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By Berlet Irina SCOSHI “Everest” Yekaterinburg, 2014 William Shakespeare 450
1564 (April, 23 or 26) -1616 (April, 23) Stratford-on-Avon England William Shakespeare was the most influential person who ever lived. He shaped our world more than any political or religious leader, more than any explorer or an engineer. (Stephen Marche) William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, allegedly on April 23, 1564. Church records from Holy Trinity Church indicate that he was baptized there on April 26, 1564. Young William was born of John Shakespeare, a glover and leather merchant, and Mary Arden, a landed local heiress. William, according to the church register, was the third of eight children in the Shakespeare household—three of whom died in childhood. John Shakespeare had a remarkable run of success as a merchant, alderman, and high bailiff of Stratford, during William's early childhood. His fortunes declined, however, in the late 1570s. Shakespeare was born in this room.
Stratford - on - Avon Shakespeare's birth place. There is great conjecture about Shakespeare's childhood years, especially regarding his education. It is surmised by scholars that Shakespeare attended the free grammar school in Stratford, which at the time had a reputation to rival that of Eton. While there are no records extant to prove this claim, Shakespeare's knowledge of Latin and Classical Greek would tend to support this theory. In addition, Shakespeare's first biographer, Nicholas Rowe, wrote that John Shakespeare had placed William “for some time in a free school”.
Stratford Grammar school John Shakespeare, as a Stratford official, would have been granted a waiver of tuition for his son. As the records do not exist, we do not know how long William attended the school, but certainly the literary quality of his works suggest a solid education. What is certain is that William Shakespeare never proceeded to university schooling, which has stirred some of the debate concerning the authorship of his works.
The next documented event in Shakespeare's life is his marriage to Anne Hathaway on November 28, 1582. William was 18 at the time, and Anne was 26—and pregnant. Their first daughter, Susanna, was born on May 26, 1583. The couple later had twins, Hamlet and Judith, born February 2, 1585 and christened at Holy Trinity. Hamnet died in childhood at the age of 11, on August 11, 1596. For the seven years following the birth of his twins, William Shakespeare disappears from all records, finally turning up again in London some time in 1592. This period, known as the "Lost Years," has sparked as much controversy about Shakespeare's life as any period. Rowe notes that young Shakespeare was quite fond of poaching, and may have had to flee Stratford after an incident with Sir Thomas Lucy, whose deer and rabbits he allegedly poached. There is also rumor of Shakespeare working as an assistant schoolmaster in Lancashire for a time, though this is circumstantial at best.
It is estimated that Shakespeare arrived in London around 1588 and began to establish himself as an actor and playwright. Evidently, Shakespeare garnered envy early on for his talent, as related by the critical attack of Robert Greene, a London playwright, in 1592: "...an upstart crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger's heart wrapped in a player's hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes fact totum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country." Entrance of The Globe Theater In 1599 the famous theater Globus was built. His plays were performed in this theater. There was no roof in this building. The seats were curved around a stage that was built on many levels. Plays always started at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. People who didn't have the money to buy a seat were allowed to stand in the front of the stage. All kinds of people came to see the shows– housewives, children, noblemen and even visitors from other countries. The company also presented special plays for kings and queens. Shakespeare and his fellow actors were responsible for everything in the Globe theatre. They owned the building and the costumes, they wrote the scripts and they also shared the profits that they made. The actors and writers of the theatre worked together successfully for many years.
Greene's bombast notwithstanding, Shakespeare must have shown considerable promise. By 1594, he was not only acting and writing for the Lord Chamberlain's Men (called the King's Men after the ascension of James I in 1603), but was a managing partner in the operation as well. With Will Kempe, a master comedian, and Richard Burbage, a leading tragic actor of the day, the Lord Chamberlain's Men became a favorite London troupe, patronized by royalty and made popular by the theatre-going public.
Shakespeare's success is apparent when studied against other playwrights of this age. His company was the most successful in London in his day. He had plays published and sold in octavo editions, or "penny-copies" to the more literate of his audiences. Never before had a playwright enjoyed sufficient acclaim to see his works published and sold as popular literature in the midst of his career. In addition, Shakespeare's ownership share in both the theatrical company and the Globe itself made him as much an entrepeneur as artist.
He wrote about 38 plays for his life. So the most famous tragedies are Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth. Such comedies as All’s Well that Ends Well, Twelfth Night, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, What You will really stood out. Henry IV or Richard II are historical plays about the last of England.
In the twenty years that he worked on stage Shakespeare wrote 38 plays. They can be put into three big categories: - Tragedies are plays that show the downfall of a main character. His most famous tragedies are Hamlet, King Lear and Macbeth. - Comedies are funny plays that have a happy ending most of the time. A Midsummer Night's Dream, As You Like It and The Merry Wives of Windsor are among the most popular. - Historical plays are dramas about the lives of some of England's most powerful kings like Henry IV or Richard II. William Shakespeare wrote 38 plays and 154 sonnets.
While Shakespeare might not be accounted wealthy by London standards, his success allowed him to purchase New House and retire in comfort to Stratford in 1611.
William Shakespeare wrote his will in 1611, bequeathing his properties to his daughter Susanna (married in 1607 to Dr. John Hall). To his surviving daughter Judith, he left &300, and to his wife Anne left "my second best bed." William Shakespeare allegedly died on his birthday, April 23, 1616. This is probably more of a romantic myth than reality, but Shakespeare was interred at Holy Trinity in Stratford on April 25. In 1623, two working companions of Shakespeare from the Lord Chamberlain's Men, John Hemminge's and Henry Condell, printed the First Folio edition of his collected plays, of which half were previously unpublished. The last year of his life William Shakespeare lived in Stratford. In 1616 he died and was buried in the local church. But some years later the monument was built to him in the Poet’s Coner in Westminster Abbey. At that time the people of England did not know that their country's greatest poet and playwright had died. They thought of him only as a popular actor and writer. Holy Trinity Church
Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbeare To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones, And cursed be he that moves my bones. William Shakespeare's legacy is a body of work that will never again be equaled in Western civilization. His words have endured for 400 years, and still reach across the centuries as powerfully as ever. Even in death, he leaves a final piece of verse as his epitaph: Now we can say that it was not only a great poet, but a great humanist. He believed in noble features of man’s mind. Many of his works are inspired with ideas of optimism, struggle for your idea, desire, harmony with yourself. His tragedies and comedies teach us to be honest, strong and keep your ideals.
Друг, ради Господа, не рой Останков, взятых сей землёй; Не тронувший блажен в веках, И проклят — тронувший мой прах. (Перевод А. Величанского)
No household in the English-speaking countries can be imagined without the Bible and the works of William Shakespeare. They are symbols of Religion and Culture.
Globe theatre on the southern bank of the Thames in London New Globe Theaters Shakespeare’s plays are still done in globe theaters around the world.
Rebuilt Globe Theater in Thames English. Built on September 19, 1999.
Stratford-upon-Avon - nowadays
Thank for your attention!
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