a nest and lay their eggs. Young eagles leave the nest after only two months.

to disturb 1) to interrupt someone so that they cannot continue what they are doing:

Sorry to disturb you, but I have an urgent message. Do not disturb (=a sign you put on a door so that people will not interrupt you).

2) to make someone feel worried or upset:

to disturb the nest;

What disturbs you most about this latest development?

to pedestrianise - to change a street or shopping area so that cars and trucks are no longer allowed:

to pedestrianise the streets.

to fix - to repair something that is broken or not working properly:

to fix drains (a computer, bathrooms and toilets);

He's outside fixing the brakes on the car. Ellis was able to quickly find and fix the problem.

to develop -1) to design or make a new idea, product, system etc over a period of time:

to develop a new product (a laptop computer);

She should have developed her own style instead of copying him. Researchers are developing technology for the US military.

2) if a problem or difficult situation develops, it begins to happen or exist, or it gets worse:

to develop a problem;

Trouble is developing in the cities.

to charge - to ask someone for a particular amount of money for something you are selling:

to charge sb for sth, charge somebody £10/$50 etc (for something) ;

The hotel charges $125 a night. The restaurant charged us £40 for the wine. We won't charge for delivery if you pay now. The gallery charges an entrance fee. My piano teacher charges £9 for a half hour class. The dry cleaners charges $1.25 a shirt.

blank 1) without any writing, print, or recorded sound:

a blank cassette, a blank sheet of paper;

Leave the last page blank.

2) a blank face or look shows no emotion, understanding, or interest:

a blank face (look, expression, eyes);

Zoe looked at me with a blank expression. She gazed at him in blank astonishment. I said hello, and she gave me a blank look.

blankly, to look at sb blankly.

to replace 1) to remove someone from their job or something from its place, and put a new person or thing there:

to replace a window (a CD player with an MP3 player);

Two of the tyres had to be replaced. They replaced the permanent staff with part-timers.

2) if you replace something that has been broken, stolen etc, you get a new one:

to replace a torn jacket;

I'll replace the vase I broke as soon as possible.


on a regular basis - every day, week etc:

I'm saving money on a regular basis. If you like going to concerts, do so on a regular basis.

deodorant - a chemical substance that you put on the skin under your arms to stop you from smelling bad.

fridge - a large piece of electrical kitchen equipment, used for keeping food and drinks cool, synonym refrigerator:

I had been saving up to buy a cooker and fridge.

a campaign - a series of actions intended to achieve a particular result relating to politics or business, or a social improvement:

an advertising campaign for a company, a campaign for equal rights, a campaign against smoking, an Environmental Awareness campaign;

All kinds of extravagant promises were made during the election campaign. The company has launched an advertising campaign in the hope of attracting new customers. The company has spent over £50 million on its latest advertising campaign.

to campaign - to lead or take part in a series of actions intended to achieve a particular social or political result:

to campaign for/against, a group campaigning against the destruction of the rainforests;

Women campaigned for equal pay and equal rights throughout the 1960s.

increase - a rise in amount, number, or degree synonym rise; opposite decrease:

an increase in the crime rate, large (huge, small) increase, an increase in the number of cars (in the amount of air pollution), wage (pay, salary) increase, price (fare) increase, to lead to an increase;

There was an increase of about 17% in the urban population between 1910 and 1920.

to increase - if you increase something, or if it increases, it becomes bigger in amount, number, or degree, opposite decrease, reduce:

The population increased dramatically in the first half of the century. Too much fat in the diet increases the risk of heart disease. The proportion of the elderly in the population continues to increase. Food prices increased by 10% in less than a year. The unemployment rate increased by 31 percent that year. The minimum wage was increased by 26 percent. Gradually the noise and traffic increased as they approached the city.

to have control over to have the ability or power to make someone or something do what you want or make something happen in the way you want:

Babies are born with very little control over their movements. Artists like to have some control over where their works are hung in a gallery. They seem to have no control over their children.

to construct - to build something such as a house, bridge, road etc:

to construct landfill sites, a constructing company;

There are plans to construct a new road bridge across the river. The city council has plans for constructing two new schools and a hospital. This elegant two-storey stone building was constructed in 1889.

a source - a thing, place, activity etc that you get something from:

a useful source of information, a major (main) source of something, energy (food, light) source, alternative energy sources, natural sources of energy;

They get their money from various sources. Beans are a very good source of protein. For me, music is a great source of enjoyment.

hydrogen - a colourless gas that is the lightest of all gases, forms water when it combines with oxygen, and is used to produce ammonia and other chemicals:

to produce (use) hydrogen, to introduce hydrogen cars.


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Unit 12.



cyber - relating to computers, especially to messages and information on the Internet

cyber-shoppers, cyber-crime(=criminal activity that involves the use of computers or the Internet.

to take off - to suddenly start being successful:

Before you knew it, 11 companies had settled here, and the place really took off. Her singing career took off after an appearance on Johnny Carson's "Tonight' show in America. Internet shopping will really take off when people become convinced that it is secure.

means - a way of doing or achieving something:

by all means, by means of, by no means;

For most people, the car is still their main means of transport. The only means of communication was sign language. The window was our only means of escape. The end justifies the means.

to come along - to appear or arrive:

A bus should come along any minute now. Take any job opportunity that comes along.

chat - an informal friendly conversation:

Internet chat-rooms (=a place on the Internet where you can write messages to other people and receive messages back from them immediately, so that you can have a conversation while you are online), a chat show (=a television or radio show on which people talk about themselves in reply to questions, synonym talk show), a chat service, to get into the chat room, to have a chat on the Internet;

I've had a long chat with Vinnie. She was enjoying their friendly little chat. She used to drop in for a chat quite often.

to chat (away)(chatted – chatting) – 1) to talk in a friendly informal way, especially about things that are not important:

to chat in English, to chat on the Internet, to chat to / with sb;

John and I sat up until the early hours chatting. Mary was there, chatting to her mother. Susie chatted away about her social life. Harry chatted to a couple of Australian tourists as we waited for the show to begin. The girls were sitting on the steps, chatting. The two women chatted all evening.

2) to communicate with several people in a chat room on the Internet.

chatty 1) liking to talk a lot in a friendly way:

He was in an unusually chatty mood.

2) a piece of writing that is chatty has a friendly informal style:

a chatty letter (style).

a chart 1) information that is clearly arranged in the form of a simple picture, set of figures, graph etc, or a piece of paper with this information on it, synonym diagram:

a chart showing last year's sales, a weather chart, the theatre's seating chart;

The students were asked to present the results of their experiment in the form of a chart. You can calculate what is a healthy weight for your height using this chart.

2) the charts= the lists, which come out weekly, of the most popular records:

the Beatles' first chart hit;

Her new single went straight to number one in the pop charts.

to type (away) - to write something using a computer or a typewriter:

to type on a keyboard, to be quick at typing;

Grammar 1

He types with two fingers. Type your password, then press 'Return'. Could you type those letters for me? I'm afraid I don't type very fast. I don't know how to type.

a clue 1) an object or piece of information that helps someone solve a crime or mystery:

We now have an important clue as to the time of the murder. Archaeological evidence will provide clues about what the building was used for. I haven’t a clue.

2) a piece of information that helps you solve a crossword puzzle, answer a question:

I'll give you a clue, Kevin, it's a kind of bird.

to work out - to think carefully about how you are going to do something and plan a good way of doing it:

to work out what (where, how), to work out the timetable (an agreement, a plan, a problem);

We need to work out how we're going to get there. I had it all worked out (=had made very careful plans). Let her work things out for herself.

to relieve 1) to reduce someone's pain or unpleasant feelings, synonym to ease:

to be relieved, to relieve sb’s mind (=feelings), to relieve sufferings;

Drugs helped to relieve the pain. This will relieve your cough. I’m so relieved to se you.

2) to make a problem less difficult or serious:

programs aimed at relieving unemployment.

a relief 1) a feeling of comfort when something frightening, worrying, or painful has ended or has not happened:

to bring relief, with relief, a sigh of relief, a sense of relief, to one’s relief;

He watched with relief as the girl nodded. He laughed in relief. No one was hurt, and we all breathed a sigh of relief. To my relief, they spoke English. The doctor said it was just the flu. What a relief! It was a great relief to know that the children were safe. It was such a relief to see Liz looking healthy again. To Greg's relief, nobody asked to check his ticket.

to upgrade 1) to make a computer, machine, or piece of software better and able to do more things:

to upgrade the PC;

You'll need to upgrade your hard drive to 4Mb before running this software. It was decided that the entire computer system should be upgraded.

2) to improve something and make it more modern, especially in order to provide a better service:

The hotel has recently been upgraded. The city has recently spent $3 million on upgrading its sports stadium.

upgrade (n)

connection 1) the way in which two facts, ideas, events etc are related to each other, and one is affected or caused by the other, synonym link:

to feel physical connection, in this connection, in connection with your request;

There is a connection between pollution and the death of trees. People have begun making (=realizing there is a link) the connection between environmental problems and their own use of energy at home. I believe Joe's family has Spanish connections. Students need to realize that there is a connection between education and their future.

2) when two or more things are joined together or when something is joined to a larger system or network:

a digital telephone connection via satellite, to get an Internet connection (a cheap connection, a faster Internet connection);

They're offering free Internet connection. The socket allows connection to a PC. By the end of the decade, direct satellite connections for the Internet may be available. Carefully check all the electrical connections.

to connect 1) to join two or more things together:

to be connected to the whole world;

Connect the speakers to the CD player. The scanner is connected to a computer that prints the name and price of each grocery item at the checkout.

2) to realize or show that a fact, event, or person is related to something, synonym link:

I didn't connect the two events in my mind.

3) to join something to the main supply of electricity, gas, or water, or to a telephone or computer network, opposite disconnect:

to connect to the Internet, to connect the wrong wires;

Click here to connect to the Internet. Most homes are connected to the public water supply. Has the phone been connected yet?

4) to join two telephone lines so that two people can speak:

Please hold the line. I'm trying to connect you. Please connect me with the manager.

to inspire 1) to encourage someone by making them feel confident and eager to do something:

We need someone who can inspire the team. He inspired many young people to take up the sport. I hope this success will inspire you to greater efforts. Inspired by the sunny weather, I decided to explore the woods.

2) to make someone have a particular feeling or react in a particular way:

to inspire confidence (=make people feel confident because they trust your ability);

His driving hardly inspires confidence. The lecture today really inspired me to read more poetry.

3) to give someone the idea for something, especially a story, painting, poem etc:

The movie was inspired by real events.

to spill (spilt / spilled) - if you spill a liquid, or if it spills, it accidentally flows over the edge of a container:

to spill some juice on sth, to spill coffee all over the desk;

Katie almost spilled her milk. Oh no! I've spilt coffee all down my shirt! He slipped and the wine spilled all over the carpet. "How was the party?" "OK, but some idiot spilled wine all over my new dress." A tanker has run aground, spilling 60,000 gallons of oil into the sea. Oops, I just spilled my water.

to update 1) to add the most recent information to something:

The files need updating.

2) to make something more modern in the way it looks or operates:

to update the anti-virus software;

The school has just updated all its computer equipment.

an update- 1) the most recent news or information about something:

a news update;

The report provides a brief update on the progress of the project. Grant calls in to get a weather update.

2) a change or addition to a computer file so that it has the most recent information.


gesture 1) a movement of part of your body, especially your hands or head, to show what you mean or how you feel:

Jim raised his hands in a despairing gesture. Our gestures and facial expressions affect our perceptions of one another. She shook her head with a gesture of impatience.

2) something that you say or do, often something small, to show how you feel about someone or something:

a fine gesture;

They decided it would be a nice gesture to send her a card. The flowers were really a nice gesture. That was a friendly gesture.

to shake hands - to move someone's hand up and down with your own hand as a greeting or as a sign you have agreed something:

He shook my hand warmly. Wilkins shook hands with him.

a handshake - the act of taking someone's right hand and shaking it, which people do when they meet or leave each other or when they have made an agreement:

to use a handshake;

He greeted me with a handshake and a glass of wine. Her handshake was warm and firm.

a sword - a weapon with a long pointed blade and a handle:

to have a sword in a hand, cavalry sword, a swords points, the sword of justice, to cross swords, sword dance.

specific - specific thing, person, or group is one particular thing, person, or group, opposite non-specific:

games suitable for specific age-groups, for a specific purpose.

to nod the head 1) move it from side to side, especially to say no or to show disapproval.

2) move it up and down, especially to say yes.

to confuse 1) to make someone feel that they cannot think clearly or do not understand:

I understand the text but the diagrams are confusing me. We became confused about what we want.

2) to think wrongly that a person or thing is someone or something else:

I always confuse you with your sister - you look so alike. I got their names confused.

to bet (bet – bet –betting) -1) to risk money on the result of a race, game, competition, or other future event :

to bet one’s shirt;

How much do you want to bet? He bet me £10 that I wouldn't do it. She bet all her money on a horse that came last. I’ll bet my life.

2) I bet, I'll bet

a) used to say that you are fairly sure that something is true, something is happening etc, although you cannot prove this:

I bet you she won't come.

b) used to show that you understand or can imagine the situation that someone has just told you about:

'God, I was so angry.' 'I bet you were.' 'It makes things much easier.' 'Yeah, I'll bet it does.'

c) used to show that you do not believe what someone has just told you:

'I'm definitely going to give up smoking this time.' 'Yeah, I bet!'

to shrug one’s shoulders - to raise and then lower your shoulders in order to show that you do not know something or do not care about something:

I just shrugged my shoulders and ignored him. Clarence raised his head, looked at her, and shrugged his shoulders helplessly.

to keep one’s fingers crossed - to hope that something will happen the way you want:

We're keeping our fingers crossed that she's going to be OK. A lot of people are keeping their fingers crossed for him.

Dictionary Corner

high – height - how tall someone or something is:

to fly at height of, to fall from a height of, a man of an average height;

Sam's about the same height as his sister now. None of these sculptures was less than three metres in height.

long – length - the measurement of how long something is from one end to the other:

We measured the length and width of the living room. Some fish can grow to a length of four feet. The hotel pool is 15 metres in length. Actually, no-one has legs of exactly equal length. Try these trousers, they look about the right length. He keeps everyone at arm’s length. She’ll go to any length to get her way. He went to great lengths to find them.

strong – strength - the physical power and energy that makes someone strong, opposite weakness:

strength of mind, a great strength;

She didn't even have the strength to stand up. Jo hit him with all her strength. Men are better at some sports because of their greater physical strength. It’s beyond my strength.

broad – breadth - the distance from one side of something to the other, synonym width:

the breadth of the river, 5 metres/3 feet etc in breadth, through the length and breadth, to a hair’s breadth, by a hair’s breadth of sth, breadth of mind;

This flower resembles a lily and may reach a breadth of four inches.

wide –width - the distance from one side of something to the other:

the width of his interests;

What's the width of the desk? It's about six metres in width. Can you just measure the width of the door? I was surprised by the width of his shoulders.


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Unit 13.



salary - money that you receive as payment from the organization you work for, usually paid to you every month:

monthly (annual, yearly) salary, on top of the salary, a competitive (starting) salary, to double one’s salary, to spend all the salary, the salary starts at …, the salary for the position is …, to earn quite a good salary;

The average salary is $39,000 a year. She's on a salary of £16,000. Parker's annual salary is just under $48,000. It’s time to have a higher salary. How can they afford that car on Todd's salary? Our daughter makes a good salary, but she really works for it.

a wage / wages - money you earn that is paid according to the number of hours, days, or weeks that you work:

a daily (weekly) wage, to offer quite low wages;

He earns a good wage. Elvina earns an hourly wage of $11.

pay - money that you are given for doing your job:

a minimum rate of pay, pay increase (rise/raise), the pay per hour, a good rate of pay;

Nurses often work long hours for low pay. Teachers were awarded a 6% pay rise. "What's the pay?" "About $10 an hour." For most fast-food workers, the pay is around $5 an hour. Joe's been receiving sick pay since the accident. The worst thing about being a nurse is the low pay.

commission 2) an extra amount of money that is paid to a person or organization according to the value of the goods they have sold or the services they have provided:

to be (work) on commission, to earn commission on sales, to be paid one’s commission, to double one’s salary with the commission;

The dealer takes a 20% commission on the sales he makes. He sold cosmetics on commission. His basic salary is low, but he gets 20% commission on everything he sells.

persuasive - able to make other people believe something or do what you ask:

persuasive argument (evidence);

Trevor can be very persuasive. Barratt's argument was persuasive, but the managers still turned down his proposal.

reward 1) something that you get because you have done something good or helpful or have worked hard:

in reward foe sth;

The school has a system of rewards and punishments to encourage good behaviour. Several of the parents were giving their children rewards for passing exams. The job is difficult, but the financial rewards are great.

2) money that is offered to people for helping the police to solve a crime or catch a criminal:

a reward for information leading to the capture of the murderers;

A reward of $20,000 has been offered.

rewarding - making you feel happy and satisfied because you feel you are doing something useful or important, even if you do not earn much money:

to find sth rewarding, to be incredibly rewarding;

Teaching can be a very rewarding career. Your work is so rewarding, even though it's unpleasant at times.

part-time - someone who has a part-time job works for only part of each day or week:

a part-time job, women wishing to return to work on a part-time basis, a part-time (kitchen, shop) assistant;

She wants to work part-time after she's had the baby.

a part-timer ; She started as a part-timer.

full-time - for all the hours of a week during which it is usual for people to work, study etc:

to work (study) full-time, full-time staff (student), full-time job (position, education), full-time managers;

She works full-time and has two kids. They're looking for full-time staff at the library. Janine attends high school full-time and works part-time.

to bring in - to earn a particular amount or produce a particular amount of profit:

to bring in money;

The sale of the house only brought in about £45,000.

income - the money that you earn from your work or that you receive from investments, the government etc:

on a ... income (=earning a particular amount), high/low income, to bring in a good income, to expect a fairly high income, to live beyond one’s income;

People on a high income should pay more tax. His annual income is £250,000. I'd love to know what his income is. He has so many new clothes and such an expensive car. The whole family survives on the mother's monthly income of less than £500.

to deal with (dealt) – 1) to take the necessary action, especially in order to solve a problem:

to deal with a problem, to deal with printers (recycling, the income of a business);

Don't worry, I'll deal with this. They should deal properly and fairly with any complaint. I hope you dealt with everything at work while I was away. There’s just to much information to deal with.

2) if a book, speech etc deals with a particular subject, it is about that subject:

These ideas are dealt with more fully in Chapter Four.

3) to do business with someone or have a business connection with someone:

Most travel agents do not deal directly with these companies.

4) to succeed in controlling your feelings about an emotional problem so that it does not affect your life, synonym cope with:

How's he dealing with the whole thing?

temporary - continuing for only a limited period of time, opposite permanent:

temporary pain relief, temporary work (job, position, post), temporary employees (workers, staff) (=employed for only a limited time), to find (look for) a temporary job;

I'm living with my parents, but it's only temporary. She was employed on a temporary basis. Ben's found a temporary job until November. I'm sure this is only a temporary problem. There are always plenty of temporary workers available during the summer months.

permanent - continuing to exist for a long time or for all the time in the future, opposite temporary:

to hope for a permanent position, to offer a permanent job;

He gave up a permanent job in order to freelance. Only five of the firm's employees are permanent. The car accident has caused permanent damage to her eyesight. Temporary employees rarely have the same rights and benefits as permanent staff.

permanently - to work permanently.

to get by - to have enough money to buy the things you need, but no more, synonym manage:

to get by on one salary;

I don't earn a huge salary, but we get by. Sometimes they had to get by on very little. Somehow they manage to get by on $800 a month. I can barely get by on $ 60, 000 a year.

to do for a living to do as a job:

What do you do for a living? All the way along, of course, I wondered what I would eventually do for a living. FreeI.net doesn't care about your name, your address, your age, or what you do for a living. I don't know what you do for a living but you obviously don't know much about the real world. It's what I do for a living.

to be in control to have the power to make the decisions about how a country, place, company etc is organized or what it does:

to be in control (of something), to be in control of the project;

Anti-government forces are still in control of the area.

to gain 1) to obtain or achieve something you want or need:

to gain control (power, a degree, qualification, strength, time);

After gaining independence in 1957, it was renamed 'Ghana' It took her a long time to gain enough confidence to speak in public.

2) to gradually get more and more of a quality, feeling etc, especially a useful or valuable one:

to gain a lot of experience (knowledge about sth);

Many of his ideas have gained popular support. The youngsters gradually gain confidence in their abilities. It took her a long time to gain enough confidence to speak in public. She stayed in the job for five years, gaining valuable experience.

to expand 1) to become larger in size, number, or amount, or to make something become larger, opposite contract;

Water expands as it freezes. Metals expand when they are heated. Sydney's population expanded rapidly in the 1960s. The university is planning to expand the number of students to over 20,000.

2 ) if a company, business etc expands, or if someone expands it, they open new shops, factories:

The computer industry has expanded greatly over the last decade. The hotel wants to expand its business by adding a swimming pool. The business was growing rapidly and beginning to expand abroad.

to require 1) to need something:

to require any further information, to require for a local shop;

What's required is a complete reorganization of the system. Most house plants require regular watering.

2) if you are required to do or have something, a law or rule says you must do it or have it:

You are required by law to wear a seat belt. Regulations require that students attend at least 90% of the lectures. The bill failed to get the required number of votes. The job requires a college degree and a knowledge of computers.

an employer - a person, company, or organization that employs people:

The shoe factory is the largest employer in this area. We will need a reference from your last employer before we can send you a contract.

an employee - someone who is paid to work for someone else, synonym worker:

The restrooms are for employees only. We are a multi-national corporation with 140,000 employees worldwide.

employment - the condition of having a paid job:

terms and conditions of employment, employment agency, employment opportunities/prospects;

She was offered employment in the sales office. Steve's still looking for full-time employment. Are you in full-time employment, Mr Edwards? I have not yet signed a contract of employment.

to sack - to dismiss someone from their job, synonym fire:

They couldn't sack me - I'd done nothing wrong. He was sacked from every other job he had. He was sacked for being drunk.

the sack - when someone is dismissed from their job:

to give sb the sack, to give the sack for sth, to get the sack;

They've never actually given anyone the sack. He got the sack for stealing.

to fire - to force someone to leave their job, synonym sack:

to be (get) fired;

She didn't want to get fired. I've just been fired from my job, and I don't know what to do. The airline fired him for being drunk. You’re fired!

to hire - to employ someone for a short time to do a particular job:

Employers hire skilled people on fixed-term contracts.

to quit (quit / quitted – quitting) - 1) to leave a job, school etc, especially without finishing it completely:

He quit his job after an argument with a colleague. I quit school at 16. She has decided to quit show business. I've always regretted quitting piano lessons. She quite her job and went traveling in South America.

2) to stop doing something, especially something that is bad or annoying:

The majority of smokers say that they would like to quit the habit. Quit that! You're driving me crazy. I quit taking the pills because they were making me put on weight.

to apply - to apply for a full-time job (a well-paid job, a teaching position), to apply in writing

application - a formal, usually written, request for something such as a job, place at university, or permission to do something:

an application form, to help with the application, a job application process, to fill in an application form, to request (send) an application form, a request for an application form;

We receive hundreds of job applications each year. I filled in the application form and sent it off. He received a letter saying that his application had been rejected. Thank you for your letter of application, which we received yesterday. Since I left university I've sent off nearly fifty job applications.

an applicant - someone who has formally asked, usually in writing, for a job, university place:

a successful (unsuccessful) applicant (=someone who is accepted or not accepted for a job etc)

He was one of 30 applicants for the manager's job. Ten women were selected from over 30 applicants. All applicants will be interviewed.

option - a choice you can make in a particular situation:

a much better option;

He had two options. This was not the only option open to him. She had the option of staying for an extra year. What other options do I have? Working full-time may not be your best option. I have no option.

to work in / at / for - You work at or in a place or institution. In is more often used when referring to a type of place, and at when referring to a particular one: e.g. People who work in an office. I worked at the local bakery. You work for a company or organization.

to work in - to do a job that you are paid for:

to work in advertising (television, publishing, the media, electronic publishing, the industry, the tourist industry, the service industry, other services).

to advertise 1) to tell the public about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it:

to advertise (something) on television (in a newspaper);

They no longer advertise alcohol or cigarettes at sporting events. "How did you find out about the new software?" "It was advertised on TV."

2) to make an announcement, for example in a newspaper or on a poster, that a job is available, an event is going to happen etc:

I see they're advertising for a new Sales Director. The concert was advertised in all the national newspapers. There was a big poster advertising a well-known brand of cola.

advertisement (ad, advert) - a picture, set of words, or a short film, which is intended to persuade people to buy a product or use a service, or that gives information about a job that is available, an event that is going to happen etc:

a newspaper (television, radio) advertisement, a full-page (half-page, two-page) advertisement, to put (place, take) an advertisement in a newspaper, to answer (reply) to an advertisement ;

The Sunday papers are full of advertisements for cars. She saw an advertisement for a ski vacation in Vermont. They put an advertisement in The Morning News, offering a high salary for the right person. The organizers of the concert had taken out (=arranged for) a full page advertisement in The New York Times.

to attach 1) to fasten or connect one object to another, synonym fix:

to attach something to something, the attached form/cheque/leaflet etc ;

Attach a recent photograph to your application form. Full details are shown in the attached leaflet. You will see from the attached resumé that I have a considerable amount of experience. A copy of my resume is attached to this letter.

skill - an ability to do something well, especially because you have learned and practised it:

Reading and writing are two different skills. Many jobs today require computer skills.

self-employednot to work for others.


ID card - a card with your name, date of birth, and photograph on it, that proves who you are.

a graphic designer- someone who combines pictures, words, and decoration in the production of books, magazines etc.

to promote 1) to help something to develop or increase:

A balanced diet promotes good health. They're trying to promote Dubai as a tourist destination.

2) to give someone a better, more responsible job in a company, opposite demote:

to promote somebody to something, to promote to manager, to be promoted to the position;

Helen was promoted to senior manager.

3) to help sell a new product, film etc by offering it at a reduced price or by advertising it:

She's in London to promote her new book. Meg Ryan is in Europe to promote her new movie. To promote their new shampoo, they are selling it at half price for a month.

promotion 1) a move to a more important job or position in a company or organization:

to have no chance for promotion;

I want a job with good prospects for promotion. Your promotion to Senior Editor is now official. She got a promotion last year. What are my chances of promotion if I stay here?

2) an activity intended to help sell a product, or the product that is being promoted:

a winter sales promotion.

a range 1) a number of people or things that are all different, but are all of the same general type:

a range of services, a wide (broad, full) range of something, a narrow (limited) range of something;

2) the limits within which amounts, quantities, ages etc vary:

age (price, temperature) range, toys suitable for children in the pre-school age range, a salary in the range of $25,000 to $30,000

3) a set of similar products made by a particular company or available in a particular shop:

a new range of kitchenware.

to fancy doing - to like or want something, or want to do something, synonym feel like:

Sorry, but I don't fancy going out tonight. I really fancy going for a swim.

to be exhausted to be extremely tired, synonym to be worn out:

You look absolutely exhausted. I was exhausted by the journey. I was exhausted every day when I first started teaching, but I'm used to it now. We had been walking for over 20 miles, and we were completely exhausted.

exhaustion - extreme tiredness:

nervous exhaustion (=when you become ill because you have been working too hard or have been very worried), to suffer from exhaustion;

He collapsed with exhaustion.

Dictionary Corner

to make sb do - to cause sb do sth:

to make sb to rewrite everything;

I like him because he makes me laugh. This cold medicine makes me fall asleep. What made you think of that?

to be made to do

to cause sb to do to make sb do sth especially sth bad:

to cause sb to lose the job (behave);

What caused you to change your mind?

to approve of sth - to think that someone or something is good, right, or suitable, opposite disapprove:

to approve of drinking coffee (such working practices, the plan);

Catherine's parents now approve of her marriage. I don't approve of cosmetic surgery. Bob doesn't approve of alcohol.

to be interested in (doing) sth - if you are interested in doing sth, you want to do it:

to be interested in finding a part-time job (aero planes, the opportunity);

Sheila's interested in starting her own business. Would you be interested in a second-hand car? Bob first got interested in motor cycles when he was about sixteen. I've never really been interested in politics.

to be involved in (doing) sth - to take part in an activity or event, or be connected with it in some way:

to be (heavily) involved in an ambitious project (an exciting international project);

More than 30 software firms were involved in the project. I don't want to get involved in some lengthy argument about who is to blame.

to apologize for (doing) sth - to tell sb that you are sorry that you have done sth wrong:

to apologize for being late (what he said);

I think you should apologize to your brother. He later apologized for his behaviour. I apologize for losing my temper. He apologized for keeping us waiting.

to insist on (doing) sth - to say firmly and often that something is true, especially when other people think it may not be true:

to insist on neat, clean appearance, to insist on one’s own way;

She kept insisting on her innocence. Many workers now insist on a smoke-free environment.

overtime time that you spend working in your job in addition to your normal working hours:

paid (unpaid) overtime, overtime payment (pay), to do much overtime, to work (a lot of) overtime, to solve the overtime problems, the amount of overtime;

They're working overtime to get the job finished. He's been doing a lot of overtime recently. Many employees work countless hours of unpaid overtime. Many of our offices will be working on overtime until the end of the year. There was so much overtime.

challenging - difficult in an interesting or enjoyable way:

challenging problem (work, game), to do sth challenging;

Teaching young children is a challenging and rewarding job. The job wasn't challenging enough for me - I wanted something more creative. Cutting costs without affecting quality can prove quite challenging. Planning a wedding reception for over 1000 guests will be very challenging.

a slave driver - someone who makes people work very hard - used in a disapproving or humorous way.


experience - knowledge or skill that you gain from doing a job or activity, or the process of doing this, opposite inexperience:

to have experience of/in/at/with, to have some previous experience (no necessary experience), to gain (get) experience;

You've got a lot of experience of lecturing. He had no previous experience of managing a farm. I had some experience in fashion design.

to be grateful 1) to feel that you want to thank someone because of something kind that they have done, opposite to be ungrateful:

to be extremely (deeply) grateful;

I'm so grateful for all your help. I'm really grateful for everything you've done for me. I am very grateful to all those who took the trouble to write to me. I am extremely grateful for the assistance your staff have provided. My daughter was rescued safely, and I am very grateful to the firemen.

2) I would be grateful if you could/would ... used to make a request:

reference - a letter containing information about you that is written by someone who knows you well, and is usually intended for a new employer:

letter of reference, to need a reference;

We will need references from your former employers.

convenient- useful to you because it saves you time, or does not spoil your plans or cause you problems, opposite inconvenient:

My secretary will call you to arrange a convenient time to meet. Is three o'clock convenient for you? It is simple and convenient to use. I could take the train, but it's more convenient to go by car. This is a safe and convenient way to dispose of chemicals.

resignation- when you officially announce that you have decided to leave your job or an organization, or a written statement that says you will be leaving:

a letter of resignation, to hand in one’s resignation(=officially say that you want to resign);

The governor refused to accept Cox's resignation.


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Unit 14.



a cruise - a holiday on a large ship:

a Mediterranean cruise, a cruise around the world, a cruise ship, a luxury cruise, a cruise company, to go on a cruise.

to set off - to start to go somewhere:

I'll set off early to avoid the traffic. Jerry and I set off on foot for the beach.

lounge - a waiting room at an airport: the departure lounge, to get to a departure launge.

away from - used to say how close sb is to achieving sth or experiencing sth:

At one stage, they were just two points away from victory.

to be about to do - if sb is about to do sth, or if sth is about to happen, they will do it or it will happen very soon:

We were just about to leave when Jerry arrived. Work was about to start on a new factory building.

to provide - to give smth to sb or make it available to them, because they need it or want it:

to provide entertainment (hours of pleasure);

Tea and biscuits will be provided. Technology may provide an answer to this problem. The hotel provides a shoe-cleaning service for guests. The project is designed to provide young people with work. The money will be used to provide the school with new computer equipment.

a cabin1) a small house, especially one built of wood in an area of forest or mountains:

a log cabin;

2) a small room on a ship in which you live or sleep:

a cabin n the ship, a luxury cabin, to book a cabin, Cost: $ 1, 795 and $ 1, 995 depending on cabin selection.;

3) an area inside a plane where the passengers sit or where the crew work:

the First Class cabin, a cabin crew.

a guided tour - if someone takes you on a guided tour, they show you around a place of interest and tell you all about it:

a guided tour of/around/round, to take a guided tour, to take sb on a guided tour, to specialize in guided tours;

You will be taken on a guided tour of the palace.

a bus ride - a journey in a bus, when you are not driving:

a short bus ride, a four-hour bus ride; A fifteen minute bus ride will take you to the airport.

spectacular very impressive:

a mountainous area with spectacular scenery, a spectacular success;

The view from the top floor is absolutely spectacular.

breathtaking - very impressive, exciting, or surprising:

the breathtaking scenery of the Rocky Mountains;

The view from my bedroom window was absolutely breathtaking. The drive along the beach and up the mountain is truly breathtaking. The guest house was on the side of the cliff, with breathtaking views of the ocean below.

cable 1) [countable] a plastic or rubber tube containing wires that carry telephone messages, electronic signals, television pictures etc:

cables and switches for computers, to put cable underground;

2) [uncountable and countable] a thick strong metal rope used on ships, to support bridges etc:

3) [uncountable] a system of broadcasting television by using cables, paid for by the person watching it:

a new cable channel, cable TV, to show a film on cable;

a cable car- a vehicle that hangs from a moving cable, and is used to take people up and down mountains:

She set off to walk a mile to the mountain cable car on Wednesday. It is centrally situated, and a ten minute walk from the cable car which leads to some magnificent mountain walks.

a load - a large quantity of something:

loads of cafes (apes, things);

We got a load of complaints about the loud music. Don't worry, there's loads of time There's loads to see in Paris. What a load of nonsense! That’s a load off my mind.

to feed (fed) - to give food to a person or animal:

Have you fed the cat? She was too weak to feed herself. Several children were feeding bread to the ducks.

to take photos of Can you take a photo of me and Rachel?

cute 1) very pretty or attractive:

a cute little puppy;

The baby's so cute. That's a really cute outfit. Julia Roberts is really cute in her new movie.

2) clever in a way that can seem rude.

to pinch 1) to press a part of someone's skin very tightly between your finger and thumb, especially so that it hurts:

He pinched her cheek. Stop pinching me! Tha’s where the shoe pinches. I pinched my finger in the door.

2) to steal something, especially something small or not very valuable:

Someone's pinched my coat! He pinches other people’s ideas.

to head to - to go or travel towards a particular place, especially in a deliberate way.

to get a tan to get the attractive brown colour that someone with pale skin gets after they have been in the sun:

I wish I could get a tan like that. At least she won't get a tan there. I had started to see the countries we visited as more than just exotic places to get a tan.

to remind of - to make someone remember someone that they know or something that happened in the past:

to remind of one’s youth; That song always reminds me of our first date.

a siesta - a short sleep in the afternoon, especially in warm countries:

to take (have) a siesta;

The stores all close after lunch when everyone takes a siesta. At one, in the stifling heat, we took a siesta. Follow the locals, when abroad, and have a siesta indoors. His habitual amount of sleep had been five to seven hours a night, with a half-hour siesta in the afternoon.

rough - with strong wind or storms, opposite calm:

The ship went down in rough seas.

seasick - feeling ill when you travel in a boat, because of the movement of the boat in the water:

to get (feel, be) seasick;

Hal was seasick almost at once. Alec liked sailing more than I. I got seasick.

to set foot- to go to or enter a place:

to set foot on Italian soil;

She swore she would never set foot in his house again. The last time Molly set foot in that house was 26 years ago. As soon as I set foot in there, I knew that I had to be involved somehow. However, he had never set foot in the village again.

decent - of a good enough standard or quality:

a decent salary (wage, hotel);

Don't you have a decent jacket? Did you get decent seats for the game? I need to get a decent night's sleep. I want to provide my boys with a decent education. There isn't one decent restaurant around here.

coach - a bus with comfortable seats used for long journeys:

to travel by coach, to sit at the back of the coach, a coach trip to Scotland;

We went to Paris by coach. She's going to Grimsby on a coach. The restaurant was full of coach parties (=groups of people travelling together on a coach).

touristy - a place that is touristy is full of tourists and the things that attract tourists - used to show disapproval: a touristy area.

to explore - to travel around an area in order to find out about it:

to explore the forests (the beaches);

Venice is a wonderful city to explore. We'll be in Istanbul for three days, so there will be plenty of time to explore. We spent a week exploring the Oregon coastline.

cuisine - a particular style of cooking:

French cuisine, vegetarian cuisine, the traditional cuisine of the Southwest;

Hungary has an excellent and internationally recognised cuisine. Venetian cuisine is based on seafood and rice.

to broaden - to increase smth such as your knowledge, experience, or range of activities:

to broaden the mind (the waist line);

The course helps school-leavers broaden their knowledge of the world of work. I'd like to work abroad to broaden my horizons (=learn, experience, or attempt new things). Travel broadens the mind (=helps you to understand and accept other people's beliefs, customs etc).

to go/be on a diet - to have a limited range and amount of food that you eat when you want to get thinner:

Lyn always seems to be on a diet. Since his heart attack, Brice has been on a salt-free diet. Ted has gone on a diet three times in the last two years. Like most of us these days, Chardonnay has gone on a diet. Should I go on a diet?

a package holiday a holiday organized by a company at a fixed price that includes the cost of travel, accommodation:

to go on a package holiday;

Airports have been expanding to cope with the number of people going on package holidays.

a package tour a holiday organized by a company at a fixed price, which includes visits to a number of different places, travel to the starting point of the holiday and all travel during it, accommodation, etc:

to book a package tour;

Package tours to Southeast Asia are increasingly popular.

diary entry- what you have written for a particular day:

My diary entries are filled with prosaic happenings.

facilities - rooms, equipment, or services that are provided for a particular purpose:

All rooms have private facilities (=private bathroom and toilet). The hotel has its own pool and leisure facilities. The college has excellent research facilities. The Sport and Recreation Department offers some of the finest indoor sports facilities.

abandon- an abandoned building, car, boat, ship etc has been left by the people who owned or used it:

The car was found abandoned in Bristol. Abandoned or stolen bikes are being sold at police auctions.

a border - the official line that separates two countries, states, or areas, or the area close to this line:

the German-Polish border, to cross the border;

The river lies on the border between the US and Mexico. To cross the border, you will need a valid passport. It is a mountainous region, occupying a large area near the border with Nepal. Strasbourg is very close to the German border. The town lies on the border between Chile and Argentina. We spent the night in, a miserable little border town.

a gondola - a long narrow boat with a flat bottom and high points at each end, used on the canals in Venice in Italy:

A gondola was waiting by the steps.

a flight - a journey in a plane or space vehicle, or the plane or vehicle that is making the journey:

non-stop flights from London to Tehran, a return (relaxing) flight, to miss (delay, introduce, enjoy) a flight, to book flights on the Internet;

He immediately booked a flight to Toulouse. Bernstein caught the first flight (=got on the first plane) out of Washington. We need to hurry or we'll miss our flight (=arrive too late to get on the plane). All flights out of Chicago were cancelled. Many people have trouble sleeping after a long flight. The number of international flights (=to another country) fell last year.

travel - the activity of travelling for long distances and long periods of time:

a travel agent (centre), a time travel machine;

The new job involves a fair amount of travel. We went by bus - the cheapest means of travel. Her interests are politics, music, and travel. In the 19th century, travel between the two countries was extremely difficult. The State Department has advised against travel in the region.

holiday 1) a time of rest from work, school etc, synonym vacation:

The school holidays start tomorrow. I'm away on holiday until the 1st of June.

2) a period of time when you travel to another place for pleasure, synonym vacation:

to go/be on holiday, to go on a foreign holiday, to have/take a holiday;

We're going to Spain for our holidays. He caught malaria while on holiday in Africa. When are you going on holiday? I didn't have a proper holiday this year. Mrs Southey is on holiday in Florida.

Dictionary Corner

trip - a visit to a place that involves a journey, for pleasure or a particular purpose:

a business (school, shopping) trip, to go on (take) a trip, to go on a business trip (a school trip), to organize a school trip, a business trip to Japan, a coach (boat, bus) trip, a boat trip up the Thames, a day trip (=a pleasure trip done in one day), a return trip (=when you are travelling back to where you started);

Did you enjoy your trip to Disneyland? The Palace is only a short trip from here. Two lucky employees won a round-the-world trip. We're thinking of taking a trip to the mountains.

to miss - to not go somewhere or do something, especially when you want to but cannot:

to miss a plane (bus, ferry, flight, coach, an opportunity);

I'm absolutely starving - I missed lunch. She was upset at missing all the excitement. By the time we got there we'd missed the beginning of the movie. I missed the bus and had to wait half an hour for the next one. I think I've missed the last bus. Let's hurry back so we don't miss the start of the game.

straight ahead/on - if sb or smth looks or moves straight ahead, they look or move forward:

to go straight ahead;

He stared straight ahead.

to make one’s way - to go towards something, especially when this is difficult or takes a long time:

to make one’s way to / through / towards;

When that evening she made her way up to Helen's flat, she found that Edward was there.

a route 1) a way from one place to another:

to take (follow) a (the longest) route (=use a route), to plan (work out) one’s route;

What's the best route to Cambridge? We weren't sure about which route we should take.

2) a way between two places that buses, planes, ships etc regularly travel:

a bus (air, shipping) route, on the 517 bus route;

Is your office on a bus route?

3) a way of doing something or achieving a particular result:

an easy route to the lifestyle;

Money is not always the route to happiness.

a direction- 1) the way something or someone moves, faces, or is aimed:

a wind direction;

Which direction did they go in? The suspects were last seen heading in the direction of Miami. Tony glanced in her direction and their eyes met. The girls pointed in the opposite direction. There was a loud scream from the direction of the children's pool. Continue in a southerly direction until you reach the road.

2) the general way in which someone or something changes or develops:

to move (head, go) in the right direction, a new (different, exciting) direction, to take the direction, to go in the wrong direction, a cpmplete change of direction in one’s life;

We are happy with the direction the club is taking. I believe that things are heading in the right direction in South Africa. The company is hoping to extend its operations in new directions. People’s lives go in all kinds of directions.

to give sb directions – to give instructions about how to get from one place to another:

A very helpful woman gave me directions to the police station.


a bedchamber - a bedroom:

A door at the end of the room led to my bedchamber, which was simply furnished with bed and clothes chest.

a replica - an exact copy of something, especially a building, a gun, or a work of art:

A replica of the space shuttle is parked at the center's entrance. The building is an exact replica of the original Globe theatre.

a crew 1) all the people who work on a ship or plane:

a cabin crew;

The plane crashed, killing two of the crew and four passengers. The crew of the space shuttle will hold a press conference Friday. The captain and crew would like to welcome you on board Flight 381 to Geneva.

2) a group of people working together with special skills:

a TV camera crew;

Everyone in the movie's cast and crew has done a great job.

speed - the rate at which something moves or travels:

at high (low) speed(s), at top/full speed (=as fast as possible), at/with lightning speed (=very fast), speed limit, wind speed;

The truck was travelling at a speed of 50 mph. Extreme care is always needed when flying at high speeds. They drove to the hospital at top speed. The Earth moves round the Sun at a speed of 30 km per second. The Ferrari Testarossa has a top speed of 188 mph.

to speed (sped / speeded) - to go quickly, synonym race:

The car sped along the dusty highway.

an altitude - the height of an object or place above the sea:

We're flying at an altitude of 40,000 feet. At high altitudes it is difficult to get enough oxygen. It's very difficult to breathe at high altitudes.

an airline pilot - someone who operates the controls of an aircraft or spacecraft.

high season - the time of year when businesses make a lot of money and prices are high, especially in the tourist industry, synonym peak season, opposite low season:

Room prices range from $ 56 to $ 72 during high season to $ 29 to $ 46 during low. There are usually three boats a day, sometimes more in high season. There is a full entertainments programme during the high season and the hotel has a taverna with live music. There is live music on the terrace in high season.

a brochure - a thin book giving information or advertising something: a holiday brochure.

to sign - to write your signature on smth to show that you wrote it, agree with it, or were present:

Sign here, please. The artist had signed his name in the corner of the painting. You forgot to sign the cheque. Over a hundred people have signed the petition. Steffi signs her autograph every time she's asked.

an elevator - a machine that takes people and goods from one level to another in a building, synonym lift: We'll have to take the elevator.

a porter1) someone whose job is to carry people's bags at railway stations, airports etc:

I went to pick up luggage too, but a porter came and took it from me.

2) someone in charge of the entrance to a hotel, hospital etc:

The hall porter will direct you.

to serve 1) to give sb food or drink, especially as part of a meal or in a restaurant, bar etc:

to serve breakfast (lunch, dinner), to serve something hot (cold), to serve with ketchup, to serve food from our country, to boil before it is served, to serve very wealthy people,;

The waiter was serving another table. Breakfast is served until 9 a.m. Meals can be served to you in your room. Teacakes should be served hot with butter. Andrew, will you serve coffee to the visitors? It is illegal to serve alcoholic drinks to anyone under 18. The chef serves important guests himself. The snack bar serves healthy food.

2) to be useful or helpful for a particular purpose or reason:

Estrada was serving a customer when the fire started.

service- 1) the official system for providing something, especially something that everyone in a country needs to have, or the official organization that provides it:

the health (postal, police, prison) service, the essential services (=the police, hospitals, fire service, and organizations that provide basic things such as water, gas, or electricity);

Workers in the emergency services (=police, hospital, and the fire service) are forbidden from striking.

2) a particular type of help or work that is provided by a business to customers, but not one that involves producing goods:

to provide (offer) a service, to thank for the professional service, to receive the service, to pay for the service, to be happy with the services provided, a reliable (chat) service, a quicker Internet service

Our aim is to provide the best service at the lowest price.

3) the help that people who work in a shop, restaurant, bar etc give you:

good (bad, slow) service, customer service, to advertise the shopping services;

The service was terrible and so was the food. At our bank we insist on high standards of customer service. Service is included in your bill (=the charge for paying the people who serve you is included).

a receptionist - someone whose job is to welcome and deal with people arriving in a hotel or office building, visiting a doctor etc :

Foreign visitors will expect the receptionist to have a very good knowledge of the country in general.

a customer - someone who buys goods or services from a shop, company etc:

a perfect customer;

We've had several letters from satisfied customers. Many of the banks offer a poor level of customer service. He's one of our regular customers. The barman was serving the last customer of the evening. Their typical customer earns more than $70,000. We don't get many customers on Mondays - Saturday is our busiest day.

a tour guide - someone whose job is to take tourists to a place and show them around.

an announcement 1) an important or official statement:

to make an announcement;

Dillon made the announcement at a news conference. We were shocked by the announcement that the mayor was resigning. Silence, please. Mr Bennett is about to make an announcement. The announcement was heard by millions of radio listeners this morning. The short written announcement gave no details.

2) a small advertisement or statement in a newspaper:

a wedding announcement in the local paper;

I read the announcement of her death in today's newspaper.

a stay - a limited time of living in a place:

a short stay in the hospital, to have a pleasant stay;

I met her towards the end of my stay in Los Angeles. So how was the rest of your stay?

Grammar 2

to book - to make arrangements to stay in a place, eat in a restaurant, go to a theatre etc at a particular time in the future:

to book in advance, to book a package holiday, to book for the weekend, to book a cabin;

Have you booked a holiday this year? The flight was already fully booked (=no more seats were available). To get tickets, you have to book in advance. The show's booked solid (=all the tickets have been sold). I’m booked.

an agent - a person or company that represents another person or company, especially in business:

a travel (ticket) agent;

Our agent in Rio deals with all our Brazilian business. Travel agents often advertise package tours which include a stay at a certain hotel.

to say with clenched teethto say with your teeth together tightly, usually because you feel angry or determined.


premises- the buildings and land that a shop, restaurant, company etc uses:

to be on the premises, business premises;

Schools may earn extra money by renting out their premises.

to furnish - to put furniture and other things into a house or room:

to be badly furnished;

Having bought the house, they couldn't afford to furnish it. The house was furnished in the most beautiful taste.

a shuttle - a plane, bus, or train that makes regular short journeys between two places:

He took the Washington - New York shuttle. A shuttle bus operates to and from the beach of San Benedetto. There's a shuttle service from the city center to the airport. If I take the 6:30 shuttle, I'll be there in time for the meeting.

to make matters worse used to say that something makes a bad situation worse:

Don't say anything, you'll only make matters worse. The team has lost the last two games and, to make matters worse, two of its best players are injured.

safety - when someone or something is safe from danger or harm:

measures to improve the health and safety of employees, for safety purposes, to follow rules for people’s safety, road safety, safety measures;

You shouldn't travel alone, for safety's sake (=in order to be safe). For your own safety, please do not smoke inside the plane. All children should be taught road safety from an early age.

a refund - an amount of money that is given back to you if you are not satisfied with the goods or services that you have paid for:

to deserve a full refund, to give (get) a refund;

They refused to give me a refund. Return your purchase within 14 days for a full refund. You should go down there and demand a refund.

to refund - to refund for sth,

to state - to formally say or write a piece of information or your opinion:

Please state your name and address. The witness stated that he had not seen the woman before. The law states that you are innocent until proved guilty. The receipt clearly states that refunds are not allowed.

accommodation - a place for someone to stay, live, or work:

to find (include ) accommodation;

The price for the holiday includes flights and accommodation. Universities have to provide student accommodation for first-year students. The cost of the six-day trip includes meals and motel accommodations. The holiday costs about £400 for a week's accommodation and flights. The price includes flights, accommodation and transport. Tha package holiday I booked included accommodation and the air ticket.

a destination - the place that someone or something is going to:

a holiday (tourist) destination, to choose (reach) destination, final destination, to arrive late at one’s destination, to visit a holiday destination;

Allow plenty of time to get to your destination. Turkey is a popular tourist destination. At the border you will be asked about your destination and how long you plan to stay. What are the favorite destinations for groups?


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Unit 15.



to make a fortune – to earn a lot of money:

to seek a fortune;

He's made a fortune selling computers on the Internet. He made a fortune selling property in Spain. James was said to have made a fortune after the divorce.

ethical 1) relating to principles of what is right and wrong, synonym moral:

ethical issues (questions, problems, views, policy);

The use of animals in scientific tests raises difficult ethical questions. The president must have the highest ethical standards. We need to consider the moral consequences of our actions and the ethical choices we make.

2) morally good or correct, opposite unethical:

I don't think it's ethical for you to accept a job you know you can't do. There is only one ethical way to carry out this experiment. It would not be ethical for me, as a doctor, to talk to you about my patients.

to stock 1) if a shop stocks a particular product, it keeps a supply of it to sell:

We stock a wide range of kitchen equipment. Do you stock large sizes?

2) to fill something with a supply of something:

Our refrigerator at college was always stocked with meat.

labour 1) work, especially physical work:

Many women do hard manual labour (=work with their hands).Marx defined the working class as people who sell their labour to employers. Many women do all the work in the home, and their labour is unpaid.

2) all the people who work for a company or in a country:

the use of child labour (=the use of children in industry);

Wages for unskilled labour (=workers who have no special skills) are very low. These countries are a source of cheap labour. We need to reduce our labour costs. Labour shortages have forced the Japanese into making heavy use of industrial robots.

a labourer - Texas has a large population of seasonal farm laborers.

to make up one’s mind 1) to decide which of two or more choices you want, especially after thinking for a long time:

He couldn't make up his mind about what to do with the money. 2) to become very determined to do something, so that you will not change your decision:

He had clearly made up his mind to end the affair. I made up my mind there and then that I would never get married.

3) to decide what your opinion is about someone or something:

I could never really make my mind up about him. You're old enough to make your own mind up about smoking.

to change one’s mind - to change your decision, plan, or opinion about something:

I was afraid that Liz would change her mind and take me back home.

to make a difference - to have an important effect or influence on something or someone:

Whatever she did, it made no difference. One more person wouldn't make any difference to the arrangements. Having a good teacher has made all the difference for Alex. What difference does it make?

It makes no difference to somebody. - used to say that it does not matter to someone which thing happens, is chosen etc:

Morning or afternoon. It makes no difference to me. It makes no difference to me whether I go or not.

wealth - a large amount of money, property etc that a person or country owns:

The country's wealth comes from its oil. The purpose of industry is to create wealth. The top 1 percent of the population now own 42 percent of the national wealth.

wealthy - having a lot of money, possessions etc, synonym rich:

very (extremely) wealthy, a wealthy woman, to serve very wealthy people;

He left as a poor, working class boy and returned as a wealthy man. Joan comes from a wealthy family. You would never have guessed from meeting him how extremely wealthy he was.

obvious - easy to notice or understand:

The obvious way of reducing pollution is to use cars less. For obvious reasons the police cannot give any more details about the case. The most obvious example of an information source is a dictionary. The obvious question is - does his invention work? It was obvious that Gina was lying. It might be obvious to you, but it isn't to me. It's obvious that Paul is in love with Liz. It's obvious that something is wrong. It should be obvious to everyone that we need to make some changes. She tried to look grateful, but her disappointment was obvious. There is an obvious connection between the two murders. There was no obvious reason for their behavior.

to fail 1) to not succeed in achieving something, opposite succeed:

Doctors failed to save the girl's life. Millions of people have tried to quit smoking and failed miserably (=been completely unsuccessful). I failed to convince him that I was right. Having failed to find her friend, she decided to return home. My attempt to lose weight failed completely. Don’t fail me!

2) to not do what is expected, needed, or wanted:

The letter failed to arrive. Firms that fail to take advantage of the new technology will go out of business.

3) to not pass a test or examination, opposite pass:

I failed my driving test the first time I took it. He failed maths but passed all his other subjects.

failure 1) a lack of success in achieving or doing something, opposite success:

the conference's failure to reach an agreement, to end (result) in failure, a sense of failure, a failure of memory;

Harry's plans ended in failure.

2) someone or something that is not successful, opposite success:

a total (complete) failure;

I always felt a bit of a failure at school. The advertising campaign was a total failure.

to estimate - to try to judge the value, size, speed, cost etc of something, without calculating it exactly:

The tree is estimated to be at least 700 years old. Organizers estimated the crowd at 50,000. Scientists estimate that smoking reduces life expectancy by around 12 years on average. It is not easy to estimate how many people have the disease. His personal fortune is estimated at £150 million. The mechanic estimated the cost of repairs at $350.

to lift 1) to move something or someone upwards into the air:

to lift above the poverty level;

Sophie lifted the phone before the second ring. He lifted the lid on the pot of soup. Can you help me lift the big boxes? His doctor has told him that he must not lift anything heavy.

2) to move part of your body up to a higher position, synonym raise:

to lift one’s hand afainst sb;

He lifted his head to see who was at the door. I'm so tired I can't even lift up my arms. I was feeling so weak that I could hardly lift my head from the pillow. He never lifts a finger.

3) to steal something:

They had lifted dozens of CDs from the store.


to be bound to do - to feel that you ought to do something, because it is morally right or your duty to do it:

to be bound to fail;

Well I'm bound to say (=I feel I ought to say). He is bound to come. It is bound to happen. You are not bound to go if you don’t want to.

qualifications 1) if you have a qualification, you have passed an examination or course to show you have a particular level of skill or knowledge in a subject:

academic (vocational, professional, educational) qualifications, technical (secretarial, medical) qualifications, the academic qualifications needed for university entrance, jobs that require technical qualifications, to need (excellent, necessary) qualifications, to get some (the right) qualifications, to have formal qualifications(=official qualifications rather than experience or personal qualities);

The two-year course leads to a professional qualification. Applicants should have an EFL(=English as a Foreign Language) qualification and a year's teaching experience. She gained a qualification in marketing. She left school at 16, with no academic qualifications. You can’t get a decent job with qualifications.

2) a skill, personal quality, or type of experience that makes you suitable for a particular job or ""> There have been questions about his qualifications to lead the company. List your qualifications in the space below.

circumstances - the conditions that affect a situation, action, event etc:

economic (political) circumstances, in such difficult circumstances, under no circumstances;

I can't imagine a circumstance in which I would be willing to steal. A change in policy may be dictated by economic circumstances. Prisoners can only leave their cells under certain circumstances (=if particular conditions exist). He was found dead in suspicious circumstances (=in a way that makes you think something illegal has happened).

to be determined to do – to have a strong desire to do sth, so that you will not let anyone stop you:

to be determined to succeed;

She was determined to win. I was determined to be a professional dancer, and practised for hours every day.

to meet the deadline to have something finished on time:

Working under pressure to meet a deadline had a motivating effect.

to take advantage of sb - to treat someone unfairly in order to get what you want, especially someone who is generous or easily persuaded:

Don't lend them the car - they're taking advantage of you! I felt that my friends were taking advantage of me as a free babysitter.

to take advantage of sth - to use a particular situation to do or get what you want:

I took advantage of the good weather to paint the shed.

to take a risk - to decide to do something even though you know it may have bad results:

Isn't he taking a bit of a risk in coming here? I couldn't take the risk of leaving him alone even for a short time. Many people are willing to take that risk in order to protect their families. I think you're taking a huge risk. I’ll take the risk.


to be sick 1) suffering from a disease or illness:

His mother's very sick. Maria can't come in today because she's sick. I have been sick with flu. At the last minute I got sick and couldn't go. Pete's at home in bed, sick as a dog (=very sick).

2) to be sick if you are sick, the food in your stomach comes up through your mouth, synonym vomit, throw up:

I think I'm going to be sick. The cat's been sick on the carpet. You'll be sick if you eat any more of that chocolate! I’m sick of being unemployed.

to graduate from to obtain a degree, especially a first degree, from a college, university or high school:

Kate graduated from medical school last year. We both graduated from the same high school in Queens.

to be worth sth/doing - 1) to have a value in money:

not worth the trouble (a button);

The house must be worth quite a lot of money now. One of the pictures is worth £50,000. Do you know how much the ring is worth? This art collection is worth a fortune (=worth a very large amount of money). It's a very old machine so I shouldn't think it's worth anything.

2) used to say that something is interesting, useful, or helpful:

The film is well worth seeing. It’s not worth thinking about it.

3) used to say that someone should do something because they will gain something from it:

It's worth checking the details of the contract before you sign it. It's well worth getting there early if you want a good seat. It was a lot of hard work, but it was worth it. I thought about trying to talk to him about it, but decided it wasn't worth it.

to be worthless - 1) something that is worthless has no value, importance, or use, opposite valuable:

The house was full of worthless junk. The information was worthless to me. The jewellery turned out to be completely worthless.

2) a worthless person has no good qualities or useful skills, synonym useless:

His parents had made him feel worthless.

worthwhile - if sth is worthwhile, it is important or useful, or you gain something from it:

to seem (be) worthwhile;

He wanted to do a worthwhile job. For plastics to be recycled into worthwhile items, they must be separated out into the different types. I thought it was worthwhile to clarify the matter. It wasn't worthwhile continuing with the project.

eventually - after a long time, or after a lot of things have happened:

He eventually escaped and made his way back to England. Eventually, she got a job and moved to London. Seventy-two percent of people eventually found work, but mainly in low-paid service jobs. Eventually, the sky cleared up and we went to the beach.

a plot - a small piece of land for building or growing things on:

a two acre plot of land, a vegetable plot;

When he died, all my uncle left me was a worthless plot of land.

to satisfy 1) to make someone feel pleased by doing what they want:

Nothing I did would ever satisfy my father. Nothing satisfies him.

2) if you satisfy someone's needs, demands etc, you provide what they need or want:

to satisfy somebody's needs (demands, desires, the highest standards);

The program is designed to satisfy the needs of adult learners. A salad won't be enough to satisfy my appetite. Just to satisfy my curiosity (=find out something), how much did it cost? A compromise was eventually reached, but even this failed to satisfy environmentalists. Applicants will have to satisfy the committee that they are suitable for the job. Her explanation failed to satisfy the jury. The changes I made seemed to satisfy Cooley.

satisfying - 1) making you feel pleased and happy, especially because you have got what you wanted, opposite unsatisfying:

a deeply satisfying feeling;

It can be very satisfying to work in the garden. June was looking for a new and satisfying career.

2) food that is satisfying makes you feel that you have eaten enough:

a satisfying meal.

satisfied 1) pleased because something has happened in the way that you want, or because you have got what you want, opposite dissatisfied:

a satisfied smile, to be completely (fully, totally) satisfied;

They have plenty of satisfied customers. Will she ever be satisfied? I'm not satisfied with the way he cut my hair. If you're not completely satisfied, you can get your money back.

2) feeling sure that something is right or true, synonym certain:

He was satisfied that he had done nothing wrong. The police said that they were satisfied with his story and let him go free.

a great (good, record) deal - a large quantity of something, synonym a lot:

It took a great deal of time and effort. His work has been attracting a great deal of attention. He knew a good deal more than I did. She's married to a man a good deal older than herself. Neither girl took a great deal of interest in me. She spoke a great deal about poetry.

desperately 1) in a desperate way:

The doctors tried desperately to save her life. He looked round desperately for someone to help him. Lori wanted desperately to have a child.

2) very or very much:

desperately poor (ill, tired), desperately unhappy (lonely, worried);

The crops desperately need rain. He was desperately ill with a fever.

to stand/have a chance- if someone or something stands a chance of doing something, it is possible that they will succeed:

to stand a good (better) chance;

If we did move to London, I'd stand a much better chance of getting a job.

Dictionary Corner

to turn down to refuse an offer, request, or invitation:

to turn down the job offer;

They offered her the job but she turned it down. I'm not going to turn down an invitation to go to New York! Josie's already turned him down (=refused his offer of marriage). I can't turn down the offer of a free trip to Milan! Roger never turns down an invitation to dinner. I might have made a mistake to turn down offers when they were there.

to put on to become fatter and heavier, synonym gain:

Rosie's put on five kilos since she quit smoking. He's put on weight recently.

to make up - to produce a new story, song, game etc by thinking:

to make up a story;

Nick made up a song about them. When you're the boss you can make up your own rules.

to carry on doing - to continue doing something:

to carry on working;

You'll have an accident if you carry on driving like that.

to carry out - to do something that needs to be organized and planned:

to carry out experiments;

We need to carry out more research.

to turn into 1) to become something different:

The sofa turns into a bed. A few weeks later, winter had turned into spring. Hollywood discovered her and turned her into a star.

2) to change by magic from one thing into another, or to make smth do this:

In a flash, the prince turned into a frog. The witch had turned them all into stone.

to turn off - to make a machine or piece of electrical equipment such as a television, engine, light etc stop operating by pushing a button, turning a key etc, synonym switch off; opposite turn on:

to turn off the television (the alarm);

Don't forget to turn the lights off when you leave.

to get on with - if people get on, they like each other and have a friendly relationship with each other, synonym get along:

to get on well with colleagues (the boss);

I've always got on well with Henry. The two boys get on well most of the time.

to look after - to take care of someone by helping them, giving them what they need, or keeping them safe, synonym take care of:

Don't worry, I'll look after the kids tomorrow. Susan looked after us very well. She's an excellent cook. You could tell that the horse had been well looked after.

to look into - to try to find out the truth about a problem, crime etc in order to solve it, synonym investigate:

to look into what happened (the case);

Police are looking into the disappearance of two children.

Grammar 2

a consolation prize - a prize that is given to someone who has not won a competition:

Ten runners-up received a T-shirt as a consolation prize.

to lend (lent)- to let someone borrow money or smth that belongs to you for a short time:

I lent my CD player to Dave and I haven't got it back yet. The hospital agreed to lend us a wheelchair. Can you lend me £10 until tomorrow? Did you lend that book to Mike? I lent my penknife to someone, but I can't remember who it was now. I wish I'd never lent him my car.

to borrow - to use something that belongs to someone else and that you must give back to them late:

Can I borrow your pen for a minute? You are allowed to borrow six books from the library at a time. They borrowed heavily (=borrowed a lot of money) from the bank to start their new business.

to make an effort - to do something, especially when this involves a lot of hard work or determination:

I know you don't like her, but please make an effort to be polite. Bedford lifted the paper again and made an effort to keep reading.

to make a promise to promise:

to make a promise to sb;

She made a promise to visit them once a month. You made a promise, so you have to keep it.

to make a decisionto make a choice or judgment after a period of discussion or thought:

Do you ever wonder if you made the right decision?

to approach - to move towards or nearer to someone or something:

As I approached the house, I noticed a light on upstairs. She heard footsteps approaching. A tourist approached us and asked us the way to the theatre.

to give some advice - to tell someone what they should do:

to give some useful advice;

Let me give you some advice. I shall give you my advice in twenty-four hours. Could you give me some advice about buying a home?

to suggest/explain sth to sb

to write sth to sb


to compete 1) if one company or country competes with another, it tries to get people to buy its goods or services rather than those available from another company or country:

The stores have to compete for customers in the Christmas season. Several advertising agencies are competing to get the contract.

2) to try to gain something and stop someone else from having it or having as much of it:

She and her sister are always competing for attention. I had to compete against 19 other people for the job.

3) to take part in a competition or sports event:

How many runners will be competing in the marathon? Professional athletes may now compete at the Olympics. He'll be competing against the world's best.

competitive 1) determined or trying very hard to be more successful than other people or businesses:

Some US industries are not as competitive as they have been in the past. Amanda hated working in advertising - it was so competitive.

2) relating to competition:

Competitive sports encourage children to work together as a team. Advertising is a highly competitive business.

3) products or prices that are competitive are cheaper than others but still of good quality:

The hotel offers a high standard of service at competitive rates. Call this number for our free catalogue of competitively priced software. I think you'll find our prices are extremely competitive.

desire - a strong hope or wish:

a strong desire to win, a desire for knowledge, to express (show) a desire;

It was Harold's desire that he should be buried next to his wife. She expressed a desire to visit us. I have no desire to cause any trouble. Paul had a burning desire (=very strong desire) to visit India. After so many years of war, there was a great desire for peace.

to purchase - to buy something:

You can purchase insurance on-line. Where did you purchase the car? Tickets may be purchased in advance from the box office. Foreign investors are not permitted to purchase land.

a purchase

a tip 1) a small amount of additional money that you give to someone such as a waiter or a taxi driver:

a large (generous, big) tip, a $5 tip;

Did you leave a tip? I gave the guy a big tip.

2) a helpful piece of advice:

useful tips on healthy eating, handy tips (=useful tip) for decorating a small flat

Jill knows Spain really well. Perhaps she could give us a few tips.

to come true - if wishes, dreams etc come true, they happen in the way that someone has said or hoped that they would:

The prediction seems to have come true. After 21 years, Carl's dream of owning a home came true. People say that if you make a wish at the top of the hill, it always comes true. This is the land where dreams come true if you really, honestly want them to. This was a dream that came true.

to set sb a goal - to say what you or someone else will or must try to achieve:

It's best to set realistic goals that you can achieve. He set himself the goal of learning Japanese. Mrs Harris said I must set a goal for myself.

an attempt - an act of trying to do something, especially something difficult:

his first unsuccessful attempt to become an MP, at the first (second) attempt, the first couple of attempts;

All attempts to control inflation have failed. The protesters made no attempt to resist arrest. She passed her driving test at the first attempt. Patterson's dream came true when he won the Boston marathon on his first attempt.


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Unit 16.

Shopping and Money


a receipt - a piece of paper that you are given which shows that you have paid for something:

to have a receipt for sth, to keep receipts, to send back with the receipt, to ask for a receipt;

Keep your receipt in case you want to bring it back. Make sure you get receipts for everything. Can you give me a receipt? Purchases may be returned if you show your receipt.

to order 1) to ask for food or a drink in a restaurant, bar etc:

Anne ordered another glass of wine. Are you ready to order? He sat down and ordered a meal. Would you like to order a drink before dinner?

2) to ask for goods or services to be supplied:

to order over / from the Internet, to order sth on line;

I've ordered a new computer from the supplier. I'll order you a taxi.

an order - 1) a request for food or drink in a restaurant or bar:

The waiter took our orders.

2) the food or drink you have asked for in a restaurant or bar:

When our order finally arrived we were very hungry indeed.

3) a request by a customer for a company to supply goods:

to accept an order;

Goods will be sent within 24 hours of receiving your order. You can always cancel your order if you change your mind.

4) goods that you have ordered from a company:

Your order has arrived - you can collect it from the store any time.

a catalogue - a complete list of things that you can look at, buy, or use, for example in a library or at an art show:

a mail order catalogue, an online catalogue, to order from (through a mail-order) a catalogue, to look through a catalogue, to have a lovely catalogue;

a brand - a type of product made by a particular company, that has a particular name or design:

to buy the most expensive brands of make-up, a brand new car (=new and not yet used), my favourite brand of toothpaste;

Coke and Pepsi are the most popular brands of cola. They sell all the usual kinds of coffee, but also some less well-known brands.

a brand name- the name given to a product by the company that makes itб synonym trade name:

Brand names such as Coca-Cola and Sony are recognized all over the world. When it began three years ago, Anis used its own brand name.

to hang out - to spend a lot of time in a particular place or with particular people:

I don't really know who she hangs out with. Where do the youngsters hang out? I used to hang out with them when I was at college. You'll probably find Dave at the pool -- he often hangs out there.

to hang around - to spend a lot of time with someone:

The people I used to hang around with were much older than me. He's been hanging around with Randy a lot lately. I didn't hang around with her much anyway.

a bargain 1) something you buy cheaply or for less than its usual price:

the cheapest bargains, to be a (real) bargain, to have lots of bargains, to get useless bargains, to spot bargains, to look on the Internet for bargains, at a bargain price;

There are no bargains in the clothes shops at the moment. It's an attractive little home, and I think it's a bargain. That second-hand table was a real bargain. Good knives don't come at bargain prices. Did you get any bargains at the market?

2) an agreement, made between two people or groups to do something in return for something else, synonym deal:

to make (strike) a bargain, to make the best of a bargain;

Management and unions have struck a bargain over wage increases. I've kept my side of the bargain and I expect you to keep yours. A bargain is a bargain.

a wallet - a small flat case, often made of leather, that you carry in your pocket, for holding paper money, bank cards etc, synonym billfold:

I've only got about £10 in my wallet. He took a credit card out of his wallet. I took my wallet out and took two fivers and put them on the table.

a purse - a small bag in which women keep paper money, coins, cards etc, synonym wallet:

Julie opened her handbag and took out her purse. I can never find anything in my purse. A purse was stolen from a vehicle.

to match - if one thing matches another, or if two things match, they look attractive together because they are a similar colour, pattern etc:

We painted the cabinets green to match the rug. Do you think this outfit matches? For every outfit, Stephanie seemed to have a handbag and shoes to match. I'm looking for a rug to match my bedroom curtains. She was wearing black high-heeled shoes that matched her skirt and jacket. This lipstick matches your blouse exactly. You can't go out wearing socks that don't match.

to fit (fitted/fit – fitting)- if a piece of clothing fits you, it is the right size for your body:

to fit perfectly;

His clothes did not fit him very well. The uniform fitted her perfectly. The jacket's fine, but the trousers don't fit. I know this dress is going to fit you like a glove (=fit you very well). Do these shoes still fit you? He's put on so much weight that his clothes don't fit any more. The pants were a little tight at first, but after I wore them a few times, they fit like a glove.

to suit - 1) to be acceptable, suitable or convenient for a particular person or in a particular situation:

to suit some people;

Whatever your reason for borrowing, we have the loan that suits your needs. There's a range of restaurants to suit all tastes. Finding a time that suits everyone is going to be difficult. It takes time to find a college that will suit your child's needs. The weather here suits me fine. Which day would suit you best? This position would suit a teanager. The job would not suit someone afraid of flying.

2) [not in passive] clothes, colours etc that suit you make you look attractive:

That coat really suits Paul. Red suits you. Jill's new hairstyle doesn't really suit her. Steve was wearing a red silk shirt that didn't suit him at all.

suitable - having the right qualities for a particular person, purpose, or situation, opposite unsuitable:

to find someone/something suitable;

We are hoping to find a suitable school. The house is not really suitable for a large family. Applicants for the position must have suitable work experience. I still haven't found a suitable job. You must wear something suitable - preferably black.

an addict 1) someone who is unable to stop taking drugs;

2) someone who is very interested in something and spends a lot of time doing it:

a TV (sports) addict, to become addicts;

My nephew is a complete video game addict. It's difficult for most smokers to admit that they are addicts.

addicted 1) unable to stop taking a harmful substance, especially a drug:

50 million Americans are addicted to nicotine. I tried to give up smoking several times before I realized I was addicted. Its quite easy to get addicted to it.

2) liking something so much that you do not want to stop doing it or having it:

kids addicted to surfing the Net, to be (become) addicted.

addictive 1) if a substance, especially a drug, is addictive, your body starts to need it regularly and you are unable to stop taking it, opposite non-addictive:

Tobacco is highly addictive.

2) an activity that is addictive is so enjoyable that you do not want to stop:

It started as a hobby, but it got so addictive I had to keep on doing it.

a shopaholic - someone who loves to go shopping and buys lots of things they may not need:

to be shopaholic.

to consume 1) to use time, energy, goods etc:

to consume much;

Only 27% of the paper we consume is recycled. A smaller vehicle will consume less fuel. Industrialized countries consume natural resources in huge quantities. This year, health care costs will consume one-eighth of the average family's income.

2) to eat or drink something:

Alcohol may not be consumed on the premises. People who consume large amounts of animal fats are more likely to get cancer and heart disease. In order to survive human beings need to consume food and water.

a consumer - someone who buys and uses products and services:

an ideal consumer, consumer society, to protect (care about) consumer rights;

Consumers will soon be paying higher airfares. Research shows that consumers do not want GM foods. It will offer a wider choice of goods for the consumer (=consumers in general). Any increase in the cost of transporting goods will be passed on to the consumer. Only 25% of the price a consumer pays for vegetables goes to the farmer.

consumption 1) the amount of energy, oil, electricity etc that is used:

energy (fuel) consumption;

2) the act of eating or drinking:

to be fit/unfit for human consumption (=safe or not safe to eat);

The consumption of alcohol on the premises is forbidden. The meat was declared unfit for human consumption.

3) the amount of a substance that people eat, drink, smoke etc:

alcohol (tobacco) consumption;

The Government wants to reduce tobacco consumption by 40%. Recent studies have shown that moderate consumption of red wine is helpful for preventing heart disease. Dr. Boxhall said I should cut down on my alcohol consumption.

4) the act of buying and using products:

Last year saw a large increase in the consumption of electrical products.

to imply 1) to suggest that something is true, without saying this directly:

an implied threat;

2) if a fact, event implies smth, it shows that it is likely to be true, synonym suggest:

The results imply that the disease originated in West Africa. What do you imply by that!

3) if one thing implies another, it proves that the second thing exists:

High profits do not necessarily imply efficiency.

light-hearted having a light character.

to try on - to put on a piece of clothing to see if it fits ot suits you, especially in a shop:

Meg was trying on some red sandals.

cash - money in the form of coins or notes rather than cheques, credit cards etc:

to pay (take) cash, to get a cash card;

Cash was taken during a burglary of the apartment. The traffic police will accept fines in cash immediately. The shop charges less if the customer pays in cash. Are you paying cash for these items? Do you have a couple of dollars in cash? I don't have much cash at the moment. Could I pay you next week?


a credit card - a small plastic card that you use to buy goods or services and pay for them later:

to pay by credit card, to use one’s credit card, to hand a credit card to sb, to work for a credit card company, to get a huge credit card bill, to borrow one’s credit card;

We accept all major credit cards.

a victim 1) someone who has been attacked, robbed, or murdered:

a murder victim, victims of crime;

The victim received head injuries from which she died a week later.

2) someone who suffers because of smth bad that happens or because of an illness:

an earthquake (flood) victim, a victim of the consumer society , an accident (crash) victim, a victim of circumstance, to fall a victim;

All these people are innocent victims.

sale 1) when you sell something:

arms sales to Iran;

2) sales:

a) the total number of products that are sold during a particular period of time:

Sales of automobiles are up this year.

b) the part of a company that deals with selling products:

a sales manager;

She found a job in sales.

3) for sale= available to be bought:

Excuse me, are these for sale? There was a 'for sale' sign in the yard.

4) on sale:

a) available to be bought in a shop:

A wide range of postcards and other souvenirs are on sale in the visitors' centre. Stephen King's new novel will go on sale (=will begin to be sold) next week.

b) available to be bought at a lower price than usual, synonym on offer:

These gloves were on sale for only $9.

5) a period of time when shops sell their goods at lower prices than usual:

to buy in the summer sales, in the sales, to find sth in the sales;

Marsdon's department store is having a sale this week. I picked up some real bargains in the January sales this year.

reasonable 1) fair and sensible, opposite unreasonable:

a reasonable request, a reasonable explanation (excuse);

Be reasonable - you can't expect her to do all the work on her own! It sounded like a reasonable enough excuse to me.

2) reasonable prices are not too high, synonym fair:

good food at a reasonable price.

to shopto go to one or more shops to buy things:

to shop online, to shop during the sales;

I usually shop for vegetables in the market. She always shops at Tesco's. I usually shop at Safeway. It's just around the corner from my house. When she moved here, she had never shopped in a supermarket before.

go shopping, also be out shopping (=to go to one or more shops to buy things, often for enjoyment)

The next day, Saturday, we went shopping. Mum's out shopping with Granny.

to shop around (=to compare the price and quality of different things before you decide which to buy)

Take time to shop around for the best deal.

a shopper - someone who buys things in shops:

The streets were crowded with shoppers.

Grammar 1

to deliver - to take goods, letters, packages etc to a particular place or person:

to deliver goods on time;

The morning mail has just been delivered. As a boy, Ralph delivered newspapers on a bicycle. Do you think she will be able to deliver the goods? How soon can you deliver? If your order is ready, it will be delivered to you tomorrow. Unfortunately the package was delivered to the wrong address. Your computer will be delivered between 9.00 a.m. and 2.00 p.m.

delivery - the act of bringing goods, letters etc to a particular person or place:

to pay cash on delivery (=when something is delivered), free delivery, to pay for delivery, to get new delivery;

Most Indian restaurants offer free delivery. You can expect delivery in a week to ten days. The restaurant pays cash on delivery for fish, which the local fishermen like.

a cheque - a printed piece of paper that you write an amount of money on, sign, and use instead of money to pay for things:

a cheque book, to own a cheque book, to write a cheque, to pay bills by cheque, to cash a cheque (=get cash in exchange for a cheque);

They sent me a cheque for £100. Can I pay by cheque? You could write her a cheque.


a bank account - an arrangement between a bank and a customer that allows the customer to pay in and take out money:

I'd like to open a bank account.

handy1) useful:

It's quite a handy little tool. It's very handy having a light above your desk. Take your swimming trunks with you - they might come in handy (=be useful). It's a handy way of keeping a record of your spending. Many fruit juices are now available in handy little cartons. There's a handy cup holder under the car radio. This handy booklet tells you everything you need to know about getting connected to the Internet.

2) near and easy to reach:

I always keep my gun handy just in case. A lot of people in the States have a gun handy at night and when they travel. Do you have a piece of paper handy? The house was in Drury Lane, very handy for the theatre. Make sure you keep your passport and ticket handy.

3) good at using something, especially a tool:

He's very handy with a screwdriver.

a cash machine - a machine in or outside a bank, supermarket, or other public building, from which you can obtain money with a special plastic card, synonym ATM:

to get money from the cash machine;

One of them went to a cash machine to try to get money from her account. The cash machine is out of order.

convenience1) [uncountable] the quality of being suitable or useful for a particular purpose, especially by making something easier or saving you time, opposite inconvenience:

in spite of the convenience;

Ready meals sell well because of their convenience. Most of us like the convenience of using credit cards to buy things. For convenience, the German translation is printed below.

2) [uncountable] what is easiest and best for a particular person:

at somebody's convenience (=at a time that is best and easiest for someone), for somebody's convenience, for the convenience of the customers;

These meals can be prepared in advance, and served at your convenience. For your convenience, the bank is open until 7 p.m.

3) [countable] something that is useful because it saves you time or means that you have less work to do:

a hotel with all the modern conveniences;

The supermarket offers a bag-packing service, as a convenience to customers. Being able to pay bills over the Internet is a real convenience.

to make a profit - to gain money by selling things or doing business, after your costs have been paid:

They made a profit of £140 million. The property company made a huge profit on the deal.

produce - food or other things that have been grown or produced on a farm to be sold:

agricultural (organic) produce, fresh local produce, dairy produce (=milk, butter, cheese etc)


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Unit 2.



weird - very strange and unusual, and difficult to understand or explain:

Extremely (really) weird, (a) weird experience (noise, costume), to feel weird.

A really weird thing happened last night. They sell all sorts of weird and wonderful (=very strange) products.

weirdly adverb, weirdness noun [uncountable]

bizarre - very unusual or strange:

a bizarre coincidence, dancers in rather bizarre costumes;

They tell the most bizarre stories about him. Woods disappeared in very bizarre circumstances, and no trace of him has ever been found.

to glow - to produce or reflect a soft steady light, synonym shine:

The bedside lamp glowed dimly. The fireplace was still glowing with the remains of last night's fire. The red tip of his cigarette was glowing in the dark.

sighting - an occasion on which smth is seen, especially smth rare that people are hoping to see:

his UFO sighting;

There were two unconfirmed sightings of UFOs in the area. Where was the latest sighting?

a tyre - a thick rubber ring that fits around the wheel of a car, bicycle etc:

I had a flat tyre (=all the air went out of it) on the way home.

a creature1) anything that is living, such as an animal, fish, or insect, but not a plant:

all the living creatures in the sea

2) an imaginary animal or person, or one that is very strange and frightening:

creatures from outer space.

a cross - a mixture of two things, breeds, or qualities:

a cross between a lizard and a man;

Their dog is a cross between two well-known breeds.

to grab 1) to take hold of someone or something with a sudden or violent movement; synonym snatch:

to grab the door (a knife);

I grabbed my bag and ran off. Two men grabbed her and pushed her to the ground. Grab your coat, we're late. I grabbed at the chance.

2) to get someone's attention:

The book is full of good ideas to grab your students' attention.

to fall off1) if part of something falls off, it becomes separated from the main part:

to make sth fall off;

He fell off the wall. The book fell off the table. All the leaves have fallen off the tree. The door handle keeps falling off. A button had fallen off her jacket.

2) if the amount, rate, quality of smth falls off, it decreases; synonym fall; opposite rise

The number of students has fallen off this year. His work has fallen off. Audience figures fell off during the second series of the programme.

3) somebody nearly/almost fell off their chair = used to say that someone was very surprised when something happened:

When I saw my brother on the stage I nearly fell off my chair.

to fall in if the roof, ceiling etc falls in, it falls onto the ground; synonym collapse:

The walls of the old church fell in. The floor (the roof) fell in.

to scratch the heads - to think carefully about a difficult question or problem:

This crisis has politicians scratching their heads and wondering what to do.

a scratch a small cut on someone's skin or a thin mark on the surface of something:

to get off with a scratch, a scratch of the pen;

There were deep scratches all over her face. Don't worry, it's only a scratch (=not a serious injury). She was unharmed apart from a few cuts and scratches. There was a big scratch on the car door. He escaped without a scratch.

to crash - to have an accident in a car, plane etc by violently hitting something else:

to crash into/onto space vehicle, to crash a car (bus, plane);

The jet crashed after take-off. The plane crashed into a mountain. He was drunk when he crashed the car.

a crash - an accident in which a vehicle violently hits something else:

a plane (car) crash;

41 people were killed in the plane crash.

a crew - all the people who work on a ship or plane:

a crew member;

The plane crashed, killing two of the crew and four passengers. The captain and crew would like to welcome you on board Flight 381 to Geneva.

a flight attendant - someone who serves food and drinks to passengers on a plane, and looks after their comfort and safety:

Kim, 31, is a flight attendant for Delta Air Lines.

to claim - to state that something is true, even though it has not been proved:

The product claims 'to make you thin without dieting'. The girls claim to have seen the fairies.

to cancel (cancelled, cancelling) - to say that an event that was planned will not happen:

Our flight was cancelled. I'm afraid I'll have to cancel our meeting tomorrow. You'll just have to ring John and cancel.

to watch out for smth - to pay close attention in a particular situation because you are expecting something to happen or you want to avoid something bad:

to watch out for fire;

She stepped outside to watch for the cab. What problems should I watch out for when buying an old house?

to vanish 1) to disappear suddenly, especially in a way that cannot be easily explained:

to vanish without (a) trace, to vanish off the face of the earth (=disappear so that no sign remains), to vanish from sight;

My keys were here a minute ago but now they've vanished. The youngster vanished without a trace one day and has never been found. The bird vanished from sight. She seemed to have just vanished into thin air (=suddenly disappeared in a very mysterious way).

2) to suddenly stop existing; synonym disappear:

By the 1930s, the wolf had vanished from the American West. Public support for the Prime Minister has now vanished.

scared - frightened of something, or nervous about sth; synonym afraid:

to be scared of spiders;

At first, he was really scared. I've always been scared of dogs. Don't be scared of asking for help. I wanted to ask her out but was scared that she might refuse. The boys were scared to cross the street. I was scared to death at the thought of making a speech.


to terrify - to make someone extremely afraid:

Her husband's violence terrified her.

terrified - very frightened:

a terrified little girl;

Sid is terrified of heights. She was terrified of being caught. We were terrified that the bridge would collapse. He was terrified at the thought of being lost in the woods. He was terrified to stay home alone.

terrifying - extremely frightening:

terrifying experience (screams);

He told her of his terrifying experience. It was absolutely terrifying.

terrifyingly adverb

terrific 1) very good, especially in a way that makes you feel happy and excited; synonym great:

That's a terrific idea! The actress who played the lawyer was terrific.

2) very large in size or degree:

He drank a terrific amount of beer.

to warn - to tell sb that sth bad or dangerous may happen, so that they can avoid or prevent it:

'Be careful, the rocks are slippery,' Alex warned. Travellers to Africa are being warned about the danger of HIV infection. Most of us have been warned about the health risks of high blood pressure. Salmon farmers are warning of the severe crisis facing the industry. I warned you not to walk home alone. Motorists are being warned to avoid the centre of London this weekend. Experts are warning parents that poor diet and lack of exercise are leading to obesity in children.

a warning

to warn sb against sth - to advise someone not to do something because it may have dangerous or unpleasant results:

to warn against doing smth;

Her financial adviser warned her against such a risky investment. The police have warned tourists against leaving the main tourist centres. He warned me against pickpockets at the station.

to break out - if smth unpleasant such as a fire, fight, or war breaks out, it starts to happen:

I was still living in London when the war broke out. Does everyone know what to do if a fire breaks out? Fighting broke out between demonstrators and the police. Cholera has broke out. A fierce argument broke out.

odd - different from what is normal or expected, especially in a way that you disapprove of or cannot understand:

An odd way to behave, to feel odd;

It was an odd thing to say. They're an odd couple. There was something odd about him. It seemed odd that he wanted a picture of me.

community - 1) the people who live in the same area, town etc:

world (business) community;

The new arts centre will serve the whole community. The murder has shocked the local community. The whole community vanished. The murder has shocked the local community.

to witness - to see something happen, especially a crime or accident:

To witness an accident (the event), to witness the whole thing from the balcony, to witness the strange lights in the sky;

A person witnessed it. Europe witnessed many wars. The crash was witnessed by 4 people.

a witness - someone who sees a crime or an accident and can describe what happened:

an eye witness (=someone who sees an event) to the robbery;

Police have appealed for witnesses to come forward. One witness to the accident said the driver appeared to be drunk. There were no witnesses to the accident.

to appear - to start to be seen, to arrive, or to exist in a place, especially suddenly; opposite disappear:

to appear from nowhere/out of nowhere (=appear suddenly and unexpectedly);

Two faces appeared at our window. A man suddenly appeared from behind a tree.

The car seemed to appear from nowhere.

to reappear

entire - used when you want to emphasize that you mean all of a group, period of time, amount, synonym whole:

entire population;

It was the worst day in my entire life. The entire staff agreed. Have you drunk the entire bottle? Dad spent the entire day in the kitchen. Gary was so hungry that he ate an entire chicken for dinner.

to simmer - to boil gently, or to cook something slowly by boiling it gently:

Bring the soup to the boil and allow it to simmer gently for about half an hour.

a track - a line of marks left on the ground by a moving person, animal, or vehicle:

We followed the tyre tracks across a muddy field. The tracks, which looked like a fox's, led into the woods.

a trace - a small sign that shows that someone or something was present or existed:

to disappear (vanish, sink) without (a) trace (=disappear completely, without leaving any sign of what happened);

There was no trace of anyone having entered the room since then. Petra's lost all trace of her German accent. Officers were unable to find any trace of drugs. The plane vanished without a trace. In 1822, the ship sank without a trace in the North Atlantic.

a footprint - a mark made by a foot or shoe:

We followed the footprints of a deer in the snow. He ran into the hallway, leaving wet footprints behind him. The footprints in the yard were too big to be a dog's.

to search - to try to find someone or something by looking very carefully:

It was too dark to search further. The area was thoroughly searched. An RAF plane searched for the missing men. I've searched high and low (=everywhere) for my glasses. Detectives are searching the yard for clues. The police searched his house.

a search

an experience - something that happens to you or something you do, especially when this has an effect on what you feel or think:

a frightening (enjoyable, weird, terrifying, ordinary, wonderful, horrible, amazing, bizarre) experience;

This was my first experience of living with other people. Failing an exam was a new experience for me. After she retired, Hannah wrote a book about her experiences as a war reporter. Living alone has been a good experience for her. She's very bright and ambitious but she doesn't have much experience.

to investigate - to try to find out the truth about or the cause of something such as a crime, accident, or scientific problem:

to investigate the case (the burglary);

The state police are investigating the incident. The study investigates the impact of violent TV programming on children. I heard a noise and went to investigate. The case is under investigation.

an investigation - an official attempt to find out the truth about or the causes of something such as a crime, accident, or scientific problem:

The investigation continued for nearly three years. The case is under investigation.

an incident - an event, especially one that is unusual, important, or violent:

A bizarre (recent, strange) incident, an incident report, the incident occurred….;

We got there without incident.

an accident 1) a crash involving cars, trains, planes etc:

a road (car, traffic) accident, the scene of the accident;

Over 70,000 people are killed or seriously injured every year in road accidents.

2) a situation in which sb is injured or sth is damaged without anyone intending them to be:

Ken had an accident at work and had to go to hospital. I'm sorry about breaking the vase - it was an accident (=I did not intend to do it).

an occasion - 1) a time when something happens:

On one (on this very special) occasion, a bizarre occasion;

I've seen Jana with them on several occasions. On this occasion we were sitting in a park in Madrid.

2) a suitable or favourable time:

to choose one’s occasion;

This was the occasion for expressions of friendship by the two presidents. This is not the occasion to remind her of it.

3) an important social event or ceremony:

I'm saving this bottle of champagne for a special occasion. They presented him with a gift to mark the occasion (=celebrate it). It was quite an occasion.

an alien1) someone who is not a legal citizen of the country they are living/ working in:

illegal aliens entering the country;

2) in stories, a creature from another world:

These people believe they were kidnapped by aliens.

a ghost - he spirit of a dead person that some people think they can feel or see in a place:

to read ghost stories, a documentary about ghosts;

He looked as if he'd seen a ghost (=he looked very frightened). Do you believe in ghosts?

a monster - an imaginary or ancient creature that is large, ugly, and frightening:

the search for the Loch Ness Monster.

a beast - an animal, especially a large or dangerous one:

I'm lucky that beast didn't bite my arm off.

the Yeti - a large hairy creature like a human which some people believe lives in the Himalayan mountains, synonym Abominable Snowman:

You once organised an expedition to find the yeti.

to clap - to hit your hands against each other many times to make a sound that shows your approval, agreement, or enjoyment:

One man began to clap, and others joined in. The audience clapped politely but without much enthusiasm.

Workbook DC

fear - the feeling you get when you are afraid or worried that something bad is going to happen:

for fear of smth;

The boy's eyes were full of fear. Their worst fears became a reality. People must be able to express their views without fear.


to shake with fear - if someone shakes, or part of their body shakes, they make small sudden movements from side to side or up and down, especially because they are very frightened, cold, ill etc; synonym tremble,  shiver:

I literally shook with fear.


unconscious - unable to see, move, feel etc in the normal way because you are not conscious:

She was found alive but unconscious. Billy was unconscious for two days after the accident. There was a woman lying unconscious on the floor.

unconsciously adverb, unconsciousness noun

to catch fire - if something catches fire, it starts to burn accidentally:

Two farm workers died when a barn caught fire.

research - serious study of a subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas

A research into the causes of cancer, a scientific (medical, historical) research, to do (conduct, undertake) a research;

There is clearly a need for further research on the topic. Investment in scientific research has fallen. Recent research suggests that even small amounts of alcohol can affect an unborn baby.

rubbish 1) food, paper etc that is no longer needed and has been thrown away;

2) objects, papers etc that you no longer use and should throw away:

I've got so much rubbish on my desk it's unbelievable.

3) an idea, statement, etc that is rubbish is silly or wrong and does not deserve serious attention; synonym nonsense, garbage:

You do talk rubbish sometimes. That's a load of rubbish. The suggestion is absolutely rubbish.

4) a film, book etc that is rubbish is very bad:

I don't know why you're watching that film, it's a load of old rubbish.

to smash 1) to break into pieces violently or noisily, or to make something do this by dropping, throwing, or hitting it:

Vandals had smashed all the windows. Firemen had to smash the lock to get in. Several cups fell to the floor and smashed to pieces.

2) to hit an object or surface violently, or to make something do this:

A stolen car smashed into the bus. He smashed his fist down on the table.

coincidence - when two things happen at the same time, in the same place, or to the same people in a way that seems surprising or unusual:

a bizarre (sheer) coincidence;

'I'm going to Appleby tomorrow.' ' What a coincidence! I'm going up there too.' Hi, Phil. What a coincidence -- we were just talking about you. It was just a coincidence that we were in Paris at the same time.

to coincide, coincidental

incredible 1) extremely good, large, or great; synonym unbelievable:

The view is just incredible. There was blood everywhere and the pain was incredible.

2) too strange to be believed or very difficult to believe; synonym unbelievable:

It's incredible how much Tom has changed since he met Sally. I find it almost incredible that no-one noticed these errors.

to collapse 1) if a building, wall etc collapses, it falls down suddenly, usually because it is weak or damaged:

Uncle Ted's chair collapsed under his weight. The roof had collapsed long ago. Minutes later, the second tower collapsed. Part of the floor collapsed as a result of water damage.

2) to suddenly fall down or become unconscious because you are ill or weak:

He collapsed with a heart attack while he was dancing. Marion's legs collapsed under her. Come quickly, one of the passengers has collapsed. We collapsed with laughter.

Dictionary Corner

to be wide awake - not sleeping:

The noise brought him wide awake (=completely awake). I was still wide awake at 2:00 a.m. when Jody came home. It was nearly three in the morning, but Jill was still wide awake.

to be fast asleep - sleeping deeply.

to have a high temperature - to have a body temperature that is higher than normal, especially because you are sick:

Susie has a high temperature and has gone to bed.

a narrow escape - the act of getting away from a place, or a dangerous or bad situation; synonym a hair breadth escape:

It was a narrow escape - a couple of minutes later the whole place went up in flames. He had a narrow escape from death.

to be far away to be at a long distance:

She wants to move as far away from here as possible. They could hear the sound of water not far away.

for a long time for a period of time during which sth happens or someone does sth.

to take a short cut - to get to somewhere by a quicker and more direct way than the usual way.

in slow motion - movement on film or television shown at a slower speed than it really happened:

Let's see that goal again in slow motion.

in a deep voice = in a low voice.

to be in big trouble - if sb or sth is in big trouble, they are in a situation with a lot of problems:

He admitted that their marriage was in big trouble.

Grammar 2

mystery - an event, situation etc that people do not understand or cannot explain because they do not know enough about it:

to solve a mystery, to make a mystery, wrapped in mystery;

Twenty years after the event, his death remains a mystery. The way her mind worked was always a mystery to him. 'Why did he do it?' 'I don't know. It's a complete mystery.' It is a mystery why the ship is so well preserved. The police never solved the mystery of Gray's disappearance. What happened to the paintings after that is an unsolved mystery. No one has ever been able to explain the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

a nightmare 1) a very frightening dream:

Years after the accident I still have nightmares about it.

2) a very difficult, unpleasant, or frightening experience or situation:

a nightmare journey;

Traffic was a nightmare. This has been an absolute nightmare for me and my family. It was every teacher's worst nightmare (=the worst thing which could have happened).

an experiment a scientific test done to find out how something reacts under certain conditions, or to find out if a particular idea is true:

To carry out (perform, do, conduct, stop) an experiment;

Teachers are shown how to carry out many simple experiments.

Use of English

invisible - something that is invisible cannot be seen; opposite visible:

The house was surrounded by trees and invisible from the road. The gas is invisible, but highly dangerous. The plane is meant to be invisible to radar.

invisibly adverb, invisibility noun

to go wrong - to stop working properly:

Something's gone wrong with my watch. The experiment went wrong. I don’t know what could possibly go wrong. You can’t go wrong with him.

to occur – to happen – to take place

Occur is usually used in connection with unplanned events:

Many of the serious accidents that occur are caused by human error. Tornadoes occur when a warm weather front meets a body of very cold air.

For planned events, use take place:

The wedding will take place at St Andrew's church.

Occur is used mainly in formal styles:

These violent incidents frequently occur without any warning.

The usual word is happen:

The accident happened just outside my house.


to glimpse - to see someone or something for a moment without getting a complete view of them; synonym catch sight of:

I glimpsed a figure at the window.

to stare - to look at something or someone for a long time without moving your eyes, for example because you are surprised, angry, or bored:

to stare at the alien in surprise;

What are you staring at? She stared at him in amazement. It’s rude to stare like that.

to notice - if you notice something or someone, you realize that they exist, especially because you can see, hear, or feel them:

He noticed a woman in a black dress sitting across from him. I didn't notice any smoke. Have you noticed any change in him?

to watch - to look at someone or something for a period of time, paying attention to what is happening:

We sat and watched the sunset.

to glance - to quickly look at someone or something:

The man glanced nervously at his watch.

to gaze - to look at someone or something for a long time, giving it all your attention, often without realizing you are doing so, synonym stare:

to gaze out of the window;

Nell was still gazing out of the window.


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Unit 3.



crime 1) [uncountable] illegal activities in general:

A big increase in crime, a town with a relatively low crime rate;

We moved here because there was very little crime. There’s been a rise in serious crime in the area. Crime doesn’t pay.

2) [countable] an illegal action, which can be punished by law:

A serious crime (NOT heavy), crimes against humanity, to prevent (solve) a crime;

Crimes against the elderly are becoming more common. The City Council made it a crime to drink alcohol in the street. The public are alarmed by the increase in serious crimes

a criminal someone who is involved in illegal activities or has been proved guilty of a crime:

Dangerous criminals, to catch a criminal;

Police have described the man as a violent and dangerous criminal.

to commit (committed, committing) to do something wrong or illegal:

To commit a crime (acts of terrorism) – (NOT do, make, perform);

Women commit fewer crimes than men. He insisted that he had not committed any crime.

legal 1) if smth is legal, you are allowed to do it or have to do it by law, opposite illegal:

What the company has done is perfectly legal. Divorce finally became legal there in 1992.

2) [only before noun] concerned with or relating to the law:

Legal stories, a legal document, government legal office, free legal advice, the Scottish legal system.

illegal not allowed by the law, synonym unlawful, opposite legal:

Illegal drugs, officially illegal, to be illegal to do sth, to do sth illegal;

It is illegal to sell tobacco to someone under 16. Since 1990, it has been illegal for the US to develop or possess biological weapons. Gorbachev wanted to make all strikes illegal, but the Soviet parliament refused to accept such a ban. It’s illegal to make copies of computer programs. Large numbers of illegal immigrants crossed the border at night.


to arrest - if the police arrest someone, the person is taken to a police station because the police think they have done something illegal:

to arrest for sth (doing sth), to arrest sb (the murderer), to be arrested (6 times) for doing sth;

I got arrested for careless driving. Police arrested 26 demonstrators.

an arrest when the police take someone away and guard them because they may have done something illegal:

to make an arrest;

The police made several arrests. You’re under arrest!

to murder (murder – a murderer) to kill someone deliberately and illegally:

to commit (the first degree murder), to cry blue murder;

Murder will out.

to burgle (burglary – a burglar) to go into a building and steal things; synonym burglarize:

We’ve been burgled three times.

to shoplift (shoplifting – a shoplifter) to take something from a shop without paying for it.

to hijack (hijacking – a hijacker) to use violence or threats to take control of a plane, vehicle, or ship:

The airliner was hijacked by a group of terrorists.

to rob (robbing – a robber) - to steal money or property from a person, bank etc:

They killed four policemen while robbing a bank. Police are looking for a man who robbed a gas station on Van Ness Avenue. Two men robbed the Central Bank yesterday, escaping with over $1 million. Two men tried to rob him as he left the restaurant.

to smuggle (smuggling- a smuggler) to take something or someone illegally from one country to another:

to smuggle something across / into (a country) / out of / from something, to smuggle stolen paintings (drugs, goods), to accuse of smuggling, smuggled goods;

The guns were smuggled across the border. Illegal immigrants are smuggled into the country by boat.

to kidnap (kidnapping – a kidnapper) to take someone somewhere illegally by force, often in order to get money for returning them:

Terrorists have kidnapped a French officer and are demanding $400,000 from the French government.

fraud (a fraudster) 1) the crime of deceiving people in order to gain something such as money or goods:

tax (credit card) fraud, to fight fraud, by fraud;

He’s been charged with tax fraud. She was found guilty of fraud. The advertisement is a complete fraud. Her father was arrested for fraud.

2) someone or something that is not what it is claimed to be:

I felt like a fraud. The police exposed the letter as a fraud. He’s not ill, he’s just a fraud. It was weeks before they realized that the young man who had charmed them all was a fraud.

to steal (stealing / theft – a thief) to take smth that belongs to someone else:

to steal sth from;

Boys broke into a shop and stole £45 in cash. He stole money from his parents. He’d stolen the flowers from our garden. Thieves stole paintings worth $5 million from a Paris art gallery.

to face if you face or are faced with a difficult situation, or if a difficult situation faces you, it is going to affect you and you must deal with it:

to face (with) a particular situation;

The new administration faces the difficult task of rebuilding the country’s economy.

law 1) the whole system of rules that people in a particular country or area must obey:

by law (=according to the law), against the law, a weird (bizarre) law, a court of law, a law school, a lawyer, to pass (break, change, introduce, support) a law, criminal law, extremely weird laws;

By law, seatbelts must be worn by all passengers. In Sweden it is against the law (=it is illegal) to hit a child. They were fully convinced they were performing their duties within the law. Federal law protects workers who are disabled. I didn’t realize I was breaking the law. It’s against the law to be drunk in public.

2) a rule that people in a particular country or area must obey:

European governments were slow to introduce strict environmental laws. This law makes it illegal to smoke in public places.

an outlaw someone who has done something illegal, and who is hiding in order to avoid punishment – used especially about criminals in the past.

to outlaw to completely stop something by making it illegal:

Religious and racial discrimination were outlawed under the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Slavery was not officially outlawed in Australia until 1859.

to be keen on sth 1) wanting to do something or wanting something to happen very much, synonym eager:

I wasn’t keen on going there on my own.

2) to like someone or something:

I’m not keen on cabbage. She likes Biology, but she’s not too keen on Physics. My flatmates want to have a party, but I’m not keen on the idea. My parents have always been keen on travelling, whenever they get the chance.

to end upto be in a particular situation, state, or place after a series of events, especially when you did not plan it:

to end up in prison, to end up doing sth, to end up having lots of argument, to end up losing your best friend;

I wondered where the pictures would end up after the auction. Most slimmers end up putting weight back on.

to exist 1) to happen or be present in a particular situation or place:

Stop pretending that the problem doesn’t exist.

2) to be real or alive:

Do fairies really exist? Tom acts as if I don’t exist at times. Do you think ghosts really exist?

3) to stay alive, especially in a difficult situation when you do not have enough money, food; synonym survive:

The hostages existed on bread and water.

existence - 1) the state of existing:

It is impossible to prove the existence of God.

2) the type of life that someone has, especially when it is bad or unhappy:

Pablo led a miserable existence.

to chase to quickly follow someone or something in order to catch them:

to chase dogs, to be chased by an FBI agent;

The dogs saw him running and chased him. A gang of boys chased after her, calling her names. We chased after him for about five blocks but then we lost him and had to turn back.

to accuse of sth - to say that you believe sb is guilty of a crime or of doing smth bad:

He was accused of murder. Smith accused her of lying. How can you accuse me without knowing all the facts? The man accused of kidnapping Lucy Pohl has been found guilty. The woman was accused of having beaten her four-year-old daughter.

Dictionary Corner 1

to point out to tell someone something that they did not already know or had not thought about:

He was always very keen to point out my mistakes. The murder was obviously well planned, as the inspector had pointed out. Some economists have pointed out that low inflation is not necessarily a good thing.

to handcuff to put handcuffs on someone.

to punish to make sb suffer because they have done smth wrong or broken the law:

capital punishment;

He promised to punish severely any officials found guilty of electoral fraud. It’s unfair to punish a whole class for the actions of one or two students. They deserve to be punished for putting passengers at risk. I felt I was being punished for what my mother had done. The judge said he’d already been punished a thousand times.

punishment smth that is done in order to punish sb, or the act of punishing them:

punishment for sth, severe punishment, a very common way of punishment, to take one’s punishment like a man;

I was sent to bed as a punishment. There was absolutely no point of giving him a punishment.

to remain silent not saying anything.

prison a building where people are kept as a punishment for a crime, synonym jail:

to send (go) to prison, to put in prison, to get (come) out of prison, to end up in prison, a high security prison;

He had just got out of prison. They’ll probably put him in prison for a long time. Helen was sent to prison for attacking a man with a knife. He doesn’t want to go to prison. They live opposite the prison.

a prisoner someone who is kept in a prison as a legal punishment for a crime:

to become a prisoner, to be held prisoner;

Her father spent three years as a prisoner of war in Korea. The county has 90 prisoners in a jail designed for 29.

to swear (swore –sworn) - to make a public official promise, especially in a court of law:

to swear a witness;

Witnesses have to swear on the Bible. Do you swear to tell the truth? If he does it again I swear I’ll kill him.

Grammar 1

to solve 1) to find or provide a way of dealing with a problem:

to solve personal problems (a problem);

Charlie thinks money will solve all his problems. They thought money would solve all their problems.

2) to find the correct answer to a problem or the explanation for something that is difficult to understand:

to solve a crime (mystery, case, a puzzle, a riddle);

More than 70% of murder cases were solved last year. Casey is very good at solving crossword puzzles. Detectives are trying to solve the murder of a young girl. I'm never going to solve this puzzle - it's impossible.

a solution 1) a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation:

the perfect solution for all of our problems, the best (peaceful, simple, political) solution, to provide (find, offer, search for) a solution, to come up with a solution = (to think of a solution), the solution to a problem;

The best solution would be for them to separate. Both sides are trying to find a peaceful solution. There are no simple solutions to the problem of overpopulation.

2) the correct answer to a problem in an exercise or competition, synonym answer:

to solve a puzzle (riddle);

The solution to this week's puzzle will be published in next week's magazine.


a cell a small room in a prison or police station where prisoners are kept:

He spent a night in the cells at the local police station. Conditions were poor, and there were several prisoners to one cell. The prison cells have doors of heavy steel.

justice the system by which people are judged in courts of law and criminals are punished:

to bring to justice;

The killers will be brought to justice (=caught and punished). Acts of terrorism must not escape justice.

2) fairness in the way people are treated, opposite injustice:

Children have a strong sense of justice. His people came to him, demanding justice.

a judge the official in control of a court who decides how criminals should be punished:

a judge on the case, to bring before a judge for sth;

Everyone stood up as the judge entered the courtroom. You are the best judge of that.

a court the place where the judge and the jury examine the evidence and decide whether someone is guilty or not guilty:

to lie in court, to go to court, to apologize to the court, court of justice;

A crowd of reporters had gathered outside the court. Four people will appear in court today, charged with fraud. She threatened to take the magazine to court (=bring a legal case against it) if they didn’t publish an immediate apology.

innocent – guilty - not guilty of a crimehaving done something that is a crime:

innocent victims;

Nobody would believe that I was innocent. He’s innocent of murder. The court found him innocent and he was released. I didn’t kill him – I’m innocent!” Davies shouted. I’m sorry. It was just an innocent mistake. Nobody believes that she’s innocent. The jury found her guilty of murder. He has a guilty look. I feel guilty about not helping her.

to deny sth to say that smth is not true, or that you do not believe smth, opposite admit:

to deny that, to deny doing sth;

He denied that the company knowingly committed fraud. Two men have denied murdering a woman at a remote picnic spot. Did he actually deny meeting Jenny that night? I saw you do it, so don’t try to deny it!

to admit (admitted, admitting) – 1) to agree unwillingly that smth is true or that sb else is right:

Okay, so maybe I was a little bit scared,’ Jenny admitted. I must admit, I didn’t actually do anything to help her. Admit it! I’m right, aren’t I? You may not like her, but you have to admit that she’s good at her job. Paul admitted to me that he sometimes feels jealous of my friendship with Stanley. He didn’t admit that he’d been wrong. It’s generally admitted that…, This, I admit, is true. I have to admit… .

2) to say that you have done sth wrong, especially sth criminal, synonym confess; opposite deny:

admit to (doing) something;

After questioning, he admitted to the murder. He admits to stealing the car.

case a question or problem that will be dealt with by a law court:

The case will be heard in the High Court. She is keen to avoid a court case. The lawyers will only be paid if they win the case. He lost the case. They lost their case in the High Court and had to pay damages. The court case lasted six weeks. We hadn’t enough evidence to bring the case to court.

to break into to enter a building or car by using force, in order to steal something:

to break into the house (the computer systems, a safe);

Someone broke into my car and stole the radio. Her house was broken into last week.

guard 1) someone whose job is to protect a place or person:

a prison guard, a store security guard, to be on guard;

There were two security guards on duty outside the building. The guards stopped us at the gate.

2) someone whose job is to prevent prisoners from escaping:

The prison guards were reasonably friendly.

to prevent to stop smth from happening, or stop someone from doing smth:

to prevent sb/smth (from) doing smth, to prevent accidents from happening, to prevent a crime (a war, accidents);

His back injury may prevent him from playing in tomorrow’s game. We were prevented from entering the site. There were reports that some people had been prevented from voting in the election.

prevention when something bad is stopped from happening:

crime (accident, fire) prevention, crime prevention devices;

Effective crime prevention must be our main goal. Prevention is better than cure.

Dictionary Corner 2

to explode - to burst, or to make something burst, into small pieces, usually with a loud noise and in a way that causes damage:

In 1949 the USSR exploded its first atomic bomb. Seconds after the car crashed, its fuel tank exploded.

explosion a loud sound and the energy produced by something such as a bomb bursting into small pieces:

bomb (gas, nuclear) explosion;

Several people were injured in a bomb explosion. We heard a loud explosion.

Grammar 2

a gang - 1) a group of young people who spend time together, and who are often involved in crime or drugs and who often fight against other groups:

The parents have denied that their son is a gang member.

2) a group of criminals who work together:

a gang of smugglers (burglars);

Several gangs were operating in the area. Armed gangs have hijacked lorries. The gang made off with $1mln. Warning: gangs of pickpockets operate in this area.

to escape 1) to get away from a place or dangerous situation when someone is trying to catch you or stop you:

He broke down the locked door and escaped. He escaped from prison in October.

2) to get away from a dangerous or bad situation:

to escape somebody's clutches (=escape from someone);

They went to the hills to escape the summer heat.

3) to avoid something bad or that you do not want to happen:

to escape punishment (certain death);

The two passengers escaped serious injury. They must not be allowed to escape justice.

escape - the act of getting away from a place, or a dangerous or bad situation:

The girl had no chance of escape. The gang had planned their escape thoroughly. This might be a kind of escape. He had a narrow escape from death.


to bully - to threaten to hurt sb or frighten them, especially sb smaller or weak:

A group of boys would bully the younger kids, and force them to give them money.

a bully - sb who uses their strength or power to frighten or hurt sb who is weaker:

A group of kids stood by and watched the school bully beat up a smaller boy.

to cheat - to behave in a dishonest way in order to win or to get an advantage, especially in a competition, game, or examination:

to cheat in tests (exams), to cheat at cards;

He had cheated in the test by using a calculator. He cheated me of $5.

to convict - to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a law court:

convict somebody of / on something;

She was convicted of shoplifting. He was convicted on fraud charges.

to demand - to ask for smth very firmly, especially because you think you have a right to do this:

They demanded that the military government free all political prisoners. The chief demanded a thorough investigation into the murder.

to suspect 1) to think that something is probably true, especially something bad:

I suspected that there was something wrong with the engine. She strongly suspected he was lying to her.

2) to think that something bad has happened or is happening:

The doctors suspected pneumonia. He never suspected anything.

3) to think that someone is probably guilty of a crime:

Who do you suspect? He's suspected of murder. Pilcher was suspected of giving away government secrets to the enemy. If the police suspect you of a crime it is legal to remain silent.

a suspect - someone who is thought to be guilty of a crime:

a suspect in a burglary case, main (prime, chief) suspect, the two suspects for the robbery;

Two suspects were arrested today in connection with the robbery. Davies is still the chief suspect.

death penalty - the legal punishment of death:

Three Britons are facing the death penalty for spying.

confiscation - to officially take private property away from someone, usually as a punishment

detention - a punishment in which children who have behaved badly are forced to stay at school for a short time after the others have gone home:

She was always getting put in detention. He spent an hour in detention after school.

exclusion - when a child is officially made to leave their school because of their bad behaviour.

to exclude - to officially make a child leave their school because of their bad behaviour:

Kids who are excluded from school often end up getting into trouble with the police.

to include1) [not in progressive] if one thing includes another, the second thing is part of the first:

Does the price include postage? The curriculum includes courses in computing.

2) to make someone or something part of a larger group or set, opposite exclude:

The team is stronger now they've included Roscoe. Service is included in the bill.

a fine - money that you have to pay as a punishment:

a £40 fine, to pay a fine, to pay £100/$50 in fines;

She was ordered to pay £150 in parking fines, plus court costs. He got a $75 fine for speeding. There are heavy fines for drink-driving. You might even go to prison.

community service - work that is not paid that someone does to help other people, sometimes as punishment for a crime.

Each was ordered to do 120 hours' community service and pay £850 in fines.

to cause - to make something happen, especially something bad:

to cause a problem (an accident, global climate changes, huge damage);

You've caused us all a lot of unnecessary worry. As children we were always causing our parents trouble.


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Unit 4.

The Media.


celebrity - a famous living person, synonym star:

a sporting celebrity;

He's a national celebrity. We invited a number of minor celebrities (=people who are not very famous). The club is popular with media celebrities. People waited outside for the chance to see some celebrities.

an interview 1) a formal meeting at which someone is asked questions in order to find out whether they are suitable for a job, course of study etc:

to attend an interview, to call sb for an interview;

He has an interview next Thursday for a job on the Los Angeles Times. I got a letter asking me to go for an interview the next day. Overseas applicants will not be called for interview. I've got another job interview tomorrow.

2) an occasion when a famous person is asked questions about their life, experiences, or opinions for a newspaper, magazine, television programme etc:

an interview with the President, a newspaper (radio, television, celebrity) interview, a live interview, an exclusive interview (=one that is given to only one newspaper, programme etc), to give an interview;

Elton John gave an interview to Barbara Walters (=he answered her questions).

to interview - to ask someone questions during an interview:

to interview somebody for something (for a new job) / about something;

We're interviewing six candidates for the job. The police want to interview you about the accident. At the end of the race the winner was interviewed by NBC news. I'll be interviewing two candidates today and three others tomorrow. She has interviewed celebrities and political leaders on her radio programme for over 25 years.

to arrange - to organize or make plans for something such as a meeting, party, or trip:

to arrange to do something, to arrange something with somebody, to arrange when/where/how etc, to arrange that;

Have you arranged to meet Mark this weekend? Beth arranged a meeting with the marketing director. We still have to arrange how to get home. We had arranged that I would go for the weekend. Matthew arrived at 2 o'clock as arranged.


to run - to organize or be in charge of an activity, business, organization, or country:

to run a (successful) company, to run (one’s own, computer) business, to run a small travel agency, a state-run (=controlled by the government) television station, well (badly) run;

For a while, she ran a restaurant in Boston. Many people don't care who runs the country. The hotel is well-run and extremely popular.

to specialize in sth - to limit all or most of your study, business etc to a particular subject or activity:

Simmons specialized in contract law.

the media - all the organizations, such as television, radio, and newspapers, that provide news and information for the public, or the people who do this work:

the national (local) media;

The scandal was widely reported in the national media. The role of the news media in forming public opinion is very important. The media follow you everywhere.

to come out - if a book, record etc comes out, it becomes publicly available:

When is the new edition coming out?

either way - used to say that smth will be the same whichever of 2 things happens or is true:

You can get to Edinburgh by train or plane, but either way it's very expensive. Either way, it's going to be expensive.

to get on with sb - if people get on, they like each other and have a friendly relationship with each other, synonym get along:

I've always got on well with Henry. The two boys get on well most of the time.

to have arguments – to disagree, often angrily:

Henning told the police that she and her husband had an argument before he left. I'm sorry I'm not in a good mood. I had an argument with my husband this morning. My sister and I had a terrible argument last night. Let’s have no arguments.

an award - smth such as a prize or money given to someone to reward them for smth they have done:

to win (receive) awards, the Oscar Awards ceremony;

Rosie was in London to receive her award as Mum of the Year. The hotel's award-winning restaurant specializes in traditional food. Paltrow won the "Best Actress" award. The award ceremony will be held at the National Film Theatre tonight. After a while, I started writing again, even won an award for an environmental article in the High Country News. Leila told her this particular film had once won an award.

Dictionary Corner

to contact sb - to write to or telephone someone:

Give the names of two people who can be contacted in an emergency. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any queries. Buyers can contact the company by phone or email. After they received the bomb threat, school officials immediately contacted the police. Elsa contacted several companies to ask if they could offer her part-time work.

to direct - to give the actors in a play, film, or television programme instructions about what they should do:

to direct in a movie, to be directed;

The play was directed by Frank Hauser.

to star (starred – starring) 1) if someone stars in a film, television show etc, they are one of the main characters in it:

to star in a movie (a film), a starring role;

Eastwood starred in 'The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly'. Hugh Grant stars as the romantic hero. 'The Freshman' was Brando's first starring role (=the most important part in a film) in ten years. Chaplin not only starred in his film but also directed them. They starred together in dozens of films.

2) if a film, television show, or play stars someone, that person is one of the main characters in it, synonym feature:

a film starring Meryl Streep;

The film stars Patricia Arquette and is directed by Steven Brill. The film stars DeVito.

certain-uncertain[not before noun] confident and sure, without any doubts, synonym sure:

I'm absolutely certain that I left the keys in the kitchen. I'm not certain when it will be ready. They were watching him. He was certain of it.


a newsflash - a very short news programme on radio or television, broadcast suddenly in the middle of another programme when something very important has happened, synonym

We interrupt this programme to bring you a newsflash.

to be in the public eye to be known about by most people:

I like to be the centre of attention or in the public eye. It is a job that brings him constantly into the public eye (=seen or heard a lot on television, radio etc).

freelance - working independently for different companies rather than being employed by one particular company:

a freelance journalist (writer, photographer), to freelance, a freelance / a freelancer;

She works freelance from home. He's freelancing for several translation agencies. Jamie's trying to earn a living as a freelance photographer. Steve plans to start working freelance this year.

to confirm 1) to show that something is definitely true, especially by providing more proof, synonym prove; opposite refute:

New evidence has confirmed the first witness's story. More tests are needed to confirm the initial diagnosis. The new results confirm what most of us knew already. The report confirmed what many experts had been saying for years.

2) to say that something is definitely true, opposite deny:

The President refused to confirm the rumor. My brother will confirm what I have told you.

3) to tell someone that a possible arrangement, date, or situation is now definite or official:

to confirm a booking/reservation/appointment;

Could you confirm the dates we discussed? Smith was confirmed as the club's new manager yesterday. I am writing to confirm a booking for a single room for the night of 6 June. Have you called to confirm your flight yet? I'll call the hotel and confirm our reservations.

a gadget - a small, useful, and cleverly-designed machine or tool:

a neat gadget for sharpening knives;

A sales assistant was demonstrating several kitchen gadgets to a crowd of shoppers. He showed her several electronic gadgets, such as a watch that you can use as a phone. It's a clever little gadget which you can use to cut vegetables into attractive shapes.

to set up - to start a company, organization, committee etc, synonym establish:

They want to set up their own import-export business. Now Betterware plans to set up shop elsewhere in Europe.

to produce a film - if someone produces a film or play, they find the money for it and control the way it is made:

Costner produced and directed the film. Aaron Spelling has produced numerous hit TV shows.


Выбранный для просмотра документ Laser 5.doc


Unit 5.



an asteroid - one of the many small planets that move around the sun, especially between Mars and Jupiter:

a huge asteroid, a collection of asteroids;

Two large asteroids have passed alarmingly close to Earth in the past few years.

a meteor - a piece of rock or metal that travels through space, and makes a bright line in the night sky when it falls down towards the Earth:

a meteor shower (=a lot of meteors that fall down towards the Earth at the same time);

These few lucky observers had witnessed the most spectacular meteor shower in recorded history.

to hit sth 1) to touch someone or something quickly and hard with your hand, a stick:

to hit below the belt;

The robbers hit him over the head with a baseball bat. I hit my elbow on the corner of that table.

2) to move into something or someone quickly and with force:

to hit the earth;

The tanks exploded as the plane hit the ground. He was hit by a car.

according to 1) as shown by something or stated by someone:

according to a theory (survey, study);

According to the police, his attackers beat him with a blunt instrument. 60 percent of women in India over age sixty are widows, according to one study.

2) in a way that depends on differences in situations or amounts:

You will be paid according to the amount of work you do.

3) in a way that agrees with a system or plan, or obeys a set of rules:

Everything went according to plan, and we arrived on time.

an astronomer - a scientist who studies the stars and planets.

to calculate 1) to find out how much something will cost, how long something will take etc, by using numbers, synonym work out:

These instruments calculate distances precisely. I'm trying to calculate how much paint we need. Sally calculated that she'd have about £100 left. I began calculating how long it would take to get to the airport if I left at 4:00. Sally calculated that she needed $300 to pay all her bills.

2) to guess smth using as many facts as you can find, synonym estimate:

Researchers calculated that this group was at a higher risk of heart disease. It's difficult to calculate what effect all these changes will have on the company.

a path 1) a track that has been made deliberately or made by many people walking over the same ground:

I walked nervously up the garden path towards the front door. Follow the path along the river to the bridge. A narrow path took us down to the river. He lead me down a path to a farmhouse.

2) the space ahead of you as you move along:

Police cleared a path through the protesters.

exact - completely correct in every detail, opposite inexact:

exact cost (location, position, date, time, number, amount, copy, replica);

Police are still investigating the exact cause of the accident. What were his exact words? The exact location of the hostages is unknown. I know her birthday's in July, but I can't remember the exact date. It's not an exact copy, but most people wouldn't notice the difference. "Can you tell me the exact time?" "It's 6.37." Doctors do not know the exact cause of the disease. It took her about an hour - 58 minutes to be exact.

fairly more than a little, but much less than very:

Scientists are fairly certain that … , fairly easy;

She was fairly certain that she had been there before. The house had a fairly large garden. She speaks English fairly well. The house has a fairly big living room.

confident 1) [not before noun] sure that smth will happen in the way that you want or expect:

He is fairly confident that there will be no problems this time. The company is confident of success. I feel quite confident about the future. ''Do you think you'll win tomorrow's game?'' - ''Well, we're all feeling pretty confident''.

2) sure that you have the ability to do things well or deal with situations successfully:

He began to read in a calm, confident voice.

3) sure that something is true:

We are confident that the data is accurate.

to miss 1) to not go somewhere or do something, especially when you want to but cannot:

to miss the performance, don’t miss (his paintings);

I'm absolutely starving - I missed lunch. By the time we got there we'd missed the beginning of the movie. What did he say? I missed it.

2) to fail to hit or catch an object that is close to you, or to fail to hit a distant object that you are aiming at:

to miss the Earth;

Every time she missed the ball she became more angry.

a miss - an occasion when you fail to hit, catch, or hold something:

a near miss;

Will he score a goal this time?- No, it's a miss.

to prevent (from) - to stop something from happening, or stop someone from doing something:

The rules are intended to prevent accidents. His back injury may prevent him from playing in tomorrow's game. Wrap small ornaments in paper to prevent them being damaged. They locked all the doors to prevent him escaping. Bad weather prevented the plane from taking off. Good tyres help to prevent accidents. Girls should not be prevented from taking part in these sports.

outer space - the space outside the Earth's air, where the planets and stars are:

creatures from outer space (=from another planet).

an invader - a soldier or a group of soldiers that enters a country or town by force in order to take control of it:

Invaders ransacked the town.

to collide to hit smth or someone that is moving in a different direction from you:

A car and a van collided on the motorway. I ran around the corner, and almost collided with Mrs Laurence. Two trains collided head-on (=when they were moving directly towards each other).

collision an accident in which two or more people or vehicles hit each other while moving in different directions:

The school bus was involved in a collision with a truck. Two people were killed in a head-on collision (=between two vehicles that are moving directly towards each other) on highway 218.

to orbit - to travel in a curved path around a much larger object such as the Earth, the sun etc:

to orbit the planet (Jupiter), junk orbiting the Earth;

The satellite orbits the Earth every 48 hours. The satellite will orbit the Earth for the next 15 years. Venus orbits the sun once every 225 Earth days.

an orbit 1) the curved path travelled by an object which is moving around another much larger object such as the Earth, the sun etc

the Moon's orbit around the Earth, to calculate an orbit;

The Space Shuttle is now in orbit. The telecommunications satellite went into orbit at the end of last year.

plenty of sth - a large quantity that is enough or more than enough:

Make sure she gets plenty of fresh air. No need to hurry - you've got plenty of time. There's plenty to do and see in New York. There are plenty more chairs in the next room. "More dessert?" "No thanks, I've had plenty."

nuclear weapon - weapons that use nuclear energy:

concern about the country's nuclear weapons program;

Some are trying to obtain nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

an option - a choice you can make in a particular situation:

There are a number of options available. He had two options. This was not the only option open to him. She had the option of staying for an extra year. Our only option now is to contact the police.

to involve 1) if an activity or situation involves smth, that thing is part of it or a result of it:

to involve doing something (repairing sth);

What will the job involve? Running your own business usually involves working long hours. Community service can involve anything from gardening to helping in old people's homes. The plan involves converting the old canteen into a sports hall.

2) to include or affect someone or something:

These changes will involve everyone on the staff.

3) to ask or allow someone to take part in something:

to involve somebody in (doing) something;

Try to involve as many children as possible in the game. I always try to involve the whole class.

slightly - a little:

a slightly different color, slightly higher (lower, better, larger);

January's sales were slightly better than average. He was someone I already knew slightly. Florida has a slightly larger population than Illinois. Lynn's daughter is only slightly older than mine. The temperature had risen slightly, but it was still very cold.

a course - the planned direction taken by a boat or plane to reach a place:

asteroids course, on/off course (=going in the right or wrong direction);

The plane changed course to avoid the storm. The aircraft was almost 10 miles off course.

solar 1) relating to the sun: a solar system;

2) using the power of the sun's light and heat: solar energy (batteries, power).

to enter sth - to go or come into a place:

Silence fell as I entered the room. As soon as he entered the room, he knew there was something wrong. Everyone entering the country must show a passport. It appears the burglars entered through a back window.

responsible for 1) if someone is responsible for an accident, mistake, crime etc, it is their fault or they can be blamed:

to hold somebody responsible (for something);

Police believe that the same man is responsible for three other murders in the area. If anything goes wrong, I will hold you personally responsible. Mrs Williams says that the hospital was responsible for her husband's death. Police believe a local gang is responsible for the recent burglaries. The other driver was responsible for the accident, and he should pay for the damage.

2) having a duty to be in charge of or to look after someone or something:

to be responsible for major changes (your luggage);

The airline is legally responsible for the safety of its passengers.

to detect - to notice or discover something, especially something that is not easy to see, hear etc:

Many forms of cancer can be cured if detected early. The tests can detect the presence of cocaine in the blood. Dan detected a change in her mood. The system is so sensitive that it can detect differences in temperature as small as 0.003 degrees. Though the yellow tomatoes are pretty, I couldn't detect much difference in flavor.

a detective

to take action (uncountable)to do sth, especially in order to achieve a particular thing:

to take appropriate action, to take action before sth;

The government must take action now to stop the rise in violent crime. What do you think is our best course of action (=thing that you choose to do)?

to destroy - to damage smth so badly that it no longer exists or cannot be used or repaired:

to destroy the asteroid (our planet, the junk), completely (totally) to destroy, companies that are polluting and destroying the environment;

The school was completely destroyed by fire. I don't want this to destroy our friendship. In Brazil the rainforests are gradually being destroyed. The earthquake destroyed much of the city. The tornado destroyed everything in its path.

destruction - the act or process of destroying something or of being destroyed:

the destruction of the rainforest, weapons of mass destruction, widespread destruction;

The floods brought death and destruction to the area.

to take / have time to do - deliberately spend time doing something:

to have time to finish the work;

While in New York he took time to visit some friends. I haven't time to stop and talk just now. If you do not have time to prepare breakfast it should not matter.

to prepare for - to make plans or arrangements for something that will happen in the future, synonym get ready:

to prepare for space travel (competition);

The 45 year-old explorer has been preparing for his latest expedition to the Arctic. He only had a few hours to prepare for the interview.

preparation - the process of preparing something:

Business training is a good preparation for any career. He is practising every day, in preparation for the ice-skating championship.

likely probably:

I'd very likely have done the same thing in your situation.

to be ready for sth - if you are ready, you are prepared for what you are going to do:

I don't feel that I'm ready for my driving test yet. I felt strong, fit, and ready for anything.

to save - to make someone or something safe from danger, harm, or destruction:

to save something (the planet), to save somebody/something from something;

It is claimed that seat belts save hundreds of lives a year in the UK. He saved the child from drowning. Bob and Martha worked hard to save their marriage, for the sake of the children.

evil 1) someone who is evil deliberately does very cruel things to harm other people:

the lesser of 2 evils;

In the movie, the hero has to rescue the world from an evil scientist.

2) something that is evil is morally wrong because it harms people synonym wicked:

the evil eye, to have an evil influence on sb;

Sue says that TV talk shows are evil.

Dictionary Corner WB

to take over - to take control of something:

to take over the universe;

His only reason for investing in the company was to take it over.

the universe - all space, including all the stars and planets:

We have no final answer for the question about the origin of the universe.

a galaxy - one of the large groups of stars that make up the universe.

a mission - an important job that involves travelling somewhere, done by a member of the air force, army etc, or by a spacecraft:

the first manned space mission to Mars, the next mission to Mars, the first mission to the Moon, a space mission, a mission to the space, to be reasonable for space mission, to prepare for the mission.

to float 1) on water - to stay or move on the surface of a liquid without sinking, opposite sink:

I wasn't sure if the raft would float. She spent the afternoon floating on her back in the pool. A couple of broken branches floated past us. Ice is less dense than water, which is why it floats. If the egg floats in a glass of water, it's not fresh. The empty boat floated off down the river. They could see something pale and white floating in the water.

2) in the air - if something floats, it moves slowly through the air or stays up in the air:

to float on a cushion of air;

I looked up at the clouds floating in the sky. Leaves floated gently down from the trees.

a float 1) a large vehicle decorated to drive through the streets as part of a special event:

We stood and watched the Carnival floats drive past.

2) a small light object that floats on the surface of the water, used by people trying to catch fish to show where their line is.

a sample - a small part or amount of something that is examined in order to find out something about the whole:

Samples of the rock were taken for analysis.

soil - the top layer of the earth in which plants grow, synonym earth:

soil samples, rock samples, soil and water pollution;

The soil here is very poor. The bush grows well in a sandy soil.

data [uncountable, datum] information or facts:

experimental (historical, statistical) data, to study (use) the data, to send the data back to the Earth;

The research involves collecting data from two random samples.

SB Grammar 1

a spaceship / a spacedraft - a vehicle for carrying people through space:

a manned spaceship. The spacecraft has sent back new data about Jupiter’s atmosphere.

a spacesuit - a special protective suit that people wear in space, that covers the whole body and provides a supply of air:

Astronauts say hand work is very tiring in spacesuits.

a hand - help with something:

to give (need, want) a hand;

Do you need a hand packing? Can you give me a hand to lift this? If you get stuck, Denise is always willing to give a hand. I could do with a hand (=it would be useful to have some help). We could certainly do with a hand.

to predict - to say that something will happen, before it happens:

to predict murders;

Sales were five percent lower than predicted. Newspapers predicted that Davis would be re-elected. Some scientists predict that the Earth's temperature will rise by as much as 5° over the next 20 years. It is difficult to predict what the long-term effects of the accident will be. The students are asked to predict what will happen during the experiment. Unemployment is predicted to increase to 700,000 by the end of the year.


prediction - a statement about what you think is going to happen, or the act of making this statement:

predictions about the future;

The data can be used to make useful economic predictions. Despite all our modern technology, weather prediction is still unreliable. It's too early to make any predictions about the election results.

evidence 1) facts or signs that show clearly that something exists or is true:

to be based on evidence, to have no evidence, to find evidence, clear (strong, good, scientific) evidence, pieces of evidence, to give evidence;

At present we have no evidence of life on other planets. There is some evidence for this theory. There is widespread evidence that the world's temperature is increasing. There is now clear evidence that these chemicals are damaging the environment. There is strong evidence to suggest that the Great Barrier Reef will have disappeared in 20 years' time. Medical evidence shows that men are more likely to have heart attacks than women. People have been looking for evidence of life on other planets for years. The study produced one interesting piece of evidence.

2) information that is given in a court of law in order to prove that someone is guilty or not guilty:

Murrow's evidence was enough to convict Hayes of murder. There was very little evidence against the two men. The most important piece of evidence, the murder weapon, has not been found. Without any evidence we cannot prove that she was involved in murder.

to intend - to have something in your mind as a plan or purpose:

to intend to do/doing something, to intend somebody/something to do something,;

I intend to spend the night there. I didn't intend her to see the painting until it was finished. I never intended things to turn out the way they did. We intend looking at the situation again. I fully intend (=definitely intend) to return home next year. What do you intend to do/doing? I didn’t intend to hurt you.

intention - a plan or desire to do something;

to have no (every) intention of doing something, good intentions (the best) intentions (=intentions to do something good or kind, especially when you do not succeed in doing it);

I have no intention of retiring just yet. They went into town with the intention of visiting the library. I have every intention of coming. My intention is to study English.

WB Grammar 1

gravity - the force that causes smth to fall to the ground or to be attracted to another planet:

the force of gravity, the Moon’s gravity, gravity games, law of gravity;

Mars' gravity is only about 38% of Earth's.

a surface 1) the top layer of an area of water or land:

beneath (under, below) the surface, on the Moon’s surface, the thickness of the surface;

Dead leaves floated on the surface of the water. Nearly 10 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by ice. Gas bubbles in any liquid tend to rise to the surface. The tunnel was some 300 feet below the surface. The moon's surface is covered with rocks and dust.

2) the outside or top layer of something:

the surface of the vase, a frying pan with a non-stick surface, on something's surface, a flat surface;

The road surfaces tend to be worse in the towns than in the country.

to surface

a planetarium - a building where lights on a curved ceiling show the movements of planets and stars.

a telescope - a piece of equipment shaped like a tube, used for making distant objects look larger and closer:

through a telescope, a roof telescope;

Details on the moon's surface can only be seen through a telescope.

Look out! - used to warn someone that they are in danger, synonym watch out:

Look out! There's a car coming. Look out! You almost hit that cat!

binoculars - a pair of special glasses, that you hold up to your eyes to look at objects that are a long distance away, synonym field glasses:

a pair of binoculars;

He took the binoculars from around his neck and held them out.

unique 1) unusually good and special:

a unique opportunity to study these rare creatures;

It was a unique achievement - no-one has ever won the championship five times before. Joan has a unique talent for languages.

2) being the only one of its kind:

Each person's fingerprints are unique. Every child is unique, with their own needs, preferences and talents. Every person is unique.

to invent to make, design, or think of a new type of thing:

to invent the electric light bulb (a new kind of fuel, the computer mouse, the Personal computer, the perfect system, a way to travel through time);

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. Television was invented in the 1920s.

to discover if someone discovers a new place, fact, substance etc, they are the first person to find it or know that it exists:

to discover life (the planet Pluto, America, an asteroid);

The Curies are best known for discovering radium. The planet Pluto was discovered in 1930. The Vikings may have discovered America long before Columbus.


to develop - to design or make a new idea, product, system etc over a period of time:

to develop the technology (laser, robots, cameras, software, the research laboratory, effective drugs for some diseases);

Scientists are developing new drugs to treat cancer. She should have developed her own style instead of copying him. Researchers are developing technology for the US military.

equipment - the tools, machines, clothes etc that you need to do a particular job or activity:

electrical (computer, special, spaceship) equipment, sound equipment for the concert, some brand new computer equipment, high-tech communications equipment, a piece (bit, item) of equipment, a very useful bit of equipment;

The school bought several new pieces of equipment for the chemistry lab. Thieves stole all the video equipment from the college. You should check all your electrical equipment regularly.

a machine - piece of equipment with moving parts that uses power such as electricity to do a particular job:

washing (sewing) machine, switch (turn) a machine on/off ;

Is the washing machine working now? Could you get me a coffee from the drinks machine? The fax machine is broken. The letters are sorted by machine. Did you put my dirty shirts in the machine (=washing machine)? I left a message for you on your machine (=telephone answering machine). The machine wouldn't let me have any money (=cash machine).

an engine - the part of a vehicle that produces power to make it move:

to start (switch on) an engine, to stop (turn off, switch off) an engine, diesel (petrol, jet) engine, an old steam engine, a car engine;

The engine won't start. He switched off the car's engine and waited. Every time I try to start the engine, there's a strange knocking sound.

a battery - an object that provides a supply of electricity for smth such as a radio, car, or toy:

a tiny battery, a rechargeable battery (=one that can be recharged and used again), to recharge (charge) a battery (=fill it with electricity again after it has been used), a flat (dead) battery (=one that has no more electricity in it), a battery-powered (battery-operated) hair dryer, a battery compartment (=the place in a radio, toy etc where the batteries go), a battery charger (=a piece of equipment for charging batteries);

The battery in my mobile has run off. You have to take the top off to change the batteries. When the red light comes on, you should recharge the battery. The car's got a flat battery. This tape player operates on six C batteries.

electricity - the power that is carried by wires, cables etc, and is used to provide light or heat, to make machines work etc:

the electricity bill, to cut off (produce) electricity;

The farm was very isolated, but it had electricity.

research - serious study of a subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas:

space research, a research laboratory, research on Jupiter, research into the causes of cancer, scientific (medical, historical) research, to do (conduct, undertake) research;

There is clearly a need for further research on the topic. Investment in scientific research has fallen. Scientists are conducting research into the drug's effectiveness. Recent research suggests that even small amounts of alcohol can affect an unborn baby. She's doing research into the connection between crime and poverty.

an investigation - an official attempt to find out the truth about or the causes of something such as a crime, accident, or scientific problem:

a criminal investigation;

The investigation continued for nearly three years. A private detective was hired to conduct the investigation. The investigation into the cause of the air crash is continuing.

to affect - to do something that produces an effect or change in something or in someone's situation:

the areas affected by the hurricane/ the earthquake, a disease that affects the central nervous system, decisions which affect our lives, badly (seriously) to affect somebody/something, to affect the technology (the human body), to affect the performance at school, to affect the wind (rainfall, people’s way of life);

Scientists are investigating the ways in which climate changes affect the ozone.

a digital clock (watch) a clock giving information in the form of numbers:

Sir Clive, 51, also invented the pocket calculator, home computer and the digital watch.

a laptop computer - a small computer that you can carry with you:

Her boss's laptop got stolen from her car.

to combine - if you combine two or more different things, or if they combine, they begin to exist or work together:

to combine business and pleasure;

Diets are most effective when combined with exercise. A number of factors have combined to create this difficult situation.

WB Dictionary Corner

a satellite 1) a machine that has been sent into space and goes around the Earth, moon etc, used for radio, television, and other electronic communication:

the launch of a communications and weather satellite, via (by) satellite (=using a satellite), to repair a satellite, satellite television (technology), a satellite dish, thanks to satellite;

This broadcast comes live via satellite from New York.

2) a natural object that moves around a planet:

The moon is a satellite of the Earth.

to lose 1) to stop having a particular attitude, quality, ability etc, or to gradually have less of it:

to lose confidence (interest, hope, appetite), to lose heart (=become sad and hopeless), to lose face (=stop having as much respect from other people), to lose weight (height, speed), to lose your sight (hearing, voice, balance);

2) to not win a game, argument, election, war etc, opposite win:

to lose (something) by 1 goal (20 points);

Freddie died in 1982 after losing his battle against AIDS.

3) to become unable to find someone or something:

to lose track of something/somebody (=stop knowing where someone or something is), to lose sight of something/somebody (=stop being able to see someone or something);

I followed her on foot, but lost her in the crowd. I've lost the tickets for tonight's show. If you lose your credit card, phone this number immediately.

4) if you lose something that is important or necessary, you then no longer have it, especially because it has been taken from you or destroyed:

to lose a job (a suitcase, homes), to lose a chance (opportunity);

I'll lose my job if the factory closes. It was thought the manuscript had been lost forever. All is lost.

a loss - the fact of no longer having something, or of having less of it than you used to have, or the process by which this happens:

a loss of appetite (interest, confidence, control, memory, blood, the satellite, culture, strength), to be at a loss;

I am at a loss for words.

to put an end to sth - a situation in which something is finished or no longer exists:

It's hoped the talks may bring an end to the violence.


with / in regard to - relating to a particular subject:

Modern drugs are better with regard to side-effects.

to be grateful for sth / to sb - feeling that you want to thank someone because of something kind that they have done, or showing this feeling, opposite ungrateful;

to be extremely (deeply) grateful;

I'm so grateful for all your help. Our grateful thanks go to all who participated.

accommodation - a place for someone to stay, live, or work:

The price for the holiday includes flights and accommodation.

to require 1) to need something:

Most house plants require regular watering.

2) if you are required to do or have smth, a law or rule says you must do it or have it:

You are required by law to wear a seat belt.


Выбранный для просмотра документ Laser 6.doc


Unit 6.



to resent - to feel angry or upset about a situation or about something that someone has done, especially because you think that it is not fair:

to resent (somebody) doing something, bitterly (deeply, strongly) to resent;

I resented having to work such long hours. She bitterly resented his mother's influence over him. Paul resented the fact that Carol didn't trust him. He resented my saying that. I resent that. He resents my success. I resent the way he treats me.


to mistake sth / sb for sth / sb (mistook – mistaken) - to wrongly think that one person or thing is someone or something else:

A woman mistook him for a well-known actor, and asked him for his autograph. The doctor mistook the symptoms for blood poisoning. He often gets mistaken for his brother.

arrogance - when sb behaves in a rude way because they think they are very important:

to mistake shyness for arrogance.

arrogant - behaving in an unpleasant or rude way because you think you are more important than other people:

an arrogant person, to resent arrogant people, to become arrogant;

He was unbearably arrogant.

confidence 1) the feeling that you can trust sb or sth to be good, work well, or produce good results:

to have every (complete, absolute) confidence in somebody/something, to gain (win, lose, enjoy) somebody's confidence , to inspire confidence (in somebody/something) (=make people have confidence), a confidence man=conman;

I have every confidence in you. I haven’t much confidence in what he says.

2) the belief that you have the ability to do things well or deal with situations successfully:

to speak with confidence, to give somebody confidence;

I didn't have any confidence in myself. Living on her own in a foreign country for a year gave her a lot of confidence.


sociable - someone who is sociable is friendly and enjoys being with other people, opposite unsociable: a pleasant, sociable couple.

to tease 1) to laugh at someone and make jokes in order to have fun by embarrassing them, either in a friendly way or in an unkind way:

to tease somebody about something

Don't get upset. I was only teasing. She used to tease me about my hair.

2) to deliberately annoy an animal:

Stop teasing the cat!

secure feeling confident about yourself and your abilities, opposite insecure:

to feel secure;

We want our children to be secure and feel good about themselves. Workers no longer feel secure about the future. Keep your passport in a secure place. People should feel secure when they walk the streets of this city. Wilson had no secure job.

desperately 1) in a desperate way:

The doctors tried desperately to save her life. He looked round desperately for someone to help him.

2) very or very much, synonym extremely:

desperately to want (need), desperately poor (ill, tired, unhappy, lonely, worried);

The crops desperately need rain. He was desperately ill with a fever.

to dread - to feel anxious or worried about smth that is going to happen, synonym to fear, to be afraid of:

to dread doing something, to dread somebody doing something , to dread going to school;

I've got an interview tomorrow and I'm dreading it. I'm dreading going back to work. Tim dreaded his parents finding out. I'm dreading that I'll be asked to make a speech. I dread being ill. I dread going to the dentist.

bright - intelligent and able to learn things quickly, synonym sharp, keen:

a bright ambitious young man;

He was an exceptionally bright child. He is constantly coming up with bright ideas for making money.

intelligent - an intelligent person has a high level of mental ability and is good at understanding ideas and thinking clearly:

a group of highly intelligent (=very intelligent) students;

Mark was an intelligent, ambitious young man, with a great future in front of him. Some scientists claim that dolphins are more intelligent than humans. Do you think there are intelligent life forms on other planets?


hard-working - working with a lot of effort, synonym diligent, industrious:

a hard-working teacher.

lonely (lonelier – the loneliest) - unhappy because you are alone or do not have anyone to talk to, synonym lonesome:

a lonely old man, to feel lonely;

Don't you get lonely being on your own all day? Tammy felt very lonely when she first arrived in New York.

shy (shyer – the shyest) - nervous and embarrassed about meeting and speaking to other people, especially people you do not know:

He was a quiet, shy man. She was very shy with strangers. As a teenager I was painfully shy (=extremely shy). He was too shy to come sit by me in class.


nasty - extremely unkind and unpleasant:

to bully nasty people, nasty weather, a nasty smell (taste).

to trust - to believe that someone is honest or will not do anything bad or wrong, opposite distrust, mistrust:

I just don't trust him. Can they be trusted to look after the house? "He's only fourteen." "I know, but I think we can trust him to look after the baby for an hour." David's one of my oldest friends - I trust him completely. I never trusted him. You can’t trust a word he says.

to respect - to admire someone because they have high standards and good qualities such as fairness and honesty:

to respect somebody for (doing) something, to respect intelligent pupils;

She respected him for his honesty. I respect his views, although I do not agree with them. He's a very strict teacher, but the students respect him. When traveling abroad, it is important to respect local customs and laws.

gossip - information that is passed from one person to another about other people's behaviour and private lives, often including unkind or untrue remarks:

common gossip (=something that everyone knows and is talking about), local gossip;

Here's an interesting piece of gossip about Mrs Smith. What's the latest gossip? It was common gossip how he felt about her. On Sundays all the men gather in the square to exchange local gossip. I heard an interesting piece of gossip about Beth Ann.

to gossip: to gossip about sociable people.

to show off to try to make people admire your abilities, achievements, or possessions - used to show disapproval:

He couldn't resist showing off on the tennis court. Billy, please stop showing off and sit down quietly! I think he was trying to show off in front of the girls.

ridiculous - very silly or unreasonable:

to tease ridiculous pupils;

That's a ridiculous idea! Don't be ridiculous! I'd look ridiculous in a dress like that. It's an absolutely ridiculous decision. It's ridiculous that we have to wait six weeks.


jealous 1) feeling angry and unhappy because someone has smth that you wish you had:

Why are you so jealous of his success? You're just jealous of her.

2) feeling angry and unhappy because someone you like or love is showing interest in another person, or another person is showing interest in them:

She gets jealous if I even look at another woman. He was talking to Nina to make me jealous.


a rehearsal 1) a time when all the people in a play, concert etc practise before a public performance:

a rehearsal for 'Romeo and Juliet', a dress rehearsal, the first rehearsal;

We're having our first rehearsal of 'Hamlet' tonight.

2) a time when all the people involved in a big event practise it together before it happens:

a wedding rehearsal.

to rehearse

a miracle something very lucky or very good that happens which you did not expect to happen or did not think was possible:

the economic miracle of the 1950s, an unbelievable miracle, to work miracles;

It's a miracle you weren't killed! By some miracle, we managed to catch the plane.


to gain - to obtain or achieve something you want or need:

to gain a victory (time);

After gaining independence in 1957, it was renamed 'Ghana'. It took her a long time to gain enough confidence to speak in public.

to embarrass - to make someone feel ashamed, nervous, or uncomfortable, especially in front of other people:

to embarrass shy people, to be embarrassed;

He didn't want to embarrass her by asking questions. I hope I didn't embarrass you in front of your friends.

to make friends - to become friendly with people:

Jenny has always found it easy to make friends at school. He made friends with an old fisherman.

to share secrets - to tell other people about a secret.

selfish - caring only about yourself and not about other people - used to show disapproval:

desperately selfish;

How can you be so selfish? Sometimes it's all right to be a little selfish, and forget about everyone else for a change.

strict 1) expecting people to obey rules or to do what you say, opposite lenient:

a strict teacher, to be terrified of strict teachers;

The Stuarts are very strict with their children.

2) a strict order or rule is one that must be obeyed:

You had strict instructions not to tell anybody. I'm telling you this in the strictest confidence (=it must be kept completely secret).

to put on to perform in a theatre:

to put on a play;

The children put on a play adapted from a Russian folk tale. At the Opera House along the street, they put on plays and musical shows.

an equal - someone who is as important, intelligent etc as you are, or who has the same rights and opportunities as you do:

to talk as an equal;

He treats all his staff as equals.

to be a great success - when you achieve what you want or intend, opposite to be a failure:

be a big (huge, great) success;

The experiment was a big success.

to persuade 1) to make someone decide to do something, especially by giving them reasons why they should do it, or asking them many times to do it:

to persuade somebody to do something, to persuade somebody into doing something, to try (manage, fail) to persuade somebody, to persuade from smth;

I finally managed to persuade her to go out for a drink with me. Don't let yourself be persuaded into buying things you don't want. He was fairly easily persuaded.

2) to make someone believe smth or feel sure about smth, synonym convince:

I am not persuaded by these arguments. McFadden must persuade the jury of her innocence.


to lose temper - to suddenly become very angry so that you cannot control yourself:

I've never seen Vic lose his temper.

impatient - annoyed because of delays, someone else's mistakes etc:

to get (become, grow) impatient (with somebody/something);

We are getting impatient with the lack of results.

to be rude to sb - speaking or behaving in a way that is not polite and is likely to offend or annoy people, synonym to be impolite; opposite to be polite:

Why are you so rude to her? I know you're upset, but there's no need to be rude to your mother.


annoyed - slightly angry, synonym irritated:

I'll be annoyed if we don't finish by eight. She was annoyed with Duncan for forgetting to phone. Meg was annoyed with me because I forgot to stop and buy bread on my way home. Mike gets annoyed if anyone goes in his room when he's out. Sandra was very annoyed that I was late. I felt annoyed with him for being so stupid.

to annoy, annoying, annoyance

furious - very angry:

Residents in the area are furious at the decision. She was furious with herself for letting things get out of hand. Her family are furious that her name has been published by the press. She was absolutely furious. I am furious with him.


depressed - very unhappy:

She felt lonely and depressed. Don't get depressed about it. The divorce left him deeply depressed. I was depressed at the thought of all the hard work ahead. Some people eat too much when they're depressed.

to depress, depressing, depression

surprised - having a feeling of surprise:

We were greatly surprised at the news. I bet she'll be really surprised to see me. I wouldn't be surprised if she married that fellow.

to surprise, surprising, a surprise

upset - unhappy and worried because something unpleasant or disappointing has happened:

She was really upset about the way her father treated her. Debbie was upset that he didn't spend more time with her.

to upset, upset, upsetting

excited 1) happy, interested, or hopeful because smth good has happened or will happen:

Steve flies home tomorrow - we're all really excited. Maria's starting to get pretty excited about the wedding. I'm so excited that we're going to New York.

2) very nervous and upset about something so that you cannot relax:

There's no point getting excited about it. We can't change things.

to excite, exciting, excitement

scared - frightened of something, or nervous about something, synonym afraid:

At first, he was really scared. I've always been scared of dogs. Don't be scared of asking for help. I wanted to ask her out but was scared that she might refuse. The boys were scared to cross the street.

to scare, scaring, scare, scary

shocked - feeling surprised and upset by something very unexpected and unpleasant:

I was deeply shocked by Jo's death. He is shocked at what happened to his son. We were too shocked to talk.

to shock, shocking, shock

nervous - worried or frightened about something, and unable to relax:

to feel (get) nervous;

She was so nervous about her exams that she couldn't sleep.


disaster - a sudden event such as a flood, storm, or accident which causes great damage or suffering:

the economic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, ecological (environmental) disaster, air (nuclear, natural) disaster, to end in disaster, to prevent a disaster, to invite a disaster, after a disaster;

The 1987 hurricane was the worst natural disaster to hit England for decades.


to pass an exam - to succeed in an examination or test, opposite to fail:

Did you pass all your exams? He hasn't passed his driving test yet.

to blame - to say or think that someone or something is responsible for something bad:

Don't blame me - it's not my fault. Marie still blames herself for Patrick's death. One of the computers is broken and she's blaming it on me. I am to blame for it all.

a queue - a line of people waiting to enter a building, buy something etc, or a line of vehicles waiting to move, synonym line:

to be (stand, wait) in a queue, to join the queue;

We stood in a queue for half an hour. You'll have to join the queue. There was a long queue to get into the cinema.

obviously - used to mean that a fact can easily be noticed or understood, synonym clearly:

We're obviously going to need more help. Obviously, this is going to take some time. She was obviously upset. Obviously, she was upset. She wasn’t obviously upset.

to decide on sth - to choose something or someone after thinking carefully:

to decide on a career;

Have you decided on a date for the wedding?

to afford - to have enough money, time to do something:

We can't afford to go on vacation this year. How can she afford to eat out every night?

a fortnight - two weeks:

a fortnight's holiday, in a fortnight's time, a fortnight ago.

a funfair - a noisy outdoor event where you can ride on machines, play games to win prizes, synonym fair:

There is a funfair next door and the big wheels can be clearly seen from the window.


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Unit 7.



entertainment - things such as films, television, performances etc that are intended to amuse or interest people:

The town provides a wide choice of entertainment. So what do you do for entertainment in this town?

to entertain, entertaining

a review - an article in a newspaper or magazine that gives an opinion about a new book, play, film etc:

a film (newspaper )review, a good (bad) review ;

The paper published a review of her book. The band's new album has had very good reviews. The movie got good reviews. Critics write review of books and films.

a catalogue - a complete list of things that you can look at, buy, or use, for example in a library or at an art show:

a mail order catalogue, an online catalogue, to order clothes from the catalogue.

a guide book - a book or piece of writing that provides information on a particular subject or explains how to do something.

instructions - the written information that tells you how to do or use something:

Install the machine according to the manufacturer's instructions. Press enter and follow the on-screen instructions. Both products come with detailed instructions for use. Are there any instructions on how to plant the trees? Read the instruction book carefully.

manual - a book that gives instructions about how to do something, especially how to use a machine:

Consult the computer manual if you have a problem.

minority report - a report by a minority of a group who do not agree with the others:

The conference adopted the minority report.

science fiction - stories about events in the future which are affected by imaginary developments in science, e.g. about travelling in time or to other planets with life on them:

Jane was an illustrator, journalist, writer of cheap science fiction and adventure novels. Hartmann writes classic science fiction and non-fiction about Mars.

fictional - fictional people, events etc are imaginary and from a book or story, synonym imaginary; opposite factual:

fictional characters.

a thriller - a book or film that tells an exciting story about murder or crime:

Kurt Russell and Steven Seagal team up in a thriller about a hijacked plane. He has written a spy thriller that recalls Fleming's James Bond series. 'Psycho' is Hitchcock's greatest psychological thriller. 'Bullet to Beijing', a spy thriller, starring Michael Caine and Michael Gambon.

to thrill, thrilled, thrilling, a thrill

to be set - if a film, story is set in a particular place or period, the action takes place there or then:

The novel is set in France in the fictional town. The film is set in England in the late 90s. His latest work is a legal thriller set in Boston.

a set - a television, or a piece of equipment for receiving radio signals:

a colour television set.

a plot - the events that form the main story of a book, film, or play, synonym story line:

The plot was so confusing that I couldn’t understand what was happening.

to revolve - to move around like a wheel:

The wheel began to revolve. The restaurant slowly revolves, giving excellent views of the city. Using graphics software, you can revolve the image on the screen. Her life revolves around her son. The plot revolves around a group of students. The plot revolves around the relationship of a young couple.

would-be - someone who hopes to have a particular job or intends to do a particular thing:

a would-be actor (murder), to arrest the would-be criminals;

The Drama Centre is a great help for all would-be actors and actresses.

to come up - if a subject comes up, people mention it and discuss it, synonym arise:

His name came up in the conversation. The subject of salaries didn't come up.

action-packed - an action-packed film, book etc contains a lot of exciting events:

another action-packed adventure movie starring Harrison Ford;

Kids will love this action-packed adventure movie. The book has an action-packed plot dealing with life during the Civil War. We provide action-packed holidays for children including riding, sailing, rock-climbing, and canoeing.

on the run - to be trying to escape or hide, especially from the police:

He is on the run from the police.

a magic touch - a particular way of doing something, or the ability to do it in a particular way:

The room was decorated with a very artistic touch. Barbara has a magic touch in the garden (=she grows things very well). King obviously hasn't lost his touch (=lost his ability) - his latest book sold in the millions.

to remove - to take something away from, out of, or off the place where it is:

to remove mountains;

Reference books may not be removed from the library. Please do not remove this notice. The old paint will have to be removed first.

external - the outside of something or of a person's body, opposite internal:

the external appearance of the building;

For external use only (=written on medicines which must be put on your skin and not swallowed).

an aerial - a piece of equipment for receiving or sending radio or television signals, usually consisting of a piece of metal or wire, synonym antenna:

to connect external aerial;

Many people will also need new aerials to receive the service.

to discard - to get rid of something, synonym throw away:

to discard packaging;

People who discard their litter in the streets should have to pay heavy fines.

a socket 1) a place in a wall where you can connect electrical equipment to the supply of electricity, synonym power point, outlet;

2) the place on a piece of electrical equipment that you put a plug or a light bulb into:

I don't shut all the internal doors and I certainly don't pull most plugs out at the socket.

the rear - the back part of an object, vehicle, or building, or a position at the back of an object or area, opposite front:

a garden at the rear of the house, at rear of a set.

mains electricity - electricity supplied to a building through a wire:

to connect to mains electricity;

In every case there is mains electricity & a good water supply. The station, seven miles from the nearest road, has no mains electricity.

a remote control - a thing you use for controlling a piece of electrical or electronic equipment without having to touch it, for example for turning a television on or off, synonym zapper:

to use remote control;

The bomb is guided by remote control.

to tune 1) to make a musical instrument play at the right pitch:

Someone's coming tomorrow to tune the piano.

2) to make a radio or television receive broadcasts from a particular place:

to tune TV channels;

The radio was tuned to a classical station.

a tune, tuneful, tuneless, tuner

to bring to life to make interested, excited, working:

A gifted teacher can really bring literature to life for his or her students.

remarkable - unusual or surprising and therefore deserving attention or praise:

a remarkable coincidence (collection);

She has made remarkable progress. It's a remarkable achievement for the company. He's a remarkable man.

to remark, a remark

dull - not interesting or exciting, synonym boring:

a dull movie, a little dull;

Life is never dull when Elizabeth is here. It sounded pretty dull to me. The weekly meeting tends to be deadly dull (=very dull). Our neighbours are OK, I suppose, but they're so dull!

a guarantee - a formal written promise to repair or replace a product if it breaks within a specific period of time, synonym warranty:

1 year guarantee, to ask about a guarantee, to give a guarantee;

They offer a two-year guarantee on all their electrical goods. Our computers come with a one year guarantee. Is your TV under guarantee (=protected by a guarantee)? Is the camera still under guarantee?

well-stocked having a good choice of products:

to be well-stocked.

a tamer a person who trains wild animal to obey you and not to attack people:

a fearless tamer.

spectacular - very impressive:

a mountainous area with spectacular scenery, a spectacular success.

to accept apology to take the words that show someone is sorry for doing sth wrong:

Please accept my sincere apologies for my behaviour yesterday.

to apologize to sb for sth - to tell someone that you are sorry that you have done smth wrong:

I'm so sorry, I do apologize. I think you should apologize to your brother. He later apologized for his behaviour. I apologize for losing my temper.

to forgive sb for sth - to stop being angry with someone and stop blaming them, although they have done something wrong:

I've tried to forgive him for what he said. He never forgave her for walking out on him. If anything happened to the kids I'd never forgive myself.

you're forgiven (=used to tell someone that you are not angry with them) 'I'm really sorry.' 'It's okay, you're forgiven.'

to feel bitter to feeling angry, jealous, and upset because you think you have been treated unfairly:

I feel very bitter it. I don't feel bitter about being excluded. She felt bitter about this.

betrayal - when you betray your country, friends, or someone who trusts you:

to feel bitter about someone’s betrayal;

She felt a great sense of betrayal.

to betray, a betrayer

at times - sometimes:

Life is hard at times. At times even the most talented athletes lose their motivation. At times Jean deeply regretted not having children. He wrote beautiful, at times too beautiful prose.

an advertisement (ad, advert) - a picture, set of words, or a short film, which is intended to persuade people to buy a product or use a service, or that gives information about a job that is available, an event that is going to happen etc:

a newspaper (television, radio) advertisement, to put (place, take) an advertisement in a newspaper;

The Sunday papers are full of advertisements for cars. She saw an advertisement for a ski vacation in Vermont. They put an advertisement in The Morning News, offering a high salary for the right person.

to advertise - to tell the public about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it:

to advertise (something) on television (in a newspaper);

They no longer advertise alcohol or cigarettes at sporting events.

WB Dictionary Corner

to exhibit - to show smth in a public place so that people can go to see it, synonym show:

to exhibit paintings;

Her paintings have been exhibited all over the world. The gallery will exhibit some of Monet's paintings. The sculpture was first exhibited at the Canadian National Exhibition.


an exhibit - something, for example a painting, that is put in a public place so that people can go to see it:

prehistoric exhibits;

The exhibits date from the 17th century. All exhibits are listed in the catalogue.

contemporary - belonging to the present time, synonym modern:

contemporary music (art, dance), paintings by contemporary artists, an exhibition of contemporary Japanese prints, life in contemporary Britain, the role of the media in contemporary society;

I'm not very impressed by the works of many contemporary artists. The gallery exhibits mainly contemporary sculpture and photography.

trendy - influenced by the most fashionable styles and ideas:

a trendy café, trendy clothes; a trendy New York night club, a trendy street market in the centre of Paris;

She only talks like that because she wants to sound trendy.

surroundings - the objects, buildings, natural things etc that are around a person or thing at a particular time:

somebody's surroundings, comfortable surroundings, beautiful (the most awful) surroundings;

He switched on the light and examined his surroundings. I need to work in pleasant surroundings. It took me a few weeks to get used to my new surroundings. The house is set in beautiful surroundings near Lake Coniston. The mountaintop provides a spectacular view of Innsbruck and its surroundings.

a roller-coaster - a track with very steep slopes and curves, which people ride on in small carriages at fairs and amusement parks:

to go on a roller-coaster.

a ride 1) a journey in a vehicle, when you are not driving:

a car (bus, train) ride, to give sb a ride = to give sb a lift;

He invited me to go for a ride in his new car. Can you give me a ride back to town? Sammy had promised to take me for a ride in his truck. I managed to get a ride down to the station. A fifteen minute taxi ride will take you to the airport.

2) a large machine that people ride on for fun at a fair:

to go on a ride, a rollercoaster ride;

We went on loads of rides.

to be located - to be in a particular position or place, synonym to be situated:

The business is located right in the center of town.

local - relating to the particular area you live in, or the area you are talking about:

local hospital (residents, community).

The project focused on the local community living in the surrounding villages.

Grammar 1

a contest - a competition or a situation in which two or more people or groups are competing with each other:

to win (lose) a contest;

Stone decided to hold a contest to see who could write the best song. I only entered (=started taking part in) the contest for fun.

a talent contest - a competition to find the best performer.

a contestant - someone who competes in a contest:

Each contestant has to answer questions on a variety of subjects.

a comedian - someone whose job is to tell jokes and make people laugh, synonym comic:

a professional comedian;

He started as a stand-up comedian (=someone who tells jokes to an audience).

barely - only with great difficulty or effort, synonym only just:

barely to see;

She was very old and barely able to walk. Mary had barely enough money to live on. She could barely understand English. Dave barely noticed my new dress. The fog was so bad that we could barely see the road in front of us.

to book - to make arrangements to stay in a place, eat in a restaurant, go to a theatre etc at a particular time in the future:

Have you booked a holiday this year? The flight was already fully booked (=no more seats were available). To get tickets, you have to book in advance. I booked a table for two at 8:00. You'll have to book by tomorrow if you want the lower price.

to stand (wait) in a queue / in a line to wait in a row of people or things next to each other:

We stood in a queue for half an hour. The four men were standing in a line on the other side of the table.

to run out - 1) to use all of something and not have any more left:

I've got money you can borrow if you run out. He'd run out of ideas.

2) if something is running out, there will soon be none left:

We must act now because time is running out. My patience was running out. We've run out of milk. Could you stop at the store on your way home? We ran out of gas on the freeway last night.

by accident - in a way that is not planned or intended, synonym accidentally; opposite on purpose, deliberately:

I met her quite by accident (=completely by accident). The discovery was made almost by accident. Fleming discovered penicillin almost by accident. Lombardi heard about their plan quite by accident. The fire started by accident.

on purpose deliberately, opposite accidentally:

to do something on purpose;

You make it sound as if I did it on purpose!

to make a fool of oneself - to do something stupid that you feel embarrassed about afterwards and that makes you seem silly:

to make a complete fool of oneself;

Sorry I made such a fool of myself last night. I must have been drunk.


to breathe in - to take air into your lungs:

to breathe in fresh air;

The doctor made me breathe in while he listened to my chest. Wyatt breathed in the cool ocean air.

unspoilt scenery - an unspoilt part of a country is beautiful because it has not changed for a long time and does not have a lot of new buildings:

to see unspoilt scenery.

to rush - to move very quickly, especially because you need to be somewhere very soon, synonym hurry:

A small girl rushed past her. There's plenty of time - we don't need to rush. Try to do your work calmly and carefully, without rushing.

fresh 1) adding to or replacing something:

I'll just make some fresh coffee.

2) good or interesting because it has not been done, seen etc before:

We need some fresh ideas.

3) done, experienced, or having happened recently:

The accident was still fresh in her mind.

4) fresh food or flowers have recently been picked or prepared:

fresh fruit (vegetables, fish, bread);

5) fresh air from outside, especially clean air:

Let's open the windows and have some fresh air in here!

6) full of energy because you are not tired.

refreshed: to come back refreshed.

mood - the way you feel at a particular time:

to be in a bad (good) mood, to fit your mood;

You're in a good mood this morning!

miserable - extremely unhappy, for example because you feel lonely, cold, or badly treated:

I've been so miserable since Pat left me. I spent the weekend feeling miserable. Jan looks really miserable.

to put on to put a record into a machine and start playing it.

addictive 1) if a substance, especially a drug, is addictive, your body starts to need it regularly and you are unable to stop taking it, opposite non-addictive:

Tobacco is highly addictive.

2) an activity that is addictive is so enjoyable that you do not want to stop:

to be totally addictive;

It started as a hobby, but it got so addictive I had to keep on doing it.

an invader - a soldier or a group of soldiers that enters a country or town by force in order to take control of it.

to complain - to say that you are annoyed, not satisfied, or unhappy about something or someone:

to complain about the amount of work (the working conditions, the services, the traffic, the lack of public transport, pollution);

She complained that no one had been at the airport to meet her. She often complains about not feeling appreciated at work. Neighbours complained to the police about the dogs barking. If the hotel isn't satisfactory, you should complain to the Tourist Office. Their neighbours complained about their constant loud music. He constantly complains about how he's treated at work.

a complaint - a statement in which someone complains about something:

to make a complaint, a letter of complaint, to express complaints;

The sales assistants are trained to deal with customer complaints in a friendly manner. A common complaint among air passengers is that not enough leg room is provided. We are concerned by complaints that children are being bullied. If you wish to make a complaint, you should see the manager. Our main complaint was the poor standard of service. My only complaint is that the price is rather high.

to improve - to make something better, or to become better, opposite to worsen:

a course for students wishing to improve their English;

The doctors say she is improving (=after being ill). You could use the money for improving your home. Many wines improve with age (=get better as they get older). Conditions in prisons have improved dramatically in the last 20 years. I wanted to improve my French, so I got a job in Paris. Let's hope the weather improves before Saturday.

improvement 1) the act of improving something or the state of being improved:

dramatic (major, significant)improvement, real improvement;

There's been a big improvement in the children's behaviour. We need to carry out some improvements to the system. It could be quite some time before we see any improvement. Your English is much better, but there’s still room for improvement (=it could be even better).

2) [countable] a change or addition that improves something:

Are you making some improvements to your home?

to be perfect for sth - exactly what is needed for a particular purpose, situation, or person, synonym ideal:

The land is perfect for sheep farming. That sounds like the perfect job for you. This dress will be perfect for the summer.

Grammar 2

basic 1) forming the most important or most necessary part of something:

the basic principles of chemistry, a basic idea (question, problem), basic skills;

The basic idea is simple. In this chapter, we will address the following basic questions: ...

2) at the simplest or least developed level:

the basic skills of programming;

Their knowledge is very basic. The farm lacks even basic equipment.

basics 1) the most important and necessary facts about something, from which other possibilities and ideas may develop, synonym fundamentals:

the basics of French grammar, to pick up the basics (=to learn);

Here are some of the basics you will need to know.

2) things which everyone needs in order to live or to deal with a particular situation, synonym essentials:

basics like food and education;

a fire extinguisher - a metal container with water or chemicals, used for stopping small fires:

to grab a fire extinguisher.

to put out the fire - to make a fire etc stop burning, synonym extinguish:

The rescue services are still trying to put out the fires. It took firefighters several hours to put out the fire. Fire engines have been sent for, to put out the fire. He discovered burning matches close to his barn and put out the fire. He used to sleep in the church during air raids so that he could put out the fire bombs.

to stick (stuck-stuck)to attach something to something else using a substance, or to become attached to a surface:

to stick stamps;

Someone had stuck posters all over the walls. I could feel my shirt sticking to my back. This stamp won't stick properly. Stick this note to Chris's computer so he sees it when he gets back. It took hours to stick all these photos in my album. She stuck her chewing gum on the bottom of the chair.

to stick at sth - to continue doing something in a determined way in order to achieve something, synonym persevere:

Revising with your friends may help you stick at it.

ability - someone's level of skill at doing something:

athletic (musical, artistic) ability;

Studies have shown that caffeine improves mental ability on tasks requiring speed. It takes hard work and natural ability to make it as a professional athlete. There are musicians of all abilities in the orchestra.


to mountain-climb - to climb mountains or rocks as a sport:

She loves to hike and mountain-climb.

magic 1) [only before noun] in stories, a magic word or object has special powers that make the person using it able to do impossible things:

a book of magic spells, a magic sword, magic words;

2) relating to the skill of doing tricks to entertain people:

to do a magic trick;

His best magic trick is sawing a lady in half.

magic 1) the ability of particular people in children's stories to make impossible things happen by saying special words:

Do you believe in magic?

2) the skill of doing tricks that look like magic in order to entertain people, or the tricks that are done, synonym conjuring:

to take up magic;

He saw a little boy doing magic.

Use of English

to impersonate 1) to pretend to be someone else by copying their appearance, voice, and behaviour, especially in order to deceive people:

Do you know it is a very serious offence to impersonate a police officer?

2) to copy someone’s voice and behaviour, especially in order to make people laugh:

In the film he amusingly impersonates a woman. She makes a living out of impersonating Tina Turner in shows and films.


to do impersonations;

He’s renowned for his Elvis impersonation.

mannerism a way of speaking or moving that is typical of a particular person:

to copy mannerism;

He has the same mannerisms as his father.


to be due to do sth - expected to happen or arrive at a particular time:

The team are due to fly to Italy next month. His new book is due to be published next year.

a presenter - someone who introduces the different parts of a television or radio show, synonym host:

the presenter of BBC 2's Newsnight;

The presenter read the news headlines.

in the end - after a period of time, or after everything has been done:

What did you decide in the end? In the end, we decided to go to Florida.

at the end at the last part of a period of time, event, activity, or story:

What would she find at the end of her journey?

to be through - 1) to have finished doing something or using something:

I'm not through just yet - I should be finished in an hour. Are you through with the computer yet?

2) to no longer be having a relationship with someone:

That's it! Simon and I are through. I'm through with you!

chorus - a group of singers, dancers, or actors who act together in a show but do not have the main parts:

New voices are needed to join the chorus for the annual festival in October. Oslin got her start in the chorus of musicals like "Hello, Dolly!"and "West Side Story."

to cut / make a long story short - used when you only give the main point of something you are talking about, and not all the other details.


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Unit 8.



agony aunt - someone who writes an agony column – a part of a newspaper or magazine in which someone gives advice to readers about their personal problems:

Then he sat down and typed a letter to every agony aunt he had ever heard of.

to be / fall in love with to have a strong feeling of liking someone:

I think I'm falling in love with Tom. I fell in love with my native place in my mid-twenties. Ronnie had made her fall in love. The first guy I fell in love with was named Alejandro.

can’t stop doing I can’t stop thinking about him.

gorgeous - extremely beautiful or attractive, pleasant or enjoyable, synonym lovely:

'What do you think of my new flatmate?' 'He's absolutely gorgeous!' You look gorgeous, Maria. I love your dress! It's such a gorgeous colour! Liz is absolutely gorgeous. Look at that guy over there. Isn't he gorgeous?

to feel 1) to experience a particular physical feeling or emotion:

to feel fine (good, comfortable, confused), to feel the same way;

Do you still feel hungry? You can never tell what he's feeling.

2) to notice smth that is happening to you, especially smth that is touching you:

She felt his warm breath on her cheek.

3) to have a particular opinion, especially one that is based on your feelings, not on facts: to feel about sb / sth;

How would you feel about working with Nicole for a while?

to drive sb crazy to make someone feel very annoyed or excited:

This cough is driving me crazy! Those kids are enough to drive anyone crazy. Turn that music down. It's driving me crazy (=really annoying me)!

to go crazy to do something too much, in a way that is not usual or sensible, especially because you are excited:

Don't go crazy and spend it all at once. Dad will go crazy when he hears about this.

to be crazy about sth /sb - liking someone very much, or very interested in smth:

He's crazy about her. Dan's crazy about football.

to do sth crazy to do sth very strange or not sensible:

You see drivers do some crazy things.

to go out - to have a romantic relationship with someone:

They've been going out for two years now. Tina used to go out with my brother.

to be / get engaged to announce that you are planning to get married:

Have you heard? Sally and Ray are getting engaged. She is engaged to be married. Kate's engaged to Mark. They've been engaged for six months. We got engaged at Christmas.

to treat - to behave towards someone or something in a particular way:

to treat sb badly (better, with respect);

She treats me like one of the family. Despite her seniority, Margot was never treated with much respect. Amy's treated him really badly - no wonder he's upset. Douglas was treated with much more respect after his promotion.

to lie to sb (lied – lying) - to deliberately tell someone something that is not true:

I could tell from her face that she was lying. I would never lie to you.

to hurt sb - to make someone feel very upset, unhappy, sad etc:

I didn't mean to hurt your feelings. Dan was a good man. He'd never hurt anyone deliberately. I would never do anything to hurt her. It hurts me to think that you still don't trust me.

to stand back to be away from something in order to be not involved.

to be / get divorced - no longer married to your wife or husband:

Are you married, single, or divorced? Anne is divorced from Simon's father. My parents are getting divorced.

to split up with sb (split – split – splitting) – 1) if people split up, or if someone splits them up, they end a marriage or relationship with each other:

Steve's parents split up when he was four. I thought she'd split up with her boyfriend. Taylor's splitting up with his wife.

2) to divide smth into separate parts and share it between two or more people:

to split something (housework) between somebody;

They planned to rob a bank, split the money, and leave the country.

to be / get married - having a husband or a wife, opposite to be single:

Are you married or single? They've been married for eight years. Nicole is married to my brother. We're getting married next month.

a fiancée - the woman whom a man is going to marry:

She happened to be my fiancée.

a fiancé - the man whom a w man is going to marry.

necessarily - in a way that cannot be different or be avoided, synonym inevitably:

The care of old people necessarily involves quite a lot of heavy lifting.

to find out - to get information, after trying to discover it or by chance:

Has anyone bothered to find out how much all this is going to cost? Did you find out whether there are any seats left? I found out that my parents had never been married. I need to find out more about these night courses. If her friend found out, this would affect their relationship.

to find a solution = to come up with a solution

to arise (arose – arisen) - if a problem or difficult situation arises, it begins to happen:

to deal with any problem that may arise;

A crisis has arisen in the Foreign Office. More problems like those at the nuclear power plant are certain to arise.

importantly - used to show that your next statement or question is more, equally etc important than what you said before:

more (most, less, equally) importantly;

Most importantly, you must keep a record of everything you do.

to achieve - to successfully complete smth or get a good result, especially by working hard:

to achieve one’s ambitions (goals, aim);

Frances achieved very good exam results. Wilson has achieved considerable success as an artist. She eventually achieved her goal of becoming a professor. Brunei finally achieved independence in 1984. The band achieved considerable success. The reason I achieve good results is because I work hard -- and so could you.


to have sth in common - to have the same interests, attitudes etc as someone else:

to have nothing in common;

I found out I had a lot in common with these people. The two games have much in common.

a try 1) an attempt to do something:

She didn't manage to break the record, but it was a good try. 'You really think you can do that?' 'I'm going to have a try.' 'What are the chances for getting tickets now?' 'I guess I could give it a try.'

2) a test of smth to see if it is suitable or successful or to find out if you like it:

I decided to give modelling a try.

Dictionary Corner

to agree on / about - to have or express the same opinion about smth as someone else, opposite disagree:

to agree on a price;

We don't agree on everything, of course. Mike and I certainly don't agree on everything. Most of us, I think, can agree on this.

agreement 1) an arrangement or promise to do something, made by two or more people, companies, organizations etc:

to come to (reach) an agreement, to break an agreement, to be in agreement with, a gentleman’s agreement;

It is easier for two parties to reach agreement than for three.

2) when people have the same opinion as each other, opposite disagreement:

to have lots of disagreement with parents.

to appear 1) used to say how something seems, especially from what you know about it or from what you can see:

to appear to be something , to appear to do something , it appears (that)

2) used to say that someone or smth seems to have a particular quality or feeling:

He tried hard to appear calm. I don't want to appear rude.

3) to start to be seen, to arrive, or to exist in a place, especially suddenly, opposite disappear:

Two faces appeared at our window. A man suddenly appeared from behind a tree. The car seemed to appear from nowhere.

appearance 1) the way someone or something looks to other people:

to change the appearance;

He was always criticising his wife's appearance. They've changed the appearance of the whole building. We are often attracted to somebody first by their physical appearance. Women, in general, tend to be more concerned than men about their personal appearance. You shouldn't judge by appearances.

2) when a famous person takes part in a film, concert or other public event:

It was his first public appearance since the election.

3) when smth new begins to exist or starts being used, opposite disappearance:

The industry has changed greatly with the appearance of new technologies.

4) the unexpected or sudden arrival of someone or something:

Eileen was deep in concentration, and the sudden appearance of her daughter startled her.

to argue 1) to disagree with someone in words, often in an angry way:

We could hear the neighbours arguing. Gallacher continued to argue with the referee throughout the game. They were arguing about how to spend the money. The children were arguing over which TV programme to watch. Don’t argue.

2) to state, giving clear reasons, that something is true, should be done etc:

to argue for / against (doing) something.

argument 1) a situation in which two or more people disagree, often angrily, synonym disagreement

to win (lose) an argument, to have arguments with parents;

I broke the vase during an argument with my husband. Henning told the police that she and her husband had an argument before he left. Let’s have no arguments.

2) a set of reasons that show that smth is true or untrue, right or wrong:

an argument for/against , a powerful argument against smoking;

3) when you disagree with something or question whether it is ""> to do something without (further) argument.

to arrange 1) to organize or make plans for smth such as a meeting, party, or trip:

to arrange to do something, to arrange something with somebody, to arrange when/where/how etc, to arrange that;

Have you arranged to meet Mark this weekend? Beth arranged a meeting with the marketing director. We still have to arrange how to get home. Matthew arrived at 2 o'clock as arranged.

2) to make it possible for someone to have or do something:

The company will arrange for a taxi to meet you at the airport. Dave arranged for someone to drive him home.

3) to put a group of things or people in a particular order or position:

Ben arranged the flowers in a vase. The list is arranged alphabetically.

arrangement 1) plans and preparations that you must make so that smth can happen:

to make arrangements for the concert;

I've agreed to help with arrangements for the party.

2) smth that has been organized or agreed on, synonym agreement:

to come to an/some arrangement (with somebody) (=make an agreement that is acceptable to everyone);

It would usually cost $500, but I'm sure we can come to some kind of arrangement.

3) the way in which something is organized:

The airport is currently reviewing its security arrangements.

4) a group of things that are put in a particular position, or the process of doing this: a beautiful flower arrangement.

to enjoy - to get pleasure from something:

to enjoy doing something, enjoy yourself (=be happy in a particular situation);

Sandra enjoys her job in the city. I enjoyed every minute of it. Young children enjoy helping around the house. Julia was just starting to enjoy herself.

enjoyment - the feeling of pleasure you get from having or doing something, or something you enjoy doing:

I get a lot of enjoyment out of working with young children. I now play the piano mostly for enjoyment.

to entertain - to amuse or interest people in a way that gives them pleasure:

to entertain somebody with something;

She entertained the children with stories, songs and drama. A museum should aim to entertain as well as educate.

entertainment - things such as films, television, performances etc that are intended to amuse or interest people:

The town provides a wide choice of entertainment.

to excite - to make someone feel happy, interested, or eager:

His playing is technically brilliant, but it doesn't excite me. Don't excite him - he needs his rest. The movie was okay, but it didn't excite me that much. Don’t excite yourself!

excitement - the feeling of being excited:

to share the excitement with the friend;

The news caused great excitement among scientists.

to involve 1) if an activity or situation involves smth, that thing is part of it or a result of it:

to involve doing something;

What will the job involve? Running your own business usually involves working long hours.

2) to include or affect someone or something:

There have been four accidents involving Forest Service planes.

3) to ask or allow someone to take part in something:

to involve somebody in (doing) something;

Try to involve as many children as possible in the game. I don’t want to be involved in this business.

involvement 1) the act of taking part in an activity or event, or the way in which you take part in it, synonym participation:

active involvement in class;

School officials say they welcome parental involvement.

2) something that you take part in or spend time doing:

sporting involvements, her political involvements;

3) the feeling of excitement and satisfaction that you get from an activity:

Weaver admitted a strong emotional involvement in her client's case.

4) a romantic relationship between two people, especially when they are not married to each other:

Donna knew nothing of her husband's involvement with another woman.

to perform 1) to do smth to entertain people, e.g. by acting a play or playing a piece of music:

The children perform two plays each school year. Hamlet will be performed next week.

2) to do smth, especially something difficult or useful, synonym carry out:

to perform a study (experiment, analysis), to perform a task (job, duty);

The official opening ceremony was performed by Princess Margaret. Numerous experiments were performed on rats over a long period.

performance 1) when someone performs a play or a piece of music:

The orchestra will give two more performances this week. This evening's performance will begin at 8.00 pm. Franklin gave a memorable performance at last year's festival.

2) how well or badly a person, company etc does a particular job or activity:

Sean's performance at school has greatly improved.

3) the act of doing a piece of work, duty etc:

the performance of his official duties;

4) how well a car or other machine works:

The car's performance on mountain roads was impressive.

to prefer (preferred – preferring) - to like someone or something more than someone or something else, so that you would choose it if you could:

to prefer somebody/something to somebody/something;

She prefers her coffee black. I prefer fish to meat. I prefer to wear clothes made of natural fibers. Chantal prefers travelling by train. I'd prefer it if you didn't smoke in front of the children.

preference 1) if you have a preference for something, you like it more than another thing and will choose it if you can:

to have preferences;

Do you have a colour preference? Parents may be able to express a preference as to the school their child will attend. The amount of sugar you add will depend on personal preference. Many elderly people expressed a strong preference to live in their own homes. I have a preference for fish.

2) when someone is treated more favourably than other people, often when he or she has been treated unfairly in the past:

to give (show) preference (to somebody);

In allocating housing, preference is given to families with young children.

to pretend 1) to behave as if something is true when in fact you know it is not, in order to deceive people or for fun:

We can't go on pretending that everything is OK. Let's pretend we're on the moon.

pretend to do something She pretended not to notice. He's not asleep - he's just pretending.

2) to claim that something is true, when it is not

I can't pretend I understand these technical terms. (=I admit I do not understand them)

pretence - a way of behaving which is intended to make people believe smth that isn’t true:

pretence of/at (being/doing) something, to make a pretence, a man without pretence, to keep up the pretence;

How long are you going to keep up the pretence of being ill?

to relate 1) if two things relate, they are connected in some way, synonym connect:

I don't understand how the two ideas relate.

2) if you relate two different things, you show how they are connected:

The report seeks to relate the rise in crime to an increase in unemployment.

3) to tell someone about events that have happened to you or to someone else:

He later related the whole story to me.

a relationship - the way in which two people or two groups feel about each other and behave towards each other:

close (personal, family, social) relationships with sb, to save (keep) relationships, to affect (have) relationships, to improve relationship;

I have quite a good relationship with my parents. She has a close relationship with her daughter. Relationships between people of different cultures are often extremely difficult. His relationship with Amy wasn't going to last forever. His relationship with his parents had never been very good. I don't want to start a relationship with her, because I'm going back to South Africa. Women are usually more interested in discussing relationships than men.

confident 1) [not before noun] sure that smth will happen in the way that you want or expect:

He is quietly confident that there will be no problems this time. The company is confident of success. I feel quite confident about the future.

2) sure that you have the ability to do things well or deal with situations successfully:

Despite her disability, Philippa is very confident. He began to read in a calm, confident voice.

3) sure that something is true:

We are confident that the data is accurate.

confidence 1) the feeling that you can trust sb or smth to be good, work well, or produce good results:

to have confidence in somebody/something, to lose (your) confidence in somebody/something, to gain (win) somebody's confidence, to inspire confidence (in somebody/something) (=make people have confidence), to enjoy someone’s confidence, confidence man = conman;

She had complete confidence in the doctors.

2) the belief that you have the ability to do things well or deal with situations successfully:

to be attracted by the self-confidence;

I didn't have any confidence in myself. She's a good student, but she lacks confidence. Our goal is to prepare students to go into the business world with confidence.

3) the feeling that something is definite or true:

to say (speak, predict) with confidence;

They could now state with confidence that their theory was correct.

4) to gain (win, earn) somebody's confidence= if you gain someone's confidence, they begin to trust you:

The new director began to win the confidence of the villagers.

5) if you tell someone something in confidence, you tell them something on the understanding that they will not tell anyone else:

I'll tell you about Moira - in confidence, of course. Any information given during the interview will be treated in the strictest confidence.

different 1) not like something or someone else, or not like before, opposite similar:

Our sons are very different from each other. Her jacket's different to mine. The place looks completely different now. Their homes are completely different from ours.! (Do not say 'different of')

2) [only before noun] used to talk about two or more separate things of the same basic kind, synonym various:

Different people reacted in different ways.

3) [only before noun] another:

I think she's moved to a different job now.

difference 1) a way in which two or more people or things are not like each other, opposite similarity:

The main difference between the groups was age. Researchers found a number of important differences in the way boys and girls learn. There's a world of difference between us (=we are very different). Do children know the difference between right and wrong?

2) the amount by which one thing is greater or smaller than another:

There's not much difference in price. There's a five-hour time difference between London and New York.

3) to have an important effect or influence on something or someone:

to make a/the difference to;

Whatever she did, it made no difference. Having a good teacher has made all the difference for Alex (=had an important influence). Morning or afternoon. It makes no difference to me. A good relation will make a difference in your life.

friendly - behaving towards someone in a way that shows you like them and are ready to talk to them or help them, opposite unfriendly:

a friendly smile (atmosphere)

Why is he suddenly so friendly towards you, Charlotte?

friendship 1) a relationship between friends:

a lifelong friendship;

Friendship is one of the best values in the world.

2) the feelings and behaviour that exist between friends, synonym amity:

I could always rely on Gary for friendship and support.

important 1) an important event, decision, problem etc has a big effect or influence on people's lives or on events in the future:

The accident taught him an important lesson. Happiness is more important than money. 'What did you say?' 'Oh, nothing important.'

2) people who are important have a lot of power or influence:

They carry guns because it makes them feel important.

importance - the quality of being important:

the importance of something;

This is of great importance to you.

innocent 1) not guilty of a crime, opposite guilty:

Nobody would believe that I was innocent. He's innocent of murder.

2) innocent victims (people )= people who get hurt or killed in a war or crime although they are not directly involved in it:

3) done or said without intending to harm or offend anyone:

He was startled by their angry reaction to his innocent remark.

4) not having much experience of the bad things in the world, so that you are easily deceived, synonym naive:

innocent as a baby;

I was thirteen years old and very innocent.

innocence 1) the fact of being not guilty of a crime, opposite guilt:

Can you prove your innocence?

2) lack of experience of life or knowledge of the bad things in the world:

to think in one’s innocence;

In our innocence we believed everything we were told.

intelligent 1) an intelligent person has a high level of mental ability and is good at understanding ideas and thinking clearly:

a group of highly intelligent (=very intelligent) students;

2) an intelligent comment, question, conversation etc shows that you have thought about something carefully and understand it well:

You can't have an intelligent conversation with him.

3) an intelligent creature is able to think and understand:

Are there intelligent beings on other planets?

4) an intelligent machine, system etc is able to learn and use information:

Workers could eventually be replaced by intelligent systems, robots, and automated machinery.

intelligence - 1) the ability to learn, understand, and think about things:

high / low intelligence, to have intelligence to refuse, to have the necessary intelligence;

John showed high intelligence from an early age. For some people intelligence has no importance.

2) information about the secret activities of foreign governments, the military plans of an enemy etc:

According to our intelligence, further attacks were planned.

3) a group of people or an organization that gathers this information for their government:

intelligence agencies/services etc.

patient - able to wait calmly for a long time or to accept difficulties, people's annoying behaviour etc without becoming angry, opposite impatient:

Louise was very patient with me.

patience 1) the ability to continue waiting or doing something for a long time without becoming angry or anxious, opposite impatience:

to appreciate things like patience;

I wouldn't have the patience to sit sewing all day.

2) the ability to accept trouble and other people's annoying behaviour without complaining or becoming angry:

to have little/no patience with somebody, to lose (run out of) patience (with somebody) (=stop being patient and get angry), to try the patience;

You'll need patience and understanding if you're going to be a teacher. I'm beginning to lose patience with you. My patience is exhausted.

possible 1) if something is possible, it can be done or achieved, opposite impossible:

Is it possible to get tickets for the game? Computer technology makes it possible for many people to work from home. I want to avoid the rush hour traffic if possible. I walk or use public transport whenever possible. It is theoretically possible that life has developed only on Earth.

2) as soon (quickly, much) as possible = as soon, quickly etc as you can:

I need the money as soon as possible.

3) a possible answer (cause) might be true:

There seem to be only two possible explanations. It's possible that the letter got lost in the post.

4) a possible event or thing might happen or exist:

Heavy rain is possible later in the day.

possibility 1) if there is a possibility that something is true or that something will happen, it might be true or it might happen:

There's always a possibility that he might go back to Seattle.

2) an opportunity to do something, or something that can be done or tried:

to have great possibilities, exciting possibilities for reducing costs.

responsible 1) [not before noun] if someone is responsible for an accident, mistake, crime etc, it is their fault or they can be blamed:

Police believe that the same man is responsible for three other murders in the area. If anything goes wrong, I will hold you personally responsible.

2) [not before noun] having a duty to be in charge of or to look after someone or smth:

to be responsible for sth;

The airline is legally responsible for the safety of its passengers.

3) [not before noun] if smth is responsible for a change, problem, event etc, it causes it:

The floods were responsible for over a hundred deaths.

responsibility 1) a duty to be in charge of someone or something, so that you make decisions and can be blamed if something bad happens:

to take (full) responsibility for (doing) something (=agree to be in charge of something or someone), to show (more) responsibility;

Kelly's promotion means more money and more responsibility. It's your responsibility to inform us of any changes. Be careful you don't take on too much responsibility.

2) blame for something bad that has happened:

The management accepts no responsibility for cars left in the car park. The Chairman of the airline accepted full responsibility for the accident.

3) something that you must do as part of your job or duty:

to have responsibilities;

My responsibilities include answering the phone and dealing with customer enquiries.

4) smth that you ought to do because it is morally or socially right, synonym duty:

to appreciate responsibility, a sense of social responsibility, a huge responsibility;

We all have a responsibility to protect the environment.

violent 1) involving actions that are intended to injure or kill people, by hitting them, shooting them etc:

a violent storm (pain, death), to become violent;

2) someone who is violent is likely to attack, hurt, or kill other people, synonym aggressive:

My father was a violent and dangerous man.

3) showing very strong angry emotions or opinions:

a violent speech;

They had a violent quarrel.

4) violent feelings are strong and very difficult to control:

They took a violent dislike to each other. She has a violent temper.

violence 1) behaviour that is intended to hurt other people physically:

There is too much violence on TV these days.

2) extreme force:

the tremendous violence of a tornado.


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Unit 9.



hilarious - extremely funny: a hilarious story, in a hilarious way;

You should read this book - it's hilarious. We had a hilarious time yesterday.

a joke 1) smth that you say or do to make people laugh, especially a funny story or trick:

to crack a joke (=say smth funny), to make a joke (out) of smth (=to treat smth serious as if it was intended to be funny), to laugh at jokes, to impress sb with someone’s jokes, a practical joke, a practical joker, to play a practical joke on sb, to tell a joke about sb, a joke book;

Do you know any good jokes? She never gets my jokes (=understands my jokes). He made a joke of it. It’s getting beyond a joke. Is this your idea of a joke? The joke was on him.

a punchline - the last few words of a joke or story, that make it funny or surprising:

to miss the punchline, to get the punchline wrong, to deliver the punchline;

At the punchline, Maria laughed much harder than the joke deserved.

To punch, a punchball

sitcom (situation comedy) - a funny television programme in which the same characters appear in different situations each week:

The popular British sitcom "One Foot in the Grave" will finish this year.

a straight face - if you have a straight face, you are not laughing or smiling even though you would like to:

I found it very difficult to keep a straight face. How can you say that and keep a straight face? I could hardly keep a straight face.

to roar 1) to make a deep, very loud noise: We heard a lion roar. The engines roared.

2) to shout smth in a deep powerful voice: 'Get out of my house!' he roared. The crowd roared in delight.

3) to laugh loudly and continuously: By this time, Michael was roaring with laughter.

humour 1) the ability or tendency to think that things are funny, or funny things you say that show you have this ability:

black humour (=jokes, funny stories etc about the unpleasant parts of life), a sense of humour, to have (investigate) a sense of humour, to do research into humour, to appreciate someone’s sense of humour, to invent humour;

It's vital to have a sense of humor in this job.

2) the quality in something that makes it funny and makes people laugh:

He failed to see the humour of the situation. Everyone laughed except Dad, who obviously didn't appreciate the humour of the situation.

to laugh - to make sounds with your voice, usually while you are smiling, because you think something is funny: to make sb laugh;

'I didn't know what I was doing,' she said, laughing at the memory. Nora laughed so much that she nearly cried. I couldn't understand what they were all laughing about. No one laughed at his jokes. This is no time to laugh.

laughter - when people laugh, or the sound of people laughing:

to roar with laughter (=laugh very loudly), roars of laughter, to burst into laughter (tears), an annoying laughter;

He looked shocked, then burst into laughter (=started laughing). Audiences roared with laughter. He shook with laughter. The show was a great success, and had the audience roaring with laughter. There was a burst of laughter when he appeared.

Grammar I

a pitchfork - a farm tool with a long handle and two long curved metal points, used especially for lifting hay (=dried grass):

to pitch= to throw something with a lot of force, often aiming carefully.

a stack - a neat pile of things:

a stack of papers, stacks of dirty dishes, a haystack, a stack of bones;

The whole stack fell over, and half the plates got broken.

a parachute - a piece of equipment fastened to the back of people who jump out of planes, which makes them fall slowly and safely to the ground: a parachute jump.

Jack fell for Polly like a man with no parachute.

to collapse - to suddenly fall down or become unconscious because you are ill or weak:

He collapsed with a heart attack while he was dancing.

an act - a short performance on stage or television by someone who plays music or tells jokes:

a comedy act, to create an act, to perfect the act, to laugh at someone’s act;

The argument was just part of their act.

to chase - to quickly follow someone or something in order to catch them:

to chase somebody along something, to chase the cat (each other);

The dogs saw him running and chased him. The police chased the suspect along Severn Avenue. A gang of boys chased after her, calling her names.

curious - wanting to know about something: a curious look (glance);

He was curious about how she would react. Mandy was curious to know what happened. Her shouting attracted some curious glances from other people in the restaurant. It was a weird situation, and I was curious to learn more. People have always been curious about exactly how life on earth began.

to boo - to show that you do not like a person, performance, idea: to boo sb off the stage;

Some of the audience started booing. She was booed off stage (=they shouted 'boo' until she left the stage). Some people in the crowd booed when she walked on stage.

brand new - new and not yet used: a brand-new car; His clothes looked brand-new.


to appeal to - if someone or smth appeals to you, they seem attractive and interesting:

The programme appeals to young children. The idea of working abroad really appeals to me. Some jokes appeal to people of all ages.

a gun shot - an act of firing a gun: The policeman was killed by a single gun shot.

a psychologist - someone who is trained in psychology:

He admitted to his psychologist that he had been too shy to talk to women.

a psychiatrist - a doctor trained in the treatment of mental illness:

I made an appointment to see a psychiatrist the following week.

emergency services - official organizations such as the police or the fire service, that deal with crime, fires, and injuries.

Dictionary Corner

timing - the skill of doing something at exactly the right time: a good sense of timing;

He told jokes with an exquisite sense of timing.

to manage to do - to succeed in doing smth difficult, especially after trying very hard:

How do you manage to stay so slim? We somehow managed to persuade him. At least three hostages managed to escape. He finally managed to find an apartment near his office.

to succeed in (doing) to do what you tried or wanted to do, opposite fail:

Scientists claim they have succeeded in finding a cure for cancer. Very few people succeed in losing weight and keeping it off.

to be capable of (doing) - having the qualities or ability needed to do something:

I don't think he's capable of murder. I'm perfectly capable of looking after myself, thank you!

to prevent from doing - to stop smth from happening, or stop sb from doing smth:

His back injury may prevent him from playing in tomorrow's game. There were reports that some people had been prevented from voting in the election.

to depend on sb / doing sth - if smth depends on smth else, it is directly affected or decided by that thing:

Choosing the right bike depends on what you want to use it for. The amount I earn depends on the kind of work I'm doing.

to let sb do to allow someone to do something:

Some people seem to let their kids do whatever they like. Let me have a look at that letter. Don't let anyone know it was me who told you. Let the cookies cool down before you try them.

to allow sb to do - to let someone do or have something, or let something happen:

My parents wouldn't allow me to go to the party. Women are not allowed to enter the mosque.

Grammar I

a pedestrian area - used by someone who is walking, especially along a street or other place used by cars.

stilts - two poles which you can stand on and walk high above the ground:

They learned how to walk on stilts, ride a unicycle and juggle.

a mime artist an actor who uses movements to express what he wants to say without using words: a professional mime artist.

a razor - a tool with a sharp blade, used to remove hair from your skin:

an electric razor, a disposable razor.

Use of English

to patch - to repair a hole in something by putting a piece of something else over it.

a patch - a piece of material that you wear over your eye to protect it when it has been hurt:

He had a black patch over one eye.

a shark – ( plural shark or sharks) a large sea fish with several rows of very sharp teeth that is considered to be dangerous to humans: Sharks were circling around our boat.

to bite off (bit – bitten) - to use your teeth to cut, crush, or chew something:

a man whose arm was bitten off by an alligator. His ear was bitten off in a fight.

to hook 1) to catch a fish with a hook: I hooked a 20-pound salmon last week.

2) to fasten or hang smth onto smth else: to hook something onto/to something;

Just hook the bucket onto the rope and lower it down.

a hook 1) a curved piece of metal or plastic that you use for hanging things on, synonym peg:

Tom hung his coat on the hook behind the door.

2) a curved piece of thin metal with a sharp point for catching fish.

This was the first place I ever caught fish on a hook and line.


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