Материал по английскому языку для подготовки к урокам по теме: "Книги и библиотеки" (8 класс)
BOOKS AND LIBRARIES
Books play an essential role in our life. People read for pleasure during their three time. We receive our education with the help of books. Books develop our mind and imagination, form our sense of beauty, our attitude to life and our moral values.
Different people prefer different kinds of literature. Some people like books about travels, others read books about wild nature. There are people who are fond of books on chemistry, geography and history.
Many people devote much time to reading. But they can’t buy all the books, which they like. That is why they go to the library.
There are many public libraries in Russia. Everyone may join a library and borrow books. At the lending department you may borrow three boors at a time. These books may be kept for a fortnight. If by the end of the fortnight you have not finished reading a book, you may renew it for another fortnight. To renew a library book means to obtain permission to have it for a further period of time. If the book you want is out, that is, was borrowed by someone else, you may ask for it to be kept for you, the librarian helps the readers to find books, which they need.
Most public libraries also have a reading-room and a reference library. In the reading-room there are tables at which you may sit and read the daily papers and all the other important periodicals – the weeklies, the monthlies.
In the reference libraries there are encyclopaedias, dictionaries, atlases and many other books. These books may not be taken out.
What do you think of the story?
Why, “ The Green Door”, of course.
Oh, that! It’s interesting, amusing, and instructive too. Speaking of O. Henry… Could you do me a favor?
Could you get me a biography of O. Henry?
I think I’ll manage to do it. But back to “The Green Door”… What is the moral of the story?
I think we shall discuss it when everybody reads it.
You know I am reading “ The Young Lions” by Irving Show. Have you read it?
No, but I know the plot.
Do you? How is that?
I read the preface and reviews by critics.
I see. What do they write about the main characters?
Their views are quite different. I advise you to read it to form your own opinion.
What is the title of the play you read the other day?
It’s “All My Sons”.
Who is the author?
Arthur Miller, a modern American playwright.
Where does the action take place?
Did you read the book in the original?
What is the play about?
It’s about university life in present day America.
What else do you suggest I should read to get an idea about the American way of life?
When you finish reading this book you will get quite a lot of information about it.
HOW AN AMERICAN LIBRARY IS ORGANIZED
Librarian: Good morning. Can I help you?
Peter: Yes. I would be very grateful if you could show me where to find the book about famous Americans.
L: Sure. If you follow me, I’ll show you how our library is organized. Everything
that we have in our library that you can find listed on our computer system.
P: Really? How does it work? How can I find the book I’m looking for?
L: Just tape in the name of the author or the name of the book and the computer will tell you where the book is located in the library. It will also give you the short description of the book.
P: How convenient!
VOCABULARY NOTES ON THE TEXT
to be fond of reading – любить читать
different kinds of literature – разные виды литературы
books about travels – книги о путешествиях
science fiction – научная фантастика
detective stories – детективные рассказы
thriller – триллер - увлекательный (особенно детективный) роман
to educate somebody – образовывать (давать образование)
to form one’s sense of beauty – формировать чувство красоты
a librarian – библиотекарь
to take (borrow) books from the library – брать книги из библиотеке
to join a library – записываться в библиотеку
a lending department – абонемент в библиотеке
the title of the book – заглавие книги
to devote much time to reading – посвятить много времени чтению
novel – роман
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL TO THE LESSON
to read a book from cover to cover at a sitting – прочесть книгу от начала до конца за один присест
a novelist – писатель-романист
a playwright – драматург
to go by reviews – полагаться на рецензии
a title page – титульный лист
a chapter – глава
a paragraph – абзац
VOCABULARY AND SPEECH EXERCISES
Ex.1. Read and translate the text and the dialogues.
Ex.2. Ask questions about the text and the dialogues.
Ex.3. Answer the questions:
Do you like to go to the libraries?
Have you got a library at home?
What kind of books do you prefer to read?
What do you go to the library for?
What books are popular among your people?
Do you like to read newspapers and magazines?
What library is the largest in our country?
What library is the largest in your city?
What are the rules of using library?
10)What is your favorite writer?
11)Are you a reader of a foreign language library?
12)Do you know how to use a catalogue?
Ex.4. Say whether you enjoy reading:
adventure stories (приключенческие книги), detective stories (детективы), books about travels (книги о путешествиях), science fiction (научная фантастика),
biographies of great people (биографии великих людей), humorous stories, poetry, books on history, non-fiction (документальная проза), fairy tales (сказки), classics, fables (басни).
Ex.5. Give English equivalents of:
библиотекарь, читатель, справочная литература, энциклопедия, читальный зал, абонемент, периодическое издание, брать книги в библиотеке, записаться в библиотеку, писатель, драматург.
Ex.6. Discuss the book you have read. In your discussion you may use the following expressions:
The book is… (interesting and easy to read; full of information about; full of interest; very useful to give knowledge of …)
What make this book so popular is that…
(it raises the interest of; it is the type of book that makes you think; the events described in this book are all true; it is very original and very funny; the book shows real life).
As for me, I prefer…
(an amusing story for light reading; a book full of interesting real facts and pictures).
ADDITIONAL TEXT FOR READING AND DISCUSSION
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
The library of Congress is the world’s largest library. It contains more than 111 million items-books, recording, photographs, maps and manuscripts.
This treasure trove covers 532 miles of bookshelves. So, considering the magnitude of these holdings, this next facts may seem incongruous: the Library is a choosy institution.
It is selective. It has standards. Contrary to popular myth, the Library of Congress does not have a copy of every book ever published.
The first priority of the Library is to serve the information and research needs of Congress. The second priority is to preserve, secure and sustain for the present and future use of Congress and the nation a universal collection of human knowledge, including a comprehensive record of American history and creativity.
Every day at 1 p.m. a selection librarian, dons he apron, grabs a pencil – red at one end, blue at the other – and works down to the Copyright Office to go through recent submissions. She examines about 600 books per day and decides which books to keep for the Library’s collection. A red “X” on the title page means “no”, a blue check indicates the Library wants one copy and a yellow slip inserted in the book means it wants both copies.
The Library collects materials in all subjects, except technical agriculture and clinical medicine, which are kept by the National Agricultural Library and the National Library of Medicine.
Ex.9. Speak on one of the topics:
My private collection of books.
Our school library.
A foreign language library.
The work of librarian.
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